WorldWideScience

Sample records for christensonella orchidaceae maxillariinae

  1. Active mountain building and the distribution of core Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  2. ORCHIDACEAE NOVAE VEL MINUS COGNITAE

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    H. G. JONES

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper contains notes on four interesting species ofthe family Orchidaceae, one of which is described as new to science.The two Asiatic species turned up among a small collection of Indianorchids, which were imported from that country by the author in 1960,and subsequently flowered under cultivation in Barbados. The notes onthe two tropical American species have resulted from preliminary studiesundertaken for the purpose of preparing taxonomic revisions of the twogenera to which these species belong.

  3. Active mountain building and the distribution of “core” Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  4. Cypripediquinone A, a new phenanthraquinone from Cypripedium macranthum (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phenanthraquinone, cypripediquinone A, was isolated from the rhizome of Cypripedium macranthum ( Orchidaceae ) and its structure was established as 2,4,7-trimethoxy-9, 10- phenanthraquinone mainly by spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Seidenforchis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Thailand

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    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-01-01

    A new genus Seidenforchis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Southeast Asia is proposed. Three species are transferred from Crepidium to Seidenforchis. Keys for determination of Seidenforchis species and related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Asia, are proposed.

  6. The genus Triphora (Triphoreae, Orchidaceae in Colombia

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    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, four species of Triphora (Orchidaceae are recognized. Two species (Triphora galeanoi and T. vichadaensis are newly described. As circumscribed here, the two new species occur exclusively in Colombia apart from T. foldatsii, being known from Colombia and Venezuela, and T. gentianoides, ranging from the USA (Florida in the north to Colombia in the south. For the species treated, a taxonomic description, synonymy and information about distribution are provided. Additionally,for the two new species, illustrations of flower parts are provided. A key for the determination of the Colombian species of Triphora is included.

  7. Root anatomy of nine orchidaceae species

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    Virginia del Carmem Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the root anatomy of nine Orchidaceae species presented a multisseriated velamen, a parenchymatous cortex and a definided endodermis, in all the studied species (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara(Lindl. Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr. and Vanda tricolor Lindl. Structural characters, which could be considered root adaptations to an epiphytic habit, were also common for all species.As raízes possuem um velame multisseriado, um córtex parenquimático e uma endoderme bem definida, em todas as Orchidaceae estudadas (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara (Lindl.Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr.e Vanda tricolor Lindl.. Caracteres estruturais, que podem ser considerados adaptações ao hábito epífito, são comuns nas raízes estudadas.

  8. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Betania B.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Alvesa, Tania M.A.; Zani, Carlos L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: zani@cpqrr.fiocruz.br; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeirop, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico de Farmacos; Pimenta, Adriano M.C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2008-07-01

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  9. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  10. Lista atualizada das Orchidaceae do Distrito Federal

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    Batista João Aguiar Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a relação atualizada de Orchidaceae para o Distrito Federal (DF, a unidade da federação onde se situa a capital brasileira, localizada no centro do país. São reconhecidos 72 gêneros e 254 táxons (246 espécies e oito táxons subespecíficos, dos quais 17 (6,7% são conhecidos apenas localmente. Os gêneros mais significativos no DF são Habenaria (74 espécies e três táxons subespecíficos, Cyrtopodium (17 espécies, Cleistes (13 espécies e a subtribo Spiranthinae (11 gêneros com 34 espécies e dois táxons subespecíficos. Gêneros como Epidendrum (oito espécies, Pleurothallis (sete espécies, Oncidium (seis espécies e Maxillaria (três espécies são abundantes na Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro, mas pouco representados na região. Cerca de 73% das Orchidaceae do DF apresentam hábito terrestre, o que contrasta marcadamente com a Mata Atlântica e a região Amazônica, onde predominam espécies epifíticas. Dentro do Cerrado, o DF representa o local mais bem amostrado e com o maior número de espécies conhecidas, compreendendo cerca de 51% das orquídeas listadas para todo o bioma. Esta relação tem como objetivo subsidiar a monografia desta família para a flora do Distrito Federal.

  11. The Orchidaceae of Itacolomi State Park in Minas Gerais, Brazil Orchidaceae do Parque Estadual do ltacolomi em Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Ruy José Válka Alves

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the partial Orchidaceae floras of Itacolomi State Park in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two different periods. The first is represented by all colections prior to 1980, while the second comprises those of the past five years. Floral analyses document the recent collections.Este trabalho faz uma parcial comparação de duas épocas da flórula de Orchidaceae do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi em Ouro Preto, MG. A primeira é representada por coletas anteriores a 1980, e a se...

  12. Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae), from neotropic

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    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-01-01

    A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae), from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.

  13. Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae, from neotropic

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    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.

  14. Mycorrhizal diversity and specificity in Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae).

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    Okayama, Masanari; Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Iwase, Koji

    2012-10-01

    Lecanorchis is a nonphotosynthetic plant genus in Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae. Because of the distribution of many Lecanorchis taxa in various climate conditions, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal diversity and specificity are different among the different taxa of Lecanorchis. In the present study, identities of mycorrhizal fungi were examined for 90 individuals of 10 Lecanorchis taxa at 26 sites from Niigata to Okinawa Prefectures in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of Lecanorchis taxa based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) divided the examined Lecanorchis taxa into three groups, groups A, B, and C. ITS rDNA sequences suggested that fungi associating with Lecanorchis were ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi in Lactarius, Russula, Atheliaceae, and Sebacina, with Lactarius and Russula dominant. Our results suggested some degree of mycorrhizal specialization among Lecanorchis taxa. Interestingly, the Lecanorchis group C had some specific relationships with Lactarius, whereas less specificity was found in the relationships with Russula. However, observed specificity results may be biased by geographic opportunity, and we suggest further research to assess whether Lecanorchis species are limited to the associations we observed. PMID:22367327

  15. The current condition of the Orchidaceae populations in polish national parks

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    Stefaniak Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The priority task of national parks is to protect valuable species, including Orchidaceae. This article presents data on the occurrence of Orchidaceae taxa in Polish national parks, and is an attempt to evaluate their number within the orchid family included in this type of protected area.

  16. Myoxanthus ortizianus (Orchidaceae), a new species from southern Colombia

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    Kolanowska Marta; Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-01-01

    With over 3000 species, Colombian orchid flora represents one of the richest in the World. The neotropical subtribe Pleurothallidinae is the most diverse, but it is still a poorly recognized Orchidaceae group and numerous new discoveries within national representatives are described every year. An examination of material collected recently in the Colombian department of Putumayo revealed the existence of a new species of Myoxanthus, named M. ortizianus, which is described, illustrated and pla...

  17. A new subspecies of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllinae) from The Society Islands

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    Hanna B. Margońska

    2012-01-01

    A new subspecies of the Bulbophyllum tahitense (Orchidaceae), from The Society Islands (French Polynesia) is proposed. A new subspecies is described and illustrated. Keys to taxa of Society Islands genus Bulbophyllum, is added.

  18. Myoxanthus ortizianus (Orchidaceae, a new species from southern Colombia

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    Kolanowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With over 3000 species, Colombian orchid flora represents one of the richest in the World. The neotropical subtribe Pleurothallidinae is the most diverse, but it is still a poorly recognized Orchidaceae group and numerous new discoveries within national representatives are described every year. An examination of material collected recently in the Colombian department of Putumayo revealed the existence of a new species of Myoxanthus, named M. ortizianus, which is described, illustrated and placed within an identification key for national species of the nominal section of the subgenus Myoxanthus.

  19. Orchidaceae no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha, RJ, Brasil Orchidaceae of Prainha Municipal Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Melissa Faust Bocayuva Cunha; Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

    2007-01-01

    As espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha são apresentadas. O Parque está localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro e abrange uma área total de 126 hectares. A cobertura vegetal predominantemente é floresta pluvial atlântica, com uma pequena faixa de restinga e diversos afloramentos rochosos. Foram encontrados na área 18 gêneros e 26 espécies: Bifrenaria (1 sp.), Brassavola (1 sp.), Catasetum (1 sp.), Cattleya (2 sp.), Cyclopogon (1 sp.), Cyrtopodium (2 sp.)...

  20. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

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    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  1. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso; Ana Kelly Koch; Jeferson Miranda Costa

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. We...

  2. Orchidaceae do Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, MG, Brasil Orchidaceae of Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Luiz Menini Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca (PEIB está situado no sudeste do estado de Minas Gerais, entre os municípios de Santa Rita de Ibitipoca e Lima Duarte, a 21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. Apresenta em sua área um mosaico de formações vegetais, das quais o campo rupestre ocupa a maior extensão, sendo também encontradas em seus domínios diversas formações florestais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento das espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no PEIB. Foram registrados 118 táxons distribuídos em 47 gêneros. Os gêneros mais numerosos são Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. e um possível híbrido, Epidendrum (10 spp. e Maxillaria (9 spp.. O estudo da distribuição geográfica dos táxons revelou quatro novos registros para a flora de Minas Gerais e ampliou o conhecimento sobre a distribuição de muitas espécies. Uma comparação com as espécies de orquídeas ocorrentes em outras áreas de campo rupestre conhecidas até o momento demonstra que o PEIB, embora com área relativamente pequena, é uma das regiões com maior número de espécies.Ibitipoca State Park (PEIB is located in southeastern Minas Gerais, in Santa Rita de Ibitipoca and Lima Duarte municipalities (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. It has a variety of vegetation types, with a predominance of "campo rupestre" (rocky grasslands mixed with forests. This work aimed to survey Orchidaceae species growing at PEIB. One-hundred-and-eighteen taxa belonging to 47 genera were found. The largest genera are Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. and one probable hybrid, Epidendrum (10 spp., and Maxillaria (9 spp.. Four species are new records for the flora of Minas Gerais state. Compared to other areas of "campos rupestres", PEIB is one of the most species-rich sites, in spite of having a relatively small area.

  3. DYNAMIC SPECIATION PROCESSES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN ORCHID GENUS OPHRYS L. (ORCHIDACEAE)

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    Breitkopf, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    GENERAL INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: MULTI-LOCUS NUCLEAR GENE PHYLOGENY OF THE SEXUALLY DECEPTIVE ORCHID GENUS OPHRYS L. (ORCHIDACEAE) CHAPTER 2: ANALYSIS OF VARIATION AND SPECIATION IN THE OPHRYS SPHEGODES SPECIES COMPLEX CHAPTER 3: FLORAL ISOLATION IS THE MAIN REPRODUCTIVE BARRIER AMONG CLOSELY RELATED SEXUALLY DECEPTIVE ORCHIDS CHAPTER 4: SPECIATION BY DISTURBANCE: A POPULATION STUDY OF CENTRAL ITALIAN OPHRYS SPHEGODES LINEAGES

  4. Conservation status of Dendrobium tenuicaule Hook. f. (Orchidaceae, a Middle Andaman Island endemic, India

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    B.R.P. Rao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution and threat assessment of Dendrobium tenuicaule Hook. f. (Orchidaceae, an endemic orchid of Middle Andaman Island is presented here. New data available from field surveys indicated the species is Critically Endangered as per the 2001 IUCN Red List Catagories and Criteria.

  5. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  6. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae) using novel technique applied in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley) Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae), is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. linden...

  7. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

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    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  8. Re-Establishment of the Genus Ania Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

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    Li, Lin; Yan, Hai-Fei; Niu, Miao; Tu, Tie-Yao; Li, Shi-Jin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established. PMID:25047255

  9. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  10. Stelis zootrophionoides (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae, a new species from Mexico.

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    Sergio E Ramos-Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stelis (Orchidaceae encompasses approximately 1100 species of epiphytic orchids distributed throughout the Neotropics, with the highest diversity in Andean South America. Sixty-two species were recorded previously in Mexico. METHODS: We formally describe here Stelis zootrophionoides as a new species from Chiapas, Mexico. To determine its systematic position, we conducted a morphological comparison with other members of Pleurothallidinae and a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid matK/trnK and trnL/trnF regions, as well as the nuclear ribosomal ITS region for 52 species of Pleurothallidinae. Sequences of 49 species were downloaded from GenBank and those of three species, including the new taxon, were newly generated for this work. The new species is described and illustrated; notes on its ecological preferences and a comparison with closely related species are presented. CONCLUSIONS: The new species, known only from one location and apparently restricted to the cloud forest in the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, is considered a rare species. This small epiphyte is unique among the Mexican species of Stelis by the combination of dark purple flowers with the distal third of the dorsal sepal adhered to the apices of the lateral sepals, which are partially united into a bifid synsepal, leaving two lateral window-like openings, and sagittate labellum. Stelis jalapensis, known from southern Mexico and Guatemala, also has the apices of the sepals adhered to each other, but it is distinguished by its larger flowers with lanceolate, acute dorsal sepal, completely fused lateral sepals (i.e. the synsepal is not bifid, and oblong-elliptic labellum. The phylogenetic analysis shows that S. zootrophionoides is closely related to other Mexican Stelis and corroborates previous suggestions that fused sepal apices have arisen independently in different lineages of Pleurothallidinae.

  11. Pollination biology of Habenaria parviflora (Orchidaceae: Habenariinae in southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Singer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biologia floral de Habenaria parviflora (Orchidaceae: Habenariinae en Picinguaba, Estado de São Paulo, sudeste del Brasil, con la finalidad de incrementar el conocimiento sobre la biología de la polinización y morfología funcional de este género de Orquídeas terrestres. Estas plantas son autocompatibles, pero polinizador-dependientes. Los polinizadores registrados fueron hembras de Tipúlidos (Diptera: Tipulidae y polillas Pyralidae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. El mecanismo de polinización es el mismo, independientemente del tipo de polinizador: los polinarios se fijan a la probóscide de los polinizadores a través de su viscidio en forma de guante, y son removidos cuando los insectos dejan las flores. Cuando visita otra flor, un insecto que lleva polinários los rozará contra las superfícies estigmáticas, dejando acúmulos de másulas, efectuando así la polinización. Hasta donde se sabe, este tipo de fijación de polinarios es informado por primera vez para el género Habenaria y es una clara consecuencia de la morfología del viscidio. El viscidio involuto, en forma de guante, es una característica única entre las especies neotropicales del género Habenaria. Los caracteres florales que favorecen la polinización cruzada son discutidos brevemente. Éste es también hasta donde sabemos, el primer registro de polinización de orquídeas por Tipúlidos (Tipulidae en los neotrópicos

  12. Contribution à l'étude des Orchidaceae de Madagascar et des Mascareignes : 17

    OpenAIRE

    Bosser, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Révision du genre #Beclardia$ A. Rich. (#Orchidaceae$) endémique de Madagascar et des Mascareignes. #Beclardia grandiflora$, une nouvelle espèce de Madagascar est décrite. L'identité de #Satyrium rosellatum$ Thouars est clarifiée ; une nouvelle combinaison, #Cynorkis rosellata$ (Thouars) Bosser est établie et plusieurs synonymies nouvelles sont reconnues. (Résumé d'auteur)

  13. Symbiotic germination capability of four Epipactis species (Orchidaceae) is broader than expected from adult ecology1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Těšitel, J.; Jersáková, Jana; Říhová, G.; Selosse,, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 6 (2012), s. 1020-1032. ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : ecological niche * ectomycorrhizal ascomycete * Epipactis * habitat preferences * mixotrophy * mycoheterotrophy * orchid mycorrhiza * Orchidaceae * Pezizales * seed germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  14. Diversidade taxonômica e distribuição geográfica das Orchidaceae brasileiras Taxonomic diversity and geographic distribution of the Brazilian Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Barros

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae é uma das maiores famílias do Reino Vegetal, e sua distribuição geográfica obedece a limites definidos já a nivel de sub-famílias. O genero Laelia, com 7 seções das quais 5 ocorrentes no Brasil, apresenta características evolutivas interessantes, principalmente a sect. Parviflorae, que ocorre predominantemente em Minas Gerais e que representa um exemplo de "evolução explosiva" ainda em andamento. Os tratamentos taxonómicos dados a cada diferente grupo dentro da família não se apresentam uniformes, o que leva à aceitação de um grande número de gêneros pequenos em alguns grupos e de poucos gêneros grandes e complexos, em outros grupos.Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families, and each of its subfamilies have a delimited distribution. The genus Laelia, with 7 subsections, 5 of which occuring in Brazil, shows interestingly evolutionary characteristics. Laelia sect. Parviflorae, which occurs mainly in Minas Gerais (Brazil is an example of "explosive evolution" still in process. The taxonomic treatment of the orchid family is not uniform from taxa to taxa which leads to many small genera in some groups and few large genera in some other groups.

  15. Chemical composition of the inflorescence odor of Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae Composición química del olor de la inflorescencia de Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Kite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae from Mexico produces a pleasant floral odor reminiscent of violets in contrast to the unpleasant odors noted for several other members of Malaxideae. Analysis of the floral odor of M. rzedowskiana by headspace trapping and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of kaurene (76%, (E-β-ionone (18% and (E-α-ionone (4% as the main components. This is the first report of a floral odor containing a high proportion of kaurene.Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae de México produce un agradable olor floral reminiscente del de violetas, en contraste con los olores desagradables que han sido detectados en varios otros miembros de Malaxideae. El análisis del olor floral deM. rzedowskiana a partir del aire que rodeaba la inflorescencia en un espacio cerrado ("headspace trapping" y cromatografía de gases-espectrometía de masas por deabsorción térmica reveló la presencia de kaureno (76%, (E-β-ionona (18% y (E-α-ionona (4% como sus principales constituyentes. Éste es el primer registro de un olor floral conteniendo una alta proporción de kaureno.

  16. Un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae) en el litoral valenciano

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo TEJEDOR SIGNES; Santiago CATALÀ GARCÍA; Sospedra Ciscar, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Se describe un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae) encontrado en Cullera (Valencia): Ophrys x donatiae. Es el resultado del cruce entre O. dianica y O. tenthredinifera, mostrando caracteres intermedios. El área de distribución de los parentales y la fenología son coincidentes.SUMMARY: Here we describe a new hybrid of genus Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae) found in Cullera (Valencia): Ophrys x donatiae, which comes from the crossing between Ophrys dianica and O. tenthredinifera, and has in...

  17. Un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae en el litoral valenciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo TEJEDOR SIGNES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae encontrado en Cullera (Valencia: Ophrys x donatiae. Es el resultado del cruce entre O. dianica y O. tenthredinifera, mostrando caracteres intermedios. El área de distribución de los parentales y la fenología son coincidentes.SUMMARY: Here we describe a new hybrid of genus Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae found in Cullera (Valencia: Ophrys x donatiae, which comes from the crossing between Ophrys dianica and O. tenthredinifera, and has intermediate characters. Distribution area and phenology are shared by parental plants.

  18. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-01-01

    La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca), fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca), durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el méto...

  19. Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed 14C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake

  20. Embryological study of Herminium monorchis (Orchidaceae) using confocal scanning laser microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryology of Herminium monorchis (Orchidaceae) was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), a new technique for embryological studies. This technique may contribute new information to plant embryology. Herminium monorchis has a monosporic embryo sac development. The mature embryo sac is 8-nucleate. Two integuments, both 2-layered, are formed, but only the inner takes part in formation of the micropyle. Double fertilization takes place. The primary endosperm nucleus does not divide, but remains alive at least at the 3-celled stage of embryo development. The three antipodals do not show any sign of degeneration at this stage. (author)

  1. Unusual animal-plant interaction: Feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico-Gray, V. (INIREB, Veracruz (Mexico)); Barber, J.T.; Thien, L.B.; Ellgaard, E.G.; Toney, J.J. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The hollow pseudobulbs of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae; Central America) serve as domatia for many species of ants. The ants pack many of the pseudobulbs with debris including dead insects, plant material, and sand. Ants were fed {sup 14}C-labelled D-glucose in honey, killed, and placed in the pseudobulbs for up to eight weeks. Samples of plant tissue were harvested and tested for radioactivity after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The labelled material had moved into various parts of the plant and demonstrated direct nutrient uptake.

  2. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  3. Orchidaceae no Parque Estadual da Cantareira e sua conservação. Orchidaceae in the Cantareira State Park and its conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ramos ZANDONÁ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC abriga uma das maiores florestas urbanas do mundo, declarada parte da Reserva da Biosfera do Cinturão Verde de São Paulo. A família Orchidaceae tem grande apelo ornamental e econômico, aspecto importante para a sensibilização de todos sobre a responsabilidade em conservar nossas espécies nativas e seus habitats. O presente trabalho visou, sobretudo, ao levantamento da família Orchidaceae no PEC. Para tal, foram realizadas coletas semanais, entre agosto de 2008 e fevereiro de 2014, utilizando o método da caminhada, tendo como base o mapa de fitofisionomias do PEC. A coleta de material botânico priorizou o resgate de plantas vivas em árvores e galhos caídos, sendo que as plantas foram incluídas em coleções vivas do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo – IBt e PEC para acompanhamento da floração, herborização, documentação fotográfica e identificação. As plantas foram identificadas com base no material vivo utilizando-se da diagnose floral para determinação da espécie, as exsicatas foram tombadas no herbário do Instituto Florestal – SPSF. As demais plantas resgatadas, após identificação, foram realocadas no habitat e são também utilizadas em atividades educativas. Até o momento foram levantadas 159 espécies, de 64 gêneros, entre elas 10 espécies presentes em listas vermelhas, e outras dificilmente encontradas, o que coloca o PEC como detentor de maior riqueza de Orchidaceae da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo em comparação com outros levantamentos. Das 159 espécies registradas, 105 foram resgatadas, totalizando 3.120 indivíduos, dos quais 450 foram incluídos em coleções do IBt e PEC, e o restante realocado no habitat para observações e estudos futuros. Atividades com visitantes do PEC indicam que a utilização de orquídeas como tema para educação é bastante promissor. – The Cantareira State Park (Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC, declared part

  4. Mining from transcriptomes: 315 single-copy orthologous genes concatenated for the phylogenetic analyses of Orchidaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Lin, Min; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships are hotspots for orchid studies with controversial standpoints. Traditionally, the phylogenies of orchids are based on morphology and subjective factors. Although more reliable than classic phylogenic analyses, the current methods are based on a few gene markers and PCR amplification, which are labor intensive and cannot identify the placement of some species with degenerated plastid genomes. Therefore, a more efficient, labor-saving and reliable method is needed for phylogenic analysis. Here, we present a method of orchid phylogeny construction using transcriptomes. Ten representative species covering five subfamilies of Orchidaceae were selected, and 315 single-copy orthologous genes extracted from the transcriptomes of these organisms were applied to reconstruct a more robust phylogeny of orchids. This approach provided a rapid and reliable method of phylogeny construction for Orchidaceae, one of the most diversified family of angiosperms. We also showed the rigorous systematic position of holomycotrophic species, which has previously been difficult to determine because of the degenerated plastid genome. We concluded that the method presented in this study is more efficient and reliable than methods based on a few gene markers for phylogenic analyses, especially for the holomycotrophic species or those whose DNA sequences have been difficult to amplify. Meanwhile, a total of 315 single-copy orthologous genes of orchids are offered and more informative loci could be used in the future orchid phylogenetic studies. PMID:26380706

  5. Influence of hydrolized casein on the Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae) in vitro cultivation/
    Influência da caseína hidrolisada no cultivo in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Lilian Keiko Unemoto; Ricardo Sfeir de Aguiar; Jorge Kaoro Yamakami; José Geraldo Zaparolli Vieira

    2007-01-01

    The nitrogen is essentially important for most in vitro cultivated species. It is regarded to the physiological and biochemical processes involved in growth control, differentiation and morphogenesis, and casein is one of the main nitrogen supplementation sources. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of hydrolized casein on the in vitro vegetative growth and rooting of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae). The treatments tested were: T1- 0.0 g.L-1; T2-...

  6. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AMONG FOUR SECTIONS OF GENUS DENDROBIUM SW. (ORCHIDACEAE) IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA USING RBCL SEQUENCE DATA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using chloroplast DNA, the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL), was conducted to examine relationship among four sections of the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae): Aporum, Crumenata, Strongyle, and Bolbidium in Peninsular Malaysia. Classifications based on morphological characters have not been able to clearly divide these four sections, therefore deeper and detailed analyses are required to ascertain their status. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships amo...

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for the endangered orchid Cypripedium japonicum (Orchidaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yumi; Izuno, Ayako; Isagi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Takahide; Kaneko, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty-six microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Cypripedium japonicum (Orchidaceae) to estimate the clonal diversity and genetic structure of the remaining populations in Japan. Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci of C. japonicum were isolated using Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing. The primer sets were tested on 55 ramets sampled from two populations in Japan. Sixteen loci showed polymorphism in at least one population, with two to five alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities for the two populations ranged from 0.00 to 0.92 and 0.00 to 0.71, respectively. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed here provide a useful tool to analyze clonal structure and sexual regeneration status and will help to manage the remaining genetic variation within C. japonicum. PMID:26949576

  8. Levantamento de espécies sul brasileiras do gênero Bulbophyllum Thouars (orchidaceae, Dendrobieae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mancinelli, Werner Siebje

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Orchidaceae representa a família com maior número de espécies dentre as Angiospermas, possuindo distribuição cosmopolita. No Brasil a família é a segunda maior, com 2.419 espécies. A região sul do Brasil representa apenas 6,8% da área nacional, porém abriga 30,8% das orquídeas encontradas no Brasil, algumas endêmicas. As contribuições ao conhecimento das orquídeas nessa região iniciaram-se em 1803, sendo intensamente coletada por naturalistas estrangeiros e a partir do século XX por p...

  9. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. PMID:25678071

  10. A re-collection of Diplocentrum recurvum lindl. (Orchidaceae after a lapse of 100 years or more from Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta Mahendranath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diplocentrumrecurvum Lindl. (Orchidaceae has been recollected from the Horsley hills of Chittoor districts from Andhra Pradesh after a lapse of 100 years or more. The present paper provides a detailed description, photographs of old herbarium specimens and distribution of the species. 

  11. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AMONG FOUR SECTIONS OF GENUS DENDROBIUM SW. (ORCHIDACEAE IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA USING RBCL SEQUENCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moudi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis using chloroplast DNA, the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL, was conducted to examine relationship among four sections of the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae: Aporum, Crumenata, Strongyle, and Bolbidium in Peninsular Malaysia. Classifications based on morphological characters have not been able to clearly divide these four sections, therefore deeper and detailed analyses are required to ascertain their status. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships among species of the four sections were investigated to clarify their relations either to lump them into one section or reduce them into two.

  12. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  13. Novel expressed sequence tags of an alpine-cold plant species,Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gymnadenia conopsea,an alpine Orchidaceae plant,was one of the widely used Tibetan traditional medicines.In this study,we sequenced total 105 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a full-length cDNA expression library constructed by the Oligo-capping technique.The further bioinformatic analyses suggested that the 65 represented unique sequences showed high homology to previously identified genes in other plants:30 sequences matched to other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs),and 10 sequences showed no good matches to available sequences in DNA databases.Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (7 percent) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to G.conopsea.Fifty-five ESTs with matched proteins were involved in a series of diverse functions,in which molecular function such as "binding" (42.9 percent) and "catalytic activity" (25.0 percent) were the most frequent functions of the cDNAs.This cDNA library provided a critical basis for further investigation of functional genes expression under cold stress in this alpine species.In addition,13 ESTs-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and can also be used for genotypic identification and for the genetic diversity analysis of G.conopsea and its closely related species.

  14. Stomatal limitation to carbon gain in Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) and its reversal by blue light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, E.; Grivet, C.; Assmann, S.M.; Dietzer, G.F.; Hannegan, M.W.

    1985-02-01

    Leaves from Paphiopedilum sp. (Orchidaceae) having achlorophyllous stomata, show reduced levels of stomatal conductance when irradiated with red light, as compared with either the related, chlorophyllous genus Phragmipedium or with their response to blue light. These reduced levels of stomatal conductance, and the failure of isolated Paphiopedilum stomata to open under red irradiation indicates that the small stomatal response measured in the intact leaf under red light is indirect. The overall low levels of stomatal conductance observed in Paphiopedilum leaves under most growing conditions and their capacity to increase stomatal conductance in response to blue light suggested that growth and carbon gain in Paphiopedilum could be enhanced in a blue light-enriched environment. To test that hypothesis, plants of Paphiopedilum acmodontum were grown in controlled growth chambers under daylight fluorescent light, with or without blue light supplementation. Blue light enrichment resulted in significantly higher growth rates over a 3 to 4 week growing period, with all evidence indicating that the blue light effect was a stomatal response. Manipulations of stomatal properties aimed at long-term carbon gains could have agronomic applications.

  15. Microsatellite primers for two threatened orchids in Florida: Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Almonte, Jasmin I.; Hilaire, Vanessa S.; Lopez, Frank D.; Lu, Stephen H.; Marrero, Sarah M.; Martinez, Catherine M.; Zarate, Edson A.; Lam, Ana K.; Ferguson, Samantha A. N.; Petrakis, Nicolas Z.; Peeples, Kelsey A.; Taylor, Ebony D.; Leon, Natalie M.; Valdes, Carolina; Hass, Michael; Reeve, Andrew B.; Palow, Danielle T.; Downing, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The Million Orchid Project at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden is an initiative to propagate native orchids for reintroduction into Miami’s urban landscapes. The aim of this study was to develop microsatellites for Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae). Methods and Results: Ten microsatellites were developed for each species. For E. tampensis sampled from the natural population, allele numbers ranged from one to four, with an average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.314 and average expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.281. For the individuals from cultivation, allele numbers ranged from one to six, with an average Ho of 0.35 and an average He of 0.224. For C. punctatum, allele numbers ranged from one to three, with an average Ho of 0.257 and an average He of 0.272. Conclusions: These microsatellites will be used to assess the genetic diversity of natural and cultivated populations with the intention of guiding genetic breeding under the Million Orchid Project. PMID:27144103

  16. The Ultrastructure Of Pollinia Of Ten Species Of Orchid In Substribe Aeridinae (ORCHIDACEAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchid taxonimy lags several decades behind the taxonomy of most other large interisting groups of plants. New methods and techiniques, like scanning and transmission electron microscope are rarely applied in orchid's taxonomy. It would be most benefical to orchid taxonomy if a better understanding of the pollinia could be obtained. The main purpose of this research is to study the ultrastructure pollinia of ten species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the pollinia of ten species of orchids in the substribe Aeridina. This work shows that the ultrastructure of the pollinias are different. Regarding at the number and the surface of pollinia in one flowe, the ten species of Aeridinae can be devided mto three main group: (1) the first group is the flowe with two pollinia with it surface porate : Ascocentrum miniatum; (2) the second group has the same number of pollinia, but with surface cleft : Phalaenopsis. Ph. amboinensis, Ph.cornu-cervi, Ph. Fuscata, Ph. Venosa, Rhychostylis retusa, Vanda limbota, and Vanda insignis: and the third (3)is the flower with four pollinia, unequel : Kingidium deliciosum

  17. Purification of vandaterosides from Vanda teres (Orchidaceae) by stepwise gradient centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakova, Veronika; Urbain, Aurélie; Le Quéméner, Céline; Audo, Grégoire; Bonté, Frédéric; Lobstein, Annelise

    2015-09-01

    Vandaterosides are polar glucosyloxybenzyl eucomate derivatives found in Vanda teres (Orchidaceae), which display biological activities that slow the skin ageing process. In order to obtain larger quantities to allow us to go further in the bioassays, the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts (leaves and stems) of V. teres were fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography, combining isocratic, gradient, and dual elution modes. The first fractionation was performed on the extract maintained in the stationary phase as water saturated in butanol, while increasing the polarity of the mobile phase by changing the proportions of ethyl acetate/1-butanol/water, in order to obtain two enriched fractions. Vandateroside I was then purified by isocratic mode with ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (46:14:40), while vandateroside II was obtained by combining isocratic elution with ethyl acetate/isopropanol/water (30:20:50) followed by a multiple dual mode with ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (46:14:40). In this manner, hundreds of milligrams of vandateroside I and II were recovered from 10 g of V. teres extract. PMID:26104238

  18. Phylogenetics of tribe Collabieae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae based on four chloroplast genes with morphological appraisal.

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    Xiao-Guo Xiang

    Full Text Available Collabieae (Orchidaceae is a long neglected tribe with confusing tribal and generic delimitation and little-understood phylogenetic relationships. Using plastid matK, psaB, rbcL, and trnH-psbA DNA sequences and morphological evidence, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Collabieae were assessed as a basis for revising their tribal and generic delimitation. Collabieae (including the previously misplaced mycoheterotrophic Risleya is supported as monophyletic and nested within a superclade that also includes Epidendreae, Podochileae, Cymbidieae and Vandeae. Risleya is nested in Collabiinae and sister to Chrysoglossum, a relationship which, despite their great vegetative differences, is supported by floral characters. Ania is a distinct genus supported by both morphological and molecular evidence, while redefined Tainia includes Nephelaphyllum and Mischobulbum. Calanthe is paraphyletic and consists four clades; the genera Gastrorchis, Phaius and Cephalantheropsis should be subsumed within Calanthe. Calanthe sect. Ghiesbreghtia is nested within sect. Calanthe, to which the disputed Calanthe delavayi belongs as well. Our results indicate that, in Collabieae, habit evolved from being epiphytic to terrestrial.

  19. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  20. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

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    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  1. Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae un nuevo registro para la Flora del Perú

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    Eric F. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae como una nueva adición a la Flora del Perú procedente de los substratos de roca arenisca de la Cordillera subandina de Huarango (provincia San Ignacio, departamento Cajamarca, una prolongación sureña de la Cordillera del Cóndor rica en especies. Maxillaria jostii ha sido considerada como una especie endémica para Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe, Morona-Santiago; sin embargo, con el presente estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hacia el Perú. Esta nueva contribución al conocimiento de la flora del país es el resultado del trabajo de campo y de herbario, gracias al Proyecto Binacional «Inventario Botánico de la Región de la Cordillera del Cóndor, Ecuador y Perú, 2005-2007», desarrollado entre las instituciones: MO, HUT, LOJA y QCNE. La contrastación específica se realizó con las especies documentadas en el «Catálogo de las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Perú» (Brako & Zarucchi 1993, «Diez años de adiciones a la flora del Perú: 1993-2003» (Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004 y «Nuevas Adiciones de Angiospermas a la Flora del Perú» (Rodríguez et al. 2006b.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of the Cosmeceutical Benefits of Vanda Species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Hazrina; Razali, Syarifah Nazira Said; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan

    2015-08-01

    Orchidaceae is the largest family of flowering plants with over 35,000 species and 850 genera. About 3300 species of orchids are found in Malaysia and the diversity is highest in the Main, Keledang, Bintang and Tahan Ranges. Apart from being prized for their beauty, orchids have long been used by humans for medicinal purposes. Today the uses of orchids have been expanded to the food and cosmetics industries. Many cosmeceutical companies use orchid extracts as an active ingredient in their products. Previous studies provide riveting insights into the potential uses of orchid extracts as an active agent in cosmetics. This paper describes the cosmeceutical potential of orchids as an anti-aging, and skin moisturizing agent. Orchid extracts from Vanda coerulea and V. teres delay aging caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) following LV irradiation through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These extracts also show anti-aging properties by stimulating cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), which is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Stimulation of cytochrome c oxidase improves the respiratory function of mitochondria in keratinocytes. The presence of mucilage in orchids enables them to maintain skin hydration. Mucilage functions as a moisturizer and emollient due to its high water binding capacity. Additionally, orchid extracts provide skin hydration by stimulating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and LEKTI protein expression. The presence of AQP3 leads to a five-fold increase in water permeability, which subsequently increases stratum corneum hydration. Increased LEKTI protein expression mediated by orchid extracts reduces the degradation of desmoglein-1 and enhances the structural function of desmosomes, which play important roles in preventing water evaporation. PMID:26434147

  3. MORFOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DE DOS ESPECIES DE BANDERITAS (ORCHIDACEAE: MASDEVALLIA EN COLOMBIA Morphology and Morphometry of Two Banderitas Species (Orchidaceae: Masdevallia in Colombia

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    MÓNICA ADRIANA CUERVO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Masdevallia coccinea y Masdevallia ignea (Orchidaceae conocidas como "banderitas", son orquídeas ornamentales muy apreciadas por cultivadores aficionados y coleccionistas. En Colombia, la presión de colecta sobre estas especies ha sido enorme y pocas poblaciones naturales sobreviven en los departamentos de Boyacá (Arcabuco, Páramo de Berlín, Duitama y Santander (entre Málaga y Bucaramanga, estas poblaciones son reducidas y de difícil acceso; razón por la cual se encuentran en el apéndice II de CITES. Poco se sabe sobre su biología reproductiva, sistema reproductivo y polinización y parte de lo que consta en la literatura es incompleto. En este marco el objetivo general del trabajo fue estudiar la morfología y morfometría floral de M. coccinea y M. ignea en condiciones de semicultivo al aire libre en la finca Villa Rosa ubicada en el municipio de Guasca, Cundinamarca, para lo cual se realizó fotografía digital, pruebas histoquímicas, morfometría y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido. Los resultados principales de la morfometría mostraron que los sépalos dorsal y lateral fueron más largos en M. coccinea (X= 53,0 mm σ = 7,4 mm y X = 44,4 mm y σ = 8,3 mm en comparación a M. ignea (X = 34 mm σ = 7,7 mm y X = 31,5 mm y σ = 6,1 mm, pero las coloraciones de las partes florales de esta última fueron más intensas y su labelo fue más largo (X = 7,1 mm y σ = 0,6 mm. En las dos especies el labelo estuvo articulado a la columna y no se encontró presencia de glándulas con estructuras secretoras como nectarios ni osmóforos.Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea "banderitas" are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyacá (Arcabuco of Berlin Páramo, Duitama and Santander (between Málaga and Bucaramanga, in which these populations are reduced and of

  4. Inventário da família Orchidaceae na Amazônia Brasileira: parte I Preliminary results of an inventory of the Orchidaceae family in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Manoela F.F. da Silva

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados parciais de um levantamento sistematizado da família Orchidaceae na Amazônia brasileira. O objetivo do trabalho é conhecer a diversidade específica e aspectos da biologia, biogeografia e ecologia desta família. Foi registrado, até o momento, um total de 378 espécies distribuídas entre 99 gêneros. Destas, algumas são espécies novas para a ciência, cuja a descrição foi feita com base em material tipo coletado pelos autores. Outras são novas citações para a flora brasileira.A total of 378 species of 99 genera were registered, some of these species are new to science while and others are new records for the Brazilian flora.

  5. Ethanolic extract of Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae) and its compound coelogin promote osteoprotective activity in ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Dixit, Manisha; Shukla, Priyanka; Kumari, Tejaswita; Bhandari, S P S; Narender, T; Singh, Divya; Arya, K R

    2014-10-15

    Coelogyne cristata Lindley (CC) family Orchidaceae is an Indian medicinal plant used for the treatment of fractured bones in folk-tradition of Kumaon region, Uttarakhand, India. In continuation of our drug discovery program, feeding of ethanolic extract to ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice led to significant restoration of trabecular micro architecture in both femoral and tibial bones, better bone quality and also devoid of any uterine estrogenicity. Subsequently, coelogin, a pure compound was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of C. cristata and evaluated in in vitro osteoblast cell cultures. Treatment of coelogin to osteoblasts led to enhanced ALP activity (a marker of osteoblast differentiation), mineral nodule formation and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers like BMP-2, Type 1 Collagen and RUNX-2. Based on these results, we propose that ethanolic extract of C. cristata and its pure compound coelogin have potential in the management of post menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25442280

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of a 'Jewel Orchid' Genus Goodyera (Orchidaceae) Based on DNA Sequence Data from Nuclear and Plastid Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Tian, Huaizhen; Li, Hongqing; Hu, Aiqun; Xing, Fuwu; Bhattacharjee, Avishek; Hsu, Tianchuan; Kumar, Pankaj; Chung, Shihwen

    2016-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Asiatic species of Goodyera (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae, Goodyerinae) based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and two chloroplast loci (matK and trnL-F) was presented. Thirty-five species represented by 132 samples of Goodyera were analyzed, along with other 27 genera/48 species, using Pterostylis longifolia and Chloraea gaudichaudii as outgroups. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to reveal the intrageneric relationships of Goodyera and its intergeneric relationships to related genera. The results indicate that: 1) Goodyera is not monophyletic; 2) Goodyera could be divided into four sections, viz., Goodyera, Otosepalum, Reticulum and a new section; 3) sect. Reticulum can be further divided into two subsections, viz., Reticulum and Foliosum, whereas sect. Goodyera can in turn be divided into subsections Goodyera and a new subsection. PMID:26927946

  7. The phylogenetic position of the Papuasian genus Sarcochilus R.Br.(Orchidaceae: Aeridinae: evidence from molecular data

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    Topik - Hidayat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT, T.; ITO, M.; YUKAWA, T. 2008. The phylogenetic position of the Papuasian genus Sarcochilus R.Br.(Orchidaceae: Aeridinae: evidence from molecular data. Reinwardtia 12(4. 281 – 284. –– The taxonomic status of thePapuasian orchid genus Sarcochilus R.Br. remains unresolved. Represented by Sarcochilus chrysanthus Schltr., aphylogenetic analysis to evaluate relationships between the Papuasian species and those from Australia was conductedusing molecular characters. Parsimony analysis using DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS regionshowed that this Papuasian species, is in a distant position from the so-called the true Sarcochilus sensu stricto.These results provide additional evidence for the establishment of a new genus Monantochilus.

  8. Molecular Identification of Dendrobium Species (Orchidaceae) Based on the DNA Barcode ITS2 Region and Its Application for Phylogenetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Mengying; Chen, Zhe; Ying, Qicai; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-01-01

    The over-collection and habitat destruction of natural Dendrobium populations for their commercial medicinal value has led to these plants being under severe threat of extinction. In addition, many Dendrobium plants are similarly shaped and easily confused during the absence of flowering stages. In the present study, we examined the application of the ITS2 region in barcoding and phylogenetic analyses of Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae). For barcoding, ITS2 regions of 43 samples in Dendrobium were amplified. In combination with sequences from GenBank, the sequences were aligned using Clustal W and genetic distances were computed using MEGA V5.1. The success rate of PCR amplification and sequencing was 100%. There was a significant divergence between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances of ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Based on the BLAST1, nearest distance and TaxonGAP methods, our results showed that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of most Dendrobium samples examined; Second, we used ITS2 as a DNA marker to infer phylogenetic relationships of 64 Dendrobium species. The results showed that cluster analysis using the ITS2 region mainly supported the relationship between the species of Dendrobium established by traditional morphological methods and many previous molecular analyses. To sum up, the ITS2 region can not only be used as an efficient barcode to identify Dendrobium species, but also has the potential to contribute to the phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dendrobium. PMID:26378526

  9. Molecular Identification of Dendrobium Species (Orchidaceae Based on the DNA Barcode ITS2 Region and Its Application for Phylogenetic Study

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    Shangguo Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The over-collection and habitat destruction of natural Dendrobium populations for their commercial medicinal value has led to these plants being under severe threat of extinction. In addition, many Dendrobium plants are similarly shaped and easily confused during the absence of flowering stages. In the present study, we examined the application of the ITS2 region in barcoding and phylogenetic analyses of Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae. For barcoding, ITS2 regions of 43 samples in Dendrobium were amplified. In combination with sequences from GenBank, the sequences were aligned using Clustal W and genetic distances were computed using MEGA V5.1. The success rate of PCR amplification and sequencing was 100%. There was a significant divergence between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances of ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Based on the BLAST1, nearest distance and TaxonGAP methods, our results showed that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of most Dendrobium samples examined; Second, we used ITS2 as a DNA marker to infer phylogenetic relationships of 64 Dendrobium species. The results showed that cluster analysis using the ITS2 region mainly supported the relationship between the species of Dendrobium established by traditional morphological methods and many previous molecular analyses. To sum up, the ITS2 region can not only be used as an efficient barcode to identify Dendrobium species, but also has the potential to contribute to the phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dendrobium.

  10. Ploidy-specific symbiotic interactions: divergence of mycorrhizal fungi between cytotypes of the Gymnadenia conopsea group (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Roy, Mélanie; Kubátová, Barbora; Těšitel, Jakub; Urfus, Tomáš; Trávníček, Pavel; Suda, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Polyploidy is widely recognized as a major mechanism of sympatric speciation in plants, yet little is known about its effects on interactions with other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi are among the most common plant symbionts and play an important role in plant nutrient supply. It remains to be understood whether mycorrhizal associations of ploidy-variable plants can be ploidy-specific. We examined mycorrhizal associations in three cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x) of the Gymnadenia conopsea group (Orchidaceae), involving G. conopsea s.s. and G. densiflora, at different spatial scales and during different ontogenetic stages. We analysed: adults from mixed- and single-ploidy populations at a regional scale; closely spaced adults within a mixed-ploidy site; and mycorrhizal seedlings. All Gymnadenia cytotypes associated mainly with saprotrophic Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota). Nonetheless, both adults and seedlings of diploids and their autotetraploid derivatives significantly differed in the identity of their mycorrhizal symbionts. Interploidy segregation of mycorrhizal symbionts was most pronounced within a site with closely spaced adults. This study provides the first evidence that polyploidization of a plant species can be associated with a shift in mycorrhizal symbionts. This divergence may contribute to niche partitioning and facilitate establishment and co-existence of different cytotypes. PMID:23731358

  11. In vitro growth of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae at different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations / Crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose

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    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The propagation in vitro is an important method for orchids reproduction, because the seeds don’t have endosperm and present low germination. The sugar is a important component in medium culture, serving as a source of carbon and energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth in vitro of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae in different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations. The treatments consisted: two formulations of the macronutrientes of the MS medium, in complete MS and MS modifed medium with half of the regular concentration of macronutrients, and different sucrose concentrations (30 gL-1, 40 gL-1e 60 gL-1, at pH 5,8. A randomized design with eight replications was used as statistical model and a fask with twenty plants composed each plot. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, complemented by the Tukey test at 5% of signifcance. The following variables were assessed six months after the beguining of the experiment: plant height, root length; number of roots, number of buds, dry mass and total fresh mass. The treatment that showed the best results was 40 gL-1 sucrose in a modifed MS medium with half of regular concentration of macronutrients, for vegetative development and rooting of Oncidium baueri orchid.A propagação in vitro é uma importante técnica na reprodução de orquídeas, devido às sementes serem desprovidas de endosperma e apresentarem uma baixa taxa de germinação na natureza. A sacarose é um componente importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia para as plântulas e os macronutrientes são essenciais para a nutrição e crescimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose. Os tratamentos consistiram em duas formulações dos macronutrientes do meio Murashige e Skoog (1962, sendo, MS completo e MS modifcado com metade da concentração dos

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of a ‘Jewel Orchid’ Genus Goodyera (Orchidaceae) Based on DNA Sequence Data from Nuclear and Plastid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Tian, Huaizhen; Li, Hongqing; Hu, Aiqun; Xing, Fuwu; Bhattacharjee, Avishek; Hsu, Tianchuan; Kumar, Pankaj; Chung, Shihwen

    2016-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Asiatic species of Goodyera (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae, Goodyerinae) based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and two chloroplast loci (matK and trnL-F) was presented. Thirty-five species represented by 132 samples of Goodyera were analyzed, along with other 27 genera/48 species, using Pterostylis longifolia and Chloraea gaudichaudii as outgroups. Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to reveal the intrageneric relationships of Goodyera and its intergeneric relationships to related genera. The results indicate that: 1) Goodyera is not monophyletic; 2) Goodyera could be divided into four sections, viz., Goodyera, Otosepalum, Reticulum and a new section; 3) sect. Reticulum can be further divided into two subsections, viz., Reticulum and Foliosum, whereas sect. Goodyera can in turn be divided into subsections Goodyera and a new subsection. PMID:26927946

  13. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

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    A. Lange

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de várias espécies de monocotiledôneas, incluindo Orchidaceae e dicotiledôneas, sendo o meio Fam mais eficiente para sua detecção

  14. Biologia reprodutiva de Cattleya eldorado, uma espécie de Orchidaceae das campinas amazônicas Reproductive biology of Cattleya eldorado, a species of Orchidaceae from the Amazonian white sand campinas

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    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Orchidaceae são muito apreciadas por suas flores exóticas e exuberantes. É a maior família de plantas apresentando mais de 24000 espécies, o que denota uma alta diversidade de formas e adaptações a diferentes ambientes, como também para atração, engano e manipulação de visitantes na realização da polinização cruzada. Cattleya eldorado ocorre em áreas de campinas, que são formações vegetais típicas da região amazônica, que se encontram sob forte ação antrópica. Este trabalho tem como um de seus principais objetivos conhecer parte dos processos biológicos de C. eldorado fornecendo subsídios para conservá-la e manejá-la em seu habitat natural. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Biológica de Campina, de 2000 a 2006, durante a sua floração. C. eldorado é uma espécie epifítica que apresenta a síndrome de melitofilia, estando adaptada ao seu polinizador, a abelha Eulaema mocsaryi, que reconhece suas flores pelo odor e pelo estímulo visual através de sua coloração e reflexão de luz ultravioleta. C. eldorado é uma espécie autocompatível, embora necessite de um agente polinizador para a transferência do polinário até sua deposição na cavidade estigmática da flor.The orchid plants are highly prized for their lush exotic flowers. It is the largest plant family with more than 24000 species, which indicates a high diversity of forms and adaptations to different environments, including the capacity to attract, deceive and manipulate visitors involved in cross-pollination. Cattleya eldorado occurs in areas of white sand campinas, a typical vegetation type of the Amazon region, which is under strong anthropogenic pressure. This work's main objectives to know the biological processes of C. eldorado providing subsidies to maintain and manage it in its natural habitat. This study was conducted from 2000 to 2006 in the Campina Biological Reserve, during its flowering period. C. eldorado is an epiphytic

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Coelogyne (Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae) based on plastid RFLPS, matK, and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences: evidence for polyphyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravendeel, B; Chase, M W; de Vogel, E F; Roos, M C; Mes, T H; Bachmann, K

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the monophyly of Coelogyne (Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae) and reveal sectional relationships and relations to allied genera in subtribe Coelogyninae, we collected PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) from 11 plastid regions for 42 taxa (28 Coelogyne species and 14 representatives of other genera) and three outgroups from Bletiinae and Thuniinae. We also sequenced a large portion of the plastid trnK intron (mostly matK) and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (including the 5.8S gene). Separate phylogenetic analyses on each data set using maximum parsimony produced mainly congruent (except for the position of Panisea) but weakly supported clades. Parsimony analysis of the combined data clearly identified three main clades in Coelogyninae. Whereas Coelogyninae are monophyletic, Coelogyne is polyphyletic, with species falling into at least two well-supported clades. The utility of morphological characters used in previous classifications was explored by reconstructing character state evolution on one of the four molecular trees. Lip base and petal shape were homoplasious, whereas ovary indumentum and flower number were congruent with well-supported groups. The implications of our results for the classification of Coelogyne are discussed, and a reorganization of the genus by including Neogyna and Pholidota and removing several species is proposed. PMID:21669624

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Si Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64% sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  18. Orchidaceae novae Malayenses XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Planta parva. Caules erecti, tenues, basi tantum ramosi, basi radicantes, c. 23 cm longi, inferne vaginati, superne 3—4-foliati. Folia erecto-patentia, lanceolata, acuminata, acutissima, basi acuta, nervis 5 majoribus sicco subtus et etiam supra prominentibus pluribusque tenuibus, sicco membranacea,

  19. Orchidaceae novae malayenses XVII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1943-01-01

    Planta florens 62—72 cm alta. Caulis inferne vaginatus, ceterum foliatus. Folia c. 8, lineari-lanceolata ad linearia, breviter acuminata ad sensim acutata, acuta, sicco membranacea, 12.5—14 cm longa, 1.8—1.1 cm lata, superiora decrescentia et sensim in bracteas vergentia; vaginae inferiores longe tu

  20. Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae by in vitro techniques Indução e identificação de poliploides em Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae através de técnicas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Artur Konzen Xavier de Mello e Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colchicine on the protocorm-like bodies of Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae cultured in vitro was studied. Different concentrations of the drug (0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% as well as two times of culture (4 or 8 days were tested to determine the best treatment for the induction of tetraploid plants. Of the 3 colchicine levels applied, 0.05 and 0.10% of drug treatments appeared to be effective on the production of mixoploids and tetraploids and could be further used in breeding programs. The suitability of stomatal area and stomata density as criteria for the distinction between diploids and tetraploids was also tested. The results suggested that tetraploid plants could be identified with a fair amount of certainty when the screening was based on the density of stomata.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da colchicina em corpos semelhantes a protocormos de Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae. Diferentes concentrações da droga (0,00; 0,05; 0,10 e 0,20%, bem como diferentes tempos de cultura (4 ou 8 dias foram testados para determinar o melhor tratamento para a indução de plantas tetraplóides. Dos três níveis de colchicina aplicados, os tratamentos com 0,05 e 0,10% da droga parecem ser mais efetivos na produção de mixoplóides e tetraplóides, sendo que tais tratamentos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Como critério para distinção entre diplóides e tetraplóides, foram realizadas medidas de área de estômatos e densidade de estômatos das folhas. Os resultados sugerem que as plantas tetraplóides podem ser identificadas com elevado grau de certeza quando a seleção é realizada com base na densidade de estômatos.

  1. MORFOLOGÍA FLORAL Y POLINIZACIÓN DE ORQUÍDEAS: EL SEGUNDO LIBRO DE CHARLES DARWIN Floral Morphology and Pollination in Orchidaceae: Charles Darwin s Second Book

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    RODRIGO B SINGER

    Full Text Available El segundo libro de Darwin fue íntegramente dedicado a la morfología floral y polinización de diversos grupos de orquídeas de regiones templadas y tropicales. Este libro fue publicado en 1862 y parece haber sido concebido como una fuente de pruebas o un complemento para ideas sugeridas en El origen de las especies, en especial la noción sobre las ventajas del cruzamiento entre individuos diferentes, aunque sean hermafroditas (como es el caso de las orquídeas. La gran diversidad de morfologías florales y las diversas estrategias reproductivas que promueven la polinización cruzada en Orchidaceae fascinaron a Darwin, quien utilizó a este grupo de plantas como modelo para apoyar sus ideas. Darwin describió por primera vez y de modo impecable estrategias reproductivas como la protandria en orquídeas terrestres y la producción de flores imperfectas (unisexuales en Catasetum, entre muchas otras contribuciones. Se analizan las ideas y propuestas de Darwin en este libro a la luz de nuestros conocimientos actuales y se muestran en gran parte correctas y vigentes.Darwin s second book was totally dedicated to the floral functional morphology and pollination of temperate and tropical orchids. This book was published in 1862 and was likely conceived as an assemblage of evidence supporting ideas that were proposed in -On The Origin of The Species-; namely, the advantages of the intercrossing between different coespecific individuals, even if they are hermaphrodite (like the orchids. The great floral diversity and the outstanding number of reproductive strategies that promote cross-pollination in Orchidaceae fascinated Darwin who, in turn, used this plant group as a model to support his ideas. Darwin described for the first time and in a very accurate way, orchid reproductive strategies that clearly promote cross-pollination, such as protandry in terrestrial orchids and the production of unisexual flowers in Catasetum, among many other important

  2. Zeuxine flava, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China%中国兰科线柱兰属一新记录种--黄花线柱兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 覃海宁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国兰科植物一新记录种,黄花线柱兰Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f..本种的唇瓣橘黄色并呈"T"形,前唇裂片成方形,长宽近相等,唇瓣基部囊内各具一枚钩状胼胝体.%Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f., a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is reported. This species is characterized by having flowers saffron, lip "T"-shaped, lobules of epichile squarish and not much longer than wide, and each side of sac with only one callus inside.

  3. Numeric Dynamics of Population of Endangered Species Dendrobium fimbriatum, Orchidaceae%濒危兰科植物流苏石斛的种群数量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 殷寿华; 兰芹英

    2012-01-01

    This research studied the numeric dynamics of two populations of Dendrobium fimbriatum (21°58'N, 101°13'E, human disturbance and 21°54'N, 101°17'E, in-situ conservation), an endangered species of Orchidaceae in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China. The static life table, the fecundity schedule and the Leslie matrix model were applied to understand the numeric dynamics and the age structure of the population. The results showed that the survival curves of two populations were the Deevey-Ⅰ type. The net reproduction rate (Ro), the intrinsic increase rate (rm) and the finite increase rate (A) of the two populations were all very low, indicating that the two populations were in a situation of downward tendency. The Leslie matrix model predicted that in the next 25 years the number of the two populations would continuously decrease. The key threats to this species are most likely human's disturbance and deforestation and habitat fragmentation.%运用静态生命表、生殖力表和Leslie矩阵模型,研究了云南西双版纳地区流苏石斛两个种群——A种群(21°58'N,101°13'E,保护区之外)和B种群(21°54'N,101°17’E,保护区内)的种群数量动态.结果表明:种群存活曲线表现为Deevey-Ⅰ型.A、B种群均表现出幼龄个体死亡率高,中龄级个体数量少,说明中龄阶段曾受到较大的人为干扰种群的净增长率(R.)、内禀增长率(γm)和周限增长率(λ)都较低,表现为衰退种群,Leslie矩阵模型分析表明在未来25年种群各龄级的个体数及种群总数均表现出持续下降趋势.种群下降可能是由于当地人为的采挖和严重的生境破碎化所导致.

  4. Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitro en el desarrollo de híbridos de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seir Antonio Salazar Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of different in vitro culture media in the development of Phalaenopsis hybrid (OrchidaceaeTitulo corto: Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitroResumen: Los híbridos de Phalaenopsis tienen una gran importancia económica a nivel mundial, como flor cortada y planta ornamental, debido a sus flores vistosas y a la capacidad de adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales. Las técnicas de cultivo in vitro resultan indispensables para mejorar la eficacia germinativa, el crecimiento y desarrollo de orquídeas con fines comerciales e investigativos. En esta investigación se determinó el medio de cultivo más apropiado para la germinación in vitro de un híbrido de Phalaenopsis. Inicialmente se evaluó la viabilidad de las semillas utilizando la prueba de tetrazolio (TZ. Las semillas se desinfectaron y se cultivaron aplicando el método de la jeringuilla. El porcentaje de viabilidad en promedio fue de 92,2% (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con un porcentaje de germinación entre todos los medios de 95,1 % (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD. El medio de cultivo más eficiente para la germinación de híbridos de Phalaenopsis a las 18 semanas de cultivo fue el Murashige & Skoog (MS suplementado con agua de coco, y jugo de piña con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo, contribuyendo de esta manera al uso de componentes orgánicos con el fin de mejorar la germinación y desarrollo de Phalaenopsis.Palabras clave: Componente orgánico, germinación in vitro, hibrido,  Phalaenopsis,       viabilidad. Abstract: The Phalaenopsis hybrids have a significant economic importance throughout the world, as ornamental flower or plant. It is because of its attractive flowers and its adaptation capacity into different environments. The different culture media in vitro are vital to improve the efficacy of germination, growing and development of the Orchids for commercial and

  5. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407 Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícula relativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando madurasMiltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae. The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable this species to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of the pseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape

  6. К РЕПРОДУКТИВНОЙ БИОЛОГИИ CYPRIPEDIUM GUTTATUM SW. ( ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.) В ЯКУТИИ

    OpenAIRE

    ХОМУТОВСКИЙ М.И.; Галкина, М.А.

    2015-01-01

    В статье дана морфометрическая характеристика плодов и семян редкого вида - Cypripedium guttatum Sw. ( Orchidaceae Juss.). Определена семенная продуктивность вида на территории Центральной Якутии. Процент абортивных семян не превысил 1,36.

  7. Indução in vitro da germinação de sementes de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae por fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides In vitro symbiotic seed germination of Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae by rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinto Liparini Pereira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocórmios de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae induzidos simbioticamente são descritos pela primeira vez. As sementes de O. flexuosum foram inoculadas com dez fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides, previamente isolados de micorrizas de dez espécies de orquídeas neotropicais do Brasil, incluindo O. flexuosum. Foram utilizados um isolado pertencente à espécie Epulorhiza repens, dois pertencentes à Epulorhiza epiphytica, seis de Ceratorhiza spp. e um de Rhizoctonia sp. Sementes inoculadas com o isolado M2 de Ceratorhiza sp., originalmente isolado do sistema radicular de O. flexuosum em habitat natural, promoveu a germinação das sementes em sete dias e em, aproximadamente, 30 % das plântulas, houve formação de folhas após 50 dias de incubação, apresentando pelotons em algumas células do protocórmio e das radicelas. Os demais isolados promoveram a germinação das sementes; entretanto, não promoveram um desenvolvimento ótimo dos protocórmios. Sementes incubadas na ausência de fungos micorrízicos não germinaram. A especificidade e a alta dependência de O. flexuosum pela associação micorrízica ficaram claras. Aspectos relativos à especificidade, anatomia da interação fungo-planta e a importância da seleção de estirpes fúngicas, previamente ao uso de fungos micorrízicos para o cultivo simbiótico a partir de sementes de O. flexuosum são discutidos.Symbiotic in vitro seed germination and protocorm development of Oncidium flexuosum is described for the first time. O. flexuosum seeds were inoculated with ten mycorrhizal isolates, originally obtained from the mycorrhiza of ten neotropical Brazilian orchid species, including O. flexuosum. One of the isolates belongs to Epulorhiza repens, two to Epulorhiza epiphytica, six to Ceratorhiza spp., and one to Rhizoctonia sp. Seeds inoculated with the M2 isolate of Ceratorhiza sp., originally isolated from the root system of wild O

  8. Revision of Coelogyne section Fuliginosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelser, P.B.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Fuliginosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. With the help of a pollen study, principal component and cluster analyses with morphological characters and a survey of some additional data, two species are recognized (C. fimbriata and C. triplicatula), including one dubious variety (C. fimbriata var. acuminata). Eleven names are reduced to synonymy. Three species formerly included in sect. Fuliginosae by several authors are excluded ( (C. micrantha, C. treutle...

  9. Revision of Coelogyne section Speciosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    1999-01-01

    Section Speciosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. Sixteen species are recognized, including one new ( C. tommii) and one dubious species ( (C. dichroantha). Three former varieties are raised to subspecies level ( C. speciosa subsp. speciosa, subsp. incarnata and subsp. fimbriata). Two species formerly included in sect. Speciosae by several authors are excluded (C. eberhardtii and C. lawrenceana).

  10. Does Oeceoclades maculata (Orchidaceae reabsorb nectar?

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    João Marcelo Robazzi Bignelli Valente Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar is the most common resource offered by orchid flowers. In some cases, flowers reabsorb nectar as part of a resource-recovery strategy. Nectar is present only in the morning in the widespread orchid Oececoclades maculata (Lindl. Lindl. To determine whether this is due to reabsorption or evaporation of water, the volume of nectar and its concentration in previously bagged flowers were determined throughout the day at two hourly intervals. In addition, the entrance to the nectary of flowers of cultivated plants was obstructed with petroleum jelly in the morning, to prevent the evaporation of water and, in the afternoon, the presence of nectar was recorded. Furthermore, manually self-pollinated flowers, also with the entrance to the nectary obstructed, had their nectary checked 24 hours after pollination to determine whether post-pollination reabsorption occurred. In addition, the period when the pollinators of O. maculata foraged for nectar was determined in order to establish whether it was associated with the period when nectar was available. The volume and concentration of nectar in O. maculata flowers vary from 0.82 μl (25.10% between 10–12 h and 0.36 μl (33.73% between 16–18 h and this difference is caused by evaporation of water. Post-pollination reabsorption does not occur in this species. Pollinators forage most actively between 10–12 h. Thus, O. maculata does not reabsorb nectar, but evaporative water loss is a significant factor determining the variation in the volume and concentration of this reward and this is positively correlated with butterfly visitation.

  11. ЭНДОГЕННАЯ ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТЬ СЕМЯН И ЗАРОДЫШЕЙ DACTYLORHIZA OCHROLEUCA (WÜSTN. EX BOLL) HOLUB (ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.)

    OpenAIRE

    Кривошеев, Михаил; Ишмуратова, Майя

    2013-01-01

    В статье приводятся результаты изучения эндогенной изменчивости семян и зародышей редкого вида сем. Orchidaceae Dactylorhiza ochroleuca. Показано, что метрические и аллометрические характеристики семян и зародышей имеют средние и высокие уровни изменчивости. Достоверно различаются показатели семян и зародышей в коробочках, образованных в разных частях соцветия....

  12. Constituents of Encyclia longifolia Schltr. (Orchidaceae Constituintes de Encyclia longifolia Schltr. (Orchidaceae

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    Jnanabrata Bhattacharyya

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical analysis of the non-volatile secondary metabolites of Encyclia longifolia Schltr. syn. Epidendrum longifolium Barb. Rodr. was carried out in an attempt to lend a chemotaxonomic support for the recent separation of the genus Encyclia into Encyclia Hook and Prosthechea Knowles & Westc.Uma análise química detalhada dos metabólitos secundários não voláteis de Encyclia longifolia Schltr. Sin. Epidendrum longifolium Barb. Rodr. foi realizada na tentativa de prestar suporte quimiotaxonômico para a recente separação do gênero Encyclia em Encyclia Hook e Prosthechea Knowles & Westc.

  13. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae) /
    Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo; José Maria Moreira Dias; Flávio Pereira Silva; Moacir Pasqual; Maria das Dôres David Silva

    2009-01-01

    The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia) could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1) Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a cap...

  14. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae / Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae

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    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1 Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a capacity of 1.5L lined inside with transparent plastic bag and lidded with proper lid. 2 Solid substrate formed by the mixture of sand, carbonized rice husk, soil and cured cow manure in equal proportions of volume, they being placed in rigid polypropylene with a capacity of 0.28L. 3 Pre-rooting of the cuttings in liquid medium (20 days before planting, and later transferred into seedling tubes containing solid substrate. The cuttings planted in the solid substrate were maintained under intermittent mist condition controlled by a timer. After 90 days, the percentage of rooting was of 98-100%, regardless of the treatment. Larger and more vigorous sproutings were obtained from cuttings planted directly into solid substrate. Adventitious rooting of cuttings and formation of new vanilla cuttings occurred, when the cuttings were obtained from position P2 (ranging between 20 to 40cm in stem height and planted in solid substrate in greenhouse with intermittent misting system. A baunilheira (Vanilla planifolia é uma planta pouco explorada comercialmente, devido ao emprego de tecnologias de baixa eficiência para a produção de mudas. Assim sendo, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes substratos, no enraizamento adventício de estacas retiradas de diferentes posições na planta. Estacas com 20cm de comprimento, duas gemas e uma folha, tomadas na haste da planta, em cinco posições subseqüentes, a partir do ápice caulinar foram plantadas em diferentes substratos: 1 Meio líquido formado pela solução nutritiva de Clark acrescida de 2,5mg L-1 de AIB, sendo acondicionado em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 1,5L revestidas, internamente, com sacola plástica transparente e vedadas com tampa própria. As tampas foram perfuradas para introdução das estacas plantadas na orientação vertical normal, com uma gema imersa na solução. O arejamento contínuo do meio líquido foi realizado com o auxílio de um compressor de ar. 2 Substrato sólido (areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, solo e esterco bovino curtido, em proporções iguais de volume, acondicionado em tubetes de polipropileno com capacidade para 0,28L. 3 Pré-enraizamento das estacas em meio líquido (20 dias antes do plantio, e posterior transferência das mesmas para tubetes contendo substrato sólido. As estacas plantadas no substrato sólido foram mantidas sob condições de nebulização intermitente controlada por um timer. Após 90 dias de cultivo, verificou-se uma porcentagem de estacas enraizadas na ordem de 98% a 100%, independente do tratamento. Brotações maiores e mais vigorosas foram obtidas em estacas plantadas diretamente no substrato sólido. O enraizamento adventício de estacas e a formação de mudas de baunilheira foram favorecidos quando as estacas foram obtidas da posição P2 (compreendida entre 20 a 40cm do ápice e plantadas em substrato sólido, em casa de vegetação com sistema de nebulização intermitente.

  15. СЕМЕЙСТВО ORCHIDACEAE ВО ФЛОРЕ НИЖЕГОРОДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Бирюкова, О.; Воротников, В.; Мининзон, И.

    2014-01-01

    Проведена инвентаризация данных о распространении видов семейства Orchidaceae на территории Нижегородской области. Представлены данные экобиоморфологического и географического анализов списка видов орхидных. Определены достоверно известные и требующие уточнения места произрастания данных видов. Выявлены основные типы местообитаний орхидных и их приуроченность к эколого-ценотическим группам....

  16. ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ АУКСИНОВ ЭНДОФИТНЫМИ БАКТЕРИЯМИ ПОДЗЕМНЫХ ОРГАНОВ DACTYLORHIZA MACULATA (L.) SOO (ORCHIDACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Шеховцова, Нина; Маракаев, Олег; Первушина, Ксения; Холмогоров, Сергей; Цапляева, Ксения

    2011-01-01

    Впервые установлено, что бактерии р. Bacillus, изолированные из подземных органов Dactylorhiza maculata представителя семейства Orchidaceae умеренного климата России, про5 дуцируют фитогормон индолил535уксусную кислоту (ИУК). Уровень ИУК, обнаруженной в куль5 туральной жидкости 12 из 15 изолятов микроорганизмов, находится в пределах 0,3 29,0 мкг/ мл в зависимости от штамма....

  17. Monophyly or Paraphyly– The Taxonomy of Holcoglossum (Aeridinae: Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Xiaoguo; Li, Dezhu; Jin, Xiaohua; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Hailang; Jin, Weitao; Lai, Yangjun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been a lot of intense debates about the acceptance/rejection of paraphyletic groups in biological classification. On the one hand, evolutionary classification states that similarity and common descent are two criteria for biological classification and paraphyletic groups are natural units of biological classification. On the other hand, cladistic classification considers that common descent is the only criterion in biological classification and monophyly should be strictl...

  18. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  19. Nujiangia (Orchidaceae: Orchideae): A new genus from the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua JIN; De-Zhu LI; Xiao-Guo XIANG; Yang-Jun LAI; Xiao-Chun SHI

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon,Habenaria griffithii,were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence.Morphologically,H.griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead,it is close to Gennaria,Diphylax,Peristylus,and Platanthera.It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther,rostellum having two relatively long arms,lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part,and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma.An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL,matK,and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H.griffithii is closest to Gennaria,a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands.On this basis,a new genus,Nujiangia,is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon.In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus,the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.

  20. Taxonomic revision of Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade (Laeliinae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Menini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudolaelia is a genus endemic to eastern Brazil. The species are often epiphytes on Velloziaceae or are saxicolous, predominantly on granitic and gneissic outcrops (inselbergs in the Atlantic Forest and, less often, in the campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands of the cerrado (savanna and caatinga (shrublands. The genus is characterized by homoblastic pseudobulbs, long rhizomes, long and usually slender inflorescences, racemes or panicles, bearing pink, yellow or whitish flowers, labellum often 3-lobed, with simple, fimbriate or erose margin, semi-cylindrical or claviform column, cuniculus present. Twelve species are recognized; seven binomials are placed in synonymy. Of those seven, three are considered illegitimate because, contrary to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature guidelines, there are no corresponding type specimens deposited in a recognized herbarium, and those three were therefore lectotypified. We present descriptions of, illustrations of and a dichotomous key to Pseudolaelia species, as well as addressing their taxonomy, ecology, conservation and geographic distribution.

  1. A study of seed micromorphology in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Cela, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed micromorphology of 19 taxa of the genus Ophrys have been studied using SEM and light microscope. Quantitative data (length and width of seed and embryo, number of testa cells along the longitudinal axis, volume of seed and embryo, and percentage of free air space, as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, features of the anticlinal and periclinal walls, ornamentation and colour were analysed. All the seeds are fusiform, with an asymmetrical basal pole, the periclinal walls of the medial cells have parallel and transverse to slanting ridges, and raised anticlinal walls. Statistical analyses show two large clusters according to the volumes of seed and embryo. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and their recent diversification, however, seed features are not congruent with the recognition of sections and groups within Ophrys.Se ha estudiado la micromorfología de semillas de 19 taxones del género Ophrys mediante el empleo de microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido. Se han analizado datos cuantitativos (longitud y anchura de la semilla y del embrión, número de células en la testa a lo largo del eje longitudinal, volumen de la semilla y del embrión, y porcentaje de espacio aéreo libre y cualitativos (morfología de la semilla, características de sus paredes anticlinales y periclinales, ornamentación y color. Todas las semillas analizadas son fusiformes, con polo basal asimétrico, ornamentación de las paredes periclinales formada por costillas paralelas y transversales a oblicuas, y paredes anticlinales prominentes. Los análisis estadísticos revelan dos grandes cluster según los valores de los volúmenes de la semilla y el embrión. Nuestros resultados apoyan la monofilia del género y su reciente diversificación, sin embargo, los caracteres micromorfológicos de las semillas no son congruentes con el reconocimiento de secciones y grupos dentro del género Ophrys.

  2. Nectary structure in Symphyglossum sanguineum (Rchb.f. Schltr. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithophily occurs in a great number of orchid species but despite this, researchers have largely neglected to investigate their nectaries. The aim of this study is to describe the nectary structure of Symphyglossum sanguineum, a species presumed to be pollinated by hummingbirds. The nectary is located at the free margins of auricles, which form a channel for the passage of nectar. The nectary, which consists of a single-layered epidermis and 2-3 layers of subepidermal cells, is supplied by collateral, vascular bundles. The nectary cells of S. sanguineum, like those of other ornithophilous orchids, have thick cellulose cell walls. A remarkable feature of these nectary cells is the dissolution of the middle lamella and the subsequent separation of epidermal cells. It is possible that this latter process facilitates the flow of the nectar to the nectary surface. The cuticle covering the nectary epidermis has micro-channels, but unlike the other species of ornithophilous orchids studied to date, it neither becomes disrupted nor detached from the epidermal cells. Abundant mitochondria, lipid droplets and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER with an osmiophilic material are present in the cytoplasm of nectary cells. Some plastids with few lamellae contain numerous vesicles and osmiophillic globules whereas others accumulate starch. SER lamellae are often closely associated with plastids and the contents of the former organelles closely resemble osmiophillic globules. Secretory vesicles are common, especially near the outer, tangential wall indicating that granulocrine secretion possibly occurs in S. sanguineum.

  3. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  4. Pollination and protection against herbivory of Nepalese Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, A.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Achterberg, van, C.; Heijerman, T.; LENS, F.; Dooren, van, H.J.C.; Gravendeel, B.

    2011-01-01

    • Premise of the Study: Although many species in the orchid genus Coelogyne are horticulturally popular, hardly anything is known about their pollination. Pollinators of three species were observed in the fi eld in Nepal. This information is urgently needed because many orchid species in Nepal are endangered. Whether the exudates produced by extrafl oral nectaries played a role in protection against herbivory was also investigated. • Methods: Pollinators of C. fl accida , C. nitida , and Otoc...

  5. Revisions in Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae) IV. Coelogyne section Tomentosae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, de, V.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a taxonomic revision of Coelogyne section Tomentosae (24 species). Five species (C. acutilabium, C. bruneiensis, C. echinolabium, C. latiloba, C. velulina) are newly described; three other species are allotted for the first time to this section (C. buennemeyeri, C. distans, C. rupicola). One species, formerly included in section Tomentosae, is excluded (C. veitchii). Six species are here reduced to synonymy. A key to the species is provided. Synonymy, description, distri...

  6. Eight new species of Gomphichis (Orchidaceae, Spiranthoideae) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nowak; D.L. Szlachetko; J. Mytnik-Ejsmont; A.M. Cleef

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Gomphichis from Colombia are described. Each species is illustrated, and detailed habitat and distribution data are provided. A distribution map of the new species is presented. A dichotomous key for determination of the Gomphichis species in northern South America is

  7. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata, V. barbellata and V. dilloniana are distributed throughout the Caribbean islands and are all found in Puerto Rico. The vegetative parts of the species are similar; however, their conspicuous flowers easily distinguish them. Electrophoresis of seven polymorphic enzymes revealed...

  8. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi-Verde, Carlos L.; Carnevali, German; Romero-González, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Encyclia from Mexico, Encyclia inopinata, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Encyclia diota but it can be distinguished by its usually more robust plants with 2–3 leaves per pseudobulb and its flowers with longer and narrower sepals (1.8±0.1 × 0.63±0.03 cm in Encyclia inopinata versus 1.48 ±0.14 × 0.65±0.06 cm in Encyclia diota) and petals (1.7±0.05 × 0.59±0.05 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 1.36 ±0.19 × 0.81±0.13 cm in Encyclia diota), and the labellum with narrower lateral lobes (0.18±0.02 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 0.41±0.10 cm in Encyclia diota). Other characters that differentiate these two species are the coriaceous sepals, pink callus, and white anther of Encyclia inopinata (versus fleshy-leathery sepals, white callus, and yellow anther of Encyclia diota). The new species can be found in deciduous forests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, near of the border with Guerrero state, at about 1200 m. It blooms between March and July. PMID:26884708

  9. The structure of nectary of Platanthera bifolia L. Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of Platanthera bifolia were studied. The epidermis inside the nectary spur showed characteristic features of secretory tissue. Many cells of this epidermis were protruded forming unicellular hairs. The protoplasts of secretory cells were characterized by few small vacuoles, a lot of mitochondria and leucoplasts, which stored starch before secretion. Numerous vesicles budded off from the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were accumulated near plasmalemma and fused with it. This fact probably indicates that these structures are involved in secretory processes. Nectar was released onto the surface through the pores in a ruptured cuticle, which covered the walls of secretory hairs.

  10. Systematic, phylogenetic and pollination studies of Specklinia (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Karremans, Adam Philip

    2015-01-01

    The present work brings together the results of systematic, phylogenetic and pollination studies of orchid species belonging to the genus Specklinia, with special emphasis on those with a Costa Rican distribution. In the first five chapter two species' complexes within Specklinia, that of S. endotrachys and that of S. glandulosa are resolved on the bases of morphological, genetic and geographical characterisation. The species belonging to these complexes are fully illustrated and described. F...

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of the Dendrobium strongylanthum (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    Complete chloroplast genome sequence is very useful for studying the phylogenetic and evolution of species. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of Dendrobium strongylanthum was constructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The chloroplast genome is 153 058 bp in length with 37.6% GC content and consists of two inverted repeats (IRs) of 26 316 bp. The IR regions are separated by large single-copy region (LSC, 85 836 bp) and small single-copy (SSC, 14 590 bp) region. A total of 130 chloroplast genes were successfully annotated, including 84 protein coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the chloroplast genome of Dendrobium strongylanthum is related to that of the Dendrobium officinal. PMID:26153739

  12. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi-Verde, Carlos L; Carnevali, German; Romero-González, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Encyclia from Mexico, Encyclia inopinata, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Encyclia diota but it can be distinguished by its usually more robust plants with 2-3 leaves per pseudobulb and its flowers with longer and narrower sepals (1.8±0.1 × 0.63±0.03 cm in Encyclia inopinata versus 1.48 ±0.14 × 0.65±0.06 cm in Encyclia diota) and petals (1.7±0.05 × 0.59±0.05 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 1.36 ±0.19 × 0.81±0.13 cm in Encyclia diota), and the labellum with narrower lateral lobes (0.18±0.02 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 0.41±0.10 cm in Encyclia diota). Other characters that differentiate these two species are the coriaceous sepals, pink callus, and white anther of Encyclia inopinata (versus fleshy-leathery sepals, white callus, and yellow anther of Encyclia diota). The new species can be found in deciduous forests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, near of the border with Guerrero state, at about 1200 m. It blooms between March and July. PMID:26884708

  13. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  14. Trait evolution in the slipper orchid paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Huang, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-03-01

    The well-known orchid genus Paphiopedilum has attracted much attention from biologists because of its diverse floral traits. Although these traits have been thoroughly described, little is known about their evolutionary trajectory. In this study, we explored their evolutionary patterns and trajectory through phylogenetic analyses and close observations, and 10 characters in 21 Chinese species mapped onto an existing phylogenetic tree. Lip shape, staminode shape, petal shape, and petal width are relatively congruent with molecular phylogenies, thereby validating the existing traditional classification system. All four of those characters, along with flower number, are strongly conserved, and are significantly affected by phylogeny. By contrast, flower color (including that of the dorsal sepal, lip, and petal) is significantly convergent among those examined species and less affected by phylogeny. Therefore, this character is independent of evolution and mainly influenced by environmental factors. All of these characters are key, classical indicators when distinguishing among species within the subgenera Brachypetalum and Paphiopedilum. PMID:26855188

  15. Eight new species of Gomphichis (Orchidaceae, Spiranthoideae) from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, S; Szlachetko, D.L.; Mytnik-Ejsmont, J.; Cleef, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Gomphichis from Colombia are described. Each species is illustrated, and detailed habitat and distribution data are provided. A distribution map of the new species is presented. A dichotomous key for determination of the Gomphichis species in northern South America is provided. Conservation status assessments are provided for each species; current International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categories and criteria are listed. A brief discussio...

  16. Osmophores of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea L. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Osmophores of Gymnadenia conopsea are located on the adaxial surface of labellum and on distal parts of two lateral sepals. Osmophore cells are characterised with a large nucleus, and dense, granular cytoplasm, which contains numerous membranes of ER and large lipid droplets. Plastids are probably involved in the synthesis of fragrant substances and, contrary to the most of investigated orchid species, they do not contain starch. Numerous secretory vesicles take part in the secretion. Secreted fragrant substance migrates across the cell wall and through the pores in the cuticle. It is not accumulated on the osmophore cell surface.

  17. The genus Nervilia (Orchidaceae) in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Börge

    1991-01-01

    The orchidaceous genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaud, is revised for Africa, including Madagascar and other islands, and the Arabian peninsula. Sixteen species are recognized, two of which are each subdivided into two varieties. Keys are presented for all taxa. Lectotypes or neotypes are given for all rele

  18. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum, have very restricted distribution.

  19. A diverse fungal community associated with Pseudorchis albida (Orchidaceae) roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Petr; Těšitelová, T.; Roy, M.; Vohník, Martin; Jersáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 50-64. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/0786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecology * fungal diversity * Helotiales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2013

  20. ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЯ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕЙ СЕМЕЙСТВА ОРХИДНЫЕ (ORCHIDACEAE JUSS.) В УДМУРТСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКЕ И ИХ ОХРАНА

    OpenAIRE

    Сулименкина, О.

    2006-01-01

    Рассматриваются особенности распространения представителей семейства Orchidaceae, которые связаны с эколого-фитоценотической приуроченностью видов к отдельным типам местообитаний и их географическим ареалом, а также действием антропогенного фактора. Дается обоснование для охраны 20 видов семейства Орхидные флоры Удмуртии....

  1. О находке пыльцеголовника длиннолистного (Cephalanthera longifolia (L. ) Fritsch, orchidaceae, Magnoliophyta) в искусственных лесных насаждениях Саратовской области

    OpenAIRE

    БЕРЕЗУЦКИЙ МИХАИЛ АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ; ПАВЛОВСКИЙ А.М.; КАШИН АЛЕКСАНДР СТЕПАНОВИЧ

    2010-01-01

    Приводятся данные о находке популяции охраняемого растения пыльцеголовника длиннолистного (Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Orchidaceae, Magnoliophyta) в исскуственных лесных насаждениях Базарно-Карабулакского р-на Саратовской области. Популяция обнаружена в искусственных березовых посадках в окр. с. Алексеевка и насчитывает 15 особей....

  2. A new species of Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae from Guerrero, Mexico Una nueva especie de Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae de Guerrero, México

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    Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stelis from the cloud forest of Guerrero, Mexico, is described and illustrated as S. desantiagoi. This species is similar to S. rubens, but is distinguished by its larger plants, the stems proportionally longer, the leaves wider, the sepals internally papillose (vs. pubescent, the petals flabellate (vs. cuneate, the labellum slightly arcuate with the apex straight (vs. geniculate with the apex strongly incurved, and the clinandrium entire (vs. trilobate.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Stelis del bosque nublado de Guerrero, México como S. desantiagoi. Esta especie es similar a S. rubens, pero se distingue por las plantas de mayor tamaño, los tallos proporcionalmente más largos, las hojas más anchas, los sépalos interiormente papilosos (vs. pubescentes, los pétalos flabelados (vs. cuneados, el labelo ligeramente arqueado con ápice recto (vs. geniculado con el ápice fuertemente incurvado y el clinandrio entero (vs. trilobado.

  3. Cultivo de Cattleya Lindley (Orchidaceae em substratos alternativos ao xaxim = Alternative substrates for Cattleya (Orchidaceae cultivation to substitute the tree fern fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kaoro Yamakami

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo de um híbrido de Cattleya Lindley. Os substratos avaliados foram: xaxim; fibra de coco; casca de pínus + casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (2:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (1:2v/v; casca de pínus e casca de arroz carbonizada. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 70% de luminosidade Os parâmetros avaliados um ano após o início do experimento foram: massa de matéria fresca total, altura da parte aérea, comprimento do pseudobulbo, comprimento da maior raiz, número de raízes, número de brotos, número de flores, pH e condutividade elétrica. O substrato constituído de fibra de coco proporcionou bons resultados, podendo ser considerado alternativo ao xaxim no cultivo deCattleya.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates tosubstitute tree fern fiber for cultivation of hybrids from the Cattleya species. Seedlings were cultivated in polypropylene vases, kept in screen shadowed nursery by a 70% of lighting. The following substrates were evaluated: tree fern fibers; coconut fiber; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (2:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:2 v/v; pinus bark and carbonized rice hull. One year after the experiment, the followingparameters were evaluated: fresh matter mass, aerial part height, pseudobulb length, greater root length, number of buds, number of flowers, pH and electric conductivity. The substrate composed of coconut fiber showed better results, and can be used as the alternative substrate to tree fern fiber in the cultivation of Cattleya.

  4. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) em substratos a base de coco Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) cultivation in coconut-based substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Marinho de Assis; Ricardo Tadeu Faria; Lilian Keiko Unemoto; Larissa Abgariani Colombo

    2008-01-01

    Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desf...

  5. A simple floral fragrance and unusual osmophore structure in Cyclopogon elatus (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Moré, M; Benitez-Vieyra, S; Cocucci, A A; Raguso, R A; Sérsic, A N

    2009-07-01

    We studied gland morphology, anatomy and the chemical composition of the floral fragrance in the sweat bee-pollinated orchid Cyclopogon elatus. This is apparently the first such analysis for any Cyclopogon species, and one of very few studies in which both odour and osmophore are characterised in a nectar-rewarding orchid. Structures responsible for floral scent production were localised with neutral red staining and histochemical assays for lipids and starch. Their morphology and anatomy were studied with scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy thin sections, respectively. Fragrance samples were collected using SPME fibres and analysed with GC-MS. Anatomical evidence suggests that two parallel oval-shaped patches of unicellular trichomes on the abaxial surface of the labellum are osmophores. These are rich in stored lipids, while the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles contains starch. Only freshly opened flowers produced odours, while buds and withered flowers lacked scent. The chemical composition of the odour was dominated (>99.8%) by a single compound, trans-4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT). Gland anatomy and position on the outside of the perianth are unusual for scent glands in general. The presence of DMNT, a nearly ubiquitous compound in herbivore-induced vegetative emissions and one of the major floral volatiles of Yucca, is not surprising in view of hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of flower scents, suggesting that wound volatiles are utilised as kairomonal attractants by florivores whose activities result in pollination. PMID:19538389

  6. «TAKEUCHI». NUEVO HÍBRIDO DE DENDROBIUM (ORCHIDACEAE PARA CUBA

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    Lorenzo Suárez Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Dendrobium forman parte de las orquídeas más cultivadas de todo el mundo; varios cultivares de este género son vendidos como flor de corte y se ubican en el cuarto lugar en ventas entre los productos de floricultura, después de las Palmáceas, Dracaena y Anthurium de corte. En este trabajo se presentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de orquídea epífita, perteneciente al género Dendrobium. «Takeuchi», es el resultado de la polinización manual cruzada realizada en el mes de enero del 2007 entre Dendrobium x superbiens (progenitor madre y Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (progenitor padre; la primera floración se obtuvo en el mes de enero del 2012. Se encuentra registrado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterra, autoridad internacional encargada de registro de cultivares híbridos de orquídeas. Este nuevo híbrido posee un alto potencial ornamental y estético.

  7. Morphotypes of Dactylorhiza incarnata (L. Soу (Orchidaceae seedlings in vitro

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    Oleg A. Marakaev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypes, linear parameters and morphological features for Dactylorhiza incarnata seedlings in vitro have been set. The uneven growth and development of seedlings in depending from the location and degree of contact with the medium have been identified.

  8. Genome size variation in Orchidaceae subfamily Apostasioideae: filling the phylogenetic gap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Trávníček, Pavel; Kubátová, B.; Krejčíková, Jana; Urfus, Tomáš; Liu, Z.-J.; Lamb, A.; Ponert, J.; Schulte, K.; Čurn, V.; Vrána, Jan; Leitch, I. J.; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 1 (2013), s. 95-105. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1320 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA base content * flow cytometry * nuclear C-value * phylogeny * orchids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2013

  9. A generalized deceptive pollination system of Doritis pulcherrima (Aeridinae: Orchidaceae with non-reconfigured pollinaria

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    Xiaohua Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of largest angiosperm families, orchids have long fascinated evolutionary biologists with their staggering diversity in floral design and display to promote outcrossing. Two of the most intriguing aspects of orchid pollination that promote cross-pollination are pollinarium reconfiguration (PR and deceptive pollination. PR and generalized food deception employ virtually antagonistic methods of promoting cross-pollination: PR occurs through delayed pollination, involving the relatively long visitation periods that are typically observed for the pollinators of one flower or inflorescence; conversely, generalized food deception leads to reductions in the visitation periods of pollinators to one flower or inflorescence. Thus, it is logical to hypothesize that PR is unnecessary or PR happens soon in generalized food-deceptive orchids in the promotion of cross-pollination. Using Doritis pulcherrima as a model, the aim of this study was to understand the following: (1 the pollination and breeding system of D. pulcherrima; (2 the morphological interactions between orchids and their pollinators; and (3 whether PR is necessary in the promotion of cross-pollination in D. pulcherrima. Results Our observations indicated that Doritis pulcherrima is pollinated almost exclusively by Amegilla nigritar (Hymenoptera: Apidae and possesses pollinia that are deposited on the “occiputs” (cervical membranes of these insects. All of evidences are indicated that D. pulcherrima is a generalized food-deceptive orchid. Our morphometric measurements of the flowers and pollinators show that the heights of the “occiputs” with un-oriented pollinaria were equal to the distances between stigmas and surfaces of the middle lobes, suggesting that pollinarium reconfiguration is not necessary in Doritis pulcherrima. Conclusions Our observation and analyses supported the hypothesis that pollinarium reconfiguration is unnecessary in generalized food-deceptive orchids, such as Doritis pulcherrima, for the promotion of cross-pollination. This conclusion was indirectly supported by the abundance of deceptive orchids that do not exhibit pollinarium reconfiguration. There are two mechanisms (i.e. clone-growing characteristics and a long flowering season that promote fruit sets in the epiphytic food-deceptive orchids in tropical regions.

  10. In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are di...

  11. Revision of Coelogyne section Verrucosae (Orchidaceae): a new sectional delimitation based on morphological and molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Verrucosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised using morphological and molecular data. Eight species are recognized, including two new ones ( C. marthae and C. verrucosa). One name is reduced to synonymy. Four species formerly included by several authors in sect. Verrucosae (C. brachyptera, C. papillosa, C. parishii and C. virescens) are excluded. A total evidence analysis of morphological characters and ITS and matK sequence data supports the monophyly of the ...

  12. Revision of Coelogyne section Moniliformes (Orchidaceae) based on morphology, plastid and nrDNA ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2002-01-01

    Section Moniliformes Carr of the orchid genus Coelogyne is revised using morphological and molecular data. Twelve species are recognised, including two new ones (C. chanii and C. renae). and a dubious one (C. crassiloba). A combined analysis of morphological characters, and sequences of the nrDNA ITS region, matK gene, trnT-trnL intergenic spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer supports the monophyly of the section as here recognised. Persistence of the rhizome scales, shape of t...

  13. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss.) in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-01-01

    The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl.) under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  14. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

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    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  15. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss. in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl. under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  16. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Marta Szkudlarek

    2015-01-01

    Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  17. A remarkable new species of Liparis (Orchidaceae from China and its phylogenetic implications.

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    Lin Li

    Full Text Available In the present study, we formally describe Liparis pingxiangensis as a new species from Guangxi, China on the basis of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is easily distinguished from closely related species by strongly curved column without column wings, and broadly rhombic-elliptic lip with 2 uncinate calli at the base. In particular, it differs most markedly from its congeners in possessing two pollinia attached by long and prominent caudicles (not stipes, to a distinct sticky disc. This type of pollinarium, as far as we know, is not found in any other species of Liparis, and is also unique among the orchids with waxy pollinia. We then proceeded to a phylogenetic analysis to ascertain the systematic position of this enigmatic species. Molecular study based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data supports L. pingxiangensis as a distinct species, which forms an independent lineage sister to L. nervosa and its allies (93% BS, 1.00 BPP. In the light of previous work, the findings have important implications for a better understanding of the well-supported pattern mainly based on vegetative features in Malaxideae.

  18. Distribution and habitats of Chamorchis alpina (L. Rich. (Orchidaceae in Poland

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    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chamtorchis alpina (L. Rich. is a rare high mountain species occurring in Poland exclusively in the Tatra Mts. Its distribution presented on the map and altitudinal range are based on the authors' own material collected in the field as well as on literature data supplemented by herbarium records. The orographic and edaphic factors as well as phytocoenoses in which the species occurs are characterised. Moreover, information on size of the Tatra populations is given and the threat category for Ch. alpina in Poland is discussed.

  19. Molecular Identification of Mycorrhizae of Cymbidium kanran (Orchidaceae) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Suh, Hyoungmin; Kim, Oh Hong; Lee, Nam Sook

    2015-12-01

    A fungal internal transcribed spacer region was used to identify the mycorrhizae of Cymbidium kanran. The family Russulaceae was found to be the most frequently occurring group in both root and soil samples. In phylogenetic analyses, the majority of the Russulaceae clones were clustered with Russula brevipes and R. cyanoxantha. Therefore, C. kanran may form symbiotic relationships with the genus Russula. PMID:26839508

  20. Morphometric analyses of mixed Dactylorhiza colonies (Orchidaceae) on industrial waste sites in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.J.A. [Roehampton Institute, London (United Kingdom). Whitelands College, School of Life Sciences

    1998-12-01

    The study investigated morphometric data collected from Dactylorhiza growing on two types of industrial waste (pulverized fuel ash or PFA, and Leblanc process waste) during the summer of 1997. Three species grew on PFA (D. fuchsii, D. incarnata, D. praetermissa). The same species plus D purpurella grew on the Leblanc site, although on both substrates the majority of plants failed to correspond precisely with published descriptions, introducing an element of subjectivity into the field identifications. Principal Components Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordinations confirmed that textbook species descriptions corresponded to extremes of multivariate space. Cluster Analysis failed to produce a useful resolution of the data. Discriminant Functions Analysis produced useful results after leaf spotting was removed the analysis. On PFA sites hybrids appeared to be mainly D. praetermissa x D. fuchsii (=D. grandis) or D. praetermissa x D. incarnata (=D. wintoni). The identity of hybrids on the Leblanc site was unclear.

  1. Severe outbreeding and inbreeding depression maintain mating system differentiation in Epipactis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H

    2016-02-01

    In hermaphroditic plants, theory for mating system evolution predicts that populations will evolve to either complete autonomous selfing (AS) or complete outcrossing, depending on the balance between automatic selection favouring self-fertilization and costs resulting from inbreeding depression (ID). Theory also predicts that selection for selfing can occur rapidly and is driven by purging of genetic load and the loss of ID. Therefore, selfing species are predicted to have low levels of ID or even to suffer from outbreeding depression (OD), whereas predominantly outcrossing species are expected to have high levels of ID. To test these predictions, we related the capacity of AS to the magnitude of early-acting inbreeding or OD in both allogamous and autogamous species of the orchid genus Epipactis. For each species, the level of AS was assessed under controlled greenhouse conditions, whereas hand-pollinations were performed to quantify early costs of inbreeding or OD acting at the level of fruit and seed production. In the autogamous species, the capacity of AS was high (> 0.72), whereas in the allogamous species AS was virtually absent (< 0.10). Consistent with our hypothesis, allogamous Epipactis species had significantly higher total ID (average: 0.46) than autogamous species, which showed severe costs of OD (average: -0.45). Overall, our findings indicate that strong early-acting ID represents an important mechanism that contributes to allogamy in Epipactis, whereas OD may maintain selfing in species that have evolved to complete selfing. PMID:26548440

  2. Thuniopsis: A New Orchid Genus and Phylogeny of the Tribe Arethuseae (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available An investigation of a questionable orchid led to the discovery of a new genus and species Thuniopsis cleistogama, endemic to Yunnan province, China. It is characterized by having a subglobose corm, a spike-like (racemose inflorescence, half opened and spurless flowers, a collar-shaped stigma and subglobose capsules. Based on DNA sequence data from three gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast matK and trnL, we investigated its phylogenetic position within the tribe Arethuseae. Phylogenies using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the recognition of Thuniopsis as a distinct genus, and suggest its close relationship to the genera Bletilla, Dilochia, and Thunia. The new genus is circumscribed and a description and illustrations of the new species are provided. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera in Arethuseae are accessed. Moreover, our phylogeny also shed light on the phylogenetic positions of several genera which, to date, remain uncertain.

  3. Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [14C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

  4. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

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    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhanças estruturais observadas entre todas as raízes estudadas confirmam a inclusão da subtribo Catasetinae na tribo monofilética Cymbidieae. Algumas características radiculares são restritas a um ou dois táxons e podem ser úteis na taxonomia da subtribo. Por exemplo, a ocorrência de cristais flavonoídicos caracteriza os gêneros Catasetum e Cychnodes e o número de camadas do velame associado à forma das células do epivelame são úteis para confirmar a posição taxonômica de Clowesia amazônica. A presença de velame e de cristais flavonoídicos foi interpretada como adaptações ao hábito epifítico.

  5. In vitro flowering and fruiting in culture of dendrobium officinate kimura et migo (orchidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobium officinate Kimura et Migo. is a rare and endangered perennial orchid, which is valued for its attractive flowers and medicinal uses. Its three-to-five-year breeding cycle makes propagation difficult, so we investigated In vitro production of flowers and seeds for this species. Calluses were induced from shoot-tip explants of D. officinate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 0.2 mg L-1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.05 mg L-1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Multiple shoots were regenerated after protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were transferred onto the same basal medium with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The plantlets, 2-4 cm in height, maintained In vitro were induced to flower, and the highest rates of inflorescence (83.2%) and normal flowers (73.6%) were produced on the MS medium with 15% (v/v) coconut water and 0.1 mg L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) within 9 weeks. Histological analysis showed the origin of the floral primordial and normal morphologies of the pollen and female organs. The normal flowers were artificially pollinated and capsules developed. Viable seeds were produced and most of them germinated on the MS medium. This reproduction system could be used to study the molecular basis of flowering or to improve plant breeding programs. (author)

  6. Distinguishing colour variants of Serapias perez-chiscanoi (Orchidaceae) from related taxa on the Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Venhuis; J.G.B. Oostermeijer

    2011-01-01

    Serapias perez-chiscanoi has a stable and uniform appearance with green flowers. Throughout its distribution area, however, plants have been found with deviant pink to red flowers that show similarities with other taxa that are occasionally pale flowered. S. perez-chiscanoi is easy to differentiate

  7. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

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    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  8. Flowering phenology and reproductive characteristics of cypripedium macranthos (Orchidaceae) in china and their implication in conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenology and reproductive characteristics of Cypripedium macranthos were studied in China. This slipper orchid is mainly distributed outside of the diversity center of the genus Cypripedium in China and needed urgent protection. The plant favored the weakly acidic soil and the pH of soil of 7 populations in Beijing varied from 5.85-6.92. Moreover, the organic matter differed from 9.66%-22.84%, which belonged to the first grade according to the classification criterion of soil nutrient in China. The process of germination, anthesis, pollination, fructification, flower withering, plant withering and dormancy of C. macranthos were recorded. It usually opened around the first ten-days period of June and proceeded until the end of June or the beginning of July at population level. A single flower without pollinium removal or deposition lasted about 9.42+-1.81 d (n=36), while the mean flowering time of those with pollinium deposition is 6.80 +-1.30 d (n=109). The period with low temperature might play an important role in development of plant and bud. C. macranthos is self-compatible and pollinator limitation. The number of seeds was 16254+-9750 per capsule in hand-self-pollination and 15638+-8257 in hand-cross-pollination, which were about 2.5 times more than that (5808+-2633 per capsule) in natural pollination. So hand-pollination with more pollen might increase the number of fruits and seeds. Therefore, vegetation protection, suitable temperature of selected nursery place and hand-pollination would be important strategies in conservation of C. macranthos and might contribute more or less to resume its population. (author)

  9. Morphology and morphometry of two banderitas species (Orchidaceae: masdevallia) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea (Banderitas) are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyaca (Arcabuco of Berlin Paramo, Duitama) and Santander (between Malaga and Bucaramanga), in which these populations are reduced and of difficult access. For this reason these species are in the II appendix of cites. However, little is known on their reproductive biology, floral biology and pollination and the literature about this is incomplete. Under this framework, the goal of the project was to study the morphology and morphometry of m. coccinea and m. ignea (pleurothallidinae) under semicultivation conditions in the Villa Rosa Farm located in the municipality of Guasca, Cundinamarca (Colombia). The floral morphology was analyzed by digital photography, morphometry and scanning electron microscope. The main results were differences in color and length of dorsal and lateral sepals between m. coccinea (x = 53.0 mm Sigma = 7.4 mm and x = 44.4 mm and Sigma = 8.3 mm) and m. ignea (x = 34 mm Sigma = 7.7 mm and x = 31.5 mm and Sigma = 6.1 mm). These parts were longest in m. coccinea in contrast to m. ignea. However the lip was longest in m. ignea (x = 7.1 mm y Sigma = 0.6 mm). On the other hand both species had lip articulated to the column but without rewards as nectar and osmophores.

  10. Reproductive biology and pollination mechanisms of Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae). Floral variation: a consequence of natural hybridization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Amaral, M C E

    2008-03-01

    The phenology, flower morphology, pollination mechanism and reproductive biology of Epidendrum secundum were studied in a semi-deciduous forest at the Serra do Japi (SJ), and in the Atlantic rain forest of Picinguaba, both natural reserves in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. E. secundum flowers all year round, with a flowering peak between September and January. This species is either a lithophytic or terrestrial herb in the SJ, whereas, in Picinguaba, it grows mainly in disturbed areas along roadsides. E. secundum is pollinated by several species of diurnal Lepidoptera at both study sites. In Picinguaba, where E. secundum is sympatric with E. fulgens and both share the same pollinators, pollen transference between these two species was recorded. E. secundum is self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. It is inter-compatible with E. fulgens, producing fertile seeds. In contrast to the population of the SJ, in the Picinguaba region, floral morphology is quite variable among plants and some individuals present flowers with characteristics in-between both sympatric species, suggesting that natural hybridization occasionally occurs. The anthropogenic perturbation is probably the cause of the occurrence of E. secundum in the Picinguaba region, enabling its contact with E. fulgens. PMID:18304195

  11. Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future. PMID:21779810

  12. A new species of Bulbophyllum section Epicrianthes (Orchidaceae) from Papua Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.J.; Vogel, de, E.F.; Vogel, A.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulbophyllum dijkstalianum is described, of section Epicrianthes. Within the section, the species is uniquely identified by the stiffly patent rhizome; all other species have a more or less pendulous rhizome.

  13. Mikropropagasi Dendrobium “Emma Pink” (Orchidaceae pada Media Kultur In Vitro

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    ASTRI NUGROHO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of micropropagation of the orchid Dendrobium “Emma Pink” on the media Vacin and Went using tissue culture technique has been done. The explant was obtained from the young stem of Dendrobium “Emma Pink”. Induction stage was started by culturing the first, second, third, fourth axilar buds counted from the base of the stem and apical bud. The most potential bud to be used as a source for an explant was identified from the serial culturing of explant on the liquid media with various combinations of growth regulator kinetin and IAA. The media were placed on a shaker at 90 rpm. The second and the third axilar buds were the most potential sources of explant at 10-5 M kinetin and 5.10-7 M IAA, with the degree of success for the formation of protocorm like bodies (protocorm- like bodies were 56.25% and 43.75% respectively. The formation and multiplication of buds were obtained from protocorm-like bodies which were cultured in the solid media in the addition of 10-4 M kinetin and 5.10-6M IAA. The multiplication rate of the buds has continuously increased during the subcultures with an average multiplication rate of 3.25 buds/4 weeks, 4.59 buds/4 weeks, 6.32 buds/4 weeks and 8.80 buds/4 weeks respectively. The roots were formed when the buds were cultured in the solid media by adding 5.10-6 M kinetin and M IAA. The degree of acclimatization success of Dendrobium “Emma Pink” was 93.33% for the rooted bud and 53.33% for the unrooted bud.

  14. Systematics and evoltution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in the Greater Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Stenzel, Hagen

    2004-01-01

    Die antillanische Flora ist eine der artenreichsten der Erde. Trotz jahrhundertelanger floristischer Forschung zeigen jüngere Studien, daß der Archipel noch immer weiße Flecken beherbergt. Das trifft besonders auf die Familie der Orchideen zu, deren letzte Bearbeitung für Cuba mehr als ein halbes Jahrhundert zurückliegt. Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf der lang ausstehenden Revision der Orchideengattung Pleurothallis R. Br. für die Flora de Cuba. Mittels weiterer morphologischer, palynolo...

  15. Distinguishing colour variants of Serapias perez-chiscanoi (Orchidaceae) from related taxa on the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Venhuis, C.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Serapias perez-chiscanoi has a stable and uniform appearance with green flowers. Throughout its distribution area, however, plants have been found with deviant pink to red flowers that show similarities with other taxa that are occasionally pale flowered. S. perez-chiscanoi is easy to differentiate from S. cordigera subsp. cordigera by the colour of the flowers (S. cordigera subsp. cordigera has red to purple flowers) and the fact that the hypochile dimensions of S. perez-chiscanoi are signif...

  16. Anatomy and ultrastructure of spur nectary of Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) Orchidaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska; Janusz Matusiewicz

    2014-01-01

    The anatomy and the ultrastructure of spur nectaries of Cymnadenia conopsea at different developmental stages were investigated. The secretory epidermis surrounded the inside of spur and formed many unicellular papillae, which significantly enlarged the secretory surface. At the activity stage the epidermal cells contained characteristic plastids with well developed intraplastidal membrane system and numerous osmiophillic globules. The contact of plastids and endoplasmic reticulum indicates a...

  17. Floral Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure in Mycoheterotrophic Plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Święczkowska; Agnieszka K. Kowalkowska

    2015-01-01

    Epipogium aphyllum is a European-Asian obligatory mycoheterotrophic orchid containing no chlorophyll. Flowers are not resupinate with a sack-shape spur and cordate lip, which is divided into two parts: the basal (hypochile) and distal one (epichile). The floral analysis provides strong evidence to conclude that nectar is secreted on the upper surface of pink-coloured papillate ridges and epidermal (adaxial) cells at different place in spur, especially at the apex. The exudation on papillae ha...

  18. Microsatellite Markers in the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Ross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Primers for 31 microsatellite-containing loci were developed for the threatened orchid Platanthera praeclara to enable characterization of the population genetics of this tallgrass prairie native. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from four populations. Six of these loci were not in linkage disequilibrium. The average number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 6.4 to 8.9. Conclusions: The results indicate that six of the polymorphic loci will be useful in future studies of population structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity.

  19. Environ: E00751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00751 Dendrobium chrysanthum stem Crude drug Dendrobium chrysanthum [TAX:154291] Orchidaceae... (orchid family) Dendrobium chrysanthum stem Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00751 Dendrobium chrysanthum stem ...

  20. Environ: E00409 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00409 Pleione pseudobulb Crude drug Pleione [TAX:141751] Orchidaceae (orchid family) Pleione... pseudobulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00409 Pleione pseudobulb ...

  1. Response of Epidendrum Ibaguense (orchidaceae to the application of lime rates to the pot Resposta de Epidendrum ibaguense (orchidaceae à aplicação de doses de calcário em vaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the best cultivation methods of orchids, in particular of the genus Phalaenopsis, liming is a common practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of lime rates (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; and 5.0 g dm-3 of substrate applied to the cultivation substrate (xaxim on the growth of Epidendrum ibaguense seedlings. In a greenhouse, 1-L plastic pots filled with 0.8 dm³ of xaxim were irrigated such that no leachate was lost during the experiment. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, B, and Mn contents in roots, stems and leaves were measured. Leachate was collected by applying a sufficient water volume to obtain 25 mL from each pot. Fourteen days after lime application of 3 g dm-3, the pH of the collected leachate reached values above 7 and a value of 6.29 with the highest lime rate at the end of the experiment. The lime rate did not influence plant height, probably due to a Zn deficiency at high pH levels and a Ca deficiency in the control. Nevertheless, there was a large increase in leaf production, for number as well as for dry matter mass. There was no statistical difference between treatments in root dry matter production. Maximum dry matter production was obtained at a lime rate of 4.09 g dm-3. Zinc concentrations diminished linearly with increasing lime rates; the concentrations in all treatments were below the levels suggested as adequate in the literature (25-200 mg kg-1. Nutrient concentrations in leaves indicated deficiency of N, S, and B at the highest lime rates (4.0 and 5.0 g dm-3, and of Ca in the treatment without liming.Nos melhores cultivos de orquídeas é comum o uso de calcário, de modo particular daquelas do gênero Phalaenopsis. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de calcário (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 g dm-3 de substrato aplicadas sobre o substrato de cultivo (xaxim no crescimento de mudas de Epidendrum ibaguense. Foram utilizados vasos plásticos de 1 L preenchidos com 0,8 dm³ de xaxim em casa de vegetação, com irrigação controlada, de forma que não ocorressem perdas por lixiviação de nutrientes durante a condução do experimento. Foram determinados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, B e Mn em ra��zes, caules e folhas. Foi coletado um lixiviado a partir da aplicação de um volume de água suficiente para a coleta de 25 mL de cada vaso. Aos 14 dias após aplicação das doses de calcário, o pH do lixiviado coletado atingiu valores superiores a 7, a partir da dose de 3 g dm-3, e apresentou valor de 6,29 para a maior dose de calcário no final do experimento. Não houve influência das doses de calcário na altura das plantas, provavelmente devido à deficiência de Zn em valores de pH elevados e à deficiência de Ca na testemunha. Todavia, houve grande incremento na produção de folhas, tanto para número quanto para massa de matéria seca. Não houve diferença estatística para produção de matéria seca de raízes entre os tratamentos. A produção de matéria seca de folhas foi máxima com a aplicação de 4,09 g dm-3 do calcário. Os teores de Zn diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da dose de calcário; todos os tratamentos apresentaram teores abaixo daqueles considerados adequados pela literatura (25-200 mg kg-1. Os teores dos nutrientes analisados demonstraram deficiências foliares de N, S e B para as maiores doses de calcário (4 e 5 g dm-3 e de Ca no tratamento que não recebeu calcário.

  2. Propagação in vitro de Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. (Orchidaceae Propagation in vitro of Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. - Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Baptistonia pubes é uma epífita que ocorre na Floresta Atlântica do Brasil, no Paraguai e norte da Argentina. É considerada espécie vulnerável e ameaçada de extinção. Nossos objetivos foram avaliar a eficácia da germinação de suas sementes e o crescimento em dois pHs utilizando-se dois meios de cultura: Murashige-Skoog (modificado - (MS e meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica acrescido de NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN variando-se as concentrações de nutrientes e pH para a germinação e para o crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes germinaram em média 15 dias após a inoculação, em todas as condições. A porcentagem de germinação variou entre 2,6 a 11,6%, sendo que a maior porcentagem ocorreu no pH=5,2 BAN e a menor no pH=6,2 MS/2. O meio BAN foi mais eficiente na germinação. Os pHs, em cada meio, alteraram significativamente as médias das sementes germinadas. As plântulas cresceram mais no meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica no pH = 5,2.Baptistonia pubes is an epiphyte that grows in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is considered vulnerable and threatened with extinction. Our aim was to verify seed germination efficiency and growth at two pHs, using two culture mediums: Murashige-Skoog (modified - (MS and banana pulp with added NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN, with varied nutrient and pH concentrations for germination and for growth. The seeds germinated on average 15 days after the inoculation, at all conditions. The percentage of germination varied between 2.6 and 11.6 %. The highest percentage was at pH=5.2 BAN and the lowest at pH=6.2 MS/2. The banana pulp was most efficient for germination. The pHs, in each environment, altered significantly the averages of the germinated seeds. Seedling growth showed better results in the banana medium, pH = 5.2

  3. Genotypes selection of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae in vitro propagation phase/ Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae na fase de propagação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of artificial hibridization in orchids is used to obtain new varieties. The objective of the present paper was to select genotypes of Dendrobium favourable for in vitro propagation for commercial utilization through crossings and self polinization of selected matrice plants. Fifteen different plants with contrasting colors, flower sizes and plant heighs were used; the flowers were artificially polinated and the seeds germinated in vitro on MS medium, with half concentration of nutrients. The following crossings were made D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; and the self polinizations: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 and D6. The obtained plants were avaluated for: plant heigh, number of roots, fresh and dry matter weight. The best results was observed in the following crosses D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 and D14 x D7 and for self polinizations Df22 and D7.O processo de hibridação artificial em orquídeas é utilizado para obtenção de novas variedades. O trabalho teve como objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium favoráveis à propagação in vitro em escala comercial através de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 15 plantas com características contrastantes de coloração, tamanho das flores e altura da planta; as flores polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes germinadas in vitro em meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Foram realizados os cruzamentos: D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; e as autofecundações: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 e D6. As plantas resultantes do cultivo foram avaliadas para as características: altura da planta, número de raízes, peso das massas fresca e seca total. Os melhores resultados para as características analisadas foram observados nos cruzamentos D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 e D14 x D7, e nas autofecundações Df22 e D7.

  4. Anatomia foliar de quatro espécies do gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae do Planalto Central Brasileiro Foliar anatomy of four species of genus Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae of the Brazilian Central Planalt

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    Rosane Zanenga-Godoy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies analisadas (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. apresentam epiderme uniestratificada em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar, ocorrendo estômatos na face abaxial; deposição de cera epicuticular em crostas, escamas, flocos e plaquetas; em C. araguaiensis ocorrem estegmatas incrustados nas células epidérmicas; em todas as espécies ocorre hipoderme com células de paredes espessadas; mesofilo bifacial, compacto; células paliçádicas atípicas, com barras de espessamento; feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos alternadamente, acompanhados por bainha de fibras; cordões fibrosos acompanhados por estegmatas ocorrem longitudinalmente na lâmina foliar; presença de ráfides. Os aspectos descritos revelam acentuada xeromorfia, em função de economia de água.The analyzed species (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. present unistratified epidermis at both surfaces with stomata at abaxial surface; deposition of epicuticular wax in crusts, scales, granules and plates; C. araguaiensis presents stegmata at epidermal cells; others characteristics present at all species are: hypodermis cells with thick walls; bifacial and compact mesophyll; atipic cells ofpalisade parenchyma with thichness bars; collateral vascular bundles alternate accompanied by sheath fibers; cordon fibers accompanied by stegmata in the foliar blade; raphids. The described aspects reveal accentuate xeromorphy for water economy.

  5. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the juvenils (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. The high relation between the densities of adults and juvenils had been demonstrated by the value of the linear correlation coefficient found, r = 0,61.

  6. Survival and development in vitro of Cattleya (Orchidaceae submitted to treatments with different treatments of colchicinesSobrevivência e desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya (Orchidaceae submetida a tratamentos com colchicina

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    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy produces desirable characteristicsin orchids that are represented by increase of the floral pieces, succulency degree, intensification of color, durability and larger resistance of flowers. The colchicine as polyploidy inductor agent in in vitro culture of plants has limitations, because when in high concentrations or very long treatments, it becomes poisonous for the vegetal tissues. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the influence of concentrations and times of exposition to the colchicine, on the survival and on the in vitro development of Cattleya tigrina. Protocorms were treated with colchicine in the concentrations of 0.5 and 1g.L-1 during 24, 48 and 72 hours. There were evaluated the tax of survival of the protocorms (%, percentage of plantlings with multiple buds and plant height after three and seven months. The increase of the concentration and of the time of exposition to colchicine caused a larger plant mortality and an increase of plantlings with reduced height. Nas orquidáceas, a poliploidia produz características desejáveis, que se traduzem em aumento das peças florais, grau de suculência, intensificação do colorido, durabilidade e maior resistência das flores. A colchicina como agente indutor de poliploidia em cultura de plantas in vitro tem suas limitações, pois em elevadas concentrações ou tratamentos muito prolongados, torna-se tóxica. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina, na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya tigrina. Protocormos foram tratados com colchicina em concentrações de 0,5 e 1g.L-1 durante 24, 48 e 72 horas. Foram avaliados taxa de sobrevivência dos protocormos (%, porcentagem de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura após três e sete meses. Com o aumento da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina houve maior mortalidade e aumento do número de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura reduzida.

  7. Qualidade de luz na biometria e anatomia foliar de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii L. (Orchidaceae micropropagadas Light quality in the biometrics and leaf anatomy of Cattleya loddigesii L. seedlings (Orchidaceae micropropagated

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    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de luz pode alterar a morfogênese das plantas por meio de uma série de processos mediados por receptores de luz, principalmente na região do vermelho e azul. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar alterações anatômicas foliares e características biométricas de Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo', cultivadas in vitro, sob diferentes malhas coloridas com nível de radiação de 50% de sombreamento. Plântulas oriundas de autopolinização e sementes germinadas in vitro, com aproximadamente 1,0cm de comprimento e com raízes, foram inoculadas em meio WPM e submetidas a diferentes condições de incubação. Testou-se o efeito de sombrites coloridos (vermelho e azul sobre os frascos cultivados em casa de vegetação (CV e sala de crescimento (SC, além dos tratamentos, nos dois ambientes, sem utilização das telas coloridas. A avaliação foi efetuada 180 dias após inoculação. Com os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o ambiente de cultivo promove alterações anatômicas e biométricas em plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo' micropropagadas. As alterações promovidas pelo cultivo em luz natural evidenciam maior capacidade fotossintética, por meio de maior diferenciação dos tecidos clorofilianos, promovendo uma superfície foliar anatomicamente adaptada à fase de aclimatização.The light quality is responsible for the morphogenesis in plants. It is mediated by a series of processes involving light receptors, mainly in the red blue region. The aim of this research was to observe the anatomical leaf alterations as well as the biometric characteristics of in vitro cultured Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo'. Two different colour shading nets (red and blue, 50% mesh were tested and compared with a control without the shading nets in greenhouse and growth room. Plantlets of 1.0cm in length with roots produced by self pollinization and by seeds in vitro germination were inoculated in WPM medium and submitted to these different incubation environments. After 180 days of inoculation the plantlets were evaluated. It was observed that the culture environment promote anatomical and biometric alterations in Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo' plantlets micropropagated. The changes promoted by the cultivation in natural light show greater photosynthetic capacity, through greater differentiation of the chlorenchyma tissue, promoting a leaf surface anatomically adapted to the acclimatization stage.

  8. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae = Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae

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    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato decálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 μmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrationsof calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinatedseeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834 and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 gL-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25 ± 2ºC, 16h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the majornumber of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate C. loddigesii orchidplantlets.

  9. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

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    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P Cattleya mendelii is an endemic orchid species from Colombia, which has a great ornamental value which is in danger of extinction due to massive collection and their natural habitat's destruction by human activities. In vitro culture is an alternative to preserve this species and/or carry out its marketing. In this study the asymbiotic germination and seedling development of seeds of C. mendelii, in several in vitro culture media were evaluated. Mature capsules were collected. Seed viability with tetrazolium test was done; seeds were disinfected at the same time and planted by the syringe method to evaluate the effect of five growth culture media on the development of C. mendelii after 16 weeks of cultivation. It was found that seed viability was 93%, the highest percentage of germination was found in the culture medium Murashige-Skoog plus coconut water (MS+AC with significant differences compared to other culture media (P < 0.05, Tukey. This study showed that MS medium supplemented with coconut water and pineapple juice, were more efficient in asymbiotic germination and seedling development of C. mendelii orchids compared with other culture media. It could be an option to reduce the costs generated by using phytohormones.

  10. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae = Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae

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    Greta Aline Dettke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícularelativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambosos polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando maduras.The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable thisspecies to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of thepseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape when mature.

  11. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  12. 中国石斛属一新种%A new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 张玉武; 肖丽萍

    2001-01-01

    @@Dendrobium fanjingshanense Z. H. Tsi ex X. H. Jin et Y. W. Zhang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Habitu D. wilsonii Rolfe simile, a quo tepalis revolutis fulvis, lobo labelli intermedii infra medium macula una flabellata purpurea ornato. Epiphyticum; caulis teres, 20~40 cm altus, 2~3 mm crassus, caespitosus, superne 5~6-foliatus, internodiis 1~1.5 cm longis. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, subcoriacea, 2~5 cm longa, 5~15 mm lata, apice obtusa et plus minusve hamata, basi vaginis tubulatis membranaceis obtecta. Inflorescentiae e lateribus partium superarum caulium annotinorum defoliatorum nascentes, versus apicem caulis laterales, 1~2-florae; pedunculi 2~3 mm longi, ca. 1 mm crassi, basi vaginis 3~4 membranaceis 3~4 mm longis instructi; bracteae ovato-triangulatae, 3~5 mm longae, apice acutae, macula atro-fusca ornatae. Flores patentes; pedicelli cum ovario ca. 2~3 cm longi; tepala revoluta, fulva, apice obtusa; sepalum intermedium oblongum 2 cm longum, medio 6~7 mm latum, apice fere obtusum; sepala lateralia paulo oblique ovato-lanceolata, sepalo intermedio aequilonga sed medio paulo angustiora, apice obtusa, basi cum pede columnae mentum obconoideum ca. 8 mm longum 6 mm latum apice obtusum formantia; petala subelliptica, ca. 2 cm longa, medio 6 mm lata, apice subobtusa; labellum fulvum, basi purpureum et dense velutinum, obscure trilobatum, lobis lateralibus semiorbiculatis erectis, basi (inter lobos laterales) callo uno purpureo praeditis, lobo intermedio ovato, ca. 1 cm longo, 7 mm lato, apice subacuto et recurvo, supra medio carinato, glabro; columna alba, ca. 3 mm longa, basi in pedem ca. 9 mm longum producta, pede medio purpurato, glabro; operculum antherae album, ambitu rhombicum, glabrum; pollinia 4.

  13. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination. PMID:26907369

  14. Germinação, crescimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de orquídeas (Cattleya spp., Orchidaceae

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    Danieli Schneiders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As orquídeas no ambiente natural sofrem exploração devido a sua importância ornamental, levando algumas espécies à extinção. O cultivo in vitro é uma forma alternativa para a conservação ex-situ. Procurou-se determinar um meio de cultura eficiente para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cattleya forbesii, bem como para o crescimento de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya harrisoniana. No primeiro caso, sementes foram inoculadas em meio de cultura básico de Murashige & Skoog (MS = T1 e MS básico acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado (CA = T2. No segundo, plântulas com 1 ± 0,2 cm de altura foram submetidas aos tratamentos T1, T2, MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes (T3 e MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes suplementado com 1,25 g L-1 de CA (T4. Verificou-se aos 30 dias em C. forbesii uma porcentagem de germinação de 45% em T1 e 90% em T2. A adição de CA ao meio de cultura trouxe aumento na altura de plântulas de C. forbesii de acordo com análises realizadas aos 180 dias de cultivo. Em relação ao crescimento de C. harrisoniana, aos 240 dias observou-se que todos os parâmetros médios avaliados (altura da parte aérea, massa de matéria fresca total, número de raízes e folhas, comprimento da maior raiz e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram significativamente maiores em T2. Dessa forma, sugere-se o uso do meio MS acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de CA (T2, uma vez que é significativamente favorável tanto para a germinação de sementes quanto para o crescimento de ambas as espécies.

  15. Absence of pollinator-mediated premating barriers in mixed-ploidy populations of Gymnadenia conopsea s.l. (Orchidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Castro, Sílvia; Sonk, N.; Milchreit, K.; Schödelbauerová, Iva; Tolasch, T.; Dötterl, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2010), s. 1199-1218. ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600870601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cytotypes * floral volatiles * fragrant orchid * gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection * matting barriers * polyploidy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2010

  16. Waiting for integrative taxonomy: Morphospecies as an operational proxy for the radiative and reticulate genus Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae?

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    Errol Véla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently published botanical floras provided an opportunity to develop operational systems for identifying in the field in France of species of the difficult genus Ophrys. Its specific and infra-specific taxonomy is extremely complex because of conflicting points of view and/or insufficient knowledge about specific biological features. In order to produce an identification key based on observable morphological criteria we developed a pragmatic taxonomy suitable for non-expert botanists, which includes “morphospecies” that are unambiguously identifiable based on a number of unique or a combination of diagnostic criteria and “subspecies” that are sets of populations sharing the same geographical and ecological adaptations but not distinctly differing morphologically. The taxonomic scheme reviewed here for the section Pseudophrys is well correlated with the floral chemical signatures of all the French taxa. This intermediate position, between splitters (mainly orchidologists and lumpers (mainly geneticists, will hopefully enable us to revise the taxonomy of this genus at the Euro- Mediterranean level.

  17. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae

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    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro de orquídeas é bastante utilizada para a produção de mudas. A busca por meios de cultura alternativos para este fim vem sendo amplamente estudada devido à complexidade dos meios comumente utilizados, como o meio MS. Os híbridos de Phalaenopsis encontram-se dentre as orquídeas mais comercializadas no mundo devido à longevidade e à beleza peculiar de suas flores. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações de fertilizantes comerciais e adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' em meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (P. amabilis x P. equestris. Plântulas germinadas in vitro, em meio MS, foram subcultivadas em meios de cultura à base de fertilizantes comerciais e meio MS modificado com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os meios de cultura foram avaliados com e sem a adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' (100 g L-1 no estádio de maturação quatro. A base dos meios de cultura foi composta por sacarose (30 g L-1, carvão ativado (1 g L-1 e ágar (9 g L-1. Aos 180 dias foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: área foliar, número de folhas e raízes, comprimento de raízes e massas de matérias secas de folhas e raízes. Conclui-se que o tratamento composto por Biofert® acrescido de polpa de banana apresentou os melhores resultados para o desenvolvimento in vitro do híbrido, inclusive apresentando resultados estatisticamente superiores em relação ao meio MS sem banana.

  18. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:27081350

  19. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  20. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  1. Duplicated C-class MADS-box genes reveal distinct roles in gynostemium development in Cymbidium ensifolium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Chen, You-Yi; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2011-03-01

    The orchid floral organs represent novel and effective structures for attracting pollination vectors. In addition, to avoid inbreeding, the androecium and gynoecium are united in a single structure termed the gynostemium. Identification of C-class MADS-box genes regulating reproductive organ development could help determine the level of homology with the current ABC model of floral organ identity in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized two C-class AGAMOUS-like genes, denoted CeMADS1 and CeMADS2, from Cymbidium ensifolium. These two genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their functional diversification during gynostemium development. Furthermore, the expression of CeMADS1 but not CeMADS2 was eliminated in the multitepal mutant whose gynostemium is replaced by a newly emerged flower, and this ecotopic flower continues to produce sepals and petals centripetally. Protein interaction relationships among CeMADS1, CeMADS2 and E-class PeMADS8 proteins were assessed by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Both CeMADS1 and CeMADS2 formed homodimers and heterodimers with each other and the E-class PeMADS protein. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CeMADS1 or CeMADS2 showed limited growth of primary inflorescence. Thus, CeMADS1 may have a pivotal C function in reproductive organ development in C. ensifolium. PMID:21278368

  2. C- and D-class MADS-box genes from Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) display functions in gynostemium and ovule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Yi; Lee, Pei-Fang; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wu, Wan-Lin; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lee, Yung-I; Liu, Ke-Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    Gynostemium and ovule development in orchid are unique developmental processes in the plant kingdom. Characterization of C- and D-class MADS-box genes could help reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying gynostemium and ovule development in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized a C- and a D-class gene, PeMADS1 and PeMADS7, respectively, from Phalaenopsis equestris. These two genes showed parallel spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their cooperation in gynostemium and ovule development. Furthermore, only PeMADS1 was ectopically expressed in the petals of the gylp (gynostemium-like petal) mutant, whose petals were transformed into gynostemium-like structures. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that neither PeMADS1 and PeMADS7 could form a homodimer or a heterodimer. An E-class protein was needed to bridge the interaction between these two proteins. A complementation test revealed that PeMADS1 could rescue the phenotype of the AG mutant. Overexpression of PeMADS7 in Arabidopsis caused typical phenotypes of the D-class gene family. Together, these results indicated that both C-class PeMADS1 and D-class PeMADS7 play important roles in orchid gynostemium and ovule development. PMID:22499266

  3. 芳香石豆兰的繁殖生态学%Reproductive ecology of Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 高江云

    2011-01-01

    芳香石豆兰(Bulbophyllum ambrosia)是分布于我国南方石灰岩山热带季节性雨林中的一种常见附生兰科植物,附着生长于岩石或树干上,野外监测发现其自然不结实.对芳香石豆兰繁殖生态学的研究表明,不同于石豆兰属其他具有蝇类传粉综合征的种类,其花具有香味和花蜜,中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)是芳香石豆兰唯一的有效传粉者,具有较高的访问频率,自然种群中有较高的花粉块移出率和柱头花粉块沉降率,在中华蜜蜂的传粉过程中,芳香石豆兰铰链结构的唇瓣起着重要作用.人工授粉试验表明,芳香石豆兰自交授粉不结实,异交授粉结实率达90%以上,芳香石豆兰为自交不亲和的繁育系统.芳香石豆兰具有较强的克隆生长能力,同一个体花期内有大量的花同时开放,其传粉者中华蜜蜂平均单次访花(4.29±0.40)朵(n=66),造成了严重的同株异花传粉.芳香石豆兰附生于石灰岩山顶岩石或树干上,种群密度较低,使得不同个体之间花粉交流困难,自交不亲和的特性导致了芳香石豆兰自然不结实.本研究结果为开展芳香石豆兰的有效保护提供了依据.%Aims Bulbophyllum ambrosia is an epiphytic orchid growing on rocks and trees in limestone seasonal rainforests and is commonly distributed in southern China. We found no fruit set of B. ambrosia during long-term monitoring of species diversity, reproductive phenology and pollinators of local orchid species in Green Stone Forest Park. Our objective was to determine barriers to fruit set in B. ambrosia.Methods Flowering phenology and natural fruit-set were monitored once a week for three years. Floral morphology was studied during flowering time. We also investigated the rate of pollinia removal and deposition over two flowering seasons. To determine the self-compatibility system, different hand-pollination treatments were conducted over three years at the study site. We also observed floral visitors for 150 h over two years. Important findings Unlike other myophilous species in the genus, B. ambrosia is fragrant and presents nectar as reward. Observations of floral visitors showed that honeybee {Apis cerana cerand) was the only efficient pollinator and regularly visited flowers with high frequency. In natural populations, the rates of pollinia removal and deposition were high, but there was no fruit set. The hinged labellum plays an important role in the process of honeybee pollination of B. ambrosia. No fruit was found in the selfing pollination treatment, and fruit set of crossing pollination treatments was >90% over two years, suggesting that B. ambrosia is self-incompatible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a self-incompatible species in Bulbophyllum. Individuals of B. ambrosia have a mass of flowers opening simultaneously during anthesis because of its strong ability in cloning. Honeybees visited 4.29 ± 0.40 flowers (n = 66) in average per visitation, which may lead to geitonogamy. Self-incompatibility causes no fruit set as the result of geitonogamy. These results provide useful implications for future conservation of B. ambrosia.

  4. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by King Carlos III in the second half of 18th Century, the Spanish government demonstrated a serious interest in the study of the rich floras of the colonies of the New World. The Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, led by Ruiz and Pavón, continued for 11 years in the two colonies and was followed by the activities of Tafalla and Manzanilla, who botanized in Peru and Ecuador. Two preliminary accounts of the flora of Peru were published in 1794 and 1798, but only three of the planned eleven volumes and five supplements of the Flora Peruviana et Chilensis were eventually published. The seventh volume, devoted to the Orchids, never saw the light of day. Due to the short descriptions published in 1798, and the dispersal of large parts of Ruiz and Pavón’s herbarium, the concepts of several of their orchid species remained obscure to modern botanists. These species can now be identified for the first time through the critical study of the unpublished illustrations and manuscripts of the expedition, kept at the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (RJB. The results in orchidology of the expedition, with a discussion of the new findings and interpretations, made possible by the study of Ruiz and Pavón’s orchid iconography, are presented in two contributions. In this first part – an introduction – notes on the illustrators and their work, as well as on the orchid manuscripts and collections, are given. Orchid taxa are presented alphabetically, from Acianthera to Maxillariella. For each taxon references to the nomenclatural types, synonymy, illustrations and exsiccata prepared during the expedition, as well as to Ruiz’s diaries and the unpublished manuscripts of the expedition’s botanists, are provided. In the absence of any actual specimens referable to the type collections and associated with the protologues, Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa, and M. Triphylla are formally lectotypified with the type illustrations conserved in MA. New combinations are proposed for the basionyms Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia po lystachya, Maxillaria ramosa, and M. Triphylla.

    Bajo el impulso del rey Carlos III, el gobierno español demostró en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII un serio interés en el estudio de las ricas floras de sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo. La Real Expedición al Perú y Chile, liderada por Ruiz y Pavón, trabajó por 11 años en las dos colonias y fue continuada posteriormente por Tafalla y Manzanilla, quienes botanizaron en el Perú y en el Ecuador. En 1794 y 1798 se publicaron dos trabajos preliminares sobre la flora del Perú, pero solamente tres de los 11 volúmenes y cinco suplementos de la Flora Peruviana et Chilensis vieron finalmente la luz. El séptimo volumen, dedicado a las Orquídeas, nunca se publicó. Debido a las descripciones sintéticas publicadas en 1798 y a la dispersión de una parte cuantiosa del herbario de Ruiz y Pavón, muchos conceptos de sus especies de orquídeas quedaron obscuros para los botánicos modernos. El estudio crítico de las ilustraciones y manuscritos inéditos de la expedición, conservados en el Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (RJB, permiten ahora identificar por primera vez muchas de estas especies. Los resultados orquideológicos de la expedición, con una discusión de los nuevos hallazgos e interpretaciones hechos posibles por el estudio de la iconografía de orquídeas de Ruiz y Pavón, se presentan en dos contribuciones. En esta primera parte se proporcionan una introducción, notas sobres los ilustradores y su obra, así como sobre los manuscritos y colecciones de orquídeas. Los táxones de orquídeas se presentan alfabéticamente, de Acianthera a Maxillariella. Para cada uno de los táxones se proveen referencias a los tipos nomenclaturales, sinonimia, ilustraciones y exsiccata preparados durante la expedición, así como a los diarios de Ruiz y a los manuscritos inéditos de los botánicos de la expedición. En ausencia de especímenes de material original o de alguna manera asociable a los protólogos, se lectotipifican Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa y M. Triphylla con las ilustraciones de los tipos conservadas en MA. Se proponen nuevas combinaciones para los basiónimos Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia polysta chya, Maxillaria ramosa y M. Triphylla.

  5. Disobedient epiphytes: colonization and extinction rates in a metapopulation of Lepanthes rupestris (Orchidaceae) contradict theoretical predictions based on patch connectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Meléndez-Ackerman, E. J.; Tremblay, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 4 (2014), s. 598-606. ISSN 0024-4074 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : connectivity * metapopulation theory * orchids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.534, year: 2014

  6. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii amino acid - protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm - like body (PLB organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin.

  7. CAMBIOS MORFOMÉTRICOS DURANTE EL BENEFICIO TRADICIONAL DE LAS VAINAS DE VAINILLA (Vanilla planifolia; Orchidaceae) EN MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Tapia-Ochoategui; B.H. Camacho-Díaz; M.J. Perea-Flores; I.M. Ordóñez-Ruíz; G.F. Gutiérrez-López; Dávila-Ortiz, G.

    2011-01-01

    En esta investigacion se planteo medir los cambios en la microestructura de los tejidos de la vainilla durante el beneficio a traves de parametros morfometricos como el area (A), perímetro (P), diametro de Feret (DF), factor de forma (FF) y compactacion (C), empleando Analisis Digital de Imagenes (ADI) aplicado a micrografías de tejidos de vainilla obtenidas con un Microscopio Electronico de Barrido Ambiental (MEBA). Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que, durante el beneficio existe una defo...

  8. A set of data on green, ripening and senescent vanilla pod (Vanilla planifolia; Orchidaceae): anatomy, enzymes, phenolics and lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Brillouet, Jean Marc; Odoux , Eric; Conejero, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    Mature green vanilla pods accumulate 4-O-(3-methoxy-benzaldehyde)-beta-D-glucoside (glucovanillin), which, upon hydrolysis by an endogenous beta-glucosidase, liberates vanillin, the major aroma component of vanilla. Little is known on the spatial distribution of aroma-generating phenolics, and the enzymes responsible for their liberation (beta-glucosidase) and oxidation (peroxidase). We report here quantitative data with respect to these three components in relation to the anatomy of the pod....

  9. Characterization of seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum (Orchidaceae promoted by mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtopodium glutiniferum is an endemic orchid of Brazil with potential medicinal and ornamental applications. As mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the initiation of the orchid life cycle, the aim of this study was to determine the strains of mycorrhizal fungi suitable for seed germination and protocorm development of C. glutiniferum and to characterize the symbiotic development of protocorms. Seeds of C. glutiniferum were inoculated with nine mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza spp., Ceratorhiza spp., Rhizoctonia sp., originally isolated from Brazilian neotropical orchids. Only Epulorhiza isolates promoted seed germination and protocorm development. Three Epulorhiza isolates (M1, M6 = E. epiphytica, M20 = Epulorhiza sp. promoted protocorm development until leaf production at 63 days. The protocorms are comprised of parenchyma cells delimited by a unistratified epidermis; the parenchyma cells of the upper part of the protocorms are smaller than those located more towards the base. Intact and digested pelotons were observed inside of protocorms implying that the seedlings were capable of mycotrophy. Additionally, the development of a bud primordium only occurred after colonization by fungus. This study suggests that C. glutiniferum has a preference for strains of Epulorhiza and that fungus digestion is essential to protocorm development.

  10. Seed propagation and re-introduction of the U.S. federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. (Orchidaceae

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    Lawrence W. Zettler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. [syn = Peristylus holochila (Hbd N. Hallé] is the rarest of three orchids endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. As of 2011, 33 individual plants of this U.S. Federally endangered species remained on three islands with only one specimen known to occur on Kauai. This paper presents a summary of experiments aimed at cultivating this species from seed leading to the reintroduction of seedlings. We describe: 1 the mycorrhizal fungi acquired from P. holochila protocorms on Molokai, 2 the role of light vs. dark pretreatment on symbiotic seed germination using a mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, and 3 asymbiotic germination on three media (Murashige and Skoog, Knudson C, P723. Protocorms recovered in situ using seed packets yielded seven strains of a mycorrhizal fungus assignable to the anamorphic genus Epulorhiza Moore, but none of these strains prompted seed germination in vitro. Using the mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, no significant differences were detected between light pre-treatment vs. dark incubation on seed germination or development, but statistical differences were evident among two agar types tested. Seeds sown on acidified (pH 5.0 asymbiotic medium P723 (PhytoTechnology Labs developed to the leaf-bearing stage 351 days after sowing and incubation in darkness at 16–19 °C. Seedlings illuminated 451 days after sowing were eventually established on soil in a greenhouse (ex vitro. A total of 85 seedlings were promptly transported to Hawaii in March 2011. A minimum of 3.1 years is required for the propagation of P. holochila from seed using acidified asymbiotic medium P723.

  11. Germinação, crescimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de orquídeas (Cattleya spp., Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli Schneiders; Rosete Pescador; Maristela Raitz Booz; Rogério Mamoru Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    As orquídeas no ambiente natural sofrem exploração devido a sua importância ornamental, levando algumas espécies à extinção. O cultivo in vitro é uma forma alternativa para a conservação ex-situ. Procurou-se determinar um meio de cultura eficiente para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cattleya forbesii, bem como para o crescimento de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya harrisoniana. No primeiro caso, sementes foram inoculadas em meio de cultura básico de Mu...

  12. ENCYCLIA × NIZANBURYI (ORCHIDACEAE) UN NUEVO HÍBRIDO NATURAL DEL ISTMO DE TEHUANTEPEC, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Eric Hágsater

    2012-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Encyclia × nizanburyi, una notoespecie nueva la cual sólo se conoce de la región de Nizanda, en la vertiente del Pacífico del Istmo de Tehuantepec, en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Se discute el posible origen híbrido de este nuevo taxón y se le compara con sus progenitores hipotéticos: Encyclia nizandensis y Encyclia hanburyi.

  13. Gegužraibinių augalų populiacijų vertinimas Šveicarijos miško europinės svarbos buveinėse

    OpenAIRE

    Antonovas, Donatas

    2014-01-01

    Magistro darbe tiriamas gegužraibinių (Orchidaceae) šeimos augalų populiacijų gyvybingumas priklausomai nuo EB buveinių tvarkymo intensyvumo Šveicarijos miško BAST. Darbo objektas – Šveicarijos miško BAST gegužraibinių (Orchidaceae) augalų populiacijos. Darbo tikslas – įvertinti gegužraibinių (Orchidaceae) šeimos populiacijų gausumą skirtinguose tvarkymo plotuose, priklausomai nuo gamtotvarkos darbų reguliarumo. Darbo metodai – gegužraibinių (Orchidaceae) augalų individų apskaita. Darbo rezul...

  14. A new species of]Anoectochilus Blume (Orchidaceae) from China%国产开唇兰属(兰科)一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎楷永; 萧丽萍

    2002-01-01

    @@ 南岭齿唇兰新种图1 Anoectochilus nanlingensis L. P. Siu et K. Y. Lang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 A congeneribus differt plantis minimis tantum 7.5~8.5 cm altis, sepalis albis dorso striis 2 longitudinalibus grossis purpureis ornatis, petalis albis oblique angusteque lineari-lanceolatis secus costam stria 1 grossa purpurea instructis et margine breviter et dense ciliatis, labello albo, inter 2 lobos apicales basi sinus macula 1 purpurea ornato, ungue in utroque latere costae maculis (3~) 4 purpureis instructo.

  15. 纤细头蕊兰--中国兰科一新种%Cephalanthera gracilis (Orchidaceae),A New Species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈心启; 朱光华

    2002-01-01

    @@ During the visit of the senior author in 1995 to the herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris (P),a new saprophytic species of Cephalanthera was found related to Cephalanthera calcarata S.C.Chen & K.Y.Lang published in 1986.

  16. Isolation and phylogenetic footprinting analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of the floral homeotic gene OrcPI from Orchis italica (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Serena; Cantone, Carmela; Chiaiese, Pasquale; Ruotolo, Gianluca; Sica, Maria; Gaudio, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of regulatory elements from homologous genes can be strongly divergent. Phylogenetic footprinting, a comparative analysis of noncoding regions, can detect putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) shared among the regulatory regions of 2 or more homologous genes. These conserved motifs have the potential to serve the same regulatory function in distantly related taxa. We isolated the 5'-noncoding region of the OrcPI gene, a MADS-box transcription factor involved in flower development in Orchis italica, using the thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction technique. This region (comprising 1352 bp) induced transient beta-glucuronidase expression in the petal tissue of white Rosa hybrida flowers and represents the 5'-regulatory sequence of the OrcPI gene. Phylogenetic footprinting analysis detected conserved regions within the 5'-regulatory sequence of OrcPI and the homologous regions of Oryza sativa, Lilium regale, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these sequences are known TFBSs described in databases of plant regulatory elements. Nucleotide sequence data reported are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under the following accession numbers: AF198055 promoter region of the PISTILLATA (PI) gene of A. thaliana; AB094985 cDNA of OrcPI (PI/GLOBOSA [PI/GLO] homologue) of O. italica; AB378089 5'-regulatory region of the OrcPI gene of O. italica; AP008211 putative promoter region of OSMADS2 (PI/GLO homologue) of O. sativa; AP008207 putative promoter region of OSMADS4 (PI/GLO homologue) of O. sativa; and AB158292 putative promoter region of the PI/GLO homologue of L. regale. PMID:19861638

  17. In vivo kinetics of beta-glucosidase towards glucovanillin and related phenolic glucosides in heat-treated vanilla pod (Vanilla planifolia, Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brillouet, Jean Marc; Odoux , Eric

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The traditional curing of vanilla pods includes "killing" and sweating steps when pods are exposed to heat (35-65 degrees C) for various lengths of time. Although it is known that liberation of vanillin and other phenolics from their non- aromatic glucosides is due to the action of an endogenous beta-glucosidase, its in vivo kinetics remained unknown. Materials and methods. Mature green vanilla pods were pretreated for 2 h at 50 degrees C, 55 degrees C and 60 degrees C, then sto...

  18. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  19. Biogeografia do gênero Galeandra lindl. (Orchidaceae : Catasetinae) no neotrópico e estudo taxonômico para o estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Thuane Bochorny de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A região neotropical abriga a maior diversidade de espécies do planeta, contendo aproximadamente 37% de todas as plantas conhecidas atualmente. Explicar esta extraordinária diversidade tem sido um grande desafio, que requer identificar padrões de distribuição geográfica dos táxons e compreender quais processos podem ter influenciado sua diversificação. Galeandra Lindl. é um gênero de orquídeas neotropicais, que possui 18 espécies de forma de vida epífita ou terrícola. Suas espécies sã...

  20. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y jugo de piña fueron más eficientes en la germinación asimbiótica y en el desarrollo de plántulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utilización de las fitohormonas.

  1. Propagación in vitro de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae a partir de protocormos, mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal "RITA"

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    Tirado Jorge Mario

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocormos in vitro de Phalaenopsis de tres meses de edad se transfirieron a contenedores RITA® con el fin de propagarlos masivamente. Los factores evaluados fueron la concentración de sacarosa en el medio y la frecuencia de inmersión. Se dispusieron cinco pares de contenedores RITA® con medio de cultivo líquido a concentraciones de sacarosa de 0, 15, 30, 45 y 60 g/L. El medio utilizado fue el MS a la mitad de la concentración de las sales, suplementado con vitaminas y tidiazuron (5 mg/L. El experimento se realizó en dos etapas, cada una con duración de dos meses. La primera etapa con una frecuencia de inmersión de cuatro horas y la segunda con una frecuencia de inmersión de ocho horas, ambas con un tiempo de inmersión de un minuto. Los resultados mostraron que la mejor respuesta proliferativa, con 8,2 protocormos adventicios por protocormo por mes, se obtuvo en el medio con 15 g/L de sacarosa y un tiempo de inmersión de un minuto cada cuatro horas. Palabras clave: Phalaenopsis, protocormo, propagación in vitro, inmersión temporal, RITA.

  2. Vliv kosení na populační dynamiku silně ohroženého druhu \\kur{Pseudorchis albida} (Orchidaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Štípková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is a review on endangered species and population dynamics of orchids. The second part consists of my research of population dynamics and management of Pseudorchis albida populations in Šumava mountains.

  3. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (ΦPT=0.387) and low within-population diversity (HE, range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  4. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Mercado Seir Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del

    93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demãs medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y

    *ugo de pi+a fueron mãs eficientes en la germinación asim4iótica y en el desarrollo de plãntulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utili7ación de las fitohormonas.

  5. A comparative study of the seed germination capabilities of Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae, a threatened terrestrial orchid, and other more common Anacamptis species, by asymbiotic culture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing emphasis on terrestrial orchid conservation has led to conservation actions for a wide range of threatened Mediterranean species. Many terrestrial orchids are currently at great risk for extinction as a result of a multiplicity of threatening processes. We focus on orchid seed germination capabilities in vitro, specifically germination capability of a threatened species, Anacamptis palustris, compared to three other more common species (A. laxiflora, A. morio, and A. papilionacea, and also discuss its potential impact on orchid distribution and conservation. Asymbiotic germination tests were performed with mature seeds using BM-1 medium. In vitro seed germination and protocorm developmental stages were evaluated up to 20 weeks after sowing. Significant differences in seedling development were detected among the species, and a correlation was evident between the rarity of the species and their germinability. Thus, the presence of intrinsic, biological factors that affect and limit the distribution of A. palustris may exist.

  6. Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata,a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-sheng ZHANG; Ya-li LV; Yue ZHAO; Shun-xing GUO

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus,commonly known as "Jewel Orchid",is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension,diabetes,and heart disease.The existence of A.formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss,human and animal consumption,etc.The highly potent medicinal activity of A.formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites,especially kinsenosides and flavonoids.This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship.Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them,which are related to plant growth,yield and changes in secondary metabolites.This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A.formosanus in pot culture.The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation:increased shoot height,shoot dry weight,and leaf numbers by 16.6%,31.3%,and 22.5%,respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides,isorhamnetin-3-O-[β-D-rutinoside,and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%,226.1%,and 196.0%,respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and,significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells.Moreover,F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A.formosanus.These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts,although further physiological,genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.

  7. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, A.; F. M. S. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de...

  8. Revisión del género Cephalanthera (Orchidaceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, María Luisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Cephalanthera in the Iberian Peninsula and NW of Africa has been done. Three species have been accepted. These species, C. rubra, C. longifolia and C. damasonium, have been listed with their synonyms in the study zone, a detailed description of each, and distribution maps. The indumentum pollen and seeds have been studied by SEM. C. damasonium has been typified.Se revisa el género Cephalanthera en la Península Ibérica, Baleares y NW de África. Se aceptan tres especies: C. rubra, C. longifolia y C. damasonium, para las que se dan los sinónimos usados en la zona de estudio, descripción detallada y mapas de distribución. Se estudia el indumento, polen y semillas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se neotipifica C. damasonium.

  9. Environ: E00413 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lucose [CPD:C00031], Starch [CPD:C00369] Bletilla striata [TAX:78707] Orchidaceae (orchid family) Bletilla s...triata corm (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00413 Bletilla striata corm ...

  10. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in treatments under white light, while red light promoted greater chlorophyll b, plantlets with fewer and shorter roots, and high ex vitro mortality. The addition of 2.0g L-1 of active charcoal to the culture medium and the use of white light provided greater development efficiency both on in vitro culture and ex vitro plant survival.

  11. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: isopor picado (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno (1:1, v:v; PBC:CP= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: casca de pínus (1:1, v:v; PC= pó de coco e PBC:PC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: pó de coco (1:1, v:v. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com 10 plantas por tratamento. As variáveis avaliadas após 12 meses do início do experimento foram: altura da parte aérea (APA, comprimento do maior pseudobulbo (CMP, diâmetro do maior pseudobulbo (DMP, comprimento da maior raiz (CMR, número de raízes (NR, número de brotos (NB, massa fresca total (MFT e pH do substrato. Todos os substratos avaliados, com exceção do pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno podem ser utilizados como substitutos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook.

  12. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae) /
    Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer; Lúcia Sadao Takahashi; Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Mauren Sorace; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defib...

  13. Caracterização morfo-anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664 Morpho-anatomic characterization of vegetative organs of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de orquídeas epífitas possuem adaptações morfo-anatômicas singulares e que as tornam aptas a ocuparem ambientes onde a escassez de água e de nutrientes é freqüente, como os ramos e troncos das árvores. Nelas são comuns os tecidos especializados para a reserva de água, tanto nas folhas quanto nas raízes e nos pseudobulbos, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente os órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. As folhas são coriáceo-carnosas, revestidas com espessa cutícula, hipostomáticas e com mesofilo tendendo para a dorsi-ventralidade. Nos pseudobulbos, a cutícula e algumas camadas de células subjacentes impermeabilizam o parênquima fundamental, formado por grandes células que reservam água e carboidratos na forma de grãos de amido. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais, tendo os maiores, calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores. Nas raízes o velame e o tecido cortical estão formados por várias camadas de células, embora tanto a exoderme quanto a endoderme mostrem-se pouco espessadasThe epiphytic orchids species have singular morpho-anatomic adaptations, which enable them to stay in places where water and nutrients scarcity are frequent, such as trees branch and trunk. The tissues specialized in water reservation are common in these species, as much as in leaves, roots and pseudobulbs. This study aimed to distinguish morpho-anatomically the vegetative organs of ,em>Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. Their leaves are coriaceous-fleshy in texture, covered by thick cuticle, hypostomatic and their mesophyll tends to the dorsal-ventral. In the pseudobulbs, the cuticle and some underlying cell layers waterproof the fundamental parenchyma, formed by big cells that reserve water and grains of starch. The vascular bundles are collateral, and the longest ones have sclerenchyma cap in both conductor tissue poles. In the roots, the velamen and the cortical tissue are formed by several cell layers, although both exoderm and endoderm are not very thick

  14. Fungicide and germicide on contamination escaping in the in vitro propagation of Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae Avaliação da fitotoxicidade de fungicidas e germicida na propagação in vitro de Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae para o controle de microorganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lopes Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problem of in vitro production of seedling is the contamination of the culture medium during the micropropagation stages. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fungicides and germicide on the plant growth and rooting, degree of phytotoxicity and control of contamination during in vitro cultivation of O. varicosum orchid. The flowers were pollinated artificially and the capsules seeds were sowed in MS culture medium modified with half of the macronutrients. The seedlings were transferred to the same culture medium uded for germination, added with the fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil ( 0 g.L-1 , 0.1 g.L-1 ; 0.2 g.L-1 ; 0.4 g.L-1 ; 0.6 g.L-1 and 0.8 g.L-1 or sodium hypochloride with 10% active chloride ( 0 mL. L-1 , 0,5 mL.L-1 ; 0,75 mL. L-1 ; 1,00 mL. L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 ; 1,50 mL. L-1. A complete randomized block design was used with ten replications per treatment and five plantlets per flask. The treatment containing 1.5 mL L-1 sodium hypochloride was the best in preventing contamination by microorganisms and did not cause any apparent harm development and in vitro rooting of Oncidium varicosum plantlets.Um dos maiores problemas na produção de mudas in vitro, é a contaminação por fungos e bactérias do meio de cultura durante as etapas de micropropagação, mesmo havendo todos os cuidados de assepsia. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fungicidas e germicida no crescimento vegetativo e enraizamento in vitro da orquídea Oncidium varicosum Lindl. As flores foram polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes foram germinadas no meio MS modificado com a metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. As plântulas obtidas foram subcultivadas no mesmo meio de germinação, adicionando-se os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil nas concentrações: 0,1 g.L-1; 0,2 g.L-1 ; 0,4 g.L-1; 0,6 g .L-1 e 0,8 g.L-1 O germicida hipoclorito de sódio com 10% de cloro ativo foi adicionado ao meio nutritivo nas concentrações: 0,5 mL. L-1; 0,75 mL .L-1 ; 1,00 mL .L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 e 1,50 mL. L-1 . O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento e cinco plântulas por frasco. O tratamento contendo hipoclorito de sódio 1,5 mL . L-1 mostrou-se o menos tóxico, pois não afetou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e o enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Oncidium varicosum.

  15. Selection of Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae genotypes in the in vitro propagation and acclimatization phases / Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae nas fases de propagação in vitro e aclimatização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization of orchids have been done to propitiate a production of cultivars with commercial interesting that show high vigor, great number of fowers and variability of colors. This research had the objective to select favorable genotypes of Dendrobium phalaenopsis for in vitro propagation and acclimatization, resulted from crossing and self- fertilizations of selected plants matrix. For the realization of crossing and self-fertilizations 56 plants of D. phalaenopsis were utilized, totalizing 109 combinations. From the 109 crossing and self-pollinations, only 13 crossing and 3 self-pollinations showed enough number of seedlings for an evaluation. After fve months, 15 seedlings from each crossing and self-pollinationss were evaluated by the following characteristics: length of the aerial part, number of roots, weight of the total fresh mass, length of the biggest root and number of buds. The others seedlings were planted in trays of styrofoam and after four months the rate of survival were evaluated. The most favorable genotype for the in vitro propagation and acclimatization was the crossing DF18 x DF13.A hibridação de orquídeas é realizada para propiciar a produção de cultivares de interesse comercial que apresentem alto vigor, grande número de fores e variabilidade de cores. O trabalho teve por objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium phalaenopsis favoráveis para a propagação in vitro e aclimatização, resultantes de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 56 plantas de D. phalaenopsis para a realização dos cruzamentos e autofecundações, totalizando 109 combinações. Dos 109 cruzamentos e autofecundações realizados, apenas 13 cruzamentos e 3 autofecundações apresentaram número de plântulas sufcientes para as avaliações. Após cinco meses, 15 plântulas de cada cruzamento e autofecundação foram submetidas à avaliação das características: comprimento da parte aérea, número de raízes, peso da massa fresca total, comprimento da maior raiz e número de brotações. As demais foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor e após quatro meses foi avaliado a taxa de sobrevivência. O genótipo mais favorável para propagação in vitro e aclimatização foi o cruzamento DF18 x DF13.

  16. Substratos e extrato pirolenhoso no cultivo de orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae = Substratum and pyroligneous extract in the cultivation of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento vegetativo e de raízes de espécies das orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley utilizando diferentes substratos e extrato pirolenhoso foi avaliado. Mudas produzidas in vitro foram transferidas para recipientes com: T1 – casca de pinus (Pi, fibra de coco (Co e casca de arroz carbonizada (Ca; T2 – PiCoCa e carvão vegetal (Car; T3 – PiCoCaCar, sendo o carvão vegetal tratado com extrato pirolenhoso (EP; T4 – CoCaCarEP; e T5 – CoCaCar. Todos os materiais foram utilizados na mesma proporção. Altura da parte aérea, número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, número de brotos, massa fresca total e pH foram avaliados sete meses após a instalação do experimento. Para C. intermedia, o T3 foi superior aos outros tratamentos, com valores maiores para os parâmetros estudados. O T4 e, a seguir, o T2 foram os tratamentos nos quais os valores mais seaproximaram do melhor tratamento. Para Milt. clowesii, a mesma tendência se verificou, entretanto sem a mesma magnitude nas diferenças entre os tratamentos. De maneira geral, o extrato pirolenhoso incrementou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular das orquídeas estudadas.The vegetative and root development of the species of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley using different substrates and pyroligneous extract were assessed. Seedlings from in vitro propagation were transferred to vessels with: T1 - Pinus bark (Pi, coconut fibers (Co and charred peel of rice (Cr; T2 – PiCoCr and vegetal charcoal (Ch, T3 – PiCoCrCh with the charcoal treated with pyroligneous extract (PE;T4 - CoCrChEP and T5 - CoCrCh. The materials used in substrates were placed in the same ratio. Plant height, number of roots, length of the greater root, number of buddings, total fresh mass and pH were assessed seven months after experiment onset. For Para C. intermedia, T3 was superior than the other treatments, with higher values for the studied parameters. T4, followed by T2, were the treatments in which the values were closer to the best treatment. For Milt. clowesii the same tendency was found, although without the same magnitude in the differences among treatments. In general, pyroligneous extract incremented the vegetative and root development of the studied orchids.

  17. [Isolation and structure elucidation of three dihydrophenanthrenes from Ephemerantha lonchophylla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Ma, G; Yang, G; Pan, Y

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, three dihydrophenanthrenes are isolated from the Stems and pseudobulbs of Ephemerantha lonchophylla (Orchidaceae). They are identified as Iusianthridin (1), ephemeranthol-B (2) and erianthridin (3) by spectral data. PMID:12572433

  18. Chromosome Counts of Some Plants Collected from West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Hiroshi; オカダ, ヒロシ

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome numbers of some species belonging to Araceae, Balsaminaceae, Gesneriaceae and Orchidaceae distributed at West Sumatra were counted newly as a subsequent study of the previous reports (Okada, 1984, 1986).

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Raabe, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  20. Studies on the morphology, anatomy and ecology of ophrys lutea cav. subsp. minor (guss.) o. danesch and e. danesch ex golz and h.r. reinhard (orchidaceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics of Ophrys lutea subsp. minor in Turkey were investigated. The plant material was collected from 30 different populations during 2010-2013. In all 19 morphological and 20 anatomical features were investigated, and habitat characteristics recorded. The soil samples were also collected from the plant sampling sites and subjected to an analysis for 18 characteristics. The minimum plant length was 69 mm and maximum 323 mm, minimum length of underground part was 29 mm, and maximum 49 mm, and the number of leaves varied between 1-10. The ecological characteristics revealed that O. lutea subsp. minor flourishes well from sea level to 800 m, and the most common habitats of O. lutea subsp. minor are rocky limestones, phrygana, macchie, olive gorves, woodland margins. In this study, the morphological and anatomical characteristics of Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Iridaceae) were investigated. The subsp. pulchricolor has 4 leaves, 1 mm broad; bracts drying brownish. These properties are characteristics of these plants. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of the root, stem and leaves were examined. These parts photographed and compared with the other Crocus species and Iridaceae family species. (author)

  1. Morphological variability of Helleborines. I. Diagnostic significance of morphological features in Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz, Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm. Besser and their hybrid, Epipactis ×schmalhausenii Richt. (Orchidaceae, Neottieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of leaf morphology was performed in E. helleborine (L. Crantz, E.atrorubens (Hoffm. Besser, and their interspecific hybrid, Epipactis ×schmalhausenii Richt. The aim of this research was to find out features that would be useful in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis, and particulary their taxa of hybrid origin. In course of the studies special attention was paid to leaf morphology, mostly to their margins, presence of papillae, their shape and size, and to leaf structure. The thickness of the leaf blades manifested by number of spongy mesophyll cell layers, size of vascular bundles and the level of leaf sclerification were compared in the hybrid and both parental species. In E. helleborine and E. atrorubens the analyzed features were highly variable, especially in the former species, which is characterized by wide phenotypic plasticity. Morphological and anatomical features in E. ×schmalhausenii showed a transitional character to the parental species. Our results suggest that a single feature can not be of taxonomic value, but the combination of different traits has to be considered when distinguishing parental and hybrid taxa.

  2. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro de orquídeas é bastante utilizada para a produção de mudas. A busca por meios de cultura alternativos para este fim vem sendo amplamente estudada devido à complexidade dos meios comumente utilizados, como o meio MS. Os híbridos de Phalaenopsis encontram-se dentre as orquídeas mais comercializadas no mundo devido à longevidade e à beleza peculiar de suas flores. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações de fertilizantes comerciais e adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' em meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (P. amabilis x P. equestris. Plântulas germinadas in vitro, em meio MS, foram subcultivadas em meios de cultura à base de fertilizantes comerciais e meio MS modificado com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os meios de cultura foram avaliados com e sem a adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' (100 g L-1 no estádio de maturação quatro. A base dos meios de cultura foi composta por sacarose (30 g L-1, carvão ativado (1 g L-1 e ágar (9 g L-1. Aos 180 dias foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: área foliar, número de folhas e raízes, comprimento de raízes e massas de matérias secas de folhas e raízes. Conclui-se que o tratamento composto por Biofert® acrescido de polpa de banana apresentou os melhores resultados para o desenvolvimento in vitro do híbrido, inclusive apresentando resultados estatisticamente superiores em relação ao meio MS sem banana.The in vitro propagation of orchids is a largely used procedure for the production of seedlings. The search for alternative culture media with this purpose has been widely studied due to the complexity of the commonly used media, e.g. the MS medium. The hybrids of Phalaenopsis are among the most commercialized orchids in the world due to the longevity and distinct beauty of its flowers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fertilizers' formulations and the addition of 'Nanica' banana pulp in a culture medium for in vitro cultivation of a hybrid of Phalaenopsis. Seedlings germinated in vitro, in MS medium, were subcultivated in culture media with a basis of commercial fertilizers and MS medium modified with half the concentration of macronutrients. The culture media were evaluated with and without the addition of the banana pulp (100g L-1 during the stage of maturation 4. The basis of these culture media was composed of sucrose (30g L-1, activated charcoal (1g L-1 and agar (9g L-1. After 180 days the following variables were analyzed: leaf area, number of leaves and roots, root length and dry weight of leaves and roots. We were able to conclude that the treatment composed by Biofert® supplemented with banana pulp presented the best results for the hybrid development in vitro, and actually presented statistically superior results in relation to MS without banana.

  3. Propagación in vitro de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae mediante técnicas simbióticas y asimbióticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Karol Chávez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Para su germinación, las orquídeas dependen de hongos micorrízicos y muchas de las características únicas de estas plantas están asociadas con el hongo que las coloniza. En este trabajo se evaluó la germinación de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata en condiciones de laboratorio utilizando los métodos simbióticos: dos hongos micorrízicos de orquídeas de diferentes especies y un aislamiento patogénico de Rhizoctonia solani obtenido de arroz, y los asimbioticos: formulación de Knudson C y MS (Murashie & Skood. Se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos, resultando mejor el método asimbiótico con la formulación Knudson C y el simbiótico con R. solani, patógeno de arroz. Además, se observó que los tratamientos donde se implementó la metodología simbiótica tuvieron menor porcentaje de contaminación por microorganismos que los tratamientos de tipo asimbiótico.

  4. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and coconut fiber. The in vitro plants were kept in MS culture medium. For the qualitative anatomical analysis, samples of leaves and roots were collected from ex vitro and in vitro plants. The acclimatized plants presented morphological and anatomical structure similar to the mother plant. The anatomical structure of in vitro plants did not affect plant survival during the acclimatization process, as this cultivar has great phenotypic plasticity. Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants have high capacity of adaptation to the environment and this characteristic is likely to be responsible for their survival rate of 100% during acclimatization.

  5. Non-woody life-form contribution to vascular plant species richness in a tropical American forest

    OpenAIRE

    Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Cardona, Victor; Hennig, Ernest; Hensen, Isabell; Hoffmann, Doreen; Lendzion, Jasmin; Soto, Daniel; Herzog, Sebastian; Kessler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We provide total vascular plant species counts for three 1-ha plots in deciduous, semi-deciduous and evergreen forests in central Bolivia. Species richness ranged from 297 species and 22,360 individuals/ha in the dry deciduous forest to 382 species and 31,670 individuals/ha in the evergreen forest. Orchidaceae, Pteridophyta and Leguminosae were among the most species-rich major plant groups in each plot, and Peperomia (Piperaceae), Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) and Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), al...

  6. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia)

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Timoshok; Yu. G. Raiskaya; S. N. Skorohodov; V. Yu. Sopin

    2016-01-01

    We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.). The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw) are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008) and three (Cypripedium guttatu...

  7. Seedling mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Rasmussen, Finn N.

    2014-01-01

    prevalent mycobionts suggest a derivation from a pathogenic relationship, and sister group comparison offers little support for derivation from other mycorrhizal relationships. A combination of in situ sowings and molecular identification of seedling mycobionts has established that a broad range of fungi......Recent phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of Orchidaceae as sister group to the remainder of Asparagales, and identify the sequence of early branching lineages in Orchidaceae. Orchid seedling mycorrhiza (OSM) involving rhizoctonious fungi is distributed widely in all subfamilies, including...

  8. Efeitos da escarificação química e da concentração de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento in vitro de Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae Effect of chemical scarification and concentration of nitrogen on the germination and in vitro development of Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia é uma espécie com grande valor comercial, porém sua propagação é dificultada devido à baixa germinação de suas sementes. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar a influência da escarificação destas sementes por meio da imersão em H2SO4 concentrado durante 60, 120 e 180 segundos, bem como de diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Sessenta segundos de escarificação e 25% de nitrogênio no meio de cultura proporcionaram os melhores resultados sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de V. planifolia, constituindo-se em um procedimento viável para a produção comercial dessa espécie.Vanilla planifolia is a species with a large commercial value; however, it is difficult to propagate due to low seeds germination. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the influence of scarification of the seeds by soaking them in concentrated H2SO4 for 60, 120 and 180 seconds, as well as different concentrations of nitrogen, on germination and plant development. Sixty seconds of scarification and 25% nitrogen in the culture medium provided the best results for germination and is a viable procedure for the commercial production of this species.

  9. Efeitos da escarificação química e da concentração de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento in vitro de Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae) Effect of chemical scarification and concentration of nitrogen on the germination and in vitro development of Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes; Thiago de Souza-Leal; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Marcelo Claro Souza

    2012-01-01

    Vanilla planifolia é uma espécie com grande valor comercial, porém sua propagação é dificultada devido à baixa germinação de suas sementes. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar a influência da escarificação destas sementes por meio da imersão em H2SO4 concentrado durante 60, 120 e 180 segundos, bem como de diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Sessenta segundos de escarificação e 25% de nitrogênio no meio de cultura proporcionaram os me...

  10. Size of the protected areas is the main determinant of species diversity in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schödelbauerová, Iva; Roberts, D.L.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 10 (2009), s. 2329-2334. ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NDVI * Orchidaceae * Protected area * Species-area * Species richness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.167, year: 2009

  11. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, - (2006), s. 219-235. ISSN 1464-7931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cross-pollination * floral deception * geitonogamy * inbreeding * nectar * Orchidaceae * pollinaria * reward * self-pollination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.565, year: 2006

  12. Orchid conservation: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Michael F; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2015-09-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. PMID:26311710

  13. A tale of two orchids: comparative reproductive development in Vanilla and Phalaenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The orchid family of flowering plants (Orchidaceae) represents the largest, most diverse, and most successful family of flowering plants in the world yet they are one of the most understudied groups from a molecular and genomic perspective. To further the long-term goal of developing enabling genom...

  14. 7 CFR 353.3 - Where service is offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant of the family Orchidaceae (orchids) listed in 50 CFR part 17 or 23: Hilo, HI Chicago, IL (3) Roots... certificates for terrestrial plants listed in 50 CFR part 17 or 23 are available only at a port designated for export in 50 CFR part 24, or at a nondesignated port if allowed by the U.S. Department of the...

  15. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    ), Iridaceae (54, 55, 77), Juncaceae (69), Lamiaceae (40–42), Liliaceae s.l. (18, 56, 57, 70, 78, 79), Malvaceae (43), Onagraceae (85), Orchidaceae (58–60, 87, 88), Orobanchaceae (44, 66), Papaveraceae (14, 67, 75), Poaceae (19, 71), Polygonaceae (45, 76), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (46, 47), Santalaceae (48...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -54), Linaceae (23, 81), Nyctaginaceae (24), Ophioglossaceae (39), Orchidaceae (55-57), Oxalidaceae (25), Poaceae (36, 102), Portulacaceae (26), Primulaceae (27, 47), Ranunculaceae (8, 48, 49), (25), (36, 102), (26), (27, 47), (8, 48, 49), Rosaceae (9), Sapindaceae (89), Scrophulariaceae (10, 101) and Solanaceae...

  18. New floristic records in the Balkans: 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    , 104), (85), Orchidaceae (3, 30, 45, 68-71, 89, 95), Paeoniaceae (2, 27), Poaceae (14-16, 47-50, 72-74, 93, 94, 105- 109, 116, 117), Rosaceae (28, 41, 62, 102, 115), Rubiaceae (63), Saxifragaceae (64), Scrophulariaceae (86), Solanaceae (87, 88), Thymeleaceae (29), Valerianaceae (103) and Vitaceae (91...

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    .l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae...

  20. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -13, 38-40), Malvaceae (19), Onagraceae (73), (31-33), (74), s.l. (11-13, 38-40), (19), (64), Orchidaceae (68, 69), Orobanchaceae (65), Oxalidaceae (20), Poaceae (23, 32, 41), Polypodiaceae (14), Primulaceae (66), Ranunculaceae (37), Rhamnaceae (76), Rosaceae (77, 78), Rubiaceae (notes after record no...

  1. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    (76, 77), Liliaceae (24-27), Onagraceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), (63), (76, 77), (24-27), (17), Orchidaceae (28), Papaveraceae (18), Plantaginaceae (78), Poaceae (29-37, 87-98, 94, 101-103), Polygonaceae (19, 79), Primulaceae (51), Ranunculaceae (20, 38-40, 54-56, 64-66), Rosaceae (52, 53, 65, (19, 79...

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  4. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1922-01-01

    The fifth and final volume of A.C. Smith’s ‘Flora Vitiensis Nova’ was issued in June 1991, thirteen years after the appearance of the first volume and nearly 120 years after Berthold Seemann’s ‘Flora Vitiensis’. The present volume contains the long awaited treatment of the Orchidaceae (by P.J. Kores

  5. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309 Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato de cálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinated seeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834, and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 g L-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘Nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25±2ºC, 16 h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 µmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the major number of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets. The best rooting was achieved with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate added in the medium.

  6. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  7. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS) India

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer A. Khan; Vivek V Desai; N R Gawande

    2015-01-01

    Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae), EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae), Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae), Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae). These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of...

  8. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia) with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada; Alexander Schmidt-Durán; Kevin Quesada-Montero; Ileana Moreira-González

    2015-01-01

    Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the bigge...

  9. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids.

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopulos A.S.; Powell M.P.; Pupulin F.; Warner J.; Hawkins J.A.; Salamin N.; Chittka L.; Williams N.H.; Whitten W.M.; Loader D.; Valente L.M.; Chase M.W.; Savolainen V.

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost univers...

  10. Deep sequencing–based comparative transcriptional profiles of Cymbidium hybridum roots in response to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal beneficial fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaolan; Zhang, Jianxia; Chen, Chunli; Yang, Jingze; Zhu, Haiyan; Liu, Min; Lv, Fubing

    2014-01-01

    Background The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom and orchid mycorrhizae (OM) are indispensable in the life cycle of all orchids under natural conditions. In spite of this, little is known concerning the mechanisms underlying orchid- mycorrhizal fungi interactions. Our previous work demonstrated that the non-mycorrhizal fungus Umbelopsis nana ZH3A-3 could improve the symbiotic effects of orchid mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza repens ML01 by co-cultivation with Cymbi...

  11. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  12. A Modified ABCDE Model of Flowering in Orchids Based on Gene Expression Profiling Studies of the Moth Orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chun-lin; Chen, Wan-Chieh; Lee, Ann-Ying; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Chao, Ya-Ting; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Previously we developed genomic resources for orchids, including transcriptomic analyses using next-generation sequencing techniques and construction of a web-based orchid genomic database. Here, we report a modified molecular model of flower development in the Orchidaceae based on functional analysis of gene expression profiles in Phalaenopsis aphrodite (a moth orchid) that revealed novel roles for the transcription factors involved in floral organ pattern formation. Phalaenopsis orchid flor...

  13. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  14. Deceptive pollination of orchids

    OpenAIRE

    Zongxin Ren; Hong Wang; Yibo Luo

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some “empty flowers”, which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in angiosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations t...

  15. НАИБОЛЕЕ РЕДКИЕ ВИДЫ ЯТРЫШНИКОВЫХ ( ORCHIDACEAE) В УССУРИЙСКОМ ЗАПОВЕДНИКЕ (ПРИМОРСКИЙ КРАЙ)

    OpenAIRE

    Федина, Л.

    2013-01-01

    В статье приведены сведения о состоянии краснокнижных орхидных на заповедной территории. Сообщается о включении в аннотированный список флоры заповедника Liparis krameri и находках Galearis cyclochila, известного ранее для локальной флоры от первых коллекторов (Воробьев и др., 1936).

  16. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAcri-Nunes-Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The ‘orchid code’ model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. Athens. The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  17. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer A Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae, EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae, Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae, Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae. These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections.

  18. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period with a....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  19. Chapitre 13. Botanique et écologie végétale

    OpenAIRE

    Grouzis, Michel; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Razanaka, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    < © IRD/M. Grouzis – Orchidées de Madagascar. Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae). Sabot de Vénus. Introduction La botanique n’échappe pas à la logique générale des disciplines naturalistes en leur début. Il s’agit d’abord de réaliser l’inventaire des plantes, les décrire et les classer, puis de caractériser et cartographier les ensembles naturels dans lesquels elles s’insèrent et enfin de rechercher une valorisation économique des différents constituants (plantes utiles, exploitation des milieux à d...

  20. Morfoanatomía foliar de epífitas presentes en un bosque nublado, Altos de Pipe, Estado Miranda, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lucía Casañas; Damelis Jáuregui

    2011-01-01

    Se describe la anatomía foliar y algunos rasgos morfológicos de 20 especies epífitas que crecen en un bosque nublado ubicado en Altos de Pipe, estado Miranda, con el fin de discutir sus patrones de distribución con relación al hábitat. Las especies pertenecen a cinco familias: Araceae, Bromeliaceae, Gesneriaceae, Orchidaceae y Piperaceae. Las hojas fueron fijadas en FAA y se procesaron por los métodos tradicionales de microtecnia vegetal. En las epífitas evaluadas predominan hojas mesófilas c...

  1. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 106 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 72-79, 84-94, 105-106), Greece (2-60, 95-104) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 61-71, 80-83). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (18, 19), Amaryllidaceae (49, 50, 77), Apiaceae (3, 84, 85, 99......), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  2. Sex and the Catasetinae (Darwin's favourite orchids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Whitten, W Mark; Salazar, Gerardo; Gerlach, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well. PMID:26708054

  3. Check list of the Iberian and Balearic orchids. 2. Ophrys L. - Spiranthes Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Ophrys to Spiranthes, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Lectotypes for Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot. and O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot are designated hereSe presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Ophrys a Spiranthes, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ambito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinonimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico. Se designan los lectotipos de Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot, y O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot.

  4. CÁTALOGO DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES DEL SECTOR EL SILENCIO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba RUIZ VEGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan  nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.   Catalogue of Vascular Epiphytic Sector Silencio (Natural National Park Paramillo and Buffer Zone, Cordoba, ColombiaThe catalogue of the vascular epiphyte vegetation of Silencio sector (Paramillo National Natural Park and buffer zone (Córdoba is showed. Sampling was conducted in an area of 0,1 ha, collecting all vascular epiphytes distributed in phorophytes with a DAP≥2,5 cm, in four sectors. Collections were performed in the Silencio sectors (PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba and Alto Chibogadó (buffer zone of the tropical rain forest (Bh -T in Tierralta town. 2504 individuals were recorded as vascular epiphytes. The catalog includes 73 species in 41 genera and 18 families. The sector Tuis Tuis showed the greatest representation of

  5. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  6. Sinopsis sobre la riqueza y la distribución geográfica y altitudinal de las Orquídeas de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur Julio César; Sarmiento Téllez Jorge

    2006-01-01

    El estudio analiza la riqueza, distribución geográfica y altitudinal de la familia Orchidaceae, que presenta en Colombia,
    3.695 especies y 251 géneros. La región andina concentra el 87,2%, 1.745 especies. Se han encontrado 1.544 especies endémicas para Colombia. La mayor concentración se localiza entre 0 y 200 m y entre 1.801 y 2.000 m. De origen andino, se encontraron 1.259 especies; 298; de amplia distribución en el neotrópico; 250 especies son de origen centroamericano; 111 espe...

  7. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  8. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  9. Bioguided identification of antifungal and antiproliferative compounds from the Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Leticia F; Santin, Silvana M O; Chiavelli, Lucas U R; Silva, Cleuza C; Faria, Terezinha J; Faria, Ricardo T; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Pomini, Armando M

    2014-01-01

    The Orchidaceae family is appreciated worldwide for the beauty of its flowers, and hundreds of species of this family occur in Brazil. Yet little is known about the potential of orchids for therapeutic application. We have investigated bioactive compounds produced by the South Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl. Bioguided studies with the fungus Cladosporium herbarum allowed the identification of hydrocinnamic acid as the active antifungal compound. In addition, the chloroform fraction exhibited an interesting activity against human cancer cells, and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone isolated from this fraction was found to be active against seven human cancer cell lines, including NCI/ADR-RES ovary sarcoma, with an IC50 value of 2.6 microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytostatic activity of this flavone against human ovary sarcoma. PMID:24772822

  10. KOLEKSI TUMBUHAN TERANCAM KEPUNAHAN DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Wahyu Candra Kusuma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia possesses 386 plant species that are categorized as threatened. Dipterocarpaceae contributes the largest number, reaching 36.79 % of the total threatened plant species, followed by Myristicaceae (13.73 % and Nepenthaceae (6.99%. Of these 386 threatened species, 29.27 % are critically endangered, 17.88% are endangered, and 52.85 % are vulnerable. Bogor Botanic Garden recently maintains 68 threathened plant species if Orchidaceae and Nepenthaceae members are not included on the list. Two species have been regarded as extinct, namely Dipterocarpus cinereus and Calamus spectabilis, while two other species are regarded as extinct in the wild (Mangifera casturi, and Mangifera rubropetala. This information can be useful for everyone for different purposes, especially for those who concern in the conservation of threatened plant species in Indonesia.

  11. Tolerance of cut flowers to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut flowers were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 1000 Gy. Dianthuscaryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae), Freesia sp (Iridaceae), Limonium sinuatum Mill. (Plumbaginaceae), L. latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae), Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae), Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. (Compositae) and Rhodanthe manglesii Lindl (Compositae) were tolerant up to 1000 Gy, without visible negative changes after irradiation and during the vase-life. Callistephus chinensis (Compositae) and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Liliaceae) were moderately tolerant, but were modified by high doses. Anthurium sp (Araceae), Strelitzia sp (Musaceae), Matthiola incana R. Br. (Cruciferae), Aechmea distichanta (Bromeliaceae), Consolida ajacis Niew (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus sp (Ranunculaceae), Dendrobium phalenopsis (Orchidaceae) and Gerbera sp (Compositae) were not tolerant to a dose of 200 Gy. The most adequate flowers to be submitted to irradiation treatment for disinfestation purpose were those of the Caryophillaceae family and those which can be used as dried flowers, such as members of the Rhodanthe, Helichrysum and Limmonium genera. (author)

  12. Inventaire taxonomique des plantes de la Guyane Française : 3. Les Cyperaceae et les Poaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Georges; Hoff, Michel; GOETGHEBEUR, P.; Judziewicz, E. (collab.)

    1993-01-01

    Les monocotylédones regroupent actuellement 1093 espèces en Guyane. Les #Cyperaceae$ rassemblent 176 taxons (154 espèces et 22 taxons infra-spécifiques) et les #Poaceae$ 256 (253 espèces et 3 taxons infra-spécifiques). Avec les #Orchidaceae$, 63 % des monocotylédones ont été revues dans cette série. Pour chaque espèce, la répartition au niveau mondial et la répartition en Guyane est indiquée, avec une carte de répartition. La synonymie la plus complète est présentée pour chaque taxon. Elle a ...

  13. Morphobiochemical Variability and Selection Strategies for the Germplasm of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don Soo: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don Soo (Orchidaceae is an important endangered medicinal herb, distributed in subalpine to alpine regions of the Himalayas. Its tubers are important constituents of many medicines and health tonics. Overexploitation for medicinal uses has decreased availability in natural habitats and this species has been enlisted as endangered, making conservation and cultivation studies necessary. Variability studies may serve as an important tool for effective conservation and for a crop improvement program. Therefore, natural populations of D. hatagirea were analyzed for variability on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and isoenzyme patterns. The studied populations were grouped into two clusters. Existing variability among different populations opens up new areas for conservation and perspectives for a genetic improvement program for D. hatagirea.

  14. Vascular Epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye: A Comparative Study, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Assefa Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes comprise about 10% of the world’s total flora. However, the survival of these important elements of the global vegetation is recognized to be increasingly threatened, and surveys made to study them remain far from being complete. This study has focused on investigating the vascular epiphytes (true epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and accidental epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye forests of Gamo Gofa zone, southwest Ethiopia. A total of 40 (20 in each 25 m × 25 m quadrats were established along four line transects for vegetation data collection. A total of 35 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded in the two sites (22 and 14 species from Doshke and Kurpaye, resp.. Drynaria volkensii was the only species to be recorded from the two sites. Doshke and Kurpaye forests also varied in the number of phorophytes (17 and 10 phorophytes species, resp.. The richest epiphyte family of Doshke is Orchidaceae (5 species and that of Kurpaye is Polypodiaceae (3 species while Orchidaceae dominate the combined flora being represented by 7 species. In terms of vertical distribution, most species were located at the canopy area. Most vascular epiphytes showed no preference for host trees except for a few species which exhibited higher occurrence rates on the host plant species Syzygium guineense, Schrebera alata, and Acacia tortilis. Vascular epiphyte abundance and species richness were both significantly positively correlated with host tree size. Vascular epiphytes of the studied forests are under a serious pressure, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, and this may lead to their local extinction.

  15. In vitro Dendrobium nobile plant growth and rooting in different sucrose concentrations Crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile sob diversas concentrações de sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. de Faria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a very important component in in vitro culture media, serving as a source of carbon and energy. In this paper, the rooting and in vitro growth of Dendrobium nobile Lindl (Orchidaceae were studied using different sucrose concentrations (0 g L-1; 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 and 60 g L-1, in a modified MS medium containing half the regular concentration of macronutrients at pH 5.8. Greater increases in plant height (4.21±0.6 cm and high seedling multiplication (1:4 were observed in the 60 g L-1 sucrose treatment, even without the addition of plant hormones. Sucrose concentration in the culture medium did not influence in vitro plant rooting.A sacarose é um componente muito importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0 g L-1, 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 e 60 g L-1, utilizando como base o meio MS com metade da concentração de macronutrientes e pH 5,8. No tratamento com 60 g L-1 de sacarose observou-se maior crescimento em altura (4,21 ± 0,9 cm assim como uma alta taxa de multiplicação de mudas (1:4 mesmo sem adição de fitorreguladores. O acréscimo de sacarose no meio de cultura não influenciou o enraizamento in vitro das plantas.

  16. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Timoshok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.. The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L. Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008 and three (Cypripedium guttatum Sw., Dactylorhiza cruenta (O. F. Muell. Soo, Epipactis helleborine (L. Grantz to the Red Book of the Krasnoyarsky Krai (2012. Six of rare and endangered orchid species (except for Cypripedium guttatum found in the reserve are near the north boundary of their range. Six of the species (except for Dactylorhiza cruenta are typical forest plants and occur mostly in herb-shrub story of rare Larix and Pinus-Larix forests with shrub-green moss or low-herb-green moss cover, on warm southern and western slopes. The habitats of Dactylorhiza cruenta are very different from other species. Local populations of the species are located on the narrow coast of the Hushma river, covered with shrub-leguminous meadows and shrub thickets. The density of populations of Calypso bulbosa varies from very low (1 specimen/sq.m. to dense (19 specimen/sq.m.. The density of Cypri-pedium calceolus и C. macranthon varies similarly from 1.2 to 6.3 specimen/sq.m. The density of local populations of C. ventricosum is low. It is about 2.5 specimen/sq.m. Long-root species C. guttatum has population density from 11.15 to 78.18 partial scions/sq.m. Epipactis helleborine occurrence is very rare. This species occurs only as singular specimen. The density of populations of Dactylorhiza cruenta is from 4.3 to 9.2 species/sq.m. Despite that most of the rare and endangered Orchid species exist on the boundary of their range, all species found in the reserve are stable, blossom and produce harvest

  17. Las Orquídeas de San José de Suaita (Santander, Colombia

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    González Garavito Favio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tratamiento taxonómico de la familia Orchidaceae para la Inspección de Policía de San José de Suaita, municipio de Suaita, departamento de Santander, Colombia (73º 27’ O y 6º 9’ N, 1.550-2.100 msnm. Se registran tres subfamilias, 35 géneros y 91 especies, que
    representan el 12% de la flora local. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Epidendrum con 15 especies, Maxillaria con 11, Pleurothallis con nueve, Dichaea con ocho y Oncidium con cuatro especies. En estos cinco géneros se reúne más del 50% de las especies de
    Orchidaceae de San José de Suaita. Cinco especies constituyen registros nuevos para Colombia y una de ellas es nueva para la ciencia. Así mismo, se encontró que el 75% de las especies son exclusivamente epífitas, el 22% son terrestres y el 23% restante crecen indistintamente como
    epífitas, terrestres o rupícolas. El tratamiento taxonómico incluyó claves, descripciones, ilustraciones y comentarios ecológicos, taxonómicos y corológicos, para los taxones registrados. Se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos empleados en las descripciones, así como su variación en
    taxones considerados (subfamilias, subtribus, géneros. Así mismo, se presenta una evaluación de la distribución latitudinal y altitudinal para 75 de las especies, y se realiza el análisis de las afinidades florísticas de la orquideoflora de la zona con respecto a la de otras localidades neotropicales. Por último, se propone la inclusión de al menos 11 especies en la lista roja de plantas amenazadas con base en su distribución regional, nacional y local.

  18. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  19. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  20. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

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    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  1. A Novel Flavonoid Glucoside from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate- and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anoectochilus roxburghii(Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods,the structures of these compounds were elucidated as quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6"-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 8-C-p-Hydroxybenzylquercetin (compound 2), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 6), 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 7), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 8). Of the compounds isolated, compound 1 was a new flavonoid glucoside and exhibited strong scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, whereas the ethanolic extract showed weak activity. Compounds 2-8 were obtained from this family for the first time.

  2. Documentation of the medicinal knowledge of Prosthechea karwinskii in a Mixtec community in Mexico

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    Gabriela Cruz Garcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, native orchids are appreciated for their ornamental value and traditional uses and in many indigenous communities they comprise part of a biocultural heritage. The orchid Prosthechea karwinskii (Mart. J.M.H. Shaw, Orchidaceae, is particularly relevant in this context, although some of its traditional uses have been attributed to a very similar species, P. citrina. A recent study of P. karwinskii reported unknown medicinal and other traditional uses by the Mixtec community in Mexico. Unfortunately, increasing acculturation of indigenous communities has resulted in a loss of the community's traditional knowledge, thus, we herein documented the worldview and practices associated with the medicinal use of P. karwinskii as well as the socioeconomic aspects that characterize the holders of this knowledge. People with this knowledge are mainly indigenous women with little or no schooling, who learned the medicinal practices from family tradition. They use pseudobulbs, leaves, or flowers of the plant to treat coughs (infusions, wounds and burns (poultices, diabetes (tea or chewed, to prevent miscarriages and to assist in childbirth (infusions. These results show a promising future for ethnopharmacological research on P. karwinskii.

  3. Stress proteins and phytohormones: their role in formation of plant resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using the disc-electrophoresis methods, we have studied protein biosynthesis of different plants, including 11 species of Orchidaceae, some other tropical and subtropical plants, 9 different fruit plants, and 4 cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. under stresses factors such as high and low temperature, clinostating, radioactive irradiation and osmotic shock. Specific and unspecific reactions of plants protein system on stresses were found. De novo synthesis of 35 and 45 kD polypeptides were observed in total and mitochondrial proteins fractions after heat-shock and radioactive irradiation. This suggests that mitochondries participate in formation of plant resistance. Intensive synthesis of ABA revealed as the universal reaction of all studied plants on action of different kinds of stresses. Specific changes in balance of phytohormones were found under different stresses. We observed the correlation between endogenous ABA, IAA and cytokinin level and plant resistance. We also found the interaction between the process of biosynthesis of proteins and phytohormone balance, as well as their direct participation in formation of plant resistance. (author)

  4. Epiphytic Plants on Stand of Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. at Mount Lawu

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    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to know: (1 the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2 the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.

  5. Identity and specificity of the fungi forming mycorrhizas with the rare mycoheterotrophic orchid Rhizanthella gardneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougoure, Jeremy; Ludwig, Martha; Brundrett, Mark; Grierson, Pauline

    2009-10-01

    Fully subterranean Rhizanthella gardneri (Orchidaceae) is obligately mycoheterotrophic meaning it is nutritionally dependent on the fungus it forms mycorrhizas with. Furthermore, R. gardneri purportedly participates in a nutrient sharing tripartite relationship where its mycorrhizal fungus simultaneously forms ectomycorrhizas with species of Melaleuca uncinata s.l. Although the mycorrhizal fungus of R. gardneri has been morphologically identified as Thanatephorus gardneri (from a single isolate), this identification has been recently questioned. We sought to clarify the identification of the mycorrhizal fungus of R. gardneri, using molecular methods, and to identify how specific its mycorrhizal relationship is. Fungal isolates taken from all sites where R. gardneri is known to occur shared almost identical ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. The fungal isolate rDNA most closely matched that of other Ceratobasidiales species, particularly within the Ceratobasidium genus. However, interpretation of results was difficult as we found two distinct ITS sequences within all mycorrhizal fungal isolates of R. gardneri that we assessed. All mycorrhizal fungal isolates of R. gardneri readily formed ectomycorrhizas with a range of M. uncinata s.l. species. Consequently, it is likely that R. gardneri can form a nutrient sharing tripartite relationship where R. gardneri is connected to autotrophic M. uncinata s.l. by a common mycorrhizal fungus. These findings have implications for better understanding R. gardneri distribution, evolution and the ecological significance of its mycorrhizal fungus, particularly in relation to nutrient acquisition. PMID:19619652

  6. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs. PMID:26792590

  7. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

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    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  8. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

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    PV Habbu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  9. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26517716

  10. The Dendrobium catenatum Lindl. genome sequence provides insights into polysaccharide synthase, floral development and adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Qing; Bian, Chao; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Ke-Wei; Yoshida, Kouki; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Chang, Song-Bin; Chen, Fei; Shi, Yu; Su, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Li-Jun; Yin, Yayi; Lin, Min; Huang, Huixia; Deng, Hua; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Shi-Lin; Zhao, Xiang; Deng, Cao; Niu, Shan-Ce; Huang, Jie; Wang, Meina; Liu, Guo-Hui; Yang, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Xin-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chen, You-Yi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Luo, Yi-Bo; Van de Peer, Yves; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Orchids make up about 10% of all seed plant species, have great economical value, and are of specific scientific interest because of their renowned flowers and ecological adaptations. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a lithophytic orchid, Dendrobium catenatum. We predict 28,910 protein-coding genes, and find evidence of a whole genome duplication shared with Phalaenopsis. We observed the expansion of many resistance-related genes, suggesting a powerful immune system responsible for adaptation to a wide range of ecological niches. We also discovered extensive duplication of genes involved in glucomannan synthase activities, likely related to the synthesis of medicinal polysaccharides. Expansion of MADS-box gene clades ANR1, StMADS11, and MIKC(*), involved in the regulation of development and growth, suggests that these expansions are associated with the astonishing diversity of plant architecture in the genus Dendrobium. On the contrary, members of the type I MADS box gene family are missing, which might explain the loss of the endospermous seed. The findings reported here will be important for future studies into polysaccharide synthesis, adaptations to diverse environments and flower architecture of Orchidaceae. PMID:26754549

  11. Amarkand: A comprehensive review on its ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkhede, Aarti Nilesh; Kasote, Deepak Mahadeo; Kuvalekar, Aniket Arun; Harsulkar, Abhay Madhukar; Jagtap, Suresh Dyandeo

    2016-01-01

    In India, the term "Amarkand" is commonly used for around 30 different plant species belonging to genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae). This single local name Amarkand to different taxonomical species creates uncertainty about its ethnomedical and nutritional claims. In the present article, we have reviewed available literature regarding ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, taxonomy, nutritional, and pharmacological studies of different Amarkand species. The literature was searched using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Some textbooks and reference books were also used to collect information about traditional and ethnopharmacological records. Amarkand species have been used as a remedy for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, stomach pain, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, sexual impotency, tuberculosis, and so on. Nutritionally, Amarkand is considered as an excellent food for children and convalescents. Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species. These species are reported to possess various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenanthrene derivatives. The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy of Amarkand species. PMID:27104043

  12. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  13. Fluorescence responses and photosynthetic rates of sunlit and shaded leaves of Italian alpine forest species: Summer 1997 ATOM-LIFT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Cecchi, Giovanna; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Bazzani, Marco; McMurtrey, James E., III; Corp, Lawrence A.; Sandu, R.; Tirelli, Daniele

    1998-07-01

    Terrestrial vegetation studies were carried out in the Italian Northeastern Alps in Val Visdende. The measurement site was 15 Kilometers Northeast of the town of St. Stefano di Calore (Belluno), Italy. Measurements were acquired on a wooded site at the Italian Department of Forestry Station on species native to the Italian Alps. The species included spruce (Picea abies) and alder (Alnus incana) trees. Characterization was also made of the fluorescence responses of several under-story species such as Dactylorhiza fuchsii of the Orchidaceae family, Caltha palustris and Ranunculus ficaria of the Ranuncolcee family, and Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens of the Leguminosae family. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring was conducted with the Italian FLIDAR remote sensing instrument mounted in a mobile van, the NASA/USDA Fluorescence Imaging System (FIS), and the Spectron SE-590 for optical properties. Photosynthetic CO2 gas exchange rates we made with LI-COR 6400 infrared gas analyzer. Pigments from the samples were extracted and analyzed with a Perkin Elmer Lamda 7 Spectrometer to determine pigment concentrations. Fluorescence responses were collected from vegetation samples grown under different ambient light regimes of sun-lit versus shaded. The vegetation showed different fluorescence characteristics. A fluorescence algorithm, (F740/F680)/F550, and rate of photosynthesis showed a strong linear relationship.

  14. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  15. A modified ABCDE model of flowering in orchids based on gene expression profiling studies of the moth orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Lin; Chen, Wan-Chieh; Lee, Ann-Ying; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Chao, Ya-Ting; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Previously we developed genomic resources for orchids, including transcriptomic analyses using next-generation sequencing techniques and construction of a web-based orchid genomic database. Here, we report a modified molecular model of flower development in the Orchidaceae based on functional analysis of gene expression profiles in Phalaenopsis aphrodite (a moth orchid) that revealed novel roles for the transcription factors involved in floral organ pattern formation. Phalaenopsis orchid floral organ-specific genes were identified by microarray analysis. Several critical transcription factors including AP3, PI, AP1 and AGL6, displayed distinct spatial distribution patterns. Phylogenetic analysis of orchid MADS box genes was conducted to infer the evolutionary relationship among floral organ-specific genes. The results suggest that gene duplication MADS box genes in orchid may have resulted in their gaining novel functions during evolution. Based on these analyses, a modified model of orchid flowering was proposed. Comparison of the expression profiles of flowers of a peloric mutant and wild-type Phalaenopsis orchid further identified genes associated with lip morphology and peloric effects. Large scale investigation of gene expression profiles revealed that homeotic genes from the ABCDE model of flower development classes A and B in the Phalaenopsis orchid have novel functions due to evolutionary diversification, and display differential expression patterns. PMID:24265826

  16. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms. PMID:22437397

  17. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from dendrobium.

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    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available In this study, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene was cloned from Dendrobium candidum using homology cloning and RACE. The full-length sequence and catalytic active sites that appear in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum are also found: PAL cDNA of D. candidum (designated Dc-PAL1, GenBank No. JQ765748 has 2,458 bps and contains a complete open reading frame (ORF of 2,142 bps, which encodes 713 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of DcPAL1 has more than 80% sequence identity with the PAL genes of other plants, as indicated by multiple alignments. The dominant sites and catalytic active sites, which are similar to that showing in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, are also found in DcPAL1. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DcPAL is more closely related to PALs from orchidaceae plants than to those of other plants. The differential expression patterns of PAL in protocorm-like body, leaf, stem, and root, suggest that the PAL gene performs multiple physiological functions in Dendrobium candidum.

  18. Checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest at the Cachalu Biological Reserve, Santander (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Reserva Biologica Cachalu is presented. Cachalu is located on the western slope of the Eastern Andes (Encino - Santander), and represents a sample of the sub - Andean forest of the Colombian Andes. The material was collected over a period of seven months in 2007 and 2008. General collections were carried out through Cachalu, and in a permanent plot at an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2350 m. A total of 443 species, included in 257 genera, and 101 families were recorded. Angiosperms represent 96% of the vascular flora, while pteridophyta 3.5% and gymnosperms only 0.5%. The Rubiaceae family has the highest richness at the genus and species level (18/36), followed by Melastomataceae (13/30), Orchidaceae (13/25), Asteraceae (13/21) and Solanaceae (8/21). The genera Psychotria, Miconia, Solanum and Anthurium show the highest number of species. For each species, the catalog contains the scientific name, collections used, habit, and the altitudinal range. The affinities of the flora of Cachalu with similar forests at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor are discussed. Additionally, species considered at any level of threat are pointed so that they may be prioritized in restoration and conservation programs.

  19. Heterogeneidade florística das fitocenoses de restingas nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Luiz Fernando Silva Magnago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar florísticamente as formações vegetacionais que compõe o ecossistema Restinga dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo. Para isto foi realizado uma compilação de dados de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos, sendo utilizado para esta análise o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, onde as interpretações se deram pela média de grupo (UPGMA. As 11 formações analisadas apresentaram uma riqueza total de 990 espécies, distribuídas em 141 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (73, Myrtaceae (59, Rubiaceae (48, Orchidaceae (44, Cyperaceae (38, Poaceae (36, Bromeliaceae (35, Euphorbiaceae (30, Asteraceae (30 as de maior riqueza. A similaridade entre as formações foi baixa, sendo o maior valor de 33%. Os resultados obtidos denotam uma alta heterogeneidade florística existente nas formações que compõe o ecossistema Restinga nos dois Estados analisados, sendo esta determinada por diferentes fatores que atuam em cada fitocenose.

  20. Ilhas de vegetação em afloramentos de quartzito-arenito no Morro do Pai Inácio, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Islands of vegetation on quartzite-sandstone outcrops, Pai Inácio Mountain, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

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    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ilhas de vegetação rodeadas de superfície rochosa foram estudadas em dois platôs do Morro do Pai Inácio (41°28'W e 12°27'S, na Chapada Diamantina. Tais platôs possuem afloramentos de quartzito-arenito entremeados por solos arenosos e ácidos, situados nas porções mais elevadas do Morro, entre 1.100 e 1.170 m acima do nível do mar, sob clima com estação seca bem definida. As ilhas foram assumidas como agrupamentos de uma ou mais espécies de plantas vasculares limitados pela superfície rochosa sem plantas vasculares em toda borda. O estudo incluiu 39 ilhas de vegetação de diferentes tamanhos em cada platô, onde predominaram ervas e arbustos de 63 espécies, sendo 22 comuns a ambos os platôs. Espécies de Liliopsida foram mais numerosas, freqüentes e dominantes, com predomínio das famílias Velloziaceae, Cyperaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae e Guttiferae nas ilhas de vegetação em ambos os platôs, assim como a forma de vida caméfita. Foram constatadas riquezas similares nas ilhas de ambos os platôs, sendo a maioria delas formada por até cinco espécies. O agrupamento das espécies utilizando UPGMA e o índice de similaridade de Jaccard revelou quatro grupos, dois deles constituídos por espécies características das ilhas mais expostas ao sol, enquanto outro é constituído por espécies mais relacionadas aos locais mais sombreados e um quarto relacionado a espécies mais generalistas. A associação entre Vellozia hemisphaerica Seub. e Trilepis lhotzkiana Nees mostrou-se típica dos afloramentos do Morro do Pai Inácio. Apenas as famílias Orchidaceae e Cyperaceae estiveram presentes nas duas menores classes de tamanho insular, enquanto Guttiferae, Rubiaceae e Bromeliaceae tiveram maior proporção de ocorrência na maior classe. Diferenças na composição e abundância de espécies entre os platôs sugerem a existência de diferenças ambientais e isolamentos, interferindo na distribuição espacial das espécies nas

  1. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  2. Plant DNA barcoding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Zhu LI; Jian-Quan LIU; Zhi-Duan CHEN; Hong WANG; Xue-Jun GE; Shi-Liang ZHOU; Lian-Ming GAO; Cheng-Xin FU; Shi-Lin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Identification is the keystone of biology (Bell, 1986).However, to biologists and students of biology, the total numbers of species that must be identified far outnumber the names commonly used in English, Chinese, or other living languages.In addition, the identification cues vary greatly between different taxonomical groups.Even for the taxonomists with long training and experience, it is difficult to remember all specific terms for a given group, e.g., Orchidaceae or Poaceae, without help of floristic books or monographs.It takes much time and effort to train a taxonomist, at a time when fewer and fewer young students are interested in this "classical" and "out-of-style", but extremely important, discipline.Many students elect to learn the more "advanced'' and "modem" biological disciples like molecular biology and biochemistry.Thus, in China and therest of the world, taxonomists are themselves becoming "endangered".The rise of the DNA barcoding is expected to mitigate, at least in part, this dilemma.

  3. Symbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium: fungal and bacterial partners and their influence on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Zeng, Songjun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V

    2015-07-01

    The genus Dendrobium is one of the largest genera of the Orchidaceae Juss. family, although some of its members are the most threatened today. The reason why many species face a vulnerable or endangered status is primarily because of anthropogenic interference in natural habitats and commercial overexploitation. The development and application of modern techniques and strategies directed towards in vitro propagation of orchids not only increases their number but also provides a viable means to conserve plants in an artificial environment, both in vitro and ex vitro, thus providing material for reintroduction. Dendrobium seed germination and propagation are challenging processes in vivo and in vitro, especially when the extreme specialization of these plants is considered: (1) their biotic relationships with pollinators and mycorrhizae; (2) adaptation to epiphytic or lithophytic life-styles; (3) fine-scale requirements for an optimal combination of nutrients, light, temperature, and pH. This review also aims to summarize the available data on symbiotic in vitro Dendrobium seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors as well as composition and amounts of different exogenous nutrient substances is examined. With a view to better understanding how to optimize and control in vitro symbiotic associations, a part of the review describes the strong biotic relations of Dendrobium with different associative microorganisms that form microbial communities with adult plants, and also influence symbiotic seed germination. The beneficial role of plant growth-promoting bacteria is also discussed. PMID:25940846

  4. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action. PMID:24090143

  5. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored. PMID:24845051

  6. Caracterização da vegetação de restinga da RPPN de Maracaípe, PE, Brasil, com base na fisionomia, flora, nutrientes do solo e lençol freático Characterization of restinga vegetation at Maracaípe, Pernambuco State, Brazil, based on physiognomy, flora, soil nutrients, and water-table level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bezerra de Almeida Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar o levantamento florístico e descrever as fisionomias, relacionando-as com as formas de vida, fertilidade do solo e variações do lençol freático encontradas na restinga de Maracaípe. A área possui 76,2 ha de vegetação de restinga, sob as coordenadas 08º31'48"S e 35º01'05"W. Possui clima do tipo As' e solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico. Foram feitas caminhadas aleatórias nas três fisionomias existentes - floresta, campo não inundável e campo inundável, durante o período de julho/2003 a julho/2005, para coleta de material botânico. A lista florística foi comparada a outras listas de restinga da região Nordeste. Foram inventariadas 187 espécies, 148 gêneros, distribuídas em 71 famílias. Entre as famílias mais representativas, destacam-se: Poaceae (13 espécies, Cyperaceae (12, Myrtaceae (10, Orchidaceae (9, Rubiaceae (8, Bromeliaceae e Fabaceae (7. A forma de vida "fanerófito" foi elevada na fisionomia florestal e as formas "caméfito", "terófito" e "criptófito", nas fisionomias campo inundável e não inundável. Os solos das fisionomias diferiram quanto à composição química e só ocorreu afloramento do lençol freático na fisionomia campo inundável. Este estudo permitiu concluir que a proporção de formas de vida, variação no nível do lençol freático, matéria orgânica e teor de alumínio no solo foram determinantes na separação das fisionomias da restinga de Maracaípe.We undertook a floristic survey to describe the phytophysiognomies of a restinga at Maracaípe, and related these to life form, soil fertility, and variation in the local water-table level. The study area is located at 08º31'48"S and 35º01'05"W, and has 76.2 ha of restinga vegetation. The regional climate is classified as As' and local soils are sandy Neosols. Random walks to collect botanical material were made in the three different vegetation physiognomies found in the area - forest

  7. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  8. Caracterização florística da vegetação sobre afloramento rochoso na Estação Experimental de Itapeva, SP, e comparação com áreas de campos rupestres e de altitude. Floristic characterization on rocky outcrop in the Itapeva Experimental Station, SP, and comparison with areas of rocky grasslands and high-altitude grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de comunidades vegetais nem sempre é tarefa fácil, principalmente quando se trata de tipos de vegetação pouco estudados. Esse é o caso davegetação sobre afloramento rochoso da Estação Experimental de Itapeva – EEI, situada no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, região que abriga remanescentes de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica. Visando caracterizar e classificar essa vegetação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de material botânico no período de agosto de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. A lista de espécies obtida foi comparada com a de campos rupestres e de altitude brasileiros. As comparações foram realizadas por meio de análise de agrupamento, “TWINSPAN” e “NMS”. Foram encontradas 135 espécies, 48 famílias e 108 gêneros. As famílias mais representativas foram Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae. A análise de agrupamento com os dados de distribuição de riqueza entre famílias sugeriu maior afinidade florística entre o afloramento rochoso estudado e os campos rupestres. Para os dados de composição de espécies, os diferentes métodos de ligação agruparam a área de estudo ora com campos de altitude ora com campos rupestres. A “NMS” evidenciou o caráter contínuo da variação florística, mas reiterou a maior similaridade entre a área de estudo e os campos rupestres. A “TWINSPAN” reforçou essa hipótese e apontou a família Fabaceae e as espécies Miconia albicans (Sw. Steud. e Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub como indicadoras de campos rupestres. O tipo de solo, formado a partir de rochas areníticas, constitui o fator determinante mais plausível para as relações florísticas encontradas.The classification of vegetation communities is not an easy task, especially regarding less studied vegetation types. This is the case for rocky outcrop vegetation in the Itapeva Experimental Station – EEI, located in the

  9. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  10. Establecimiento simbiótico para la propagación y conservación de Orquídeas en condiciones ex citu en el Jardín Botánico de Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora N. Samantha E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Orchidaceae es la productora de flores más grande del reino vegetal y se estima que el número de miembros oscila entre 17.000 y 35.000 especies agrupadas en 650.900 géneros (Rivera Coto G 1998. Las orquídeas pueden establecer asociaciones de diversa naturaleza, clasificados desde el punto de vista humano en neutrales, mutualistas y antagonistas. Las asociaciones de los más importantes dentro de las orquídeas son las micorrizas con hongos micromicetes,
    capaces de establecer asociaciones simbióticas con orquídeas a nivel de la raíz (Alexopoulos, 1986. Se analizaron 326 ejemplares de orquídeas colectadas en el Cañón de Arcabuco, Boyacá, Colombia y mantenidas en el sustrato anterior como un mecanismo para la evaluación y conservación ex citu, 30 días después de la siembra, se analizó la población encontrándose nueve en estado de inflorescencia del genero Oncidium sp., Stellis sp. y las especies Masdevallia cumniculata, M. amisomorfa, Epidendrum secundum,  Odontoglosum coronarium, Miltonia warscewiczii, Eleantus cinnabarium. Al hacer el respectivo análisis del tipo de sustrato utilizado se determinó que es viable para el cultivo y propagación de las orquídeas en condiciones ex citu.

  11. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  12. Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    South-East Asia covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-East Asia, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-East Asia. PMID:25847454

  13. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp. PMID:25739699

  14. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  15. Kinetic characterization of a novel acid ectophosphatase from Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Galdiano Júnior, Renato F; Rodrigues, Gisele Regina; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pizauro Junior, João Martins

    2016-02-01

    Expression of acid ectophosphatase by Enterobacter asburiae, isolated from Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae) roots and identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, was strictly regulated by phosphorus ions, with its optimal activity being observed at an inorganic phosphate concentration of 7 mM. At the optimum pH 3.5, intact cells released p-nitrophenol at a rate of 350.76 ± 13.53 nmol of p-nitrophenolate (pNP)/min/10(8) cells. The membrane-bound enzyme was obtained by centrifugation at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 4 °C. p-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) hydrolysis by the enzyme follows "Michaelis-Menten" kinetics with V = 61.2 U/mg and K0.5 = 60 μM, while ATP hydrolysis showed V = 19.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 110 μM, and nH = 1.6 and pyrophosphate hydrolysis showed V = 29.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 84 μM, and nH = 2.3. Arsenate and phosphate were competitive inhibitors with K i = 0.6 mM and K i = 1.8 mM, respectively. p-Nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase) activity was inhibited by vanadate, while p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, EDTA, calcium, copper, and cobalt had no inhibitory effects. Magnesium ions were stimulatory (K0.5 = 2.2 mM and nH = 0.5). Production of an acid ectophosphatase can be a mechanism for the solubilization of mineral phosphates by microorganisms such as Enterobacter asburiae that are versatile in the solubilization of insoluble minerals, which, in turn, increases the availability of nutrients for plants, particularly in soils that are poor in phosphorus. PMID:26832666

  16. BsRADseq: screening DNA methylation in natural populations of non-model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Mazzarella, Anna B; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Lorenzo, Maria T; Schönswetter, Peter; Paun, Ovidiu

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic modifications are expected to occur at a much faster rate than genetic mutations, potentially causing isolated populations to stochastically drift apart, or if they are subjected to different selective regimes, to directionally diverge. A high level of genome-wide epigenetic divergence between individuals occupying distinct habitats is therefore predicted. Here, we introduce bisulfite-converted restriction site associated DNA sequencing (bsRADseq), an approach to quantify the level of DNA methylation differentiation across multiple individuals. This reduced representation method is flexible in the extent of DNA sequence interrogated. We showcase its applicability in three natural systems, each comprising individuals adapted to divergent environments: a diploid plant (Heliosperma, Caryophyllaceae), a tetraploid plant (Dactylorhiza, Orchidaceae) and an animal (Gasterosteusaculeatus, Gasterosteidae). We present a robust bioinformatic pipeline, combining tools for RAD locus assembly, SNP calling, bisulfite-converted read mapping and DNA methylation calling to analyse bsRADseq data with or without a reference genome. Importantly, our approach accurately distinguishes between SNPs and methylation polymorphism (SMPs). Although DNA methylation frequency between different positions of a genome varies widely, we find a surprisingly high consistency in the methylation profile between individuals thriving in divergent ecological conditions, particularly in Heliosperma. This constitutive stability points to significant molecular or developmental constraints acting on DNA methylation variation. Altogether, by combining the flexibility of RADseq with the accuracy of bisulfite sequencing in quantifying DNA methylation, the bsRADseq methodology and our bioinformatic pipeline open up the opportunity for genome-wide epigenetic investigations of evolutionary and ecological relevance in non-model species, independent of their genomic features. PMID:26818626

  17. Challenges of flow-cytometric estimation of nuclear genome size in orchids, a plant group with both whole-genome and progressively partial endoreplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Pavel; Ponert, Jan; Urfus, Tomáš; Jersáková, Jana; Vrána, Jan; Hřibová, Eva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Suda, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear genome size is an inherited quantitative trait of eukaryotic organisms with both practical and biological consequences. A detailed analysis of major families is a promising approach to fully understand the biological meaning of the extensive variation in genome size in plants. Although Orchidaceae accounts for ∼10% of the angiosperm diversity, the knowledge of patterns and dynamics of their genome size is limited, in part due to difficulties in flow cytometric analyses. Cells in various somatic tissues of orchids undergo extensive endoreplication, either whole-genome or partial, and the G1-phase nuclei with 2C DNA amounts may be lacking, resulting in overestimated genome size values. Interpretation of DNA content histograms is particularly challenging in species with progressively partial endoreplication, in which the ratios between the positions of two neighboring DNA peaks are lower than two. In order to assess distributions of nuclear DNA amounts and identify tissue suitable for reliable estimation of nuclear DNA content, we analyzed six different tissue types in 48 orchid species belonging to all recognized subfamilies. Although traditionally used leaves may provide incorrect C-values, particularly in species with progressively partial endoreplication, young ovaries and pollinaria consistently yield 2C and 1C peaks of their G1-phase nuclei, respectively, and are, therefore, the most suitable parts for genome size studies in orchids. We also provide new DNA C-values for 22 orchid genera and 42 species. Adhering to the proposed methodology would allow for reliable genome size estimates in this largest plant family. Although our research was limited to orchids, the need to find a suitable tissue with dominant 2C peak of G1-phase nuclei applies to all endopolyploid species. PMID:25929591

  18. RESEÑA HISTÓRICA, DESARROLLO Y ACTUALIDAD DEL HERBARIO DE LA PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA (HPUJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alvear-Pacheco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una reseña histórica sobre el origen, consolidación, actualidad y perspectivas del Herbario de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (HPUJ. Entre los sucesos más importantes se destaca la inscripción en el Index Herbariorum bajo el acrónimo HPUJ en 1986 y el registro oficial ante el Instituto Alexander von Humboldt en 2001 (Registro No. 11, según la Resolución 1115 de 2000 del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. El objetivo del HPUJ es ser una colección de referencia científica reconocida y centro de docencia e investigación de la flora de Colombia, que cumpla con las funciones de conservación,investigación, docencia, exhibición y servicio. Actualmente el HPUJ reúne cerca de 42 000 ejemplares organizados en dos grandes grupos uno la colección general que comprende las Spermatophyta(Angiospermae y Gymnospermae y un segundo grupo denominado colecciones menores que incluyen colecciones de tipos, pteridofitos, briofitos, líquenes, algas macroscópicas, micoteca (macrohongos,antoteca (flores en preservante líquido, carpoteca (frutos y semillas, xiloteca (muestras de madera, palinoteca (muestras de polen, colección en sílica gel, ilustraciones botánicas y productos etnobotánicos. Actualmente el herbario tiene su mayor fortaleza en la flora de alta montaña colombiana y en la familiaOrchidaceae.

  19. Composición y distribución vertical de las epífitas vasculares en dos bosques del Santuario de Flora y Fauna Otún - Quimbaya, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Gustavo A. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción comparativa de dos comunidades de epífitas vasculares en cuanto a su composición y distribución vertical. Se tomaron muestras en dos bosques montanos pertenecientes al SFF Otún Quimbaya, Colombia: un bosque y una plantación de Fraxinus chinensis (urapán. La mayor abundancia y riqueza de epífitas vasculares se encontró en la plantación; sin embargo, la diversidad del bosque Nativo es más alta según el índice de Shannon (H. Se calculó el índice de importancia ecológica (IVI encontrando que en el bosque de urapanes Pleopeltis macrocarpa es la especie más abundante y Pleurotallis sp. es la de mayor importancia; mientras que para el bosque Nativo Peperomia sp. es la más abundante y Mezobromelia aff.
    capituligera es la más importante, en ambos casos la familia Orchidaceae tuvo el mayor número de especies. Las epífitas no presentaron una distribución al azar, a excepción de Campyloneurum sp. Se estableció la cobertura del dosel para diferentes alturas y se encontró que éste no es un factor determinante en su agrupamiento. El grado de agrupamiento en la distribución vertical
    puede estar influido por la oferta de micrositios en cada forófito, disponibilidad de recursos y humedad en cada bosque.

  20. 福建泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物的利用初探%The Investigation on Utilization of Wild Medicinal Plants in Dietary Culture of Quanzhou, Southern Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀珍; 邹秀红

    2015-01-01

    采用民族植物学的研究方法和手段,在文献研究的基础上,结合民间调查、标本采集和鉴定及后期整理分析等,初步研究了泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物利用的传统知识.结果表明:1)泉州闽南饮食文化中,可利用的野生药用植物约有56科117属148种,其中野生蔬菜46种、药膳植物37种、代茶植物38种、野果植物22种、调味植物4种、制作凉粉植物1种;2)这些植物中种类较多的科是:菊科(Compositae)、禾本科(Gramineae)、唇形科(Lamiaceae)、蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、豆科(Leguminosae)、茜草科(Rubiaceae)、百合科(Liliaceae)、兰科(Orchidaceae)和桑科(Moraceae);3)对各种野生药用植物在区域内的利用状况进行了较详细的分析,对如何传承民间的野生植物饮食文化和保护这些药食两用野生植物资源进行了探讨.

  1. Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World Tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.

  2. Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong; Huang, Jia-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae. These fungi were represented by 25 ITS sequence types and clustered into seven major clades in the phylogenetic analysis of 5.8S sequences. Species of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium shared no fungal ITS sequence types in common, but their fungal taxa sometimes occurred in the same major clade of the 5.8S phylogenetic tree. Although it had several associated fungal ITS sequence types in a studied plot, each orchid species had in general only a single dominant type. The fungal sequence type spectra of different species of Paphiopedilum from similar habitats sometimes overlapped; however, the dominant sequence types differed among the species and so did the sequence-type spectra within Cypripedium. Orchids of P. micranthum and P. armeniacum transplanted from the field and grown in two greenhouses had a greater number of mycorrhizal associations than those sampled directly from the field. Root specimens from P. micranthum taken from the greenhouses were preferably associated with mycobionts of the Tulasnella calospora complex, while those from the field had mycorrhizal associations of other tulasnelloid taxa. Such plasticity in mycorrhizal associations makes ex situ conservation or even propagation by means of mycorrhization of axenically grown seedlings possible. PMID:20217434

  3. Floral anatomy and systematics of Alliaceae with particular reference to Gilliesia, a presumed insect mimic with strongly zygomorphic flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J; Bateman, Richard M; Fay, Michael F; Eastman, Alison

    2002-12-01

    indicate a deceitful pollination mechanism similar to that of some Orchidaceae; this would make Gilliesia highly unusual among non-orchid monocots, given that pollination by sexual deceit is normally regarded as exclusive to orchids. PMID:21665616

  4. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation. PMID:26752741

  5. Orchid cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vendrame

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are lush and highly valuable plants due to their diversity and the beauty of their flowers, which increases their commercialization. The family Orchidaceae comprises approximately 35,000 species, distributed among more than 1,000 distinct genera and 100,000 hybrids, totaling approximately 8% to 10% of all flowering plants. With the advance of agriculture and the constant destruction of their natural habitat, orchid species are collected in an indiscriminate manner by collectors and vendors, and this extractive activity threatens many species with extinction, drastically reducing their genetic variability in nature. Therefore, it is essential to seek alternatives that make the preservation of such species feasible using techniques with low maintenance costs that provide greater storage time and that enable good phytosanitary conditions for the plant material for commercial use. Cryopreservation involves the conservation of biological materials at ultra-low temperatures, generally in liquid nitrogen at -196 ºC or in its vapor phase at -150 ºC. This is the only technique currently available for the long-term preservation of the germplasm of plant species that are vegetatively propagated or that have unviable, recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. The objective of this bibliographic review is to report on the importance, methods and application of cryopreservation for orchids. According to the studies reviewed, this is an incipient, developing and relevant field that generates a lot of discussion and requires further research relative to the type of treatment to use for cryopreservation and the methodology to be applied according to the species. The types of methods that are used for cryopreservation and the large variation in the responses of orchids to the cryopreservation methods observed in this study emphasize the need for the development of more appropriate protocols for the preservation of orchids.

  6. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  7. 兰科植物欺骗性传粉%Deceptive pollination of orchids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宗昕; 王红; 罗毅波

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some "empty flowers", which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in an-giosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations to pollinators. Darwin described and identified most of the functional floral morphology and biomechanics in orchid pollination. However, he never recognized that many of the flowers that he examined lacked food rewards for pollinators. Floral evolution in the Orchidaceae appears to be dominated by modes of deceptive pollination, and more than one third of orchid species are thought to be pollinated by deceit. Deceptive pollination is thought to be one of key roles which has lead to relatively high species diversity within the Orchidaceae. Deceptive orchids frequently exploit the food foraging, sexual, oviposition and sleep/warmth behaviors of insects. The most common deception mechanisms include generalized food deception, Batesian floral mimicry, sexual deception, brood-site imitation and shelter imitation. Additionally, floral color, morphology and fragrance play key roles to cheat target pollinators. Relationships between deceptive orchids and their pollinators possibly involve asynchronous evolution; therefore orchids track the diversification of their pollinators. However, deception has negative impacts on the pollinators, which may exert selection on the pollinators. Because duped pollinators tend to avoid rewardless flowers, deceptive orchids suffer low visitation rates and fruit set, various environment factors can affect the reproductive success of these orchids. Deceptive orchids depend largely on insect pollinators for reproduction, and the proclivity of these

  8. Búsqueda de especies vegetales productoras de follaje útiles en la elaboración de arreglos florales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducuara Frank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se incluyen las fases de documentación, búsqueda, determinación, propagación y evaluación de algunas especies vegetales productoras de follaje para la elaboración de arreglos florales. En la fase de campo se realizaron colecciones botánicas en diferentes municipios de Cundinamarca (Colombia, incluyendo las plazas de mercado y los jardines de la ciudad de Bogotá. Se colectó un total de 57 especies en los diferentes ambientes, de las cuales 19 correspondieron a especies nativas y 38 a especies exóticas. En la fase de laboratorio se llevó a cabo la determinación y multiplicación del material utilizando diferentes formas de
    propagación. De esta forma se logró el enraizamiento por esquejes de 24 especies exóticas y cuatro nativas mediante la aplicación de la hormona líquida ácido indolbutírico (IBA 3.500 ppm + solución madre compuesta de hidróxido de sodio. La propagación por semillas se logró con una especie nativa (Dodonaea viscosa y con una especie exótica (Zantedeschia aethiopica. La propagación por bulbos se realizó eficientemente con la especie nativa Canna generalis y con una especie de la familia Orchidaceae. Finalmente las técnicas de cultivo in vitro fueron utilizadas para la siembra y multiplicación de Zantedeschia aethiopica como una contribución a la
    micropropagación de aráceas útiles en el sector floricultor. Para cada una de las especies propagadas se tuvo en cuenta su porcentaje de enraizamiento, el tiempo de enraizamiento y el tiempo que tardaron en producir tallos con los parámetros de calidad previamente establecidos. Los tallos fueron sometidos a las evaluaciones de cuarto frío, viaje simulado y evaluación en florero.

  9. Flora and fauna of Thummalapalle uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thummalapalle Uranium Mining site is located near Thummalapalle village in Vemula mandal, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and faunal study was carried out in the area 30 km radius from the mining site, covering an area of 2828 Km2, during 2009-2012. The geographical coordinates of the centre point are NL 14° 19 min 59.3 sec and EL 78° 15 min 18.2 sec. Altitude of the study area ranges from 198 to 875 m above MSL. Scrub type of forest is dominant in the core zone followed by waste lands and agriculture lands. Buffer zone I and II also are dominated by scrub forest except a small patch at the North West corner where degraded dry deciduous forest is seen. A total of 859 plant taxa comprising 474 genera and 120 families were identified. Of the 859 taxa, 768 are Angiosperms, 9 Pteridophytes, 25 Bryophytes, 44 Algae and 14 Lichens. A total of 49 endemic taxa (2 strictly Andhra Pradesh, 5 to Eastern Ghats and 43 from Peninsular India) have been recorded. Albizia thompsonii and Ceropegia spiralis, rare taxa, have been recorded in the study area and these two species are distributed throughout peninsular India. Quadrat analysis revealed that Heteropogon contortus, Catunaregum spinosa, Asparagus racemosus and Croton scabiosus are the dominant in herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees respectively. A total of 419 animal species belonging to 358 genera and 178 families have been recorded in the Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area. A total of nine endemic animal species have been recorded. Golden Gecko (Calodactylodes aureus) which is endemic to Eastern Ghats is recorded in Buffer zone 1. Fejervarya caperata is a new record to Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported from Western Ghats. An analysis of the flora reveals interesting features. Orchidaceae which is the second largest family in India is only one species represented in Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area as it is evident that the growth and development of Orchids in open dry deciduous and scrub forests are

  10. A checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district, southern KwaZulu-Natal and a review of their status in the Red Data List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R.H. Grieve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern mistbelt forests are naturally fragmented forests with grassland which occur from the Eastern Cape to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. These were heavily logged by colonial settlers and continue to be harvested despite being protected. Consequently we documented a checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district (3029DA WEZA, southern KwaZulu-Natal, including Ngeli Forest and nearby indigenous forest patches to highlight their biodiversity status and need for conservation. We also reviewed their status in the Red Data List. Of the 1554 records included in this summary of plant species for the Weza district, there were 6 lichens (0.4%, 46 bryophytes (3.0%, 58 pteridophytes (3.7%, 6 gymnosperms (0.4% and the remaining 1424 species angiosperms (92.5%. Of the angiosperms, 27.3% were monocotyledons and 72.7% were dicotyledons. The most species-rich family was Asteraceae (239 species followed by Fabaceae (115 species, Liliaceae (used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 89 species, Orchidaceae (89 species, Iridaceae (59 species, Poaceae (58 species, Asclepidaceae (again used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 57 species, Scrophulariaceae (42 species, Euphorbiaceae (32 species, Lamiaceae (32 species and Rubiaceae (27 species. These 10 families each comprised more than 2% of the species in the list. Together they contributed 55% of the angiosperm species and 34.1% of the angiosperm genera. The biodiversity and conservation value of the study area are conserved pockets of eastern mistbelt forest, Drakensberg foothill moist grassland and mistbelt grassland. More than 4% of the species are under some degree of threat, as was evidenced by the number of species regarded as endangered (5, vulnerable (18, near threatened (10, critically rare (1, rare (20 or declining (11 amongst the 1554 species covered in the list.Conservation implications: In terms of taxa under some degree of threat, number of

  11. Embryogenic Callus Induction of Pencil Orchid (Papilionanthe hookeriana Rchb.f. Through in Vitro Culture

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    Atra Romeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilionthe hookeriana  Rchb.f.  (Orchidaceae,  popularly known as ‘Anggrek Pinsil’  in Indonesia, is a perennial ephiphyte orchid, found only at Dendam Tak Sudah Lake in Bengkulu. The aims of this research were to find the best sterilization technique of P.  hookeriana explant and to induce maximum formation of embryogenic calli. Rapid multiplication of this orchid was achieved through culture of shoot tips and young leaf segments of mature plants by in vitro cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium  enriched with 50 g L-1 banana pulp.    The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. In the first stage, the explants were sterilized using three compositions of sterilant. In the second stage, the explants were planted on the MS basal medium with addition of five levels of 2,4-Diclhorophenoxy Acetis Acid concentrations, namely 0, 0.25,  0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg L-1.  The result showed that the best sterilization method to reduce explant contaminant  was method 3, in which the explant  was washed with detergent, rinsed with flowing water, soaked in 0.1%  (v/v HgCl2 solution for 30 minutes, soaked again in the 10% (v/v Natrium hypocloride solution for 20 minutes,  rinsed three times with sterile water before planted and then soaked in  sterile  water + 10% (v/v  betadhine before planted on treated medium. This method was able to reduce contamination levels up to 70% from explants cultured for 5 months on MS medium.  MS medium added with 1.00 mg L-1 2,4-D produced the highest number of embryogenic calli, and the biggest callus diameter ( 3.5 cm , characterized by  transparent green color and  friable callus structure

  12. Differential Responses of Vanilla Accessions to Root Rot and Colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyappurath, Sayuj; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Dijoux, Jean Bernard; Lapeyre-Montès, Fabienne; Jade, Katia; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gatineau, Frédéric; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Besse, Pascale; Grisoni, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Root and stem rot (RSR) disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. × tahitensis, Orchidaceae). Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, (ii) thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and (iii) evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions. Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in vitro assay. The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21 accessions

  13. Rumbling Orchids: How To Assess Divergent Evolution Between Chloroplast Endosymbionts and the Nuclear Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Gottschling, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or "outlier" associations (i.e., linked pairs of "operational terminal units" in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have the potential to test for the degree of topological congruence between organellar and nuclear data sets and reliably detect outlier associations. Two distance-based methods, namely ParaFit and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), were used in conjunction to detect those outliers contributing to conflicting phylogenies independently derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. We explored their efficiency of retrieving outlier associations, and the impact of input data (unit branch length and additive trees) between data sets, by using several simulation approaches. To test their performance using real data sets, we additionally inferred the phylogenetic relationships within Neotropical Catasetinae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), which is a suitable group to investigate phylogenetic incongruence because of hybridization processes between some of its constituent species. A comparison between trees derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data reflected strong, well-supported incongruence within Catasetum, Cycnoches, and Mormodes. As a result, outliers among chloroplast and nuclear data sets, and in experimental simulations, were successfully detected by PACo when using patristic distance matrices obtained from phylograms, but not from unit branch length trees. The performance of ParaFit was overall inferior compared to PACo, using either phylograms or unit branch lengths as input data. Because

  14. Outline of the classified system of the Chinese Leguminosae%中国豆科植物分类系统概览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相云

    2004-01-01

    豆科是被子植物中继兰科和菊科之后的第三大科,其中包括三个亚科:即云实亚科、含羞草亚科和蝶形花亚科.本文根据最新资料,整理出世界豆科有42族、634属、17 834种,中国有33族、169属、1 518种(另外含15亚种、167变种和41变型),其中外来种158种(含亚种和变种,隶属于73属).为建立中国豆科植物数据库,本文在Polhill豆科植物分类系统的基础上,结合一些新的资料,提出中国豆科植物系统概要.文中按分类等级进行排序,每一属含有世界和中国种数及分布.%The family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the largest one of flowering plants after the Compositae (or Asteraceae) and Orchidaceae, consist of three subfamilies such as Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. It comprises 42 tribes, 635 genera and 17 840 species in the world based on the present up to date statistic. In China, there are 33 tribes, 169 genera, 1 518 species, 15 subspecies, 167 varieties and 41 forms recorded so far. Of them, 158 exotic species (containing subspecies and varieties) are included, which belong to the 73 genera [1].For constituting a database of Chinese Legume, the outline for classified system of Chinese Leguminosae is summarized here. This paper aims to indicate the system of Chinese Leguminosae with some new taxonomical treatment (the tribes Wisterieae X. Y. Zhu[2] and Poiretieae (Burkart) H. Ohashi[3]) based on the previous system proposed by Polhill & Raven[[4] & Polhill [5]. The number of species and geographical distribution for each genus[3, 4, 6] is shown in this paper. Of them, black letters and numbers stand for the genera and species appearing in China[6~12]. 

  15. Orchid diversity in China’s Hainan Island: Distribution and conservation

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    Hu, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are widely distributed in many terrestrial ecosystems except for polar and desert areas and constitute a “flagship group” in biological conservation. As the largest tropical island of China, Hainan has five tropical forest vegetation types, namely deciduous monsoon forest, lowland rainforest, montane rainforest, montane evergreen forest, and montane cloud forest. There are 317 orchid species in the island, including 33 endemic, 158 epiphytic, 148 terrestrial, and 11 saprophytic species. Most orchids, which are mainly located in central and southern parts of the island, are generally distributed in damp tropical forests in mountains at an altitude of 500–1500 m. Highest level of endemism is also centred in these areas. Orchids are especially threatened by habitat fragmentation because they grow in small populations, and fragmentation may block gene flow and result in lower genetic diversity. In addition, due to their ornamental and medicinal value, many orchids are over-collected. Therefore, orchid conservation in Hainan Island is very urgent. The aim of this article is to determine the distribution pattern of orchids and expound research and conservation status in Hainan Island, and to propose conservation strategies for the future.Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se

  16. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela and its ties to other páramo floras

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    Cuello, Nidia L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 252 vascular plant taxa belonging to 150 genera and 69 families were recorded from the study area. The most species rich families are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Ericaceae and Orchidaceae, followed by the ferns families Grammitidaceae and Lycopodiacae. The most diverse genera are the ferns Elaphoglossum, Huperzia and Hymenophyllum. The analysis of generic phytogeographical composition of páramo flora showed that 52.8% of the genera are Tropical. The Temperate component is represented by 33.3% of the genera and the Cosmopolitan component is represented by 13.9% of the genera. The Neo - tropical montane element (38.9% is high in Guaramacal páramo, the Páramo endemic element (1.9% and the Andean alpine element (0.9% and represented by only one genus (Lachemilla are low compared to other páramo areas. The vascular flora of Páramo de Guaramacal is largely composed of (1 a group of Neotropical widespread distributed species (32%, (2 a group of Andean distributed species (49%, part of them confined to the Northern Andes and part widespread in the Andes from Colombia to Bolivia, and (3 a group of Venezuelan endemics (19%. From an eight páramo flora comparative dataset, the closest relationships among páramos is observed between the generic páramo floras of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental of Sumapáz and Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, which are both closely related to that of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida in Venezuela. The generic páramo flora of

  17. Comparative Study on Photosynthesis between Three Dendrobia and Kalancho(e) Daigremontiana%三种石斛与大叶落地生根光合作用比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜; 王雁; 胡青; 任建武

    2011-01-01

    石斛属为兰科大属,部分物种光合作用行景天酸代谢途径.为了检验石斛的光合作用碳代谢途径,试验选用典型的专性景天酸代谢植物大叶落地生根为对照.光合作用测定结果表明,报春石斛的光饱和点为700 μmolphoton·m-2s-1,最大表现光合作用速率达3.826 μmol·CO2 m-2·s-1,光合作用日变化呈现出景天酸代谢植物的四阶段特征;鼓槌石斛的光饱和点为900μmolphoton·m-2·s-1,最大光合作用速率高达5.912 μmolCO2·m-2·s-1,光合作用日变化呈单峰曲线,最大值出现在中午前后,不具备景天酸代谢植物特征;金钗石斛表现为更适合荫蔽环境,光合作用日变化呈双峰曲线,中午光照最强烈的时段表观光合作用速率出现一定程度降低.%In the family of orchidaceae, dendrobium is a big genus, and some species performed crassulacean acid metab-olism(CAM) in their carbon assimilation. To testify the pathways of carbon assimilation among dendrobia, the typical obligate CAM plant named Kalanchoedaigremontiana was selected as control. The results showed that, the light saturation point of D. Primulinum was 700 pimolphoton · M-2 · S-1, and the maximum photosynthetic rate was 3. 826 μmolCO2 · M-2 · S-1. The diurnal change of photosynthesis in D. Primulinum was composed by four distinct phases. The light saturation point of D. Chrysotoxum was 900 μmolphoton · M-2 · S-1, and maximum photosynthetic rate was high and up to 5. 912 fimolCO2 · M-2 · S-1, while the diurnal change of photosynthesis showed single summit at noon, which meant that D. Chrysotoxum did not show the characteristics of CAM plant. For D. Nobile, it preferred to shade environment, whose diurnal change of photosynthesis exhibited double summits with declining to some extent at noon when illumination was intensive.

  18. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  19. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  20. 气候变暖致使墨兰(Cymbidium sinense)野外种群趋向灭绝%Climate warming brings about extinction tendency in wild population of Cymbidium sinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仲健; 陈利君; 刘可为; 李利强; 张玉婷; 黄来强

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse effects and climate changes have great influence on the survival of plants by affecting the development and the process of water cycling in plant, especially on Orchidaceae plants with high adaptation to the environment. Based on the investigation of biological characteristics and the observation of reproductive behavior among the wild populations of Cymbidium sinense in Shenzhen City, we calculated the quantity of survival plants, the frequency of appearance, the quantity of filial generation and the spatial distribution pattern at different age class, made static life graph and reproductivity graph of the population, drew the survival curve and age pyramid, and made up the Leslie matrix model, Levins model and consecutive decline model, Nt=Nt-1-Nt-1e-2.329, to predict the dynamic procedure of population quantityand test how C. sinense population responded to the climate changes combined with the analysis of meteorological data. The test result showed that, in conditions of low relative humidity arose from temperature rise and drought caused by rainfall imbalance, C. sinense showed a spatial structure of group distribution, and its age pyramid was kettle-shaped and the survival performance of population was similar to DeeveyⅠtype. The net reproduction rate, the intrinsic increase rate and finite increase rate of C. sinense were very low, indicating that the population was in a situation of downward tendency. And the reason is that, C. sinens is physiologically sensitive to drought condition and high temperature decreases its photosynthetic rate, which affects the accumulation of nutrients and directly restrains the differentiation of flower buds or even causes the abortion of flower buds, accordingly the sexual reproduction is influenced and the progeny production is reduced. Even though the sexual reproduction of C. sinense was achieved by attracting the honeybee, Apis cerana, to pollinate flowers by fragrance and extrafloral nectar and produced

  1. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acta Biológica Colombiana

    2003-12-01

    Mangos(Puerto López, Meta, Colombia / Epífitas vasculares como indicadores de regeneración en un bosque intervenido de la Amazonía Colombiana / Estudio preliminar de la comunidad macrobentónica del mesolitoral rocoso de bahía Concha (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona,Magdalena, Colombia / Caracterización flor��stica de un bosque pluvial tropical en el corregimiento de Pacurita, Quibdó, Chocó (Colombia / Revisión preliminar de la familia procyonidaeen Colombia / Evaluación y dinámica de uso del recurso hídrico en el corregimiento de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia / Viabilidad de la liberación de ardillas cola roja sciurus granatensisen el arboretum Francisco Bayón - Universidad Nacional de Colombia / Los rastros del megaterio comparación anatómica entre eremotherium rusconiiy bradypus variegatus / Comportamiento reproductivo de chiroxiphia lanceolata(pipridae:aves en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia / índice de agresividad en apis mellifera(hymenoptera: aapidae / Inserción de proteínas en membrana: algunas características del proceso / Comportamiento de félidos en cautiverio en el Zoológico de Santa Cruz, Colombia / Efecto de la forma tridimensional y el fenómeno de iluminación mutua en la percepción del color en el hombre / Tasa de hidratación de Physalaemus pustulosusR / Algunas serpientes venenosas presentes en la cuenca hidrográfica del Río Cabí, Chocó, Colombia / Embriogénesis somática y regeneración de plantas enepidendrum ruizianum (Orchidaceae / Germinación y crecimiento de una planta foránea, satureja sp.(labiaceae sobre tres sustratos orgánicos bajo condiciones controladas en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia / Caracterización de la comunidad de arañas (arachnida: aranae presente en bosque alto andino y en frailejonal del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia / Transporte