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Sample records for christensonella orchidaceae maxillariinae

  1. Cypripediquinone A, a new phenanthraquinone from Cypripedium macranthum (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phenanthraquinone, cypripediquinone A, was isolated from the rhizome of Cypripedium macranthum ( Orchidaceae ) and its structure was established as 2,4,7-trimethoxy-9, 10- phenanthraquinone mainly by spectroscopic analysis.

  2. The genus Triphora (Triphoreae, Orchidaceae in Colombia

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    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, four species of Triphora (Orchidaceae are recognized. Two species (Triphora galeanoi and T. vichadaensis are newly described. As circumscribed here, the two new species occur exclusively in Colombia apart from T. foldatsii, being known from Colombia and Venezuela, and T. gentianoides, ranging from the USA (Florida in the north to Colombia in the south. For the species treated, a taxonomic description, synonymy and information about distribution are provided. Additionally,for the two new species, illustrations of flower parts are provided. A key for the determination of the Colombian species of Triphora is included.

  3. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Betania B.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Alvesa, Tania M.A.; Zani, Carlos L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: zani@cpqrr.fiocruz.br; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeirop, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico de Farmacos; Pimenta, Adriano M.C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2008-07-01

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  4. Lista atualizada das Orchidaceae do Distrito Federal

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    Batista João Aguiar Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a relação atualizada de Orchidaceae para o Distrito Federal (DF, a unidade da federação onde se situa a capital brasileira, localizada no centro do país. São reconhecidos 72 gêneros e 254 táxons (246 espécies e oito táxons subespecíficos, dos quais 17 (6,7% são conhecidos apenas localmente. Os gêneros mais significativos no DF são Habenaria (74 espécies e três táxons subespecíficos, Cyrtopodium (17 espécies, Cleistes (13 espécies e a subtribo Spiranthinae (11 gêneros com 34 espécies e dois táxons subespecíficos. Gêneros como Epidendrum (oito espécies, Pleurothallis (sete espécies, Oncidium (seis espécies e Maxillaria (três espécies são abundantes na Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro, mas pouco representados na região. Cerca de 73% das Orchidaceae do DF apresentam hábito terrestre, o que contrasta marcadamente com a Mata Atlântica e a região Amazônica, onde predominam espécies epifíticas. Dentro do Cerrado, o DF representa o local mais bem amostrado e com o maior número de espécies conhecidas, compreendendo cerca de 51% das orquídeas listadas para todo o bioma. Esta relação tem como objetivo subsidiar a monografia desta família para a flora do Distrito Federal.

  5. Myoxanthus ortizianus (Orchidaceae, a new species from southern Colombia

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    Kolanowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With over 3000 species, Colombian orchid flora represents one of the richest in the World. The neotropical subtribe Pleurothallidinae is the most diverse, but it is still a poorly recognized Orchidaceae group and numerous new discoveries within national representatives are described every year. An examination of material collected recently in the Colombian department of Putumayo revealed the existence of a new species of Myoxanthus, named M. ortizianus, which is described, illustrated and placed within an identification key for national species of the nominal section of the subgenus Myoxanthus.

  6. Orchidaceae no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha, RJ, Brasil Orchidaceae of Prainha Municipal Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faust Bocayuva Cunha; Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

    2007-01-01

    As espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha são apresentadas. O Parque está localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro e abrange uma área total de 126 hectares. A cobertura vegetal predominantemente é floresta pluvial atlântica, com uma pequena faixa de restinga e diversos afloramentos rochosos. Foram encontrados na área 18 gêneros e 26 espécies: Bifrenaria (1 sp.), Brassavola (1 sp.), Catasetum (1 sp.), Cattleya (2 sp.), Cyclopogon (1 sp.), Cyrtopodium (2 sp.)...

  7. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

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    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  8. Morfo-anatomia caulinear de nove espécies de Orchidaceae Stem anatomy of nine Orchidaceae species

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    Virginia del Carmen Oliveira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados sob o ponto de vista morfo-anatômico os sistemas caulinares (caule aéreo, rizoma e pseudobulbo de nove espécies de Orchidaceae (Catasetum fimbriatum, Dichaea bryophila, Encyclia calamara, Epidendrum campestre, Epidendrum secundum, Miltonia flavescens, Pleurothallis smithiana, Stanhopea lietzei e Vanda tricolor. Comparando-se as espécies foi possível reconhecer uma certa uniformidade na organização interna dessas estruturas. Os rizomas e caules aéreos são revestidos por epiderme unisseriada, apresentam córtex parenquimático e feixes vasculares colaterais distribuídos em dois ou mais anéis no cilindro central. Os pseudobulbos possuem epiderme unisseriada recoberta por espessa cutícula e feixes vasculares colaterais distribuídos irregularmente no tecido parenquimático fundamental, que é formado por células grandes e pequenas com grande quantidade de espaços intercelulares.Stem morphology and anatomy of nine species of Orchidaceae (Catasetum fimbriatum, Dichaea bryophila, Encyclia calamara, Epidendrum campestre, Epidendrum secundum, Miltonia flavescens, Pleurothallis smithiana, Stanhopea lietzei and Vanda tricolor were investigated. A comparative study of these species showed that the internal structure of the rhizome, aerial shoot and pseudobulb was homogeneous. The rhizomes and aerial shoots are covered by an uniseriated epidermis, have a parenchymatous cortex and collateral vascular bundles arranged in two or more rings in the central cylinder. The psudobulbs have an uniseriated epidermis covered by a thick cuticle and vascular bundles irregularly scattered throughout the parenchymatous ground tissue which are formed by large and small cells and have many intercelular spaces.

  9. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  10. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

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    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  11. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae) using novel technique applied in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley) Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae), is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. linden...

  12. Orchidaceae do Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, MG, Brasil Orchidaceae of Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Luiz Menini Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca (PEIB está situado no sudeste do estado de Minas Gerais, entre os municípios de Santa Rita de Ibitipoca e Lima Duarte, a 21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. Apresenta em sua área um mosaico de formações vegetais, das quais o campo rupestre ocupa a maior extensão, sendo também encontradas em seus domínios diversas formações florestais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento das espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no PEIB. Foram registrados 118 táxons distribuídos em 47 gêneros. Os gêneros mais numerosos são Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. e um possível híbrido, Epidendrum (10 spp. e Maxillaria (9 spp.. O estudo da distribuição geográfica dos táxons revelou quatro novos registros para a flora de Minas Gerais e ampliou o conhecimento sobre a distribuição de muitas espécies. Uma comparação com as espécies de orquídeas ocorrentes em outras áreas de campo rupestre conhecidas até o momento demonstra que o PEIB, embora com área relativamente pequena, é uma das regiões com maior número de espécies.Ibitipoca State Park (PEIB is located in southeastern Minas Gerais, in Santa Rita de Ibitipoca and Lima Duarte municipalities (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. It has a variety of vegetation types, with a predominance of "campo rupestre" (rocky grasslands mixed with forests. This work aimed to survey Orchidaceae species growing at PEIB. One-hundred-and-eighteen taxa belonging to 47 genera were found. The largest genera are Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. and one probable hybrid, Epidendrum (10 spp., and Maxillaria (9 spp.. Four species are new records for the flora of Minas Gerais state. Compared to other areas of "campos rupestres", PEIB is one of the most species-rich sites, in spite of having a relatively small area.

  13. Chemical composition of the inflorescence odor of Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae Composición química del olor de la inflorescencia de Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae

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    Geoffrey C. Kite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae from Mexico produces a pleasant floral odor reminiscent of violets in contrast to the unpleasant odors noted for several other members of Malaxideae. Analysis of the floral odor of M. rzedowskiana by headspace trapping and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of kaurene (76%, (E-β-ionone (18% and (E-α-ionone (4% as the main components. This is the first report of a floral odor containing a high proportion of kaurene.Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae de México produce un agradable olor floral reminiscente del de violetas, en contraste con los olores desagradables que han sido detectados en varios otros miembros de Malaxideae. El análisis del olor floral deM. rzedowskiana a partir del aire que rodeaba la inflorescencia en un espacio cerrado ("headspace trapping" y cromatografía de gases-espectrometía de masas por deabsorción térmica reveló la presencia de kaureno (76%, (E-β-ionona (18% y (E-α-ionona (4% como sus principales constituyentes. Éste es el primer registro de un olor floral conteniendo una alta proporción de kaureno.

  14. Diversidade taxonômica e distribuição geográfica das Orchidaceae brasileiras Taxonomic diversity and geographic distribution of the Brazilian Orchidaceae

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    Fábio de Barros

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae é uma das maiores famílias do Reino Vegetal, e sua distribuição geográfica obedece a limites definidos já a nivel de sub-famílias. O genero Laelia, com 7 seções das quais 5 ocorrentes no Brasil, apresenta características evolutivas interessantes, principalmente a sect. Parviflorae, que ocorre predominantemente em Minas Gerais e que representa um exemplo de "evolução explosiva" ainda em andamento. Os tratamentos taxonómicos dados a cada diferente grupo dentro da família não se apresentam uniformes, o que leva à aceitação de um grande número de gêneros pequenos em alguns grupos e de poucos gêneros grandes e complexos, em outros grupos.Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families, and each of its subfamilies have a delimited distribution. The genus Laelia, with 7 subsections, 5 of which occuring in Brazil, shows interestingly evolutionary characteristics. Laelia sect. Parviflorae, which occurs mainly in Minas Gerais (Brazil is an example of "explosive evolution" still in process. The taxonomic treatment of the orchid family is not uniform from taxa to taxa which leads to many small genera in some groups and few large genera in some other groups.

  15. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

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    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  16. Orchidaceae no Parque Estadual da Cantareira e sua conservação. Orchidaceae in the Cantareira State Park and its conservation.

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    Luciano Ramos ZANDONÁ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC abriga uma das maiores florestas urbanas do mundo, declarada parte da Reserva da Biosfera do Cinturão Verde de São Paulo. A família Orchidaceae tem grande apelo ornamental e econômico, aspecto importante para a sensibilização de todos sobre a responsabilidade em conservar nossas espécies nativas e seus habitats. O presente trabalho visou, sobretudo, ao levantamento da família Orchidaceae no PEC. Para tal, foram realizadas coletas semanais, entre agosto de 2008 e fevereiro de 2014, utilizando o método da caminhada, tendo como base o mapa de fitofisionomias do PEC. A coleta de material botânico priorizou o resgate de plantas vivas em árvores e galhos caídos, sendo que as plantas foram incluídas em coleções vivas do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo – IBt e PEC para acompanhamento da floração, herborização, documentação fotográfica e identificação. As plantas foram identificadas com base no material vivo utilizando-se da diagnose floral para determinação da espécie, as exsicatas foram tombadas no herbário do Instituto Florestal – SPSF. As demais plantas resgatadas, após identificação, foram realocadas no habitat e são também utilizadas em atividades educativas. Até o momento foram levantadas 159 espécies, de 64 gêneros, entre elas 10 espécies presentes em listas vermelhas, e outras dificilmente encontradas, o que coloca o PEC como detentor de maior riqueza de Orchidaceae da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo em comparação com outros levantamentos. Das 159 espécies registradas, 105 foram resgatadas, totalizando 3.120 indivíduos, dos quais 450 foram incluídos em coleções do IBt e PEC, e o restante realocado no habitat para observações e estudos futuros. Atividades com visitantes do PEC indicam que a utilização de orquídeas como tema para educação é bastante promissor. – The Cantareira State Park (Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC, declared part

  17. Orchidaceae da Reserva Ecológica do Guará, DF, Brasil Orchidaceae of the Reserva Ecológica do Guará, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    João Aguiar Nogueira Batista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada uma relação de Orchidaceae para a Reserva Ecológica do Guará, pequena unidade de conservação com 194 ha, localizada no Distrito Federal, na região central do Brasil. São registrados 44 gêneros, 100 espécies e cinco táxons subespecíficos. Os grupos mais bem representados são o gênero Habenaria (32 táxons, a subtribo Spiranthinae (seis gêneros e 14 táxons e o gênero Cyrtopodium (sete espécies. Do total de táxons da Reserva, 80 (76% são terrestres e 22 (21% são epifíticos. Nas fitofisionomias florestais ocorrem 42 táxons, distribuídos segundo um gradiente vertical de umidade e luminosidade. Nas fitofisionomias campestres ocorrem 63 táxons, distribuídos segundo um gradiente horizontal de umidade que vai do campo limpo inundável ao campo sujo seco e cerrado. O campo limpo inundável e o campo limpo estacionalmente úmido, com 42 táxons, são as fitofisionomias com o maior número de táxons. Para todo o bioma cerrado, a Reserva Ecológica do Guará, embora com área pequena, representa a localidade conhecida com maior número de táxons de Orchidaceae. Considerando o conhecimento atual, a Reserva Ecológica do Guará rivaliza ou mesmo sobrepuja, em número de táxons, outras áreas consideradas ricas em diversidade para a família e pertencentes a outros biomas.A floristic survey of the Orchidaceae of the Reserva Ecológica do Guará, a small conservation unit with 194 ha located in the Distrito Federal, central Brazil, is presented. Forty four genera, 100 species, and five subspecific taxa are recorded for the Reserve. The most representative groups are the genus Habenaria (32 taxa, subtribe Spiranthinae (six genera and 14 taxa and the genus Cyrtopodium (seven species. Of these, 80 (76% are terrestrials, while 22 (21% are epiphytic. Forty two taxa occur in forest physiognomies, where they are distributed according to vertical gradient of light and humidity. In grassland physiognomies occur 63 taxa

  18. Longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae inflorescences treated with 1-methylciclopropene Longevidade de inflorescências de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae tratadas com 1-metilciclopropeno

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    Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum belongs to Orchidaceae family and nowadays it is commercialized on large scale due to its potential as cut flower. The species distinguishes decoratively in function of the high number of flowers golden yellow that compose its great and delicate inflorescence. The hormone ethylene performs an important function in the processes related with the senescence of cut flowers, and especially in relation to orchids anti-ethylene treatments are recommended to extend the vase life. Among chemicals used today for the postharvest treatment of flowers the 1-methylciclopropene (1-MCP is an efficient inhibitor of autocatalytic production of ethylene. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of 1-methylciclopropene (Control and 1-MCP: 250ppb, 500ppb, 1000ppb upon physiological aspects of cut inflorescences of Oncidium varicosum. The best treatment was 1-MCP 1000ppb and the flowers presented larger values of water content, soluble carbohydrates, reducing sugars, carotenoids and the respiration rates were lower. These results contributed to higher quality and longer life of inflorescences.Oncidium varicosum pertence à família Orchidaceae e atualmente vem sendo bastante comercializado pelo seu potencial como flor de corte. A espécie destaca-se ornamentalmente pelas inúmeras flores amarelas que compõem sua inflorescência grande e delicada. O hormônio etileno desempenha uma função importante nos processos relacionados com a senescência de flores cortadas e, especialmente para as orquídeas, são recomendados tratamentos antietileno para prolongar a vida de vaso. Entre os compostos mais usados recentemente como tratamento pós-colheita, destaca-se o 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, considerado um eficiente inibidor da produção autocatalítica do etileno. A presente pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de 1-MCP (250ppb, 500ppb, 1000ppb em relação a aspectos fisiológicos de

  19. Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G. G. Maiti, a new species of Orchidaceae from Sikkim Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debabrata MAITY; Neelima PRADHAN; Gaurgopal MAITI

    2007-01-01

    Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G.G.Maiti(Orchidaceae),a new species from Sikkim Himalaya,is described and illustrated.The new species most closely resembles M.japonica(Reichb.) Rolfe and M.chinensis Rolfe with similar shape and size of lamina and the"T"-shaped epichile.but differs by the perfectly glabrous and eciliate floral bract,5-nerved dorsal sepal,and emarginate,mucronate epichile.

  20. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae. PMID:25678071

  1. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae.

  2. Novel expressed sequence tags of an alpine-cold plant species,Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gymnadenia conopsea,an alpine Orchidaceae plant,was one of the widely used Tibetan traditional medicines.In this study,we sequenced total 105 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a full-length cDNA expression library constructed by the Oligo-capping technique.The further bioinformatic analyses suggested that the 65 represented unique sequences showed high homology to previously identified genes in other plants:30 sequences matched to other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs),and 10 sequences showed no good matches to available sequences in DNA databases.Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (7 percent) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to G.conopsea.Fifty-five ESTs with matched proteins were involved in a series of diverse functions,in which molecular function such as "binding" (42.9 percent) and "catalytic activity" (25.0 percent) were the most frequent functions of the cDNAs.This cDNA library provided a critical basis for further investigation of functional genes expression under cold stress in this alpine species.In addition,13 ESTs-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and can also be used for genotypic identification and for the genetic diversity analysis of G.conopsea and its closely related species.

  3. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

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    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  4. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  5. Identification of Orchidaceae species from Northern West of Syria based on chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I; Kamary, Y

    2010-08-01

    The plant family Orchidaceae has a great economic value (ornamental and medical uses, beside the aromatic features). Traditionally, identification of orchid species has relied heavily on morphological features. These features, however, are either not variable enough between species or too plastic to be used for identification at the species level. DNA-based markers could be the alternative strategy towards an accurate and robust identification of those species. Since the chloroplast DNA has a lower level of evolution compared to the nuclear genome, an attempt was made in this study to investigate polymorphism in the chloroplast DNA among orchid species distributed in North-West region of Syria using Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) technique for developing markers for the diagnosis of targeted species. CAPS analysis was carried out on 34 orchid samples that represent all species observed in the region. Universal primers were used to amplify targeted chloroplast regions. Generated PCR products were digested with various restriction enzymes. CAPS results revealed high polymorphism among species examined. This polymorphism was suffiecient for the diagnosis of all of those species apart from five species (Ophrys fuciflora (one sample), Oph. bornmuelleri, Ophrys sp., Oph. scolopax and Oph. argolica). Availability of such species-specific markers would ensure more authentic identification of orchid species compared to morphological characters and can be regarded as a valuable tool to guide in conservation programs of orchid species in Syria. CAPS data generated were converted to an identification key for orchid species studied.

  6. Pengaruh asam absisat terhadap viabilitas biji sintetis Grammatophyllum scriptum (Orchidaceae selama masa penyimpana kering

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    EVITA MULIAWATI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muliawati E, Anggarwulan E, Pitoyo A. 2015. Effects of abcissic acid on viability of synthetic seed of Grammatophyllum scriptum (Orchidaceae during dried storage periods. Bioteknologi 13: 1-8. This research was aimed to extend the self-life of plbs of Tiger orchid (Grammatophyllum scriptum by the development of desiccated synthetic seed, a hydrogel bead of calcium-alginate that embedded the plb inside them. The length of the self-life is achieved by the application of Abcissic Acid (ABA, a plant growth retardant. The experiment was prepared by completely randomized designed with 5 treatments of ABA concentrations (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L and 5 replication each treatment. The successful of the treatments would be presented by the ability of the synthetics seed to postpone their germination during storage periodes and can redraw to germinate after rehydration. The result shows that, dessication treatments during storage can inhibit the germination of synthetic seed. ABA application in low concentration, 5 mg/L, can protects the viability of plbs during storage periods and germinate them after rehydration.

  7. Phylogenetics of tribe Collabieae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae based on four chloroplast genes with morphological appraisal.

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    Xiao-Guo Xiang

    Full Text Available Collabieae (Orchidaceae is a long neglected tribe with confusing tribal and generic delimitation and little-understood phylogenetic relationships. Using plastid matK, psaB, rbcL, and trnH-psbA DNA sequences and morphological evidence, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Collabieae were assessed as a basis for revising their tribal and generic delimitation. Collabieae (including the previously misplaced mycoheterotrophic Risleya is supported as monophyletic and nested within a superclade that also includes Epidendreae, Podochileae, Cymbidieae and Vandeae. Risleya is nested in Collabiinae and sister to Chrysoglossum, a relationship which, despite their great vegetative differences, is supported by floral characters. Ania is a distinct genus supported by both morphological and molecular evidence, while redefined Tainia includes Nephelaphyllum and Mischobulbum. Calanthe is paraphyletic and consists four clades; the genera Gastrorchis, Phaius and Cephalantheropsis should be subsumed within Calanthe. Calanthe sect. Ghiesbreghtia is nested within sect. Calanthe, to which the disputed Calanthe delavayi belongs as well. Our results indicate that, in Collabieae, habit evolved from being epiphytic to terrestrial.

  8. Post-harvest longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae flowers/ Longevidade pós-colheita de flores de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae

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    Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum from the Orchidaceae family has been widely used as pot flower, and, most recently, as cut flower. The objective of this work was to evaluate the longevity of the Oncidium varicosum, due to its low post-harvest resistance, after being conditioned in preservation solutions with different concentrations of sucrose. Oncidium varicosum stems grown in Holambra (SP were transported to Londrina (PR in climatized trucks at 5-7oC. Pre-treatment with pulsing (15% sucrose for 24 hours followed by conditioning in maintenance solution (1, 2, 3, and 4% of sucrose as well as conditioning in maintenance solution without pre-treatment were evaluated. Flower stems were distributed in an entirely casualized design, with ten treatments and five replications. Flowers were evaluated daily, using a score system developed to compare and verify the conservation of visual aspects. No treatment was superior to the control in maintaining the longevity of the flowers.A orquídea Oncidium varicosum é bastante utilizada como flor de vaso e atualmente vem se destacando como flor de corte. Devido sua baixa resistência pós-colheita, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade de Oncidium varicosum após o acondicionamento em soluções conservantes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As hastes de Oncidium varicosum, produzidas em Holambra (SP, foram transportadas para Londrina (PR em caminhão climatizado a 5-7°C. Foram avaliadas a utilização de prétratamento com “pulsing” (15% de sacarose por 24 horas seguido de acondicionamento em solução de manutenção (1, 2, 3 e 4% de sacarose e o acondicionamento em solução de manutenção sem prétratamento. As hastes florais foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e cinco repetições. As avaliações das flores foram diárias, sob critério de notas definido para comparar e verificar a conservação dos aspectos visuais. Nenhum dos tratamentos

  9. Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae un nuevo registro para la Flora del Perú

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    Eric F. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae como una nueva adición a la Flora del Perú procedente de los substratos de roca arenisca de la Cordillera subandina de Huarango (provincia San Ignacio, departamento Cajamarca, una prolongación sureña de la Cordillera del Cóndor rica en especies. Maxillaria jostii ha sido considerada como una especie endémica para Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe, Morona-Santiago; sin embargo, con el presente estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hacia el Perú. Esta nueva contribución al conocimiento de la flora del país es el resultado del trabajo de campo y de herbario, gracias al Proyecto Binacional «Inventario Botánico de la Región de la Cordillera del Cóndor, Ecuador y Perú, 2005-2007», desarrollado entre las instituciones: MO, HUT, LOJA y QCNE. La contrastación específica se realizó con las especies documentadas en el «Catálogo de las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Perú» (Brako & Zarucchi 1993, «Diez años de adiciones a la flora del Perú: 1993-2003» (Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004 y «Nuevas Adiciones de Angiospermas a la Flora del Perú» (Rodríguez et al. 2006b.

  10. Novel swellable polymer of orchidaceae family for gastroretentive drug delivery of famotidine

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    Razavi M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahboubeh Razavi,1 Shaik Nyamathulla,1,2 Hamed Karimian,1 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1,2 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Natural Products and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to develop hydrophilic, gastroretentive matrix tablets of famotidine with good floating and swelling properties. A novel gastroretentive drug delivery formulation was designed using salep, also known as salepi, a flour obtained from grinding dried palmate tubers of Orchis morio var mascula (Orchidaceae family. The main polysaccharide content of salep is glucomannan, highly soluble in cold and hot water, which forms a viscous solution. Salep was characterized for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, chemical interaction, and surface morphology using X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Ten different formulations (S1–S10 were prepared using famotidine to salep ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:5. Results demonstrated that all formulations were able to sustain the drug release for more than 24 hours. The S5 formulation, with a famotidine to salep ratio of 1:2.5, had the shortest floating lag time of 35 seconds and 100% drug release within 24 hours. The dissolution data were fitted into popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release. S5 showed Zero order release (R=0.9746 with Higuchi diffusion (R=0.9428. We conclude that salep, a novel polymer, can be used in controlled release formulations to sustain release for 24 hours, due to inherent swelling and gelling properties. Keywords: famotidine, floating matrix tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery, orchis, salep

  11. Metabolome of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) and related species under Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony Lionel; Grisoni, Michel; Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Jade, Katia; Bartet, Laetitia; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2012-11-01

    The genus Vanilla which belongs to the Orchidaceae family comprises more than 110 species of which two are commercially cultivated (Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla xtahitensis). The cured pods of these species are the source of natural vanilla flavor. In intensive cultivation systems the vines are threatened by viruses such as Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). In order to investigate the effect of CymMV on the growth and metabolome of vanilla plants, four accessions grown in intensive cultivation systems under shadehouse, CR01 (V. planifolia), CR17 (V. xtahitensis), CR03 (V. planifolia × V. xtahitensis) and CR18 (Vanilla pompona), were challenged with an isolate of CymMV. CymMV infected plants of CR01, CR03 and CR17 had a reduced growth compared to healthy plants, while there was no significant difference in the growth of CR18 vines. Interestingly, CR18 had qualitatively more phenolic compounds in leaves and a virus titre that diminished over time. No differences in the metabolomic profiles of the shadehouse samples obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were observed between the virus infected vs. healthy plants. However, using in- vitro V. planifolia plants, the metabolomic profiles were affected by virus infection. Under these controlled conditions the levels of amino acids and sugars present in the leaves were increased in CymMV infected plants, compared to uninfected ones, whereas the levels of phenolic compounds and malic acid were decreased. The metabolism, growth and viral status of V. pompona accession CR18 contrasted from that of the other species suggesting the existence of partial resistance to CymMV in the vanilla germplasm.

  12. A Comprehensive Review of the Cosmeceutical Benefits of Vanda Species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Hazrina; Razali, Syarifah Nazira Said; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan

    2015-08-01

    Orchidaceae is the largest family of flowering plants with over 35,000 species and 850 genera. About 3300 species of orchids are found in Malaysia and the diversity is highest in the Main, Keledang, Bintang and Tahan Ranges. Apart from being prized for their beauty, orchids have long been used by humans for medicinal purposes. Today the uses of orchids have been expanded to the food and cosmetics industries. Many cosmeceutical companies use orchid extracts as an active ingredient in their products. Previous studies provide riveting insights into the potential uses of orchid extracts as an active agent in cosmetics. This paper describes the cosmeceutical potential of orchids as an anti-aging, and skin moisturizing agent. Orchid extracts from Vanda coerulea and V. teres delay aging caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) following LV irradiation through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These extracts also show anti-aging properties by stimulating cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), which is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Stimulation of cytochrome c oxidase improves the respiratory function of mitochondria in keratinocytes. The presence of mucilage in orchids enables them to maintain skin hydration. Mucilage functions as a moisturizer and emollient due to its high water binding capacity. Additionally, orchid extracts provide skin hydration by stimulating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and LEKTI protein expression. The presence of AQP3 leads to a five-fold increase in water permeability, which subsequently increases stratum corneum hydration. Increased LEKTI protein expression mediated by orchid extracts reduces the degradation of desmoglein-1 and enhances the structural function of desmosomes, which play important roles in preventing water evaporation. PMID:26434147

  13. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

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    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  14. MORFOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DE DOS ESPECIES DE BANDERITAS (ORCHIDACEAE: MASDEVALLIA EN COLOMBIA Morphology and Morphometry of Two Banderitas Species (Orchidaceae: Masdevallia in Colombia

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    MÓNICA ADRIANA CUERVO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Masdevallia coccinea y Masdevallia ignea (Orchidaceae conocidas como "banderitas", son orquídeas ornamentales muy apreciadas por cultivadores aficionados y coleccionistas. En Colombia, la presión de colecta sobre estas especies ha sido enorme y pocas poblaciones naturales sobreviven en los departamentos de Boyacá (Arcabuco, Páramo de Berlín, Duitama y Santander (entre Málaga y Bucaramanga, estas poblaciones son reducidas y de difícil acceso; razón por la cual se encuentran en el apéndice II de CITES. Poco se sabe sobre su biología reproductiva, sistema reproductivo y polinización y parte de lo que consta en la literatura es incompleto. En este marco el objetivo general del trabajo fue estudiar la morfología y morfometría floral de M. coccinea y M. ignea en condiciones de semicultivo al aire libre en la finca Villa Rosa ubicada en el municipio de Guasca, Cundinamarca, para lo cual se realizó fotografía digital, pruebas histoquímicas, morfometría y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido. Los resultados principales de la morfometría mostraron que los sépalos dorsal y lateral fueron más largos en M. coccinea (X= 53,0 mm σ = 7,4 mm y X = 44,4 mm y σ = 8,3 mm en comparación a M. ignea (X = 34 mm σ = 7,7 mm y X = 31,5 mm y σ = 6,1 mm, pero las coloraciones de las partes florales de esta última fueron más intensas y su labelo fue más largo (X = 7,1 mm y σ = 0,6 mm. En las dos especies el labelo estuvo articulado a la columna y no se encontró presencia de glándulas con estructuras secretoras como nectarios ni osmóforos.Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea "banderitas" are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyacá (Arcabuco of Berlin Páramo, Duitama and Santander (between Málaga and Bucaramanga, in which these populations are reduced and of

  15. Ethanolic extract of Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae) and its compound coelogin promote osteoprotective activity in ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Dixit, Manisha; Shukla, Priyanka; Kumari, Tejaswita; Bhandari, S P S; Narender, T; Singh, Divya; Arya, K R

    2014-10-15

    Coelogyne cristata Lindley (CC) family Orchidaceae is an Indian medicinal plant used for the treatment of fractured bones in folk-tradition of Kumaon region, Uttarakhand, India. In continuation of our drug discovery program, feeding of ethanolic extract to ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice led to significant restoration of trabecular micro architecture in both femoral and tibial bones, better bone quality and also devoid of any uterine estrogenicity. Subsequently, coelogin, a pure compound was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of C. cristata and evaluated in in vitro osteoblast cell cultures. Treatment of coelogin to osteoblasts led to enhanced ALP activity (a marker of osteoblast differentiation), mineral nodule formation and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers like BMP-2, Type 1 Collagen and RUNX-2. Based on these results, we propose that ethanolic extract of C. cristata and its pure compound coelogin have potential in the management of post menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25442280

  16. Ploidy-specific symbiotic interactions: divergence of mycorrhizal fungi between cytotypes of the Gymnadenia conopsea group (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Roy, Mélanie; Kubátová, Barbora; Těšitel, Jakub; Urfus, Tomáš; Trávníček, Pavel; Suda, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Polyploidy is widely recognized as a major mechanism of sympatric speciation in plants, yet little is known about its effects on interactions with other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi are among the most common plant symbionts and play an important role in plant nutrient supply. It remains to be understood whether mycorrhizal associations of ploidy-variable plants can be ploidy-specific. We examined mycorrhizal associations in three cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x) of the Gymnadenia conopsea group (Orchidaceae), involving G. conopsea s.s. and G. densiflora, at different spatial scales and during different ontogenetic stages. We analysed: adults from mixed- and single-ploidy populations at a regional scale; closely spaced adults within a mixed-ploidy site; and mycorrhizal seedlings. All Gymnadenia cytotypes associated mainly with saprotrophic Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota). Nonetheless, both adults and seedlings of diploids and their autotetraploid derivatives significantly differed in the identity of their mycorrhizal symbionts. Interploidy segregation of mycorrhizal symbionts was most pronounced within a site with closely spaced adults. This study provides the first evidence that polyploidization of a plant species can be associated with a shift in mycorrhizal symbionts. This divergence may contribute to niche partitioning and facilitate establishment and co-existence of different cytotypes. PMID:23731358

  17. Proteomic and morphometric study of the in vitro interaction between Oncidium sphacelatum Lindl. (Orchidaceae) and Thanatephorus sp. RG26 (Ceratobasidiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chávez, Mariana Yadira; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Bertolini, Vincenzo; Encarnación, Sergio; Hernández-Ortiz, Magdalena; Sánchez-Moreno, Irene; Damon, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Orchidaceae establish symbiotic relationships with fungi in the Rhizoctonia group, resulting in interactions beneficial to both organisms or in cell destruction in one of them (pathogenicity). Previous studies have focused mostly on terrestrial species with a few, preliminary studies, on epiphytes. To further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these symbioses, we evaluated the interaction between Oncidium sphacelatum Lindl. and the mycorrhizal fungus Thanatephorus sp. strain RG26 (isolated from a different orchid species) in vitro using morphometric and proteomic analyses. Evidence from the morphometric and microscopic analysis showed that the fungus promoted linear growth and differentiation of orchid protocorms during 98 days interaction. On day 63, protocorm development was evident, so we analyzed the physiological response of both organisms at that moment. Proteome results suggest that orchid development stimulated by the fungus apparently involves cell cycle proteins, purine recycling, ribosome biogenesis, energy metabolism, and secretion that were up-regulated in the orchid; whereas in the fungus, a high expression of proteins implicated in stress response, protein-protein interaction, and saccharides and protein biosynthesis were found in the symbiotic interaction. This is the first work reporting proteins differentially expressed in the epiphytic orchid-fungus interaction and will contribute to the search for molecular markers that will facilitate the study of this symbiosis in both wild orchids and those in danger of extinction.

  18. Molecular Identification of Dendrobium Species (Orchidaceae Based on the DNA Barcode ITS2 Region and Its Application for Phylogenetic Study

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    Shangguo Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The over-collection and habitat destruction of natural Dendrobium populations for their commercial medicinal value has led to these plants being under severe threat of extinction. In addition, many Dendrobium plants are similarly shaped and easily confused during the absence of flowering stages. In the present study, we examined the application of the ITS2 region in barcoding and phylogenetic analyses of Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae. For barcoding, ITS2 regions of 43 samples in Dendrobium were amplified. In combination with sequences from GenBank, the sequences were aligned using Clustal W and genetic distances were computed using MEGA V5.1. The success rate of PCR amplification and sequencing was 100%. There was a significant divergence between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances of ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Based on the BLAST1, nearest distance and TaxonGAP methods, our results showed that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of most Dendrobium samples examined; Second, we used ITS2 as a DNA marker to infer phylogenetic relationships of 64 Dendrobium species. The results showed that cluster analysis using the ITS2 region mainly supported the relationship between the species of Dendrobium established by traditional morphological methods and many previous molecular analyses. To sum up, the ITS2 region can not only be used as an efficient barcode to identify Dendrobium species, but also has the potential to contribute to the phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dendrobium.

  19. Propagação in vitro de Oncidium baueri Lindl. (Orchidaceae sem uso de ágar = In vitro orchid propagation of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae without the use of agar

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    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a propagação in vitro de Oncidium baueri(Orchidaceae sem uso de ágar como agente solidificante do meio de cultura. As sementes foram germinadas em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS, 1962 modificado com a metade da concentração de macronutrientes. As plântulas, ao atingirem em média 1 cm de altura, foram subcultivadas para frascos de plástico de 600 mL, contendo 200 mL do mesmo meionutritivo utilizado para a germinação. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: 7 g de ágar por litro + meio 1/2 MS líquido; espuma de poliuretano picada + meio 1/2 MS líquido; esfagno + meio 1/2 MS líquido; areia grossa + meio 1/2 MS líquido. Oito meses após o início do experimento, as variáveis analisadas foram: altura da parte aérea, comprimento da maior raiz, número de brotações, número de raízes e matéria fresca total. As análises estatísticas demonstram que os tratamentos contendo esfagno ou areia não são indicados para substituírem o ágar, porém o tratamento com espuma de poliuretano picada proporcionou um ótimo enraizamento e ótimo desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas, sendo, portanto, uma alternativa eficiente e de menor custo para a substituição do ágar na propagação in vitro deOncidium baueri.This research aims at studying the in vitro propagation of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae without the use of agar as a solidifying agent of culture medium. The seeds were germinated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, 1962 modified with half of the macronutrients concentrations. When the seedlings reach an average height of 1 cm, they were subcultivated in 600 mL plastic flasks containing 200 mL of the same nutritive medium used for germination. The evaluated treatments were: 7 g of agar per liter + 1/2 MS medium liquid; chopped (polyurethane foam + 1/2 MS medium liquid; sphagnum + 1/2 MSmedium liquid; thick sand + 1/2MS medium liquid. The evaluated variables after 8 months of study were: aerial part height, tallest

  20. In vitro growth of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae at different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations / Crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The propagation in vitro is an important method for orchids reproduction, because the seeds don’t have endosperm and present low germination. The sugar is a important component in medium culture, serving as a source of carbon and energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth in vitro of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae in different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations. The treatments consisted: two formulations of the macronutrientes of the MS medium, in complete MS and MS modifed medium with half of the regular concentration of macronutrients, and different sucrose concentrations (30 gL-1, 40 gL-1e 60 gL-1, at pH 5,8. A randomized design with eight replications was used as statistical model and a fask with twenty plants composed each plot. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, complemented by the Tukey test at 5% of signifcance. The following variables were assessed six months after the beguining of the experiment: plant height, root length; number of roots, number of buds, dry mass and total fresh mass. The treatment that showed the best results was 40 gL-1 sucrose in a modifed MS medium with half of regular concentration of macronutrients, for vegetative development and rooting of Oncidium baueri orchid.A propagação in vitro é uma importante técnica na reprodução de orquídeas, devido às sementes serem desprovidas de endosperma e apresentarem uma baixa taxa de germinação na natureza. A sacarose é um componente importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia para as plântulas e os macronutrientes são essenciais para a nutrição e crescimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose. Os tratamentos consistiram em duas formulações dos macronutrientes do meio Murashige e Skoog (1962, sendo, MS completo e MS modifcado com metade da concentração dos

  1. Estratégias anatômicas foliares de treze espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB): MG, Brasil Strategies anatomy from thirteen Orchidaceae species occurring in a "high altitude grasslands" in the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB): Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivone Vieira da Silva; Renata Maria Strozi Alves Meira; Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Rosane Maria de Aguiar Euclydes

    2006-01-01

    O estudo objetivou caracterizar, anatomicamente, as folhas de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude (PESB), identificando caracteres anatômicos úteis na interpretação das estratégias adaptativas. As treze espécies estudadas vivem em condições ambientais extremas tendo sido estudados apenas indivíduos terrestres, exceto Pleurothallis teres Lindl. espécie exclusivamente rupícola. Avaliando os caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, dois grupos podem ser distinguidos, os das espécies perenes...

  2. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  3. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

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    A. Lange

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de várias espécies de monocotiledôneas, incluindo Orchidaceae e dicotiledôneas, sendo o meio Fam mais eficiente para sua detecção

  4. Biologia reprodutiva de Cattleya eldorado, uma espécie de Orchidaceae das campinas amazônicas Reproductive biology of Cattleya eldorado, a species of Orchidaceae from the Amazonian white sand campinas

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    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Orchidaceae são muito apreciadas por suas flores exóticas e exuberantes. É a maior família de plantas apresentando mais de 24000 espécies, o que denota uma alta diversidade de formas e adaptações a diferentes ambientes, como também para atração, engano e manipulação de visitantes na realização da polinização cruzada. Cattleya eldorado ocorre em áreas de campinas, que são formações vegetais típicas da região amazônica, que se encontram sob forte ação antrópica. Este trabalho tem como um de seus principais objetivos conhecer parte dos processos biológicos de C. eldorado fornecendo subsídios para conservá-la e manejá-la em seu habitat natural. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Biológica de Campina, de 2000 a 2006, durante a sua floração. C. eldorado é uma espécie epifítica que apresenta a síndrome de melitofilia, estando adaptada ao seu polinizador, a abelha Eulaema mocsaryi, que reconhece suas flores pelo odor e pelo estímulo visual através de sua coloração e reflexão de luz ultravioleta. C. eldorado é uma espécie autocompatível, embora necessite de um agente polinizador para a transferência do polinário até sua deposição na cavidade estigmática da flor.The orchid plants are highly prized for their lush exotic flowers. It is the largest plant family with more than 24000 species, which indicates a high diversity of forms and adaptations to different environments, including the capacity to attract, deceive and manipulate visitors involved in cross-pollination. Cattleya eldorado occurs in areas of white sand campinas, a typical vegetation type of the Amazon region, which is under strong anthropogenic pressure. This work's main objectives to know the biological processes of C. eldorado providing subsidies to maintain and manage it in its natural habitat. This study was conducted from 2000 to 2006 in the Campina Biological Reserve, during its flowering period. C. eldorado is an epiphytic

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Coelogyne (Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae) based on plastid RFLPS, matK, and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences: evidence for polyphyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravendeel, B; Chase, M W; de Vogel, E F; Roos, M C; Mes, T H; Bachmann, K

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the monophyly of Coelogyne (Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae) and reveal sectional relationships and relations to allied genera in subtribe Coelogyninae, we collected PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) from 11 plastid regions for 42 taxa (28 Coelogyne species and 14 representatives of other genera) and three outgroups from Bletiinae and Thuniinae. We also sequenced a large portion of the plastid trnK intron (mostly matK) and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (including the 5.8S gene). Separate phylogenetic analyses on each data set using maximum parsimony produced mainly congruent (except for the position of Panisea) but weakly supported clades. Parsimony analysis of the combined data clearly identified three main clades in Coelogyninae. Whereas Coelogyninae are monophyletic, Coelogyne is polyphyletic, with species falling into at least two well-supported clades. The utility of morphological characters used in previous classifications was explored by reconstructing character state evolution on one of the four molecular trees. Lip base and petal shape were homoplasious, whereas ovary indumentum and flower number were congruent with well-supported groups. The implications of our results for the classification of Coelogyne are discussed, and a reorganization of the genus by including Neogyna and Pholidota and removing several species is proposed. PMID:21669624

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae

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    Si-Si Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64% sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-12-18

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  8. Orchidaceae novae Malayenses XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Planta parva. Caules erecti, tenues, basi tantum ramosi, basi radicantes, c. 23 cm longi, inferne vaginati, superne 3—4-foliati. Folia erecto-patentia, lanceolata, acuminata, acutissima, basi acuta, nervis 5 majoribus sicco subtus et etiam supra prominentibus pluribusque tenuibus, sicco membranacea,

  9. Orchidaceae novae malayenses XVII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1943-01-01

    Planta florens 62—72 cm alta. Caulis inferne vaginatus, ceterum foliatus. Folia c. 8, lineari-lanceolata ad linearia, breviter acuminata ad sensim acutata, acuta, sicco membranacea, 12.5—14 cm longa, 1.8—1.1 cm lata, superiora decrescentia et sensim in bracteas vergentia; vaginae inferiores longe tu

  10. Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae by in vitro techniques Indução e identificação de poliploides em Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae através de técnicas in vitro

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    Paulo Artur Konzen Xavier de Mello e Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colchicine on the protocorm-like bodies of Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae cultured in vitro was studied. Different concentrations of the drug (0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% as well as two times of culture (4 or 8 days were tested to determine the best treatment for the induction of tetraploid plants. Of the 3 colchicine levels applied, 0.05 and 0.10% of drug treatments appeared to be effective on the production of mixoploids and tetraploids and could be further used in breeding programs. The suitability of stomatal area and stomata density as criteria for the distinction between diploids and tetraploids was also tested. The results suggested that tetraploid plants could be identified with a fair amount of certainty when the screening was based on the density of stomata.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da colchicina em corpos semelhantes a protocormos de Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae. Diferentes concentrações da droga (0,00; 0,05; 0,10 e 0,20%, bem como diferentes tempos de cultura (4 ou 8 dias foram testados para determinar o melhor tratamento para a indução de plantas tetraplóides. Dos três níveis de colchicina aplicados, os tratamentos com 0,05 e 0,10% da droga parecem ser mais efetivos na produção de mixoplóides e tetraplóides, sendo que tais tratamentos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Como critério para distinção entre diplóides e tetraplóides, foram realizadas medidas de área de estômatos e densidade de estômatos das folhas. Os resultados sugerem que as plantas tetraplóides podem ser identificadas com elevado grau de certeza quando a seleção é realizada com base na densidade de estômatos.

  11. Zeuxine flava, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China%中国兰科线柱兰属一新记录种--黄花线柱兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 覃海宁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国兰科植物一新记录种,黄花线柱兰Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f..本种的唇瓣橘黄色并呈"T"形,前唇裂片成方形,长宽近相等,唇瓣基部囊内各具一枚钩状胼胝体.%Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f., a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is reported. This species is characterized by having flowers saffron, lip "T"-shaped, lobules of epichile squarish and not much longer than wide, and each side of sac with only one callus inside.

  12. Numeric Dynamics of Population of Endangered Species Dendrobium fimbriatum, Orchidaceae%濒危兰科植物流苏石斛的种群数量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 殷寿华; 兰芹英

    2012-01-01

    This research studied the numeric dynamics of two populations of Dendrobium fimbriatum (21°58'N, 101°13'E, human disturbance and 21°54'N, 101°17'E, in-situ conservation), an endangered species of Orchidaceae in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, China. The static life table, the fecundity schedule and the Leslie matrix model were applied to understand the numeric dynamics and the age structure of the population. The results showed that the survival curves of two populations were the Deevey-Ⅰ type. The net reproduction rate (Ro), the intrinsic increase rate (rm) and the finite increase rate (A) of the two populations were all very low, indicating that the two populations were in a situation of downward tendency. The Leslie matrix model predicted that in the next 25 years the number of the two populations would continuously decrease. The key threats to this species are most likely human's disturbance and deforestation and habitat fragmentation.%运用静态生命表、生殖力表和Leslie矩阵模型,研究了云南西双版纳地区流苏石斛两个种群——A种群(21°58'N,101°13'E,保护区之外)和B种群(21°54'N,101°17’E,保护区内)的种群数量动态.结果表明:种群存活曲线表现为Deevey-Ⅰ型.A、B种群均表现出幼龄个体死亡率高,中龄级个体数量少,说明中龄阶段曾受到较大的人为干扰种群的净增长率(R.)、内禀增长率(γm)和周限增长率(λ)都较低,表现为衰退种群,Leslie矩阵模型分析表明在未来25年种群各龄级的个体数及种群总数均表现出持续下降趋势.种群下降可能是由于当地人为的采挖和严重的生境破碎化所导致.

  13. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de protocormos de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae em associação com fungos micorrízicos do gênero Epulorhiza Seed germination and protocorm development of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae in association with Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na natureza, as espécies de Orchidaceae estão associadas a fungos micorrízicos. A compreensão da especificidade fungo-planta nessa associação pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas para propagação simbiótica das orquídeas. Fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. com maior freqüência. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocormos de E. secundum associados a diferentes isolados de fungos do gênero Epulorhiza. Utilizou-se 16 fungos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de diferentes populações de E. secundum. Após 44 dias, todos os fungos testados induziram a germinação das sementes. Entretanto, observou-se diferença na eficiência desses fungos em promover o desenvolvimento dos protocormos, mesmo entre os fungos que apresentam semelhanças morfológicas. O estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado dos protocormos e o maior índice de crescimento foram observados quando as sementes foram inoculadas com o isolado M65. Conclui-se que a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento dos protocormos de E. secundum dependem do fungo micorrízico e que, apesar da grande freqüência de associação entre essa espécie de orquídea e fungos do gênero Epulorhiza, é importante a seleção de isolados que apresentem maior eficiência simbiótica. Isolados eficientes são úteis na produção de mudas de orquídeas de importância econômica e ornamental e de espécies ameaçadas de extinção.In nature, species of Orchidaceae are always associated with mycorrhizal fungi. The comprehension of fungal-plant specificity in this association can assist with the establishment of programs that focus on symbiotic propagation of orchids. Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi have frequently been isolated from Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of E. secundum seeds and protocorm development associated

  14. Estratégias anatômicas foliares de treze espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: MG, Brasil Strategies anatomy from thirteen Orchidaceae species occurring in a "high altitude grasslands" in the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou caracterizar, anatomicamente, as folhas de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude (PESB, identificando caracteres anatômicos úteis na interpretação das estratégias adaptativas. As treze espécies estudadas vivem em condições ambientais extremas tendo sido estudados apenas indivíduos terrestres, exceto Pleurothallis teres Lindl. espécie exclusivamente rupícola. Avaliando os caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, dois grupos podem ser distinguidos, os das espécies perenes (Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Epidendrum xanthinum Lindl., Oncidium barbaceniae Lindl., Oncidium blancheti Rchb. F., Pleurothallis prolifera Lindl., Pleurothallis teres Lindl., Zygopetalum brackypetalum Lindl. e Zygopetalum mackaii Hook. e os das espécies com redução das partes aéreas no período seco (Cleistes gracilis Schdl., Habenaria hydrophila Barb. Rodr., Habenaria janeirensis Kraenzl, Habenaria macronectar Hoehne e Prescottia montana Barb. Rodr.. As espécies perenes apresentam caracteres xeromórficos: folhas coriáceas ou coriáceas suculentas, cutícula espessa e estriada, hipoderme, grupos de fibras esparsas no mesofilo homogêneo, parênquima aqüífero com espessamento em barras ou espiralados nas paredes, idioblastos de ráfides e feixes vasculares colaterais circundados e com calotas de fibras. Nas espécies com redução das partes aéreas ocorrem investimentos diferenciados e os caracteres xeromórficos não são acentuados. As folhas são delgadas, com células epidérmicas adaxiais altas sendo a cutícula delgada geralmente desprovida de estriamentos e a presença de idioblastos de ráfides freqüentes no mesofilo. Não ocorre hipoderme e os feixes vasculares são reduzidos e sem associações com fibras.The purpose of this work was to characterize the leaf anatomy of thirteen Orchidaceae species in a "high altitude grasslands", located at State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro, and identify anatomical characteristics helpful to

  15. Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitro en el desarrollo de híbridos de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae

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    Seir Antonio Salazar Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of different in vitro culture media in the development of Phalaenopsis hybrid (OrchidaceaeTitulo corto: Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitroResumen: Los híbridos de Phalaenopsis tienen una gran importancia económica a nivel mundial, como flor cortada y planta ornamental, debido a sus flores vistosas y a la capacidad de adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales. Las técnicas de cultivo in vitro resultan indispensables para mejorar la eficacia germinativa, el crecimiento y desarrollo de orquídeas con fines comerciales e investigativos. En esta investigación se determinó el medio de cultivo más apropiado para la germinación in vitro de un híbrido de Phalaenopsis. Inicialmente se evaluó la viabilidad de las semillas utilizando la prueba de tetrazolio (TZ. Las semillas se desinfectaron y se cultivaron aplicando el método de la jeringuilla. El porcentaje de viabilidad en promedio fue de 92,2% (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con un porcentaje de germinación entre todos los medios de 95,1 % (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD. El medio de cultivo más eficiente para la germinación de híbridos de Phalaenopsis a las 18 semanas de cultivo fue el Murashige & Skoog (MS suplementado con agua de coco, y jugo de piña con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo, contribuyendo de esta manera al uso de componentes orgánicos con el fin de mejorar la germinación y desarrollo de Phalaenopsis.Palabras clave: Componente orgánico, germinación in vitro, hibrido,  Phalaenopsis,       viabilidad. Abstract: The Phalaenopsis hybrids have a significant economic importance throughout the world, as ornamental flower or plant. It is because of its attractive flowers and its adaptation capacity into different environments. The different culture media in vitro are vital to improve the efficacy of germination, growing and development of the Orchids for commercial and

  16. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407 Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1407

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícula relativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando madurasMiltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae. The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable this species to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of the pseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape

  17. Efeito de combinações diferentes de reguladores de crescimento a partir da indução de botões de plântulas de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2106 Effects of different combinations of growth regulators for bud induction from seedlings of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vanessa Krapiec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram investigadas diferentes combinações e concentrações de auxinas e citocininas para ativar o desenvolvimento de brotos e multiplicar plântulas de Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae, sem estágio intermediário de calos. As plântulas de C. walkeriana foram cultivadas em meio B5, contendo 2% de sacarose, 0,65% de agar e combinações fatoriais das auxinas ácido naftalenoacético (NAA e ácido 3-indolbutírico (IBA, e das citocininas 6-benzilaminopurina (BA e cinetina (KIN, nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5mg/L. O maior número de brotos com folhas desenvolvidas foi formado nas plântulas cultivadas em meio contendo IBA e BA, enquanto o menor número de brotos foi observado na combinação NAA e KIN. Houve maior indução de brotos em meio contendo somente IBA (na ausência de citocininas nas três concentrações. A maior freqüência de indução de brotos usando as combinações de BA e IBA indicaram que essa combinação foi mais efetiva para a multiplicação in vitro de C. walkeriana, usando plântulas como explantesThe present study reports a research with different concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins to activate bud development and to obtain multiplication of Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae without an intermediate callus stage. Seedlings of C. walkeriana were cultured on B5 medium containing 2% sucrose and solidified with 0.65% agar, with factorial combinations of the auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3-indolbutyric acid (IBA, and cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BA and N-(2-furanyl-methyl-1-purine-6 amine (Kinetin at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L. The highest number of buds with elongated leaves occurred by cultivating seedlings on medium containing different concentrations of IBA and BA, while the lowest number was observed in NAA and KIN combination. IBA alone yielded better results at the three tested concentrations, when compared to the total absence of

  18. Indução in vitro da germinação de sementes de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae por fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides In vitro symbiotic seed germination of Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae by rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinto Liparini Pereira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocórmios de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae induzidos simbioticamente são descritos pela primeira vez. As sementes de O. flexuosum foram inoculadas com dez fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides, previamente isolados de micorrizas de dez espécies de orquídeas neotropicais do Brasil, incluindo O. flexuosum. Foram utilizados um isolado pertencente à espécie Epulorhiza repens, dois pertencentes à Epulorhiza epiphytica, seis de Ceratorhiza spp. e um de Rhizoctonia sp. Sementes inoculadas com o isolado M2 de Ceratorhiza sp., originalmente isolado do sistema radicular de O. flexuosum em habitat natural, promoveu a germinação das sementes em sete dias e em, aproximadamente, 30 % das plântulas, houve formação de folhas após 50 dias de incubação, apresentando pelotons em algumas células do protocórmio e das radicelas. Os demais isolados promoveram a germinação das sementes; entretanto, não promoveram um desenvolvimento ótimo dos protocórmios. Sementes incubadas na ausência de fungos micorrízicos não germinaram. A especificidade e a alta dependência de O. flexuosum pela associação micorrízica ficaram claras. Aspectos relativos à especificidade, anatomia da interação fungo-planta e a importância da seleção de estirpes fúngicas, previamente ao uso de fungos micorrízicos para o cultivo simbiótico a partir de sementes de O. flexuosum são discutidos.Symbiotic in vitro seed germination and protocorm development of Oncidium flexuosum is described for the first time. O. flexuosum seeds were inoculated with ten mycorrhizal isolates, originally obtained from the mycorrhiza of ten neotropical Brazilian orchid species, including O. flexuosum. One of the isolates belongs to Epulorhiza repens, two to Epulorhiza epiphytica, six to Ceratorhiza spp., and one to Rhizoctonia sp. Seeds inoculated with the M2 isolate of Ceratorhiza sp., originally isolated from the root system of wild O

  19. Levantamento de espécies da família Orchidaceae em Águas de Sta. Bárbara (SP e seu cultivo A survey of the Orchidaceae family species to evaluate the biodiversity and their cultivation in the district of Águas de Santa Bárbara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Cardoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa avaliar a biodiversidade nas matas do Brasil, especificamente sobre a família das orquidáceas que possuem plantas com valor ornamental, medicinal e alimentício. O local de estudo foi o município de Águas de Sta. Bárbara, devido a grande quantidade de matas ciliares às margens dos Rios Novo e Pardo, além de remanescentes de cerrado e por ser uma cidade turística e agrícola com riscos de problemas ambientais. Foi realizada a caracterização, buscando conhecer, mapear, avaliar o potencial ornamental e estabelecer algumas técnicas de cultivo das espécies encontradas. Foram visitadas áreas particulares com matas ribeirinhas em trechos privilegiados das margens dos Rios Novo e Pardo, além de áreas remanescentes de cerrado presente na vegetação nativa do município. Nos locais de observação das espécies encontradas foram medidas a temperatura média e a umidade relativa do ambiente, buscando informações que auxiliem no cultivo dessas plantas. As espécies predominantes encontradas são pertencentes aos gêneros Brassavola, Catassetum, Cattleya, Eulophidium, Epidendrum, Ionopsis, Microlaelia, Oncidium, Pleurothallis, Polystachya e Rodriguezia, demonstrando a grande biodiversidade de orquidáceas presente no município. Na maioria são microrquídeas, sem valor ornamental, porém com grande potencial para a realização de cruzamentos, visando o melhoramento genético.The biodiversity of the Orchidaceae family species presenting potential ornamental, medical and nutritional values was studied. Águas de Santa Bárbara (Brazil was chosen due to the presence of gallery forests along the rivers Pardo and Novo, due to the occurrence of areas covered with Savannah vegetation and also due to the risks of environmental degradation by the presence of intense tourist and industrial activities in the area. Mapping and evaluation of the species with potential for ornamental purposes were done with the objective of

  20. 深圳香荚兰,首次发现于华南深圳的兰科新种%Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen, the first new species of Orchidaceae found in Shenzhen, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仲健; 陈心启; 茹正忠

    2007-01-01

    Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen,a new species of Orchidaceae,is described and illustrated.This is the first new species of Orchidaceae found in Shenzhen,South China.It is akin to Vanilla somai Hayata,from which it differs by having 4-flowered inflorescences,not fully opening flowers with their unlobed lip joined 3/4 of its length to the column,and a retrorse tuft of fimbriate appendage in the upper part of the lip.%对兰科新种深圳香荚兰Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen作了描述与绘图.此新种为深圳发现的第一个兰科新种,与台湾香荚兰V.somai Hayata有亲缘关系.但是,本新种花序具4花,花较大,不完全开放;唇瓣不裂,紫红色,基部与蕊柱合生长度达3/4,刷状附属物位于唇盘的上部,甚易区别于台湾香荚兰.

  1. Natural polyploidy in Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bory, Séverine; Catrice, Olivier; Brown, Spencer; Leitch, Ilia J; Gigant, Rodolphe; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Grisoni, Michel; Duval, Marie-France; Besse, Pascale

    2008-10-01

    Vanilla planifolia accessions cultivated in Reunion Island display important phenotypic variation, but little genetic diversity is demonstrated by AFLP and SSR markers. This study, based on analyses of flow cytometry data, Feulgen microdensitometry data, chromosome counts, and stomatal length measurements, was performed to determine whether polyploidy could be responsible for some of the intraspecific phenotypic variation observed. Vanilla planifolia exhibited an important variation in somatic chromosome number in root cells, as well as endoreplication as revealed by flow cytometry. Nevertheless, the 2C-values of the 50 accessions studied segregated into three distinct groups averaging 5.03 pg (for most accessions), 7.67 pg (for the 'Stérile' phenotypes), and 10.00 pg (for the 'Grosse Vanille' phenotypes). For the three groups, chromosome numbers varied from 16 to 32, 16 to 38, and 22 to 54 chromosomes per cell, respectively. The stomatal length showed a significant variation from 37.75 microm to 48.25 microm. Given that 2C-values, mean chromosome numbers, and stomatal lengths were positively correlated and that 'Stérile' and 'Grosse Vanille' accessions were indistinguishable from 'Classique' accessions using molecular markers, the occurrence of recent autotriploid and autotetraploid types in Reunion Island is supported. This is the first report showing evidence of a recent autopolyploidy in V. planifolia contributing to the phenotypic variation observed in this species.

  2. Does Oeceoclades maculata (Orchidaceae reabsorb nectar?

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    João Marcelo Robazzi Bignelli Valente Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar is the most common resource offered by orchid flowers. In some cases, flowers reabsorb nectar as part of a resource-recovery strategy. Nectar is present only in the morning in the widespread orchid Oececoclades maculata (Lindl. Lindl. To determine whether this is due to reabsorption or evaporation of water, the volume of nectar and its concentration in previously bagged flowers were determined throughout the day at two hourly intervals. In addition, the entrance to the nectary of flowers of cultivated plants was obstructed with petroleum jelly in the morning, to prevent the evaporation of water and, in the afternoon, the presence of nectar was recorded. Furthermore, manually self-pollinated flowers, also with the entrance to the nectary obstructed, had their nectary checked 24 hours after pollination to determine whether post-pollination reabsorption occurred. In addition, the period when the pollinators of O. maculata foraged for nectar was determined in order to establish whether it was associated with the period when nectar was available. The volume and concentration of nectar in O. maculata flowers vary from 0.82 μl (25.10% between 10–12 h and 0.36 μl (33.73% between 16–18 h and this difference is caused by evaporation of water. Post-pollination reabsorption does not occur in this species. Pollinators forage most actively between 10–12 h. Thus, O. maculata does not reabsorb nectar, but evaporative water loss is a significant factor determining the variation in the volume and concentration of this reward and this is positively correlated with butterfly visitation.

  3. Revision of Coelogyne section Fuliginosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelser, P.B.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Fuliginosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. With the help of a pollen study, principal component and cluster analyses with morphological characters and a survey of some additional data, two species are recognized (C. fimbriata and C. triplicatula), including one dubious variety (C. fimbriata var. acuminata). Eleven names are reduced to synonymy. Three species formerly included in sect. Fuliginosae by several authors are excluded ( (C. micrantha, C. treutle...

  4. Revision of Coelogyne section Speciosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    1999-01-01

    Section Speciosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. Sixteen species are recognized, including one new ( C. tommii) and one dubious species ( (C. dichroantha). Three former varieties are raised to subspecies level ( C. speciosa subsp. speciosa, subsp. incarnata and subsp. fimbriata). Two species formerly included in sect. Speciosae by several authors are excluded (C. eberhardtii and C. lawrenceana).

  5. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae / Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1 Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a capacity of 1.5L lined inside with transparent plastic bag and lidded with proper lid. 2 Solid substrate formed by the mixture of sand, carbonized rice husk, soil and cured cow manure in equal proportions of volume, they being placed in rigid polypropylene with a capacity of 0.28L. 3 Pre-rooting of the cuttings in liquid medium (20 days before planting, and later transferred into seedling tubes containing solid substrate. The cuttings planted in the solid substrate were maintained under intermittent mist condition controlled by a timer. After 90 days, the percentage of rooting was of 98-100%, regardless of the treatment. Larger and more vigorous sproutings were obtained from cuttings planted directly into solid substrate. Adventitious rooting of cuttings and formation of new vanilla cuttings occurred, when the cuttings were obtained from position P2 (ranging between 20 to 40cm in stem height and planted in solid substrate in greenhouse with intermittent misting system. A baunilheira (Vanilla planifolia é uma planta pouco explorada comercialmente, devido ao emprego de tecnologias de baixa eficiência para a produção de mudas. Assim sendo, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes substratos, no enraizamento adventício de estacas retiradas de diferentes posições na planta. Estacas com 20cm de comprimento, duas gemas e uma folha, tomadas na haste da planta, em cinco posições subseqüentes, a partir do ápice caulinar foram plantadas em diferentes substratos: 1 Meio líquido formado pela solução nutritiva de Clark acrescida de 2,5mg L-1 de AIB, sendo acondicionado em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 1,5L revestidas, internamente, com sacola plástica transparente e vedadas com tampa própria. As tampas foram perfuradas para introdução das estacas plantadas na orientação vertical normal, com uma gema imersa na solução. O arejamento contínuo do meio líquido foi realizado com o auxílio de um compressor de ar. 2 Substrato sólido (areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, solo e esterco bovino curtido, em proporções iguais de volume, acondicionado em tubetes de polipropileno com capacidade para 0,28L. 3 Pré-enraizamento das estacas em meio líquido (20 dias antes do plantio, e posterior transferência das mesmas para tubetes contendo substrato sólido. As estacas plantadas no substrato sólido foram mantidas sob condições de nebulização intermitente controlada por um timer. Após 90 dias de cultivo, verificou-se uma porcentagem de estacas enraizadas na ordem de 98% a 100%, independente do tratamento. Brotações maiores e mais vigorosas foram obtidas em estacas plantadas diretamente no substrato sólido. O enraizamento adventício de estacas e a formação de mudas de baunilheira foram favorecidos quando as estacas foram obtidas da posição P2 (compreendida entre 20 a 40cm do ápice e plantadas em substrato sólido, em casa de vegetação com sistema de nebulização intermitente.

  6. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae) /
    Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo; José Maria Moreira Dias; Flávio Pereira Silva; Moacir Pasqual; Maria das Dôres David Silva

    2009-01-01

    The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia) could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1) Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a cap...

  7. Nujiangia (Orchidaceae: Orchideae): A new genus from the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua JIN; De-Zhu LI; Xiao-Guo XIANG; Yang-Jun LAI; Xiao-Chun SHI

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon,Habenaria griffithii,were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence.Morphologically,H.griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead,it is close to Gennaria,Diphylax,Peristylus,and Platanthera.It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther,rostellum having two relatively long arms,lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part,and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma.An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL,matK,and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H.griffithii is closest to Gennaria,a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands.On this basis,a new genus,Nujiangia,is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon.In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus,the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.

  8. Eight new species of Gomphichis (Orchidaceae, Spiranthoideae) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nowak; D.L. Szlachetko; J. Mytnik-Ejsmont; A.M. Cleef

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Gomphichis from Colombia are described. Each species is illustrated, and detailed habitat and distribution data are provided. A distribution map of the new species is presented. A dichotomous key for determination of the Gomphichis species in northern South America is

  9. The structure of nectary of Platanthera bifolia L. Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of Platanthera bifolia were studied. The epidermis inside the nectary spur showed characteristic features of secretory tissue. Many cells of this epidermis were protruded forming unicellular hairs. The protoplasts of secretory cells were characterized by few small vacuoles, a lot of mitochondria and leucoplasts, which stored starch before secretion. Numerous vesicles budded off from the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were accumulated near plasmalemma and fused with it. This fact probably indicates that these structures are involved in secretory processes. Nectar was released onto the surface through the pores in a ruptured cuticle, which covered the walls of secretory hairs.

  10. Singchia and Gunnaria, two new genera of Orchidaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Jian LIU; Li-Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Singchia Z. J. Liu & L. J. Chen, a new orchid genus, is established based on the new species S. malipoensis Z. J. Liu & L. J. Chen found in southeast Yunnan, China. The new genus is related to Pteroceras, from which it differs by having a lip with its basal margins immovably adnate to the lower part of the pendent column foot, a thin-walled spur, and very unequally and deeply split pollinia, each with a distinct caudicle. In addition to a discussion on Ascocentrum pusillum, a species of questionable placement, another new genus, namely Gunnaria S. C. Chen ex Z. J. Liu & L. J. Chen, is set up and a new combination, namely G. pusilla (Aver.) Z. J. Liu & L. J. Chen, is made. The new genus Gunnaria differs from its ally Ascocentrum by having a cross-shaped pollinarium, sulcate or split pollinia, each with a distinct caudicle attached to a common linear stipe much longer than either pollinia or viscidium, and strongly incurved side lobes of the lip.

  11. The genus Nervilia (Orchidaceae) in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Börge

    1991-01-01

    The orchidaceous genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaud, is revised for Africa, including Madagascar and other islands, and the Arabian peninsula. Sixteen species are recognized, two of which are each subdivided into two varieties. Keys are presented for all taxa. Lectotypes or neotypes are given for all rele

  12. Pollination and protection against herbivory of Nepalese Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, A.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Achterberg, van, C.; Heijerman, T.; LENS, F.; Dooren, van, H.J.C.; Gravendeel, B.

    2011-01-01

    • Premise of the Study: Although many species in the orchid genus Coelogyne are horticulturally popular, hardly anything is known about their pollination. Pollinators of three species were observed in the fi eld in Nepal. This information is urgently needed because many orchid species in Nepal are endangered. Whether the exudates produced by extrafl oral nectaries played a role in protection against herbivory was also investigated. • Methods: Pollinators of C. fl accida , C. nitida , and Otoc...

  13. Revisions in Coelogyninae (Orchidaceae) IV. Coelogyne section Tomentosae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, de, V.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a taxonomic revision of Coelogyne section Tomentosae (24 species). Five species (C. acutilabium, C. bruneiensis, C. echinolabium, C. latiloba, C. velulina) are newly described; three other species are allotted for the first time to this section (C. buennemeyeri, C. distans, C. rupicola). One species, formerly included in section Tomentosae, is excluded (C. veitchii). Six species are here reduced to synonymy. A key to the species is provided. Synonymy, description, distri...

  14. Pseudopollen in Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. (Orchidaceae): Reward or Deception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In 1987, Kjellsson and Rasmussen described the labellar trichomes of Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. and proposed that these hairs function as pseudopollen. Pseudopollen is a mealy material that superficially resembles pollen, is usually laden with food substances and is formed when labellar hairs either fragment into individual cells or become detached from the labellum. However, the trichomes of D. unicum are very different from pseudopollen‐forming hairs found in other orchid genera such as Maxillaria and Polystachya. Moreover, Kjellsson and Rasmussen were unable to demonstrate the presence of food substances within these trichomes and argued that even in the absence of food substances, the hairs, in that they superficially resemble pollen, can still attract insects by deceit. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the labellar trichomes of D. unicum contain food reserves and thus reward potential pollinators or whether they are devoid of foods and attract insects solely by mimicry. • Methods Light microscopy, histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. • Key Results Dendrobium unicum produces pseudopollen. Pseudopollen here, however, differs from that previously described for other orchid genera in that the pseudopollen‐forming trichomes consist of a stalk cell and a ‘head’ of component cells that separate at maturity, in contrast to Maxillaria and some Polystachya spp. where pseudopollen is formed by the fragmentation of moniliform hairs. Moreover, the pseudopollen of Maxillaria and Polystachya largely contains protein, whereas in D. unicum the main food substance is starch. • Conclusions Flowers of D. unicum, rather than attracting insects solely by deceit may also reward potential pollinators. PMID:15159216

  15. Pseudopollen in Eria Lindl. Section Mycaranthes Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pseudopollen is a whitish, mealy material produced upon the labella of a number of orchid species as labellar hairs either become detached or fragment. Since individual hair cells are rich in protein and starch, it has long been speculated that pseudopollen functions as a reward for visiting insects. Although some 90 years have passed since Beck first described pseudopollen for a small number of Eria spp. currently assigned to section Mycaranthes Rchb.f., we still know little about the character of pseudopollen in this taxon. The use of SEM and histochemistry would re-address this deficit in our knowledge whereas comparison of pseudopollen in Eria (S.E. Asia), Maxillaria (tropical and sub-tropical America), Polystachya (largely tropical Africa and Madagascar) and Dendrobium unicum (Thailand and Laos) would perhaps help us to understand better how this feature may have arisen and evolved on a number of different continents. • Methods Pseudopollen morphology is described using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Hairs were tested for starch, lipid and protein using IKI, Sudan III and the xanthoproteic test, respectively. • Key Results and Conclusions The labellar hairs of all eight representatives of section Mycaranthes examined are identical. They are unicellular, clavate with a narrow ‘stalk’ and contain both protein and starch but no detectable lipid droplets. The protein is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and the starch is confined to amyloplasts. The hairs become detached from the labellar surface and bear raised cuticular ridges and flaky deposits that are presumed to be wax. In that they are unicellular and appear to bear wax distally, the labellar hairs are significantly different from those observed for other orchid species. Comparative morphology indicates that they evolved independently in response to pollinator pressures similar to those experienced by other unrelated pseudopollen-forming orchids on other continents. PMID:15451721

  16. Evolution of resupination in Malagasy species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gunter A; Gravendeel, Barbara; Sieder, Anton; Andriantiana, Jacky; Heiselmayer, Paul; Cribb, Phillip J; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Samuel, Rosabelle; Kiehn, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Resupination is the orientation of zygomorphic flowers during development so that the median petal obtains the lowermost position in the mature flower. Despite its evolutionary and ecological significance, resupination has rarely been studied in a phylogenetic context. Ten types of resupination occur among the 210 species of the orchid genus Bulbophyllum on Madagascar. We investigated the evolution of resupination in a representative sample of these species by first reconstructing a combined nrITS and cpDNA phylogeny for a sectional reclassification and then plotting the different types of inflorescence development, which correlated well with main clades. Resupination by apical drooping of the rachis appears to have evolved from apical drooping of the peduncle. Erect inflorescences with resupinate flowers seem to have evolved several times into either erect inflorescences with (partly) non-resupinate flowers or pendulous inflorescences with resupinate flowers.

  17. Taxonomic revision of Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade (Laeliinae, Orchidaceae

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    Luiz Menini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudolaelia is a genus endemic to eastern Brazil. The species are often epiphytes on Velloziaceae or are saxicolous, predominantly on granitic and gneissic outcrops (inselbergs in the Atlantic Forest and, less often, in the campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands of the cerrado (savanna and caatinga (shrublands. The genus is characterized by homoblastic pseudobulbs, long rhizomes, long and usually slender inflorescences, racemes or panicles, bearing pink, yellow or whitish flowers, labellum often 3-lobed, with simple, fimbriate or erose margin, semi-cylindrical or claviform column, cuniculus present. Twelve species are recognized; seven binomials are placed in synonymy. Of those seven, three are considered illegitimate because, contrary to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature guidelines, there are no corresponding type specimens deposited in a recognized herbarium, and those three were therefore lectotypified. We present descriptions of, illustrations of and a dichotomous key to Pseudolaelia species, as well as addressing their taxonomy, ecology, conservation and geographic distribution.

  18. A study of seed micromorphology in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae

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    Galán Cela, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed micromorphology of 19 taxa of the genus Ophrys have been studied using SEM and light microscope. Quantitative data (length and width of seed and embryo, number of testa cells along the longitudinal axis, volume of seed and embryo, and percentage of free air space, as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, features of the anticlinal and periclinal walls, ornamentation and colour were analysed. All the seeds are fusiform, with an asymmetrical basal pole, the periclinal walls of the medial cells have parallel and transverse to slanting ridges, and raised anticlinal walls. Statistical analyses show two large clusters according to the volumes of seed and embryo. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and their recent diversification, however, seed features are not congruent with the recognition of sections and groups within Ophrys.Se ha estudiado la micromorfología de semillas de 19 taxones del género Ophrys mediante el empleo de microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido. Se han analizado datos cuantitativos (longitud y anchura de la semilla y del embrión, número de células en la testa a lo largo del eje longitudinal, volumen de la semilla y del embrión, y porcentaje de espacio aéreo libre y cualitativos (morfología de la semilla, características de sus paredes anticlinales y periclinales, ornamentación y color. Todas las semillas analizadas son fusiformes, con polo basal asimétrico, ornamentación de las paredes periclinales formada por costillas paralelas y transversales a oblicuas, y paredes anticlinales prominentes. Los análisis estadísticos revelan dos grandes cluster según los valores de los volúmenes de la semilla y el embrión. Nuestros resultados apoyan la monofilia del género y su reciente diversificación, sin embargo, los caracteres micromorfológicos de las semillas no son congruentes con el reconocimiento de secciones y grupos dentro del género Ophrys.

  19. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Sáez, Llorenç

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  20. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

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    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  1. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    populations within species (FPS=0.141). Nevertheless, they are efficiently recognized by their genotypic compositions. In V. barbellata and V. claviculata 97-99% of all individuals were assigned to the correct species. Assignment to a wrong species occurred only with individuals at localities where species...

  2. Osmophores of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea L. (Orchidaceae

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    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Osmophores of Gymnadenia conopsea are located on the adaxial surface of labellum and on distal parts of two lateral sepals. Osmophore cells are characterised with a large nucleus, and dense, granular cytoplasm, which contains numerous membranes of ER and large lipid droplets. Plastids are probably involved in the synthesis of fragrant substances and, contrary to the most of investigated orchid species, they do not contain starch. Numerous secretory vesicles take part in the secretion. Secreted fragrant substance migrates across the cell wall and through the pores in the cuticle. It is not accumulated on the osmophore cell surface.

  3. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae del suroccidente de Ecuador A new natural hybrid of Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from southwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Javier Zambrano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.A new natural hybrid of Dracula from Ecuador is described and illustrated, Dracula x pinasensis, which was recently discovered in the Andean wet forest from Southwestern Ecuador. The new hybrid is compared with the South American D. mantissa, D. mopsus, and D. ophioceps, as well the Central American D. pusilla, the closest allies. D. mopsus and D. ophioceps are pointed out as the putative parents of this natural hybrid.

  4. A new species of Dichromanthus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae from Oaxaca, Mexico Una especie nueva de Dichromanthus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae de Oaxaca, México

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    Gerardo A. Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dichromanthus yucundaa, a new orchid species from the Mixteca Alta region of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from D. cinnabarinus, the most similar species, by the more compact plants, glabrous inflorescence, prominent, broadly ovate, glabrous floral bracts which are abaxially glaucous, sparsely and minutely glandular-pubescent sepals (merely papillose near the apex, short column foot, viscidium sheathing the apex of the rostellum and without a retrorse prominence, and rostellum remnant stiff and pointed.Se describe e ilustra a Dichromanthus yucundaa, especie nueva de orquídea de la región de la mixteca alta de la sierra Madre del Sur en Oaxaca, México. Se distingue de D. cinnabarinus, la especie más similar, por las plantas más compactas, la inflorescencia glabra, las brácteas florales prominentes, ampliamente ovadas, glabras, abaxialmente glaucas, los sépalos diminuta y esparcidamente glandular-pubescentes (diminutamente papilosos cerca del ápice, el pie de columna corto, el viscidio envainando el ápice del rostelo y careciendo de una prominencia retrorsa y el remanente rostelar rígido y aguzado.

  5. A new species of Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae from Guerrero, Mexico Una nueva especie de Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae de Guerrero, México

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    Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stelis from the cloud forest of Guerrero, Mexico, is described and illustrated as S. desantiagoi. This species is similar to S. rubens, but is distinguished by its larger plants, the stems proportionally longer, the leaves wider, the sepals internally papillose (vs. pubescent, the petals flabellate (vs. cuneate, the labellum slightly arcuate with the apex straight (vs. geniculate with the apex strongly incurved, and the clinandrium entire (vs. trilobate.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Stelis del bosque nublado de Guerrero, México como S. desantiagoi. Esta especie es similar a S. rubens, pero se distingue por las plantas de mayor tamaño, los tallos proporcionalmente más largos, las hojas más anchas, los sépalos interiormente papilosos (vs. pubescentes, los pétalos flabelados (vs. cuneados, el labelo ligeramente arqueado con ápice recto (vs. geniculado con el ápice fuertemente incurvado y el clinandrio entero (vs. trilobado.

  6. Diversidade de fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae Diversity of mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp. isolated from Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae

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    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos rizoctonioides Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de orquídeas do gênero Epidendrum e vêm sendo utilizados na germinação simbiótica das sementes de orquídeas. Epidendrum secundum é uma orquídea largamente distribuída em campos de altitude do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Minas Gerais, e pouco se sabe sobre a associação micorrízica dessa espécie nesse parque. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade morfológica dos fungos micorrízicos rizoctonioides isolados de quatro populações de E. secundum em três regiões de um campo de altitude localizado na subserra Totem Deitado, PESB. Vinte e seis isolados fúngicos foram obtidos, todos pertencentes ao gênero Epulorhiza. As características morfológicas qualitativas e quantitativas avaliadas revelaram, de modo geral, baixa variabilidade entre os isolados obtidos de uma mesma população e de populações localizadas na mesma região, porém grande variabilidade foi observada entre os isolados obtidos das populações de diferentes regiões. Com base nessas características morfológicas, os isolados foram divididos em quatro grupos: o primeiro constituído pelos fungos obtidos das populações I e II da região A, o segundo pelos fungos da população III da região B, o terceiro pelo isolado M61 da população II da região A, e o quarto pelo único isolado obtido na população IV da região C. A variabilidade morfológica observada é um indicativo da diversidade dos fungos Epulorhiza spp. associados a E. secundum no PESB.Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp. have been isolated from orchids of the genus Epidendrum and have been used to promote the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Epidendrum secundum is a widely distributed orchid in campo de altitude (high elevation grassy vegetation regions of the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and little is known about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species in the park. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological diversity of Rhizoctonialike mycorrhizal fungi isolated from four E. secundum populations growing in three regions of a campo de altitude, in the region of Totem Deitado Mountain, PESB. Twenty-six fungal isolates were obtained, all belonging to Epulorhiza. The quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics revealed, in general, low variability among the fungi isolated from the same orchid population and among isolates from the same region, but high variability among the fungi isolated from the populations from different regions. Based on these morphological characteristics, the isolates were separated into four groups. The first consisted of the fungi from populations I and II from region A, the second of isolates from population III from region B, the third of isolate M61 from population II from region C, and the fourth of a single isolate obtained from population IV from region C. The morphological variability observed indicates the existence of diversity of Epulorhiza spp. associated with E. secundum in PESB.

  7. Cultivo de Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) em substratos a base de coco Oncidium baueri Lindley (Orchidaceae) cultivation in coconut-based substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Marinho de Assis; Ricardo Tadeu Faria; Lilian Keiko Unemoto; Larissa Abgariani Colombo

    2008-01-01

    Entre os substratos utilizados no cultivo de orquídeas, a fibra de coco vem se destacando como promissor substituto do xaxim, material utilizado por muitos produtores e colecionadores de orquídeas, porém ameaçado de extinção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de coco, no cultivo da orquídea Oncidium baueri. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 50% de luminosidade. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de xaxim desf...

  8. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  9. Morphotypes of Dactylorhiza incarnata (L. Soу (Orchidaceae seedlings in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Marakaev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypes, linear parameters and morphological features for Dactylorhiza incarnata seedlings in vitro have been set. The uneven growth and development of seedlings in depending from the location and degree of contact with the medium have been identified.

  10. A simple floral fragrance and unusual osmophore structure in Cyclopogon elatus (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Moré, M; Benitez-Vieyra, S; Cocucci, A A; Raguso, R A; Sérsic, A N

    2009-07-01

    We studied gland morphology, anatomy and the chemical composition of the floral fragrance in the sweat bee-pollinated orchid Cyclopogon elatus. This is apparently the first such analysis for any Cyclopogon species, and one of very few studies in which both odour and osmophore are characterised in a nectar-rewarding orchid. Structures responsible for floral scent production were localised with neutral red staining and histochemical assays for lipids and starch. Their morphology and anatomy were studied with scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy thin sections, respectively. Fragrance samples were collected using SPME fibres and analysed with GC-MS. Anatomical evidence suggests that two parallel oval-shaped patches of unicellular trichomes on the abaxial surface of the labellum are osmophores. These are rich in stored lipids, while the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles contains starch. Only freshly opened flowers produced odours, while buds and withered flowers lacked scent. The chemical composition of the odour was dominated (>99.8%) by a single compound, trans-4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT). Gland anatomy and position on the outside of the perianth are unusual for scent glands in general. The presence of DMNT, a nearly ubiquitous compound in herbivore-induced vegetative emissions and one of the major floral volatiles of Yucca, is not surprising in view of hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of flower scents, suggesting that wound volatiles are utilised as kairomonal attractants by florivores whose activities result in pollination. PMID:19538389

  11. «TAKEUCHI». NUEVO HÍBRIDO DE DENDROBIUM (ORCHIDACEAE PARA CUBA

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    Lorenzo Suárez Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Dendrobium forman parte de las orquídeas más cultivadas de todo el mundo; varios cultivares de este género son vendidos como flor de corte y se ubican en el cuarto lugar en ventas entre los productos de floricultura, después de las Palmáceas, Dracaena y Anthurium de corte. En este trabajo se presentan las principales características de un nuevo cultivar de orquídea epífita, perteneciente al género Dendrobium. «Takeuchi», es el resultado de la polinización manual cruzada realizada en el mes de enero del 2007 entre Dendrobium x superbiens (progenitor madre y Dendrobium Kuranda Classic (progenitor padre; la primera floración se obtuvo en el mes de enero del 2012. Se encuentra registrado en la base de datos de la Sociedad Hortícola Real de Inglaterra, autoridad internacional encargada de registro de cultivares híbridos de orquídeas. Este nuevo híbrido posee un alto potencial ornamental y estético.

  12. Glacial Refugia and Future Habitat Coverage of Selected Dactylorhiza Representatives (Orchidaceae.

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    Aleksandra M Naczk

    Full Text Available The intensively discussed taxonomic complexity of the Dactylorhiza genus is probably correlated with its migration history during glaciations and interglacial periods. Previous studies on past processes affecting the current distribution of Dactylorhiza species as well as the history of the polyploid complex formation were based only on molecular data. In the present study the ecological niche modeling (ENM technique was applied in order to describe the distribution of potential refugia for the selected Dactylorhiza representatives during the Last Glacial Maximum. Additionally, future changes in their potential habitat coverage were measured with regard to three various climatic change scenarios. The maximum entropy method was used to create models of suitable niche distribution. A database of Dactylorhiza localities was prepared on the grounds of information collected from literature and data gathered during field works. Our research indicated that the habitats of majority of the studied taxa will decrease by 2080, except for D. incarnata var. incarnata, for which suitable habitats will increase almost two-fold in the global scale. Moreover, the potential habitats of some taxa are located outside their currently known geographical ranges, e.g. the Aleutian Islands, the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, Newfoundland, southern Greenland and Iceland. ENM analysis did not confirm that the Balkans, central Europe or central Russia served as the most important refugia for individual representatives of the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex. Our study rather indicated that the Black Sea coast, southern Apennines and Corsica were the main areas characterized by habitats suitable for most of the taxa.

  13. Glacial Refugia and Future Habitat Coverage of Selected Dactylorhiza Representatives (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczk, Aleksandra M; Kolanowska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The intensively discussed taxonomic complexity of the Dactylorhiza genus is probably correlated with its migration history during glaciations and interglacial periods. Previous studies on past processes affecting the current distribution of Dactylorhiza species as well as the history of the polyploid complex formation were based only on molecular data. In the present study the ecological niche modeling (ENM) technique was applied in order to describe the distribution of potential refugia for the selected Dactylorhiza representatives during the Last Glacial Maximum. Additionally, future changes in their potential habitat coverage were measured with regard to three various climatic change scenarios. The maximum entropy method was used to create models of suitable niche distribution. A database of Dactylorhiza localities was prepared on the grounds of information collected from literature and data gathered during field works. Our research indicated that the habitats of majority of the studied taxa will decrease by 2080, except for D. incarnata var. incarnata, for which suitable habitats will increase almost two-fold in the global scale. Moreover, the potential habitats of some taxa are located outside their currently known geographical ranges, e.g. the Aleutian Islands, the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, Newfoundland, southern Greenland and Iceland. ENM analysis did not confirm that the Balkans, central Europe or central Russia served as the most important refugia for individual representatives of the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex. Our study rather indicated that the Black Sea coast, southern Apennines and Corsica were the main areas characterized by habitats suitable for most of the taxa. PMID:26599630

  14. In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are di...

  15. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  16. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants. PMID:17445846

  17. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae in Costa Rica

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    Pupulin, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, the petals violet, the lip orange, the bifid synsepal with the apices of the lateral sepals not forming tails, the lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, the petals markedly convex with the upper lobe elliptic-lanceolate and the lobes of the lip connivent at apex. Lepanthes sanctiorum is characterized by the small plants less than 1.1 cm tall, the short peduncle less than 10 mm long, the petals as wide as the lip length and the blades of the lip distinctly diverging at apex. All the species are described and illustrated on the basis of Costa Rican material. A key to the species of the group is provided.Revisamos y caracterizamos el grupo de especies cercanas a Lepanthes guatemalensis. El grupo está compuesto por ocho especies en Costa Rica. Se describen e ilustran tres especies nuevas. Lepanthes durikäensis se caracteriza por las flores no resupinadas, los sépalos laterales ovados, con las colas apicales divergentes, el lóbulo inferior de los pétalos lanceolado-subfalcado, con curvatura hacia arriba y la columna rosada. Lepanthes leporina es reconocida por las flores resupinadas, los sépalos amarillos y ligeramente teñidos de rojo, los pétalos violeta, el labelo naranja, el sinsépalo bífido con los ápices de los sépalos laterales que no forman colas, los sépalos laterales subiguales al sépalo dorsal, los pétalos marcadamente convexo con el lóbulo superior elíptico-lanceolado y los lóbulos del labelo conniventes en el ápice. Lepanthes sanctiorum se caracteriza por las plantas pequeñas menores a 1,1 cm de largo, el pedúnculo corto menor a 10 mm de largo, los pétalos tan anchos como la longitud del labelo y las láminas del labelo claramente divergentes en el ápice. Todas las especies se describen e ilustran basadas en material de Costa Rica. Se presenta una clave para las especies del grupo.

  18. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

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    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  19. In vitro flowering and fruiting in culture of dendrobium officinate kimura et migo (orchidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobium officinate Kimura et Migo. is a rare and endangered perennial orchid, which is valued for its attractive flowers and medicinal uses. Its three-to-five-year breeding cycle makes propagation difficult, so we investigated In vitro production of flowers and seeds for this species. Calluses were induced from shoot-tip explants of D. officinate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 0.2 mg L-1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.05 mg L-1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Multiple shoots were regenerated after protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were transferred onto the same basal medium with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The plantlets, 2-4 cm in height, maintained In vitro were induced to flower, and the highest rates of inflorescence (83.2%) and normal flowers (73.6%) were produced on the MS medium with 15% (v/v) coconut water and 0.1 mg L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) within 9 weeks. Histological analysis showed the origin of the floral primordial and normal morphologies of the pollen and female organs. The normal flowers were artificially pollinated and capsules developed. Viable seeds were produced and most of them germinated on the MS medium. This reproduction system could be used to study the molecular basis of flowering or to improve plant breeding programs. (author)

  20. Distinguishing colour variants of Serapias perez-chiscanoi (Orchidaceae) from related taxa on the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Venhuis, C.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Serapias perez-chiscanoi has a stable and uniform appearance with green flowers. Throughout its distribution area, however, plants have been found with deviant pink to red flowers that show similarities with other taxa that are occasionally pale flowered. S. perez-chiscanoi is easy to differentiate from S. cordigera subsp. cordigera by the colour of the flowers (S. cordigera subsp. cordigera has red to purple flowers) and the fact that the hypochile dimensions of S. perez-chiscanoi are signif...

  1. Insect Visitors and Potential Pollinators of Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae) in Southern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneresse, Thomas; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L.), and Bombus lapidarius (L.) were the most abundant species. Only five specimens bore one to more than 10 pollinia: four honeybees (A. mellifera) and one bumblebee worker (B. lapidarius). These two species should be considered as potential pollinators in the study area, but probably not confirmed ones. PMID:27694346

  2. Distinguishing colour variants of Serapias perez-chiscanoi (Orchidaceae) from related taxa on the Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Venhuis; J.G.B. Oostermeijer

    2011-01-01

    Serapias perez-chiscanoi has a stable and uniform appearance with green flowers. Throughout its distribution area, however, plants have been found with deviant pink to red flowers that show similarities with other taxa that are occasionally pale flowered. S. perez-chiscanoi is easy to differentiate

  3. Flowering phenology and reproductive characteristics of cypripedium macranthos (Orchidaceae) in china and their implication in conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenology and reproductive characteristics of Cypripedium macranthos were studied in China. This slipper orchid is mainly distributed outside of the diversity center of the genus Cypripedium in China and needed urgent protection. The plant favored the weakly acidic soil and the pH of soil of 7 populations in Beijing varied from 5.85-6.92. Moreover, the organic matter differed from 9.66%-22.84%, which belonged to the first grade according to the classification criterion of soil nutrient in China. The process of germination, anthesis, pollination, fructification, flower withering, plant withering and dormancy of C. macranthos were recorded. It usually opened around the first ten-days period of June and proceeded until the end of June or the beginning of July at population level. A single flower without pollinium removal or deposition lasted about 9.42+-1.81 d (n=36), while the mean flowering time of those with pollinium deposition is 6.80 +-1.30 d (n=109). The period with low temperature might play an important role in development of plant and bud. C. macranthos is self-compatible and pollinator limitation. The number of seeds was 16254+-9750 per capsule in hand-self-pollination and 15638+-8257 in hand-cross-pollination, which were about 2.5 times more than that (5808+-2633 per capsule) in natural pollination. So hand-pollination with more pollen might increase the number of fruits and seeds. Therefore, vegetation protection, suitable temperature of selected nursery place and hand-pollination would be important strategies in conservation of C. macranthos and might contribute more or less to resume its population. (author)

  4. Morphology and morphometry of two banderitas species (Orchidaceae: masdevallia) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea (Banderitas) are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyaca (Arcabuco of Berlin Paramo, Duitama) and Santander (between Malaga and Bucaramanga), in which these populations are reduced and of difficult access. For this reason these species are in the II appendix of cites. However, little is known on their reproductive biology, floral biology and pollination and the literature about this is incomplete. Under this framework, the goal of the project was to study the morphology and morphometry of m. coccinea and m. ignea (pleurothallidinae) under semicultivation conditions in the Villa Rosa Farm located in the municipality of Guasca, Cundinamarca (Colombia). The floral morphology was analyzed by digital photography, morphometry and scanning electron microscope. The main results were differences in color and length of dorsal and lateral sepals between m. coccinea (x = 53.0 mm Sigma = 7.4 mm and x = 44.4 mm and Sigma = 8.3 mm) and m. ignea (x = 34 mm Sigma = 7.7 mm and x = 31.5 mm and Sigma = 6.1 mm). These parts were longest in m. coccinea in contrast to m. ignea. However the lip was longest in m. ignea (x = 7.1 mm y Sigma = 0.6 mm). On the other hand both species had lip articulated to the column but without rewards as nectar and osmophores.

  5. Revision of Coelogyne section Verrucosae (Orchidaceae): a new sectional delimitation based on morphological and molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Verrucosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised using morphological and molecular data. Eight species are recognized, including two new ones ( C. marthae and C. verrucosa). One name is reduced to synonymy. Four species formerly included by several authors in sect. Verrucosae (C. brachyptera, C. papillosa, C. parishii and C. virescens) are excluded. A total evidence analysis of morphological characters and ITS and matK sequence data supports the monophyly of the ...

  6. Revision of Coelogyne section Moniliformes (Orchidaceae) based on morphology, plastid and nrDNA ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2002-01-01

    Section Moniliformes Carr of the orchid genus Coelogyne is revised using morphological and molecular data. Twelve species are recognised, including two new ones (C. chanii and C. renae). and a dubious one (C. crassiloba). A combined analysis of morphological characters, and sequences of the nrDNA ITS region, matK gene, trnT-trnL intergenic spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer supports the monophyly of the section as here recognised. Persistence of the rhizome scales, shape of t...

  7. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss.) in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-01-01

    The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl.) under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  8. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

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    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  9. Micromorphology of leaf surface of Coelogyne Lindl. species (Orchidaceae Juss. in greenhouse conditions

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    Alexander G. Gyrenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphological characteristics of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the plants of five Coelogyne Lindl. species (C. assamicaLinden & Rchb.f., C. brachyptera Rchb.f., C. cumingii Lindl., C. fimbriataLindl., C. lentiginosaLindl. under glasshouse conditions have been described.

  10. Floral variability in selected species of the genus Coelogyne Lindl., Orchidaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Marta Szkudlarek

    2015-01-01

    Correlations of the lip characters in the Coelogyne flower proved a synchronised development of this organ. The lip is a very interspecifically variable organ. A numerical taxonomy approach permitted to select in an ordination space some extreme species, based on a description of lip morphology, Coelogyne salmonicolor versus C. fuliginosa and C. quinquelamellata versus C. nitida. A hybrid C. lawrenceana × mooreana appeared to be close to its paternal species.

  11. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

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    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhanças estruturais observadas entre todas as raízes estudadas confirmam a inclusão da subtribo Catasetinae na tribo monofilética Cymbidieae. Algumas características radiculares são restritas a um ou dois táxons e podem ser úteis na taxonomia da subtribo. Por exemplo, a ocorrência de cristais flavonoídicos caracteriza os gêneros Catasetum e Cychnodes e o número de camadas do velame associado à forma das células do epivelame são úteis para confirmar a posição taxonômica de Clowesia amazônica. A presença de velame e de cristais flavonoídicos foi interpretada como adaptações ao hábito epifítico.

  12. First white-flowered species of Sertifera (Orchidaceae discovered in Colombia

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    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Sertifera is described and illustrated based on Colombian material. The novelty resembles Sertifera colombiana, but it is characterized by glandular leaf sheaths, larger, white flowers, ovate to oblong-ovate sepals, ligulatelanceolate petals and apically triangular lip. This is the first report of a white-flowered representative of the genus.

  13. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

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    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  14. Bulbophyllum pingnanense (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Dendrobiinae), a new species from Fujian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng; Lan, Si-Ren; He, Bi-Zhu; Liang, Yi-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new orchid species, Bulbophyllum pingnanense, is described and illustrated from Fujian, China. It is similar to Bulbophyllum brevipedunculatum and Bulbophyllum albociliatum in vegetative and floral morphology, but it can be distinguished from Bulbophyllum brevipedunculatum by having a longer dorsal sepal with longer white ciliate on margin, longer and lanceolate lateral sepals, and a glabrous lip. It can be distinguished from Bulbophyllum albociliatum by having a shorter inflorescence, and a longer dorsal sepal. PMID:27489491

  15. A remarkable new species of Liparis (Orchidaceae from China and its phylogenetic implications.

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    Lin Li

    Full Text Available In the present study, we formally describe Liparis pingxiangensis as a new species from Guangxi, China on the basis of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is easily distinguished from closely related species by strongly curved column without column wings, and broadly rhombic-elliptic lip with 2 uncinate calli at the base. In particular, it differs most markedly from its congeners in possessing two pollinia attached by long and prominent caudicles (not stipes, to a distinct sticky disc. This type of pollinarium, as far as we know, is not found in any other species of Liparis, and is also unique among the orchids with waxy pollinia. We then proceeded to a phylogenetic analysis to ascertain the systematic position of this enigmatic species. Molecular study based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data supports L. pingxiangensis as a distinct species, which forms an independent lineage sister to L. nervosa and its allies (93% BS, 1.00 BPP. In the light of previous work, the findings have important implications for a better understanding of the well-supported pattern mainly based on vegetative features in Malaxideae.

  16. Endophytic fungi from Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin (Orchidaceae), a threatened terrestrial orchid in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutima, Ruangwut; Dell, Bernard; Vessabutr, Suyanee; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2011-04-01

    Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from roots of the threatened terrestrial orchid, Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin. Phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment of internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear rDNA indicated that seven isolates belonged to the genus Epulorhiza and one to Fusarium. All fungal isolates were cultured with orchid seeds collected from three field sites near Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Seed germination and protocorm development were evaluated up to 70 days after sowing. Percent symbiotic seed germination was highest (86.2%) when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 013). The protocorm development was the most advanced up to stage 2, continued embryo enlargement, or rupture of the testa, and the highest percentage was 17.8% when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 007). Without fungi, seed germination and protocorm development were 62.1% and 11.1%, respectively. The dependency of P. susannae on fungal symbionts for early seedling development is yet to be determined. Optimizing seed germination and seedling fitness will assist the conservation of this threatened orchid in Thailand.

  17. Importance of woody debris in seed germination of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H; Whigham, D

    1998-06-01

    Concerns about declining populations of terrestrial orchids make it important to identify the environmental factors crucial to seedling recruitment. This study shows that seedlings of Tipularia discolor (cranefly orchid) primarily occur on decomposing wood. Extensive searches of decomposing logs and stumps in mature and successional forests revealed seedlings at 24 sites, of which 15 could be identified as originating from seven different deciduous trees and one conifer. Seeds were planted in natural habitats to test the hypothesis that germination requires decomposing wood. In one experiment, seeds were placed into soil at sites where adult plants were abundant; no germination resulted. In a second experiment, germination of seeds sown in ambient soil was compared with sowings in plots amended with decomposing wood collected from a stump where spontaneous seedlings grew. Germination was much more frequent in plots amended with decomposing wood. We conclude that germination of T. discolor is stimulated in substrates that contain decomposing wood; judging from the occurrence of spontaneous seedlings, wood from at variety of tree species offer a suitable substrate.

  18. In vitro propagation of Cyrtopodium saintlegerianum rchb. f. (orchidaceae, a native orchid of the Brazilian savannah

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    Lennis Afraire Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable production of large quantities of plantlets for reintroduction programs, as well as economic exploration, Cyrtopodium saintlegerianum seeds were sown on Knudson culture medium. After seed germination, the protocorms were inoculated on Knudson culture medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The obtained shoots were individually inoculated in Knudson supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3 in order to promote elongation. Seedlings were evaluated and then transplanted into trays containing commercial substrate Plantmax®-HT, or crushed Acuri leaf sheath. Auxin/ cytokinin ratio influenced in vitro propagation of C. saintlegerianum, resulting in increased shoot number when 2.0 mg L-1 BA was added to the culture medium in the absence or presence of 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. This species proved to be promising for massal in vitro multiplication. Despite having incremented in vitro shoots elongation, the use of GA3 is unnecessary since it contributed negatively in the acclimatization of plants.

  19. Widespread mycorrhizal specificity correlates to mycorrhizal function in the neotropical, epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J Tupac; Flanagan, Nicola S; Herre, E Allen; Ackerman, James D; Bayman, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Tropical orchids constitute the greater part of orchid diversity, but little is known about their obligate mycorrhizal relationships. The specificity of these interactions and associated fungal distributions could influence orchid distributions and diversity. We investigated the mycorrhizal specificity of the tropical epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides across an extensive geographical range. DNA ITS sequence variation was surveyed in both plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Phylogeographic relationships were estimated for the mycorrhizal fungi. Orchid functional outcomes were determined through in vitro seed germination and seedling growth with a broad phylogenetic representation of fungi. Most fungal isolates derived from one clade of Ceratobasidium (anamorphs assignable to Ceratorhiza), with 78% within a narrower phylogenetic group, clade B. No correlation was found between the distributions of orchid and fungal genotypes. All fungal isolates significantly enhanced seed germination, while fungi in clade B significantly enhanced seedling growth. These results show that I. utricularioides associates with a phylogenetically narrow, effective fungal clade over a broad distribution. This preference for a widespread mycorrhizae may partly explain the ample distribution and abundance of I. utricularioides and contrasts with local mycorrhizal diversification seen in some nonphotosynthetic orchids. Enhanced orchid function with a particular fungal subclade suggests mycorrhizal specificity can increase orchid fitness.

  20. Protocorm development of Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae in response to different saline formulations and culture conditions

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    Joana Gerent Voges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymbiotic technique of orchid seeds germination is an important method of mass production of seedlings. Studies on the best culture conditions for each species are important to obtain seedlings in less time and at lower costs. Current analysis evaluates different consistencies of culture medium, saline formulations and culture conditions on the germination rate and further development of protocorms of Epidendrum fulgens. After 45 days in culture the protocorms were classified into three categories of development. The liquid saline formulation of Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS provided the highest germination rate (83.5%, and the Knudson formulation (1946 the lowest (10.9%. The different consistencies or conditions or culture conditions did not affect the germination rate percentage, except the Knudson medium, which resulted in the highest rate in response to the gelled consistency. Protocorms cultured in liquid MS medium with or without agitation showed the fastest development.

  1. Proteome changes in Oncidium sphacelatum (Orchidaceae) at different trophic stages of symbiotic germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, R B S; Perotto, S; Santos, E C; Lambais, M R

    2014-07-01

    Mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi are a widespread phenomenon in nature. Particularly in orchids, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development. During the initial stages of symbiotic germination, before the onset of photosynthesis, orchid protocorms are fully mycoheterotrophic. The molecular mechanisms involved in orchid symbiotic germination and development are largely unknown, but it is likely that changes in plant energy metabolism and defense-related responses play a central role in these processes. We have used 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled to isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification to identify proteins with differential accumulation in Oncidium sphacelatum at different stages of mycorrhizal protocorm development (achlorophyllous and green protocorms) after seed inoculation with a Ceratobasidium sp. isolate. We identified and quantified 88 proteins, including proteins putatively involved in energy metabolism, cell rescue and defense, molecular signaling, and secondary metabolism. Quantitative analysis showed that the expected changes in carbon metabolism in green protocorms were accompanied by enhanced accumulation of proteins involved in the modulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, defense-related responses, and phytoalexins and carotenoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest profound metabolic changes in orchid protocorms during the switch from the fully mycoheterotrophic to the photosynthetic stage. Part of these changes may be also related to the obligatory nature of the interaction with the endomycorrhizal fungus.

  2. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants.

  3. Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future.

  4. Floral biology of two Vanilloideae (Orchidaceae) primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Pansarin, L M

    2014-11-01

    Vanilloideae comprises 15 genera distributed worldwide, among which are Vanilla and Epistephium (tribe Vanilleae). Based on field and laboratory investigations, the pollination biology of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum was analysed. The former was surveyed in a semi-deciduous mesophytic forest at the biological reserve of Serra do Japi and in a marshy forest at the city of Pradópolis, southeastern Brazil. The latter was examined in rocky outcrop vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. In the studied populations, the tubular flowers of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum were pollinated by bees. Pollen was deposited on either their scutellum (V. dubia) or scutum (E. sclerophyllum). The mentum region of V. dubia is dry, whereas that of E. sclerophyllum presents a small quantity of dilute nectar. Flowers of E. sclerophyllum are scentless, while those of V. dubia are odoriferous. Although V. dubia is self-compatible, it needs a pollinator to produce fruit. In contrast, E. sclerophyllum sets fruit through spontaneous self-pollination, but biotic pollination also occurs. Both species are primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees. Pollination by Euglossina seems to have occurred at least twice during the evolution of Vanilleae. Furthermore, shifts between rewarding and reward-free flowers and between autogamous and allogamous species have been reported among vanillas.

  5. Estudios morfoanatómicos en Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae. I. Etapas tempranas del desarrollo del fruto

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    Miguel Ángel Gamboa-Gaitán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La flor nacional de Colombia, Cattleya trianae, es un emblemático ejemplo de las orquídeas ornamentales de importancia económica. Si bien algunos estudios se han realizado en aspectos como reproducción y ecología, no hay estudios morfoanatómicos registrados para esta especie, por lo que con el presente manuscrito se pretende iniciar una serie de publicaciones que aporten información en este campo acerca de una especie particularmente atractiva por ser un símbolo nacional. Este estudio se centra en la anatomía del ovario y en los cambios que experimenta en los siguientes días a la polinización. El ovario muestra dos cavidades longitudinales, una para atraer al polinizador y otra para contener los óvulos que serán semillas tras la fertilización. Varios cambios anatómicos como la acumulación de un material de depósito que tapona el acceso a los óvulos y la formación de haces vasculares, son notables en los primeros días luego de la polinización en esta especie. La importancia de dichos cambios así como el uso de la anatomía para el estudio de la historia natural de las especies se discute aquí, ya que hay posiciones contradictorias al respecto.

  6. Microsatellite Markers in the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae

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    Andrew A. Ross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Primers for 31 microsatellite-containing loci were developed for the threatened orchid Platanthera praeclara to enable characterization of the population genetics of this tallgrass prairie native. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from four populations. Six of these loci were not in linkage disequilibrium. The average number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 6.4 to 8.9. Conclusions: The results indicate that six of the polymorphic loci will be useful in future studies of population structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity.

  7. Reproductive biology and pollination mechanisms of Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae). Floral variation: a consequence of natural hybridization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Amaral, M C E

    2008-03-01

    The phenology, flower morphology, pollination mechanism and reproductive biology of Epidendrum secundum were studied in a semi-deciduous forest at the Serra do Japi (SJ), and in the Atlantic rain forest of Picinguaba, both natural reserves in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. E. secundum flowers all year round, with a flowering peak between September and January. This species is either a lithophytic or terrestrial herb in the SJ, whereas, in Picinguaba, it grows mainly in disturbed areas along roadsides. E. secundum is pollinated by several species of diurnal Lepidoptera at both study sites. In Picinguaba, where E. secundum is sympatric with E. fulgens and both share the same pollinators, pollen transference between these two species was recorded. E. secundum is self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. It is inter-compatible with E. fulgens, producing fertile seeds. In contrast to the population of the SJ, in the Picinguaba region, floral morphology is quite variable among plants and some individuals present flowers with characteristics in-between both sympatric species, suggesting that natural hybridization occasionally occurs. The anthropogenic perturbation is probably the cause of the occurrence of E. secundum in the Picinguaba region, enabling its contact with E. fulgens. PMID:18304195

  8. Niche conservatism and the future potential range of Epipactis helleborine (Orchidaceae.

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    Marta Kolanowska

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current distribution of suitable niches for the invasive orchid species, Epipactis helleborine, and to estimate the possibility of its further expansion. Moreover, niche modeling tools were used to explain its rapid expansion in North America and to test the niche conservatism of the species. The maximum entropy method was used to create models of the suitable niche distribution. A database of E. helleborine localities was prepared based on the examination of herbarium specimens, information from electronic databases as well as data gathered during field works. The differences between the niches occupied by native and invasive populations were evaluated using the niche overlap and niche identity test indexes. Moreover, the coverage of the most suitable habitats for the species was measured for three future scenarios as well as for the present time model. Populations of E. helleborine occupy North American west coast habitats very similar to those preferred by native, Eurasian populations, while the expansion in the east coast is related to the niche shift. The created models of suitable niche distribution indicate that the species does not realize its potential niche in the native range. The total surface of the habitats potentially available for E. helleborine will decrease in all climate change scenarios created for 2080.

  9. Systematics and evoltution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in the Greater Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Stenzel, Hagen

    2004-01-01

    Die antillanische Flora ist eine der artenreichsten der Erde. Trotz jahrhundertelanger floristischer Forschung zeigen jüngere Studien, daß der Archipel noch immer weiße Flecken beherbergt. Das trifft besonders auf die Familie der Orchideen zu, deren letzte Bearbeitung für Cuba mehr als ein halbes Jahrhundert zurückliegt. Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf der lang ausstehenden Revision der Orchideengattung Pleurothallis R. Br. für die Flora de Cuba. Mittels weiterer morphologischer, palynolo...

  10. Seedling mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Rasmussen, Finn N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of Orchidaceae as sister group to the remainder of Asparagales, and identify the sequence of early branching lineages in Orchidaceae. Orchid seedling mycorrhiza (OSM) involving rhizoctonious fungi is distributed widely in all subfamilies, including...

  11. Environ: E00409 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00409 Pleione pseudobulb Crude drug Pleione [TAX:141751] Orchidaceae (orchid famil...y) Pleione pseudobulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00409 Pleione pseudobulb ...

  12. Environ: E00751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00751 Dendrobium chrysanthum stem Crude drug Dendrobium chrysanthum [TAX:154291] O...rchidaceae (orchid family) Dendrobium chrysanthum stem Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00751 Dendrobium chrysanthum stem ...

  13. Propagação in vitro de Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. (Orchidaceae Propagation in vitro of Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. - Orchidaceae

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    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Baptistonia pubes é uma epífita que ocorre na Floresta Atlântica do Brasil, no Paraguai e norte da Argentina. É considerada espécie vulnerável e ameaçada de extinção. Nossos objetivos foram avaliar a eficácia da germinação de suas sementes e o crescimento em dois pHs utilizando-se dois meios de cultura: Murashige-Skoog (modificado - (MS e meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica acrescido de NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN variando-se as concentrações de nutrientes e pH para a germinação e para o crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes germinaram em média 15 dias após a inoculação, em todas as condições. A porcentagem de germinação variou entre 2,6 a 11,6%, sendo que a maior porcentagem ocorreu no pH=5,2 BAN e a menor no pH=6,2 MS/2. O meio BAN foi mais eficiente na germinação. Os pHs, em cada meio, alteraram significativamente as médias das sementes germinadas. As plântulas cresceram mais no meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica no pH = 5,2.Baptistonia pubes is an epiphyte that grows in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is considered vulnerable and threatened with extinction. Our aim was to verify seed germination efficiency and growth at two pHs, using two culture mediums: Murashige-Skoog (modified - (MS and banana pulp with added NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN, with varied nutrient and pH concentrations for germination and for growth. The seeds germinated on average 15 days after the inoculation, at all conditions. The percentage of germination varied between 2.6 and 11.6 %. The highest percentage was at pH=5.2 BAN and the lowest at pH=6.2 MS/2. The banana pulp was most efficient for germination. The pHs, in each environment, altered significantly the averages of the germinated seeds. Seedling growth showed better results in the banana medium, pH = 5.2

  14. Response of Epidendrum Ibaguense (orchidaceae to the application of lime rates to the pot Resposta de Epidendrum ibaguense (orchidaceae à aplicação de doses de calcário em vaso

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    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the best cultivation methods of orchids, in particular of the genus Phalaenopsis, liming is a common practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of lime rates (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; and 5.0 g dm-3 of substrate applied to the cultivation substrate (xaxim on the growth of Epidendrum ibaguense seedlings. In a greenhouse, 1-L plastic pots filled with 0.8 dm³ of xaxim were irrigated such that no leachate was lost during the experiment. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, B, and Mn contents in roots, stems and leaves were measured. Leachate was collected by applying a sufficient water volume to obtain 25 mL from each pot. Fourteen days after lime application of 3 g dm-3, the pH of the collected leachate reached values above 7 and a value of 6.29 with the highest lime rate at the end of the experiment. The lime rate did not influence plant height, probably due to a Zn deficiency at high pH levels and a Ca deficiency in the control. Nevertheless, there was a large increase in leaf production, for number as well as for dry matter mass. There was no statistical difference between treatments in root dry matter production. Maximum dry matter production was obtained at a lime rate of 4.09 g dm-3. Zinc concentrations diminished linearly with increasing lime rates; the concentrations in all treatments were below the levels suggested as adequate in the literature (25-200 mg kg-1. Nutrient concentrations in leaves indicated deficiency of N, S, and B at the highest lime rates (4.0 and 5.0 g dm-3, and of Ca in the treatment without liming.Nos melhores cultivos de orquídeas é comum o uso de calcário, de modo particular daquelas do gênero Phalaenopsis. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de doses de calcário (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 g dm-3 de substrato aplicadas sobre o substrato de cultivo (xaxim no crescimento de mudas de Epidendrum ibaguense. Foram utilizados vasos plásticos de 1 L preenchidos com 0,8 dm³ de xaxim em casa de vegetação, com irrigação controlada, de forma que não ocorressem perdas por lixiviação de nutrientes durante a condução do experimento. Foram determinados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, B e Mn em ra��zes, caules e folhas. Foi coletado um lixiviado a partir da aplicação de um volume de água suficiente para a coleta de 25 mL de cada vaso. Aos 14 dias após aplicação das doses de calcário, o pH do lixiviado coletado atingiu valores superiores a 7, a partir da dose de 3 g dm-3, e apresentou valor de 6,29 para a maior dose de calcário no final do experimento. Não houve influência das doses de calcário na altura das plantas, provavelmente devido à deficiência de Zn em valores de pH elevados e à deficiência de Ca na testemunha. Todavia, houve grande incremento na produção de folhas, tanto para número quanto para massa de matéria seca. Não houve diferença estatística para produção de matéria seca de raízes entre os tratamentos. A produção de matéria seca de folhas foi máxima com a aplicação de 4,09 g dm-3 do calcário. Os teores de Zn diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da dose de calcário; todos os tratamentos apresentaram teores abaixo daqueles considerados adequados pela literatura (25-200 mg kg-1. Os teores dos nutrientes analisados demonstraram deficiências foliares de N, S e B para as maiores doses de calcário (4 e 5 g dm-3 e de Ca no tratamento que não recebeu calcário.

  15. Genotypes selection of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae in vitro propagation phase/ Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae na fase de propagação in vitro

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    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of artificial hibridization in orchids is used to obtain new varieties. The objective of the present paper was to select genotypes of Dendrobium favourable for in vitro propagation for commercial utilization through crossings and self polinization of selected matrice plants. Fifteen different plants with contrasting colors, flower sizes and plant heighs were used; the flowers were artificially polinated and the seeds germinated in vitro on MS medium, with half concentration of nutrients. The following crossings were made D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; and the self polinizations: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 and D6. The obtained plants were avaluated for: plant heigh, number of roots, fresh and dry matter weight. The best results was observed in the following crosses D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 and D14 x D7 and for self polinizations Df22 and D7.O processo de hibridação artificial em orquídeas é utilizado para obtenção de novas variedades. O trabalho teve como objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium favoráveis à propagação in vitro em escala comercial através de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 15 plantas com características contrastantes de coloração, tamanho das flores e altura da planta; as flores polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes germinadas in vitro em meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Foram realizados os cruzamentos: D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; e as autofecundações: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 e D6. As plantas resultantes do cultivo foram avaliadas para as características: altura da planta, número de raízes, peso das massas fresca e seca total. Os melhores resultados para as características analisadas foram observados nos cruzamentos D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 e D14 x D7, e nas autofecundações Df22 e D7.

  16. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the juvenils (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. The high relation between the densities of adults and juvenils had been demonstrated by the value of the linear correlation coefficient found, r = 0,61.

  17. Aclimatização de Cattleya (Orchidaceae, em substratos alternativos ao xaxim e ao esfagno = Acclimatization of the Cattleya (Orchidaceae in alternative substrates to tree fern fiber and sphagno

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    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O xaxim desfibrado e o esfagno são os substratos mais utilizados pelosprodutores brasileiros para aclimatização de orquídeas, porém ambos correm o risco de serem extintos e a coleta está proibida pelo Ibama. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos alternativos no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cattleyaintermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização. Os substratos testados foram: xaxim desfibrado; esfagno; casca de arroz carbonizada; casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1; casca de pínus; fibra de coco. Após dez meses, foram avaliados: comprimento de parte aérea; comprimento da maior raiz; número de pseudobulbos; número de raízes; massa fresca total; pH do substrato; condutividade elétrica do substrato. Verificou-se que o substrato fibra de coco e a mistura de casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1 são os mais indicados comoalternativa ao xaxim e ao esfagno para o cultivo de Cattleya intermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização.The tree fern fiber and sphagno are the most utilized substrates by Brazilian producers for the acclimatization of orchids; however, bothare considered endangered species and their collection is forbidden by the authorities. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative substratesin the development of Cattleya intermedia plantules during the acclimatization stage. The tested substrates were: tree fern fiber; sphagno; carbonized rice hull; pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1; pinus bark; coconut fiber. After 10 months, the following were evaluated: length of aerial part; length of the bigger root; number of pseudobulbs; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH of the substrate; electric conductivity of the substrate. It was verifiedthat the substrate of coconut fiber and the mixture of pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1 are the most indicated as alternatives to tree fern fiber and sphagno for the cultivation of Cattleya intermedia during the acclimatization stage.

  18. Anatomia foliar de quatro espécies do gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae do Planalto Central Brasileiro Foliar anatomy of four species of genus Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae of the Brazilian Central Planalt

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    Rosane Zanenga-Godoy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies analisadas (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. apresentam epiderme uniestratificada em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar, ocorrendo estômatos na face abaxial; deposição de cera epicuticular em crostas, escamas, flocos e plaquetas; em C. araguaiensis ocorrem estegmatas incrustados nas células epidérmicas; em todas as espécies ocorre hipoderme com células de paredes espessadas; mesofilo bifacial, compacto; células paliçádicas atípicas, com barras de espessamento; feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos alternadamente, acompanhados por bainha de fibras; cordões fibrosos acompanhados por estegmatas ocorrem longitudinalmente na lâmina foliar; presença de ráfides. Os aspectos descritos revelam acentuada xeromorfia, em função de economia de água.The analyzed species (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. present unistratified epidermis at both surfaces with stomata at abaxial surface; deposition of epicuticular wax in crusts, scales, granules and plates; C. araguaiensis presents stegmata at epidermal cells; others characteristics present at all species are: hypodermis cells with thick walls; bifacial and compact mesophyll; atipic cells ofpalisade parenchyma with thichness bars; collateral vascular bundles alternate accompanied by sheath fibers; cordon fibers accompanied by stegmata in the foliar blade; raphids. The described aspects reveal accentuate xeromorphy for water economy.

  19. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

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    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P Cattleya mendelii is an endemic orchid species from Colombia, which has a great ornamental value which is in danger of extinction due to massive collection and their natural habitat's destruction by human activities. In vitro culture is an alternative to preserve this species and/or carry out its marketing. In this study the asymbiotic germination and seedling development of seeds of C. mendelii, in several in vitro culture media were evaluated. Mature capsules were collected. Seed viability with tetrazolium test was done; seeds were disinfected at the same time and planted by the syringe method to evaluate the effect of five growth culture media on the development of C. mendelii after 16 weeks of cultivation. It was found that seed viability was 93%, the highest percentage of germination was found in the culture medium Murashige-Skoog plus coconut water (MS+AC with significant differences compared to other culture media (P < 0.05, Tukey. This study showed that MS medium supplemented with coconut water and pineapple juice, were more efficient in asymbiotic germination and seedling development of C. mendelii orchids compared with other culture media. It could be an option to reduce the costs generated by using phytohormones.

  20. Survival and development in vitro of Cattleya (Orchidaceae submitted to treatments with different treatments of colchicinesSobrevivência e desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya (Orchidaceae submetida a tratamentos com colchicina

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    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy produces desirable characteristicsin orchids that are represented by increase of the floral pieces, succulency degree, intensification of color, durability and larger resistance of flowers. The colchicine as polyploidy inductor agent in in vitro culture of plants has limitations, because when in high concentrations or very long treatments, it becomes poisonous for the vegetal tissues. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the influence of concentrations and times of exposition to the colchicine, on the survival and on the in vitro development of Cattleya tigrina. Protocorms were treated with colchicine in the concentrations of 0.5 and 1g.L-1 during 24, 48 and 72 hours. There were evaluated the tax of survival of the protocorms (%, percentage of plantlings with multiple buds and plant height after three and seven months. The increase of the concentration and of the time of exposition to colchicine caused a larger plant mortality and an increase of plantlings with reduced height. Nas orquidáceas, a poliploidia produz características desejáveis, que se traduzem em aumento das peças florais, grau de suculência, intensificação do colorido, durabilidade e maior resistência das flores. A colchicina como agente indutor de poliploidia em cultura de plantas in vitro tem suas limitações, pois em elevadas concentrações ou tratamentos muito prolongados, torna-se tóxica. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina, na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya tigrina. Protocormos foram tratados com colchicina em concentrações de 0,5 e 1g.L-1 durante 24, 48 e 72 horas. Foram avaliados taxa de sobrevivência dos protocormos (%, porcentagem de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura após três e sete meses. Com o aumento da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina houve maior mortalidade e aumento do número de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura reduzida.

  1. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae = Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícularelativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambosos polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando maduras.The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable thisspecies to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of thepseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape when mature.

  2. ENCYCLIA × NIZANBURYI (ORCHIDACEAE) UN NUEVO HÍBRIDO NATURAL DEL ISTMO DE TEHUANTEPEC, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Eric Hágsater

    2012-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Encyclia × nizanburyi, una notoespecie nueva la cual sólo se conoce de la región de Nizanda, en la vertiente del Pacífico del Istmo de Tehuantepec, en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Se discute el posible origen híbrido de este nuevo taxón y se le compara con sus progenitores hipotéticos: Encyclia nizandensis y Encyclia hanburyi.

  3. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum ( Orchidaceae , Angraecinae ) from Gabon and Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ječmenica,Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii , two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme ...

  4. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) collected in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Droissart; Cribb,Phillip J.; Murielle Simo-Droissart; Tariq Stévart

    2014-01-01

    While conducting field inventories in South Cameroon, we collected two specimens of a new species that we considered to belong to the genus Angraecopsis. Afterwards, a careful examination of specimens housed at main herbaria, along with the nomenclatural types, allows us to place it in Distylodon, a monotypic genus previously known from East Africa. Distylodon sonkeanum Droissart, Stévart & P.J.Cribb, sp. nov. was collected in the lowland coastal forest of Atlantic Central Africa. ...

  5. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae collected in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Droissart

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While conducting field inventories in South Cameroon, we collected two specimens of a new species that we considered to belong to the genus Angraecopsis. Afterwards, a careful examination of specimens housed at main herbaria, along with the nomenclatural types, allows us to place it in Distylodon, a monotypic genus previously known from East Africa. Distylodon sonkeanum Droissart, Stévart & P.J.Cribb, sp. nov. was collected in the lowland coastal forest of Atlantic Central Africa. It is known from a single locality in the surroundings of the Campo-Ma’an National Park. The species differs from D. comptum, by its several-flowered inflorescences, longer leaves and spur, and shorter pedicel and ovary. The species appears to be rare and is assessed as Critically Endangered [CR B2ab(iii] according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. New field investigations are required to attempt to find it in the low-elevation parts of the Campo-Ma’an National Park in Cameroon.

  6. Pollination and floral ecology of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae) at the northern border of the species' natural distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Arundina graminifolia is an early successional plant on Iriomote Island, the Ryukyus, Japan, where it is endangered. Populations flower for more than half a year, and many inflorescences bloom for one to several months. The nectarless gullet flowers, which open for up to six days, are self-compatible but cannot self-pollinate spontaneously; thus they rely on pollinating agents for capsule production. Field observations at two habitats identified at least six species of bees and wasps, primarily mate-seeking males of Megachile yaeyamaensis and Thyreus takaonis, as legitimate pollinators. Thus, this orchid is a pollinator generalist, probably owing to its long blooming period and simple flower morphology. Carpenter bees, which were previously reported to pollinate this orchid, frequently visited flowers but were too large to crawl into the labellum chamber and never pollinated the flowers. Extrafloral nectaries on inflorescences attracted approximately 40 insect taxa but were not involved with pollination. Fruit-set ratios at the population level varied spatiotemporally but were generally low (5.2-12.4 %), presumably owing to infrequent flower visits by mate-seeking pollinators and the lack of food rewards to pollinators. PMID:23917792

  7. 中国石斛属一新种%A new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 张玉武; 肖丽萍

    2001-01-01

    @@Dendrobium fanjingshanense Z. H. Tsi ex X. H. Jin et Y. W. Zhang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Habitu D. wilsonii Rolfe simile, a quo tepalis revolutis fulvis, lobo labelli intermedii infra medium macula una flabellata purpurea ornato. Epiphyticum; caulis teres, 20~40 cm altus, 2~3 mm crassus, caespitosus, superne 5~6-foliatus, internodiis 1~1.5 cm longis. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, subcoriacea, 2~5 cm longa, 5~15 mm lata, apice obtusa et plus minusve hamata, basi vaginis tubulatis membranaceis obtecta. Inflorescentiae e lateribus partium superarum caulium annotinorum defoliatorum nascentes, versus apicem caulis laterales, 1~2-florae; pedunculi 2~3 mm longi, ca. 1 mm crassi, basi vaginis 3~4 membranaceis 3~4 mm longis instructi; bracteae ovato-triangulatae, 3~5 mm longae, apice acutae, macula atro-fusca ornatae. Flores patentes; pedicelli cum ovario ca. 2~3 cm longi; tepala revoluta, fulva, apice obtusa; sepalum intermedium oblongum 2 cm longum, medio 6~7 mm latum, apice fere obtusum; sepala lateralia paulo oblique ovato-lanceolata, sepalo intermedio aequilonga sed medio paulo angustiora, apice obtusa, basi cum pede columnae mentum obconoideum ca. 8 mm longum 6 mm latum apice obtusum formantia; petala subelliptica, ca. 2 cm longa, medio 6 mm lata, apice subobtusa; labellum fulvum, basi purpureum et dense velutinum, obscure trilobatum, lobis lateralibus semiorbiculatis erectis, basi (inter lobos laterales) callo uno purpureo praeditis, lobo intermedio ovato, ca. 1 cm longo, 7 mm lato, apice subacuto et recurvo, supra medio carinato, glabro; columna alba, ca. 3 mm longa, basi in pedem ca. 9 mm longum producta, pede medio purpurato, glabro; operculum antherae album, ambitu rhombicum, glabrum; pollinia 4.

  8. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination. PMID:26907369

  9. Germinação, crescimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de orquídeas (Cattleya spp., Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As orquídeas no ambiente natural sofrem exploração devido a sua importância ornamental, levando algumas espécies à extinção. O cultivo in vitro é uma forma alternativa para a conservação ex-situ. Procurou-se determinar um meio de cultura eficiente para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cattleya forbesii, bem como para o crescimento de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya harrisoniana. No primeiro caso, sementes foram inoculadas em meio de cultura básico de Murashige & Skoog (MS = T1 e MS básico acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado (CA = T2. No segundo, plântulas com 1 ± 0,2 cm de altura foram submetidas aos tratamentos T1, T2, MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes (T3 e MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes suplementado com 1,25 g L-1 de CA (T4. Verificou-se aos 30 dias em C. forbesii uma porcentagem de germinação de 45% em T1 e 90% em T2. A adição de CA ao meio de cultura trouxe aumento na altura de plântulas de C. forbesii de acordo com análises realizadas aos 180 dias de cultivo. Em relação ao crescimento de C. harrisoniana, aos 240 dias observou-se que todos os parâmetros médios avaliados (altura da parte aérea, massa de matéria fresca total, número de raízes e folhas, comprimento da maior raiz e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram significativamente maiores em T2. Dessa forma, sugere-se o uso do meio MS acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de CA (T2, uma vez que é significativamente favorável tanto para a germinação de sementes quanto para o crescimento de ambas as espécies.

  10. An assessment of plant growth regulators on asymbiotic development and germination\tof immature embryos of Beclardia Macrostachya (orchidaceae

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    Daneshwar Puchooa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beclardia macrostahya is one of the rarest orchids in Mauritius. In vitro techniques are being used for mass propagating this orchid for subsequent restoration programs. Successful asymbiotic germination of Beclardia macrostachya was obtained through embryo rescue. Modified half MS media supplemented with 10% coconut milk was used as basal culture media and the effect of plant growth regulators at different concentrations on embryo development was assessed through qualitative and quantitative parameters. Diameter of embryos, length of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs and length of developing shoots were calculated using digital photography. Maximal growth was obtained in treatments without any plant growth regulators and 0.5mg/l N6 Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP. Higher levels of Thiadurazon/TDZ (0.3mg/l and BAP (1.0 mg/l though they stimulated embryo development faster, yielded higher level of necrosis later. The results also suggest that plant growth regulator treatments that stimulate fastest embryo development from immature embryos/ovules need not be reliable for further development to PLB and plantlet regeneration.

  11. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  12. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    Full Text Available A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macromorphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy, assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis, determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences. Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  13. Germinação, crescimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de orquídeas (Cattleya spp., Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli Schneiders; Rosete Pescador; Maristela Raitz Booz; Rogério Mamoru Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    As orquídeas no ambiente natural sofrem exploração devido a sua importância ornamental, levando algumas espécies à extinção. O cultivo in vitro é uma forma alternativa para a conservação ex-situ. Procurou-se determinar um meio de cultura eficiente para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cattleya forbesii, bem como para o crescimento de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya harrisoniana. No primeiro caso, sementes foram inoculadas em meio de cultura básico de Mu...

  14. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii amino acid - protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm - like body (PLB organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin.

  15. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. I

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    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by King Carlos III in the second half of 18th Century, the Spanish government demonstrated a serious interest in the study of the rich floras of the colonies of the New World. The Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, led by Ruiz and Pavón, continued for 11 years in the two colonies and was followed by the activities of Tafalla and Manzanilla, who botanized in Peru and Ecuador. Two preliminary accounts of the flora of Peru were published in 1794 and 1798, but only three of the planned eleven volumes and five supplements of the Flora Peruviana et Chilensis were eventually published. The seventh volume, devoted to the Orchids, never saw the light of day. Due to the short descriptions published in 1798, and the dispersal of large parts of Ruiz and Pavón’s herbarium, the concepts of several of their orchid species remained obscure to modern botanists. These species can now be identified for the first time through the critical study of the unpublished illustrations and manuscripts of the expedition, kept at the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (RJB. The results in orchidology of the expedition, with a discussion of the new findings and interpretations, made possible by the study of Ruiz and Pavón’s orchid iconography, are presented in two contributions. In this first part – an introduction – notes on the illustrators and their work, as well as on the orchid manuscripts and collections, are given. Orchid taxa are presented alphabetically, from Acianthera to Maxillariella. For each taxon references to the nomenclatural types, synonymy, illustrations and exsiccata prepared during the expedition, as well as to Ruiz’s diaries and the unpublished manuscripts of the expedition’s botanists, are provided. In the absence of any actual specimens referable to the type collections and associated with the protologues, Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa, and M. Triphylla are formally lectotypified with the type illustrations conserved in MA. New combinations are proposed for the basionyms Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia po lystachya, Maxillaria ramosa, and M. Triphylla.

    Bajo el impulso del rey Carlos III, el gobierno español demostró en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII un serio interés en el estudio de las ricas floras de sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo. La Real Expedición al Perú y Chile, liderada por Ruiz y Pavón, trabajó por 11 años en las dos colonias y fue continuada posteriormente por Tafalla y Manzanilla, quienes botanizaron en el Perú y en el Ecuador. En 1794 y 1798 se publicaron dos trabajos preliminares sobre la flora del Perú, pero solamente tres de los 11 volúmenes y cinco suplementos de la Flora Peruviana et Chilensis vieron finalmente la luz. El séptimo volumen, dedicado a las Orquídeas, nunca se publicó. Debido a las descripciones sintéticas publicadas en 1798 y a la dispersión de una parte cuantiosa del herbario de Ruiz y Pavón, muchos conceptos de sus especies de orquídeas quedaron obscuros para los botánicos modernos. El estudio crítico de las ilustraciones y manuscritos inéditos de la expedición, conservados en el Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (RJB, permiten ahora identificar por primera vez muchas de estas especies. Los resultados orquideológicos de la expedición, con una discusión de los nuevos hallazgos e interpretaciones hechos posibles por el estudio de la iconografía de orquídeas de Ruiz y Pavón, se presentan en dos contribuciones. En esta primera parte se proporcionan una introducción, notas sobres los ilustradores y su obra, así como sobre los manuscritos y colecciones de orquídeas. Los táxones de orquídeas se presentan alfabéticamente, de Acianthera a Maxillariella. Para cada uno de los táxones se proveen referencias a los tipos nomenclaturales, sinonimia, ilustraciones y exsiccata preparados durante la expedición, así como a los diarios de Ruiz y a los manuscritos inéditos de los botánicos de la expedición. En ausencia de especímenes de material original o de alguna manera asociable a los protólogos, se lectotipifican Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa y M. Triphylla con las ilustraciones de los tipos conservadas en MA. Se proponen nuevas combinaciones para los basiónimos Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia polysta chya, Maxillaria ramosa y M. Triphylla.

  16. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African Orchids 1. A New Species of Angraecum set. Pectinaria (Orchidaceae) from Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stévart, T.; Cawoy, V.; Damen, T.H.J.; Droissart, V.

    2010-01-01

    During a recent survey of Atlantic central African orchids, we collected four orchid specimens in Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea) that share the general morphology of Angraecum gabonense, the most frequent member of Angraecum section Pectinaria in Central Africa, but differ in leaf shape and flower siz

  17. 芳香石豆兰的繁殖生态学%Reproductive ecology of Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 高江云

    2011-01-01

    芳香石豆兰(Bulbophyllum ambrosia)是分布于我国南方石灰岩山热带季节性雨林中的一种常见附生兰科植物,附着生长于岩石或树干上,野外监测发现其自然不结实.对芳香石豆兰繁殖生态学的研究表明,不同于石豆兰属其他具有蝇类传粉综合征的种类,其花具有香味和花蜜,中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)是芳香石豆兰唯一的有效传粉者,具有较高的访问频率,自然种群中有较高的花粉块移出率和柱头花粉块沉降率,在中华蜜蜂的传粉过程中,芳香石豆兰铰链结构的唇瓣起着重要作用.人工授粉试验表明,芳香石豆兰自交授粉不结实,异交授粉结实率达90%以上,芳香石豆兰为自交不亲和的繁育系统.芳香石豆兰具有较强的克隆生长能力,同一个体花期内有大量的花同时开放,其传粉者中华蜜蜂平均单次访花(4.29±0.40)朵(n=66),造成了严重的同株异花传粉.芳香石豆兰附生于石灰岩山顶岩石或树干上,种群密度较低,使得不同个体之间花粉交流困难,自交不亲和的特性导致了芳香石豆兰自然不结实.本研究结果为开展芳香石豆兰的有效保护提供了依据.%Aims Bulbophyllum ambrosia is an epiphytic orchid growing on rocks and trees in limestone seasonal rainforests and is commonly distributed in southern China. We found no fruit set of B. ambrosia during long-term monitoring of species diversity, reproductive phenology and pollinators of local orchid species in Green Stone Forest Park. Our objective was to determine barriers to fruit set in B. ambrosia.Methods Flowering phenology and natural fruit-set were monitored once a week for three years. Floral morphology was studied during flowering time. We also investigated the rate of pollinia removal and deposition over two flowering seasons. To determine the self-compatibility system, different hand-pollination treatments were conducted over three years at the study site. We also observed floral visitors for 150 h over two years. Important findings Unlike other myophilous species in the genus, B. ambrosia is fragrant and presents nectar as reward. Observations of floral visitors showed that honeybee {Apis cerana cerand) was the only efficient pollinator and regularly visited flowers with high frequency. In natural populations, the rates of pollinia removal and deposition were high, but there was no fruit set. The hinged labellum plays an important role in the process of honeybee pollination of B. ambrosia. No fruit was found in the selfing pollination treatment, and fruit set of crossing pollination treatments was >90% over two years, suggesting that B. ambrosia is self-incompatible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a self-incompatible species in Bulbophyllum. Individuals of B. ambrosia have a mass of flowers opening simultaneously during anthesis because of its strong ability in cloning. Honeybees visited 4.29 ± 0.40 flowers (n = 66) in average per visitation, which may lead to geitonogamy. Self-incompatibility causes no fruit set as the result of geitonogamy. These results provide useful implications for future conservation of B. ambrosia.

  18. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species.

  19. Characterization of seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum (Orchidaceae promoted by mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

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    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtopodium glutiniferum is an endemic orchid of Brazil with potential medicinal and ornamental applications. As mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the initiation of the orchid life cycle, the aim of this study was to determine the strains of mycorrhizal fungi suitable for seed germination and protocorm development of C. glutiniferum and to characterize the symbiotic development of protocorms. Seeds of C. glutiniferum were inoculated with nine mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza spp., Ceratorhiza spp., Rhizoctonia sp., originally isolated from Brazilian neotropical orchids. Only Epulorhiza isolates promoted seed germination and protocorm development. Three Epulorhiza isolates (M1, M6 = E. epiphytica, M20 = Epulorhiza sp. promoted protocorm development until leaf production at 63 days. The protocorms are comprised of parenchyma cells delimited by a unistratified epidermis; the parenchyma cells of the upper part of the protocorms are smaller than those located more towards the base. Intact and digested pelotons were observed inside of protocorms implying that the seedlings were capable of mycotrophy. Additionally, the development of a bud primordium only occurred after colonization by fungus. This study suggests that C. glutiniferum has a preference for strains of Epulorhiza and that fungus digestion is essential to protocorm development.

  20. In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiao-Meng; Sheng, Chun-Ling; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attract germination promoting fungi. Of the two fungi isolated from seed baiting, Tulasnella spp. and Trichoderma spp., Tulasnella, enhanced seed germination by 13.6 %, protocorm formation by 85.7 %, and seedling development by 45.2 % (all P germination promoting fungi isolated from Cymbidium mannii, also enhanced seed germination (6.5 %; P germination by 26.4 % (P germination stage success was not dependent on fungi, we recommend that Tulasnella be introduced for facilitating D. aphyllum seed germination at the protocorm formation stage and that light be provided for increasing germination as well as further seedling development. Our findings suggest that in situ seed baiting can be used to isolate seed germination-enhancing fungi for the development of seedling production for conservation and reintroduction efforts of epiphytic orchids such as D. aphyllum.

  1. Genetic diversity of wild Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae)populations from Hubei based on Inter-simple sequence repeats analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiaohong; GAO Li; YANG Bo

    2007-01-01

    Cymbidium goeringii is a diploid and nonrewarding,bumblebee-pollinated species,which is distributed in China,Japan and Korea Peninsula.This species is now highly endangered due to the mass collection and forest clearance in China.In the present study,we investigated the distribution of genetic variation within and between eleven populations of Cymbidium goeringii in central China by using Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers.Eleven primers produced a total of 127 clear and reproducible bands of which 112 were polymorphic.High genetic diversity was detected in Cymbidium goeringii for both population level (P = 63.1%;He = 0.194 5) and species level (P = 88.2%;He = 0.262 8).A higher level of genetic differentiation was detected among populations (GST = 0.244 0,FST = 0.220 7)with Nei's Gsr analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA),and no correlation was found between geographical and genetic distance.Genetic drift rather than gene flow played an important role in forming the present population structure of Cymbidium goeringii.Limited gene flow among populations and gene drift increase the extinction risk of local populations.Some conservation concerns are therefore discussed together with possible strategies for implementing in situ and ex situ conservation.

  2. Two widespread green Neottia species (Orchidaceae) show mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales in various habitats and ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Kotilínek, Milan; Jersáková, Jana; Joly, François-Xavier; Košnar, Jiří; Tatarenko, Irina; Selosse, Marc-André

    2015-03-01

    Plant dependence on fungal carbon (mycoheterotrophy) evolved repeatedly. In orchids, it is connected with a mycorrhizal shift from rhizoctonia to ectomycorrhizal fungi and a high natural (13)C and (15)N abundance. Some green relatives of mycoheterotrophic species show identical trends, but most of these remain unstudied, blurring our understanding of evolution to mycoheterotrophy. We analysed mycorrhizal associations and (13)C and (15)N biomass content in two green species, Neottia ovata and N. cordata (tribe Neottieae), from a genus comprising green and nongreen (mycoheterotrophic) species. Our study covered 41 European sites, including different meadow and forest habitats and orchid developmental stages. Fungal ITS barcoding and electron microscopy showed that both Neottia species associated mainly with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B, a group of rhizoctonia symbionts of green orchids, regardless of the habitat or growth stage. Few additional rhizoctonias from Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae, and ectomycorrhizal fungi were detected. Isotope abundances did not detect carbon gain from the ectomycorrhizal fungi, suggesting a usual nutrition of rhizoctonia-associated green orchids. Considering associations of related partially or fully mycoheterotrophic species such as Neottia camtschatea or N. nidus-avis with ectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade A, we propose that the genus Neottia displays a mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales and that the association with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B is likely ancestral. Such a change in preference for mycorrhizal associates differing in ecology within the same fungal taxon is rare among orchids. Moreover, the existence of rhizoctonia-associated Neottia spp. challenges the shift to ectomycorrhizal fungi as an ancestral pre-adaptation to mycoheterotrophy in the whole Neottieae.

  3. ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T. angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

  4. A new species of]Anoectochilus Blume (Orchidaceae) from China%国产开唇兰属(兰科)一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎楷永; 萧丽萍

    2002-01-01

    @@ 南岭齿唇兰新种图1 Anoectochilus nanlingensis L. P. Siu et K. Y. Lang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 A congeneribus differt plantis minimis tantum 7.5~8.5 cm altis, sepalis albis dorso striis 2 longitudinalibus grossis purpureis ornatis, petalis albis oblique angusteque lineari-lanceolatis secus costam stria 1 grossa purpurea instructis et margine breviter et dense ciliatis, labello albo, inter 2 lobos apicales basi sinus macula 1 purpurea ornato, ungue in utroque latere costae maculis (3~) 4 purpureis instructo.

  5. Biogeografia do gênero Galeandra lindl. (Orchidaceae : Catasetinae) no neotrópico e estudo taxonômico para o estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Thuane Bochorny de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A região neotropical abriga a maior diversidade de espécies do planeta, contendo aproximadamente 37% de todas as plantas conhecidas atualmente. Explicar esta extraordinária diversidade tem sido um grande desafio, que requer identificar padrões de distribuição geográfica dos táxons e compreender quais processos podem ter influenciado sua diversificação. Galeandra Lindl. é um gênero de orquídeas neotropicais, que possui 18 espécies de forma de vida epífita ou terrícola. Suas espécies sã...

  6. 纤细头蕊兰--中国兰科一新种%Cephalanthera gracilis (Orchidaceae),A New Species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈心启; 朱光华

    2002-01-01

    @@ During the visit of the senior author in 1995 to the herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris (P),a new saprophytic species of Cephalanthera was found related to Cephalanthera calcarata S.C.Chen & K.Y.Lang published in 1986.

  7. In vivo kinetics of beta-glucosidase towards glucovanillin and related phenolic glucosides in heat-treated vanilla pod (Vanilla planifolia, Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brillouet, Jean Marc; Odoux , Eric

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The traditional curing of vanilla pods includes "killing" and sweating steps when pods are exposed to heat (35-65 degrees C) for various lengths of time. Although it is known that liberation of vanillin and other phenolics from their non- aromatic glucosides is due to the action of an endogenous beta-glucosidase, its in vivo kinetics remained unknown. Materials and methods. Mature green vanilla pods were pretreated for 2 h at 50 degrees C, 55 degrees C and 60 degrees C, then sto...

  8. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  9. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (ΦPT=0.387) and low within-population diversity (HE, range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  10. Revisión del género Cephalanthera (Orchidaceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

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    Alarcón, María Luisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Cephalanthera in the Iberian Peninsula and NW of Africa has been done. Three species have been accepted. These species, C. rubra, C. longifolia and C. damasonium, have been listed with their synonyms in the study zone, a detailed description of each, and distribution maps. The indumentum pollen and seeds have been studied by SEM. C. damasonium has been typified.Se revisa el género Cephalanthera en la Península Ibérica, Baleares y NW de África. Se aceptan tres especies: C. rubra, C. longifolia y C. damasonium, para las que se dan los sinónimos usados en la zona de estudio, descripción detallada y mapas de distribución. Se estudia el indumento, polen y semillas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se neotipifica C. damasonium.

  11. Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata,a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-sheng ZHANG; Ya-li LV; Yue ZHAO; Shun-xing GUO

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus,commonly known as "Jewel Orchid",is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension,diabetes,and heart disease.The existence of A.formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss,human and animal consumption,etc.The highly potent medicinal activity of A.formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites,especially kinsenosides and flavonoids.This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship.Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them,which are related to plant growth,yield and changes in secondary metabolites.This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A.formosanus in pot culture.The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation:increased shoot height,shoot dry weight,and leaf numbers by 16.6%,31.3%,and 22.5%,respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides,isorhamnetin-3-O-[β-D-rutinoside,and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%,226.1%,and 196.0%,respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and,significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells.Moreover,F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A.formosanus.These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts,although further physiological,genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.

  12. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

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    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y jugo de piña fueron más eficientes en la germinación asimbiótica y en el desarrollo de plántulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utilización de las fitohormonas.

  13. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Mercado Seir Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del

    93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demãs medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y

    *ugo de pi+a fueron mãs eficientes en la germinación asim4iótica y en el desarrollo de plãntulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utili7ación de las fitohormonas.

  14. A comparative study of the seed germination capabilities of Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae, a threatened terrestrial orchid, and other more common Anacamptis species, by asymbiotic culture in vitro

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    Sara Magrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing emphasis on terrestrial orchid conservation has led to conservation actions for a wide range of threatened Mediterranean species. Many terrestrial orchids are currently at great risk for extinction as a result of a multiplicity of threatening processes. We focus on orchid seed germination capabilities in vitro, specifically germination capability of a threatened species, Anacamptis palustris, compared to three other more common species (A. laxiflora, A. morio, and A. papilionacea, and also discuss its potential impact on orchid distribution and conservation. Asymbiotic germination tests were performed with mature seeds using BM-1 medium. In vitro seed germination and protocorm developmental stages were evaluated up to 20 weeks after sowing. Significant differences in seedling development were detected among the species, and a correlation was evident between the rarity of the species and their germinability. Thus, the presence of intrinsic, biological factors that affect and limit the distribution of A. palustris may exist.

  15. Butterfly pollination in Pteroglossa (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): a comparative study on the reproductive biology of two species of a Neotropical genus of Spiranthinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, Emerson R; Ferreira, Alessandro W C

    2015-05-01

    Spiranthinae orchids are known for being self-compatible and offering nectar as a reward. Although data on their pollinators are scarce, members of this tribe are mostly pollinated by bees, hummingbirds and moths. Some of them even reproduce through facultative self-pollination. Nothing is known about the pollinators and reproduction system in Pteroglossa. Based on records on flowering phenology, floral morphology, reward production, pollinators and breeding system, this paper aims to study the reproductive biology of two Pteroglossa spp. Both species offer nectar as a resource and are pollinated exclusively by diurnal Lepidoptera at the studied areas. Nectar is produced by two glandular nectaries, and is stored in a spur. Pollinaria possess a ventrally adhesive viscidium that is deposited on the basal portion of butterfly proboscides. Both species are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The reproductive success is low when compared to other Spiranthinae. Although no evident mechanical barrier to avoid self-pollination or geitonogamy was identified, the erratic behavior of the butterflies, with their infrequent visits to only one flower per inflorescence, contributes to an increased fruit set produced through cross-pollination. The presence of ventrally adhesive viscidia in Spiranthinae is responsible for greater pollinator diversity when compared to bee-pollinated Goodyerinae with dorsally adhesive viscidia, adapted to attach to bee mouthparts.

  16. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, A.; F. M. S. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de...

  17. Substratos e extrato pirolenhoso no cultivo de orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae = Substratum and pyroligneous extract in the cultivation of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento vegetativo e de raízes de espécies das orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley utilizando diferentes substratos e extrato pirolenhoso foi avaliado. Mudas produzidas in vitro foram transferidas para recipientes com: T1 – casca de pinus (Pi, fibra de coco (Co e casca de arroz carbonizada (Ca; T2 – PiCoCa e carvão vegetal (Car; T3 – PiCoCaCar, sendo o carvão vegetal tratado com extrato pirolenhoso (EP; T4 – CoCaCarEP; e T5 – CoCaCar. Todos os materiais foram utilizados na mesma proporção. Altura da parte aérea, número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, número de brotos, massa fresca total e pH foram avaliados sete meses após a instalação do experimento. Para C. intermedia, o T3 foi superior aos outros tratamentos, com valores maiores para os parâmetros estudados. O T4 e, a seguir, o T2 foram os tratamentos nos quais os valores mais seaproximaram do melhor tratamento. Para Milt. clowesii, a mesma tendência se verificou, entretanto sem a mesma magnitude nas diferenças entre os tratamentos. De maneira geral, o extrato pirolenhoso incrementou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular das orquídeas estudadas.The vegetative and root development of the species of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley using different substrates and pyroligneous extract were assessed. Seedlings from in vitro propagation were transferred to vessels with: T1 - Pinus bark (Pi, coconut fibers (Co and charred peel of rice (Cr; T2 – PiCoCr and vegetal charcoal (Ch, T3 – PiCoCrCh with the charcoal treated with pyroligneous extract (PE;T4 - CoCrChEP and T5 - CoCrCh. The materials used in substrates were placed in the same ratio. Plant height, number of roots, length of the greater root, number of buddings, total fresh mass and pH were assessed seven months after experiment onset. For Para C. intermedia, T3 was superior than the other treatments, with higher values for the studied parameters. T4, followed by T2, were the treatments in which the values were closer to the best treatment. For Milt. clowesii the same tendency was found, although without the same magnitude in the differences among treatments. In general, pyroligneous extract incremented the vegetative and root development of the studied orchids.

  18. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: isopor picado (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno (1:1, v:v; PBC:CP= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: casca de pínus (1:1, v:v; PC= pó de coco e PBC:PC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: pó de coco (1:1, v:v. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com 10 plantas por tratamento. As variáveis avaliadas após 12 meses do início do experimento foram: altura da parte aérea (APA, comprimento do maior pseudobulbo (CMP, diâmetro do maior pseudobulbo (DMP, comprimento da maior raiz (CMR, número de raízes (NR, número de brotos (NB, massa fresca total (MFT e pH do substrato. Todos os substratos avaliados, com exceção do pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno podem ser utilizados como substitutos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook.

  19. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae) /
    Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer; Lúcia Sadao Takahashi; Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Mauren Sorace; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defib...

  20. Caracterização morfo-anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664 Morpho-anatomic characterization of vegetative organs of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de orquídeas epífitas possuem adaptações morfo-anatômicas singulares e que as tornam aptas a ocuparem ambientes onde a escassez de água e de nutrientes é freqüente, como os ramos e troncos das árvores. Nelas são comuns os tecidos especializados para a reserva de água, tanto nas folhas quanto nas raízes e nos pseudobulbos, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente os órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. As folhas são coriáceo-carnosas, revestidas com espessa cutícula, hipostomáticas e com mesofilo tendendo para a dorsi-ventralidade. Nos pseudobulbos, a cutícula e algumas camadas de células subjacentes impermeabilizam o parênquima fundamental, formado por grandes células que reservam água e carboidratos na forma de grãos de amido. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais, tendo os maiores, calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores. Nas raízes o velame e o tecido cortical estão formados por várias camadas de células, embora tanto a exoderme quanto a endoderme mostrem-se pouco espessadasThe epiphytic orchids species have singular morpho-anatomic adaptations, which enable them to stay in places where water and nutrients scarcity are frequent, such as trees branch and trunk. The tissues specialized in water reservation are common in these species, as much as in leaves, roots and pseudobulbs. This study aimed to distinguish morpho-anatomically the vegetative organs of ,em>Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. Their leaves are coriaceous-fleshy in texture, covered by thick cuticle, hypostomatic and their mesophyll tends to the dorsal-ventral. In the pseudobulbs, the cuticle and some underlying cell layers waterproof the fundamental parenchyma, formed by big cells that reserve water and grains of starch. The vascular bundles are collateral, and the longest ones have sclerenchyma cap in both conductor tissue poles. In the roots, the velamen and the cortical tissue are formed by several cell layers, although both exoderm and endoderm are not very thick

  1. Fungicide and germicide on contamination escaping in the in vitro propagation of Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae Avaliação da fitotoxicidade de fungicidas e germicida na propagação in vitro de Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae para o controle de microorganismos

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    Geraldo Lopes Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problem of in vitro production of seedling is the contamination of the culture medium during the micropropagation stages. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fungicides and germicide on the plant growth and rooting, degree of phytotoxicity and control of contamination during in vitro cultivation of O. varicosum orchid. The flowers were pollinated artificially and the capsules seeds were sowed in MS culture medium modified with half of the macronutrients. The seedlings were transferred to the same culture medium uded for germination, added with the fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil ( 0 g.L-1 , 0.1 g.L-1 ; 0.2 g.L-1 ; 0.4 g.L-1 ; 0.6 g.L-1 and 0.8 g.L-1 or sodium hypochloride with 10% active chloride ( 0 mL. L-1 , 0,5 mL.L-1 ; 0,75 mL. L-1 ; 1,00 mL. L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 ; 1,50 mL. L-1. A complete randomized block design was used with ten replications per treatment and five plantlets per flask. The treatment containing 1.5 mL L-1 sodium hypochloride was the best in preventing contamination by microorganisms and did not cause any apparent harm development and in vitro rooting of Oncidium varicosum plantlets.Um dos maiores problemas na produção de mudas in vitro, é a contaminação por fungos e bactérias do meio de cultura durante as etapas de micropropagação, mesmo havendo todos os cuidados de assepsia. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fungicidas e germicida no crescimento vegetativo e enraizamento in vitro da orquídea Oncidium varicosum Lindl. As flores foram polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes foram germinadas no meio MS modificado com a metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. As plântulas obtidas foram subcultivadas no mesmo meio de germinação, adicionando-se os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil nas concentrações: 0,1 g.L-1; 0,2 g.L-1 ; 0,4 g.L-1; 0,6 g .L-1 e 0,8 g.L-1 O germicida hipoclorito de sódio com 10% de cloro ativo foi adicionado ao meio nutritivo nas concentrações: 0,5 mL. L-1; 0,75 mL .L-1 ; 1,00 mL .L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 e 1,50 mL. L-1 . O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento e cinco plântulas por frasco. O tratamento contendo hipoclorito de sódio 1,5 mL . L-1 mostrou-se o menos tóxico, pois não afetou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e o enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Oncidium varicosum.

  2. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

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    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in treatments under white light, while red light promoted greater chlorophyll b, plantlets with fewer and shorter roots, and high ex vitro mortality. The addition of 2.0g L-1 of active charcoal to the culture medium and the use of white light provided greater development efficiency both on in vitro culture and ex vitro plant survival.

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Raabe, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  4. [Isolation and structure elucidation of three dihydrophenanthrenes from Ephemerantha lonchophylla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Ma, G; Yang, G; Pan, Y

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, three dihydrophenanthrenes are isolated from the Stems and pseudobulbs of Ephemerantha lonchophylla (Orchidaceae). They are identified as Iusianthridin (1), ephemeranthol-B (2) and erianthridin (3) by spectral data. PMID:12572433

  5. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

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    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro de orquídeas é bastante utilizada para a produção de mudas. A busca por meios de cultura alternativos para este fim vem sendo amplamente estudada devido à complexidade dos meios comumente utilizados, como o meio MS. Os híbridos de Phalaenopsis encontram-se dentre as orquídeas mais comercializadas no mundo devido à longevidade e à beleza peculiar de suas flores. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações de fertilizantes comerciais e adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' em meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (P. amabilis x P. equestris. Plântulas germinadas in vitro, em meio MS, foram subcultivadas em meios de cultura à base de fertilizantes comerciais e meio MS modificado com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os meios de cultura foram avaliados com e sem a adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' (100 g L-1 no estádio de maturação quatro. A base dos meios de cultura foi composta por sacarose (30 g L-1, carvão ativado (1 g L-1 e ágar (9 g L-1. Aos 180 dias foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: área foliar, número de folhas e raízes, comprimento de raízes e massas de matérias secas de folhas e raízes. Conclui-se que o tratamento composto por Biofert® acrescido de polpa de banana apresentou os melhores resultados para o desenvolvimento in vitro do híbrido, inclusive apresentando resultados estatisticamente superiores em relação ao meio MS sem banana.The in vitro propagation of orchids is a largely used procedure for the production of seedlings. The search for alternative culture media with this purpose has been widely studied due to the complexity of the commonly used media, e.g. the MS medium. The hybrids of Phalaenopsis are among the most commercialized orchids in the world due to the longevity and distinct beauty of its flowers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fertilizers' formulations and the addition of 'Nanica' banana pulp in a culture medium for in vitro cultivation of a hybrid of Phalaenopsis. Seedlings germinated in vitro, in MS medium, were subcultivated in culture media with a basis of commercial fertilizers and MS medium modified with half the concentration of macronutrients. The culture media were evaluated with and without the addition of the banana pulp (100g L-1 during the stage of maturation 4. The basis of these culture media was composed of sucrose (30g L-1, activated charcoal (1g L-1 and agar (9g L-1. After 180 days the following variables were analyzed: leaf area, number of leaves and roots, root length and dry weight of leaves and roots. We were able to conclude that the treatment composed by Biofert® supplemented with banana pulp presented the best results for the hybrid development in vitro, and actually presented statistically superior results in relation to MS without banana.

  6. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and coconut fiber. The in vitro plants were kept in MS culture medium. For the qualitative anatomical analysis, samples of leaves and roots were collected from ex vitro and in vitro plants. The acclimatized plants presented morphological and anatomical structure similar to the mother plant. The anatomical structure of in vitro plants did not affect plant survival during the acclimatization process, as this cultivar has great phenotypic plasticity. Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants have high capacity of adaptation to the environment and this characteristic is likely to be responsible for their survival rate of 100% during acclimatization.

  7. 海南霸王岭五唇兰生境土壤特性分析%Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Orchidaceae) Habitat in Bawangling Natural Reserve, Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琪; 宋希强; 胡新文; 朱国鹏

    2013-01-01

    The soil is the matric which can directly impact on the growth and development of plants, hi order to uncover the characteristics of soil in Phalaenopsis pulcherrima habitats and the difference between the two different ecotypes distributed, we set six quadrats in Bawangling nature reserve in Hainan island, where there are P. pulcherrima. We analyzed the water content, pH and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of each soil sample, we also classified size index of P. pulcherrima individuals according to clonal ramets and biological properties, which indicates the plant biomass. We also analyzed correlation size index and the characteristics of soil, and compared these physical and chemical properties between the two ecotypes. The results revealed that the soil was acidic and rich in nutrient contents. There are remarkable difference in physical and chemical properties between different samples; and there are also difference in size index of P. pulcherrima between different quadrats. Besides, size index and soil properties showed positive correlation. All the indexes of the soil sample which P. pulcherrima grew in with red leaf dorsal are higher than that with green leaf dorsal. These results may have important value for guiding cultivation of tissue culture seedling and exploring spatial-temporal dynamics of P. pulcherrima population.%土壤是植物生长繁殖的重要环境因子,直接影响着植物的生长发育.本研究旨在揭示五唇兰自然分布区域土壤理化性质及五唇兰生态型的相关性.在海南霸王岭王下设置6个样方,测定其内土壤含水量、pH值、氮磷钾含量等理化指标;根据五唇兰的克隆分株特性和生物学特性建立五唇兰龄级指数,并分析龄级指数与土壤的相关性;比较五唇兰两种生态型其生境土壤的理化指标.结果表明:五唇兰样方内的土壤呈酸性,有机质含量较高,氮、磷、钾营养成分丰富.五唇兰根系附近的土壤理化指标存在较大变异;不同样方内五唇兰的龄级指数存在显著差异;五唇兰的龄级指数与土壤营养成分含量存在正相关关系.叶背红色型五唇兰的土壤各项化学指标含量均高于叶背绿色型,其龄级指数亦大于叶背绿色型.本研究结果对指导五唇兰组培苗的栽培和解释其野外种群的动态变化具有重要意义.

  8. 美花石斛菌根真菌接菌方式与接种效应初步研究%Inoculation Methods and Effects of Beneficial Symbiotic Fungi of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.(Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝玲; 宋希强; 胡美姣; 杨福孙

    2011-01-01

    Symbiosis with orchid mycorrhizal fungi is essential to the orchid seeds germination and seedlings growth in nature. To study the effects of orchid mycorrhizae on the growth of orchid seedlings, especially the direct relationship between inoculation methods and inoculation effects in laboratory, three mycorrhizal fungi ( M1,M2 and M3 ) was isolated from fresh nutritious roots of Denclrobium loddigesii and used to establish the asymbiotic culture system, single and mixed inoculation were adopted, inoculation effects on D. loddigesii seedlings was analyzed. At last, beneficial fungi M1 and M3 were screened out, and mixed inoculating was good for biomass accumulation of D. loddigesii seedlings, such as inoculation modes with two myeorrhizal fungi M1-M2, M2-M3 and with three mycorrhizal fungi M1-M2-M3. Mixed inoculating would play an effective role in orchids production,which has great practical significance.%自然条件下,兰科菌根真菌的共生对于兰科植物种子萌芽和植株生长是必不可少的.为探讨有益共生真菌对兰科植物生长的促进作用,特别是在实验室环境下接菌方式的改变与接种效应直接的联系,本研究从野生美花石斛(Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.)新鲜营养根中分离、筛选出3种菌根真菌(M1、M2和M3),采用单一接菌和混合接菌的接种方式,分析3个菌株及其不同接种方式对美花石斛生长的影响.研究得到优势菌株M1和M3,并证实混合接菌对美花石斛的生物量增长具有较好的正效应,两两混合接种方式M1-M2、M2-M3及3个混合接种方式M1-M2-M3均能较好的促进美花石斛生物量的积累.充分发挥混合接菌对兰科植物生长发育所产生的效能,提高生产效率.具有较强的现实意义.

  9. In vitro growth of Brassocattleya orchid hybrid in different concentrations of KNO3, NH4NO3 and benzylaminopurine Cultivo in vitro de Brassocattleya (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de KNO3, NH4NO3 e benzilaminopurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C Cardoso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of plant tissue culture is mass propagation of ornamental plants. This experiment evaluated the effect of different concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 and BAP on the in vitro growth of orchid hybrid Brassocattleya 'Pastoral'. Seedlings of this orchid hybrid were used as explants and cultivated in medium with mineral salts and vitamins from the MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962, with the macronutrients P, Ca and Mg reduced by half, and with an addition of 25 g L-1 of sucrose, 0.1 g L-1 of myo-inositol and 1.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Agar-agar was added (6.5 g L-1 and the pH was adjusted to 5.8. As treatments, four concentrations of the NH4NO3 and KNO3 (2x; 1x; ½ and ¼ MS medium and three concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 were assayed. The multiplication, growth in height, fresh and dry weight and sugar level in dry weight of sprouts were evaluated. There occurred a higher growth in height with 0.25x NH4NO3 and KNO3 salts concentrations of MS medium and higher rate of multiplication with combination of NH4NO3 and KNO3 reduced by half of the MS medium concentration and 1.0 mg L-1 BAP.Entre as maiores aplicações da cultura de tecidos de plantas está a propagação massal de mudas de plantas ornamentais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de orquídea Brassocattleya em diferentes concentrações de NH4NO3, KNO3 e BAP. Foram utilizadas sementes do híbrido de orquídea Brassocattleya 'Pastoral' e as plantas foram cultivadas em meio MS com redução pela metade das fontes de P, Mg e Ca e adição de 25 g L-1 de sacarose, 100 mg L-1 de mio-inositol, 1,5 g L-1 de carvão ativo e 6,5 g L-1 de ágar-ágar, sendo o pH ajustado para 5,8. Como tratamentos foram usados quatro concentrações dos sais NH4NO3 e KNO3 (2x; 1x; ½ e ¼ do meio MS e três concentrações de BAP (0,0; 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1. Avaliou-se a multiplicação, o crescimento em altura, massa fresca e seca, além dos teores de açucares redutores na massa seca das mudas. Observou-se grande influência das doses de NH4NO3 e KNO3 sobre o crescimento em altura das mudas, massa fresca e seca e teores de açucares redutores em Bc. ('Pastoral' x Auto. A dose de ¼ da utilizada no meio MS promoveu aumento significativo do crescimento das plantas. Para multiplicação, houve melhor resultado com a dose de ½ dos sais NH4NO3 e KNO3 utilizados no meio MS e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP.

  10. Propagación in vitro de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae mediante técnicas simbióticas y asimbióticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Karol Chávez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Para su germinación, las orquídeas dependen de hongos micorrízicos y muchas de las características únicas de estas plantas están asociadas con el hongo que las coloniza. En este trabajo se evaluó la germinación de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata en condiciones de laboratorio utilizando los métodos simbióticos: dos hongos micorrízicos de orquídeas de diferentes especies y un aislamiento patogénico de Rhizoctonia solani obtenido de arroz, y los asimbioticos: formulación de Knudson C y MS (Murashie & Skood. Se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos, resultando mejor el método asimbiótico con la formulación Knudson C y el simbiótico con R. solani, patógeno de arroz. Además, se observó que los tratamientos donde se implementó la metodología simbiótica tuvieron menor porcentaje de contaminación por microorganismos que los tratamientos de tipo asimbiótico.

  11. Efeitos da escarificação química e da concentração de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento in vitro de Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae) Effect of chemical scarification and concentration of nitrogen on the germination and in vitro development of Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes; Thiago de Souza-Leal; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Marcelo Claro Souza

    2012-01-01

    Vanilla planifolia é uma espécie com grande valor comercial, porém sua propagação é dificultada devido à baixa germinação de suas sementes. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar a influência da escarificação destas sementes por meio da imersão em H2SO4 concentrado durante 60, 120 e 180 segundos, bem como de diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Sessenta segundos de escarificação e 25% de nitrogênio no meio de cultura proporcionaram os me...

  12. Efeitos da escarificação química e da concentração de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento in vitro de Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae Effect of chemical scarification and concentration of nitrogen on the germination and in vitro development of Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia é uma espécie com grande valor comercial, porém sua propagação é dificultada devido à baixa germinação de suas sementes. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar a influência da escarificação destas sementes por meio da imersão em H2SO4 concentrado durante 60, 120 e 180 segundos, bem como de diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Sessenta segundos de escarificação e 25% de nitrogênio no meio de cultura proporcionaram os melhores resultados sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de V. planifolia, constituindo-se em um procedimento viável para a produção comercial dessa espécie.Vanilla planifolia is a species with a large commercial value; however, it is difficult to propagate due to low seeds germination. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the influence of scarification of the seeds by soaking them in concentrated H2SO4 for 60, 120 and 180 seconds, as well as different concentrations of nitrogen, on germination and plant development. Sixty seconds of scarification and 25% nitrogen in the culture medium provided the best results for germination and is a viable procedure for the commercial production of this species.

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    ), Iridaceae (54, 55, 77), Juncaceae (69), Lamiaceae (40–42), Liliaceae s.l. (18, 56, 57, 70, 78, 79), Malvaceae (43), Onagraceae (85), Orchidaceae (58–60, 87, 88), Orobanchaceae (44, 66), Papaveraceae (14, 67, 75), Poaceae (19, 71), Polygonaceae (45, 76), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (46, 47), Santalaceae (48...

  15. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -54), Linaceae (23, 81), Nyctaginaceae (24), Ophioglossaceae (39), Orchidaceae (55-57), Oxalidaceae (25), Poaceae (36, 102), Portulacaceae (26), Primulaceae (27, 47), Ranunculaceae (8, 48, 49), (25), (36, 102), (26), (27, 47), (8, 48, 49), Rosaceae (9), Sapindaceae (89), Scrophulariaceae (10, 101) and Solanaceae...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    .l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -13, 38-40), Malvaceae (19), Onagraceae (73), (31-33), (74), s.l. (11-13, 38-40), (19), (64), Orchidaceae (68, 69), Orobanchaceae (65), Oxalidaceae (20), Poaceae (23, 32, 41), Polypodiaceae (14), Primulaceae (66), Ranunculaceae (37), Rhamnaceae (76), Rosaceae (77, 78), Rubiaceae (notes after record no...

  18. New floristic records in the Balkans: 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    , 104), (85), Orchidaceae (3, 30, 45, 68-71, 89, 95), Paeoniaceae (2, 27), Poaceae (14-16, 47-50, 72-74, 93, 94, 105- 109, 116, 117), Rosaceae (28, 41, 62, 102, 115), Rubiaceae (63), Saxifragaceae (64), Scrophulariaceae (86), Solanaceae (87, 88), Thymeleaceae (29), Valerianaceae (103) and Vitaceae (91...

  19. Studies in tropical teratology, 2nd Series, No. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H.J.

    1937-01-01

    Dr J. J. Smith is best known by his studies about Orchidaceae. But since 1904 he published regularly in collaboration with Dr J. C. Costerus in the ”Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg“, the results of their researches in teratology of tropical plants. Some years ago, Dr J. J. Smith was so kin

  20. A tale of two orchids: comparative reproductive development in Vanilla and Phalaenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The orchid family of flowering plants (Orchidaceae) represents the largest, most diverse, and most successful family of flowering plants in the world yet they are one of the most understudied groups from a molecular and genomic perspective. To further the long-term goal of developing enabling genom...

  1. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Sriram; Sundar, Durai

    2016-01-01

    The orchid species Dendrobium nobile belonging to the family Orchidaceae and genus Dendrobium (a vast genus that encompasses nearly 1,200 species) has an herbal medicinal history of about 2000 years in east and south Asian countries. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. nobile from northeastern India for the first time.

  2. Introduction of Cover Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  4. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1922-01-01

    The fifth and final volume of A.C. Smith’s ‘Flora Vitiensis Nova’ was issued in June 1991, thirteen years after the appearance of the first volume and nearly 120 years after Berthold Seemann’s ‘Flora Vitiensis’. The present volume contains the long awaited treatment of the Orchidaceae (by P.J. Kores

  5. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a previou

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  7. 带叶兜兰种子原地共生萌发及有效菌根真菌的分离与鉴定%In situSymbiotic Seed Germination, Isolation and Identification of Effec-tive Mycorrhizal Fungus inPaphiopedilum hirsutissimum(Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓颖; 张武凡; 刘红霞

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to obtain the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of lithophyticPaphiopedilum hirsutissimum usingin situseed baiting technique. Two natural small seedlings were harvested after in situ seed germination. The effective symbiotic fungi of genusEpulorhizawere isolated from these developed seedlings. In order to verify the effect of the isolated fungal strains on seed germination, one of strains, Phs34, was used to thein vitrosymbiotic seed germination ofP. hirsutissimumon the sterile habitat substrate. After cultured for 6 weeks, seeds inoculated with Phs34 started to develop into protocorms and average germination rate was (58.35±3.41)%, whereas seeds without the fungus failed to germinate. These indicated that the fungal strain Phs34 was compatible mycorrhizal fungus ofP. hirsutissimum, and it will be helpful in seedling production and orchid conservation ofP. hirsutissimum.%为获得带叶兜兰(Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum)种子萌发的共生真菌,采用原地共生萌发技术获得了2株自然萌发的小幼苗,并分离和筛选出了有效的种子萌发共生菌——瘤菌根菌(Epulorhiza sp.)。为验证分离菌株对带叶兜兰种子萌发的有效性,将Phs34号菌株与带叶兜兰种子在灭菌后的原生境基质上进行室内共生萌发试验,结果表明,经过6周的培养,对照组没有观察到种子的萌发;接菌的种子胚明显膨大,突破种皮,形成原球茎,平均萌发率为(58.35±3.41)%。这表明分离得到的瘤菌根菌能促进带叶兜兰的种子萌发。

  8. Ex situ symbiotic seed germination, isolation and identification of effective symbiotic fungus in Cymbidium mannii (Orchidaceae)%硬叶兰种子的迁地共生萌发及有效共生真菌的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春玲; 李勇毅; 高江云

    2012-01-01

    Aims The in situ and ex situ seed baiting techniques, which have been developed in recent years, are effective methods to study the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of orchids. Our aim was to obtain the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of epiphytic Cymbidium mannii using the ex situ seed baiting technique. Methods Bark, moss, litter and humus around the roots of adult plants of C. mannii were collected as substrate to cultivate C. mannii seeds in the laboratory. The fungi were isolated from developed protocorms and identified by morphological and molecular characteristics. The effects of different mycorrhizal fungi and light on seed germination were examined by in vitro symbiotic germination. Important findings The isolated fungus was identified as a species of the genus Epulorhiza and was named as FCb4. After 58 days cultivation, seeds inoculated with FCb4 strain and FDaI7 strain (Tulasnella, isolated from Dendrobium aphyllum) had a high germination ratio, whereas seeds without the fungus failed to germinate. There was no significant difference between the germination ratios of seeds inoculated with FCb4 and FDaI7 strains, but FCb4 was significantly superior for seedling formation and development compared with FDaI7 in light. This indicated a lower degree of symbiotic fungal specificity on seed germination than the protocorm development stage in C. mannii. The fungus we obtained was effective for seed germination, and protocorm and seedling development for C. mannii. Germination and protocorm production were higher in the dark (0/24 h light/dark) than the light condition (12/12 h light/dark), whereas the subsequent protocorm development was better with light. These findings will aid in seedling production and reintroduction of C. mannii.%兰科植物的种子原地和迁地共生萌发技术是近年发展起来的开展兰科植物种子和共生真菌研究的有效方法.该研究对兰属(Cymbidium)附生植物硬叶兰(C.mannii)开展了种子的迁地共生萌发研究,试图获得其种子萌发的有效真菌.利用硬叶兰成年植株根部周围的树皮、苔藓、枯枝落叶、腐殖质等作为培养基质,进行种子的共生培养.在培养133天后,成功地获得了处于不同阶段的已萌发种子、原球茎和幼苗,并从原球茎中分离得到一种瘤菌根菌属(Epulorhiza)真菌.用所分离到的FCb4菌株和一种从兜唇石斛(Dendrobium aphyllum)分离到的胶膜菌属(Tulasnella) FDaI7菌株和硬叶兰种子在燕麦琼脂培养基上进行共生萌发,设置不接菌作为对照处理,以检验FCb4菌株对硬叶兰种子萌发的有效性.经过58天的培养,不接菌的对照处理中种子没有萌发,接种FCb4和FDaI7菌株的处理都有很高的种子萌发率,两种接菌处理在不同光照条件下的种子萌发率均无显著性差异.但暗培养条件下,种子萌发形成原球茎后,表现出生长停滞的趋势,仅有很少的原球茎继续生长达到幼苗阶段,说明原球茎发育后期与幼苗发育阶段需要光照.在光照条件下,接种FCb4菌株处理中达到幼苗阶段种子的比例为(25.67±9.27)%,显著高于接种FDaI7菌株处理的(3.04±2.27)%(W=56,p=0.026,Mann-Whimey U-test),表明此研究中分离到的瘤菌根菌属真菌能有效地促使硬叶兰种子萌发并生长发育到幼苗阶段.

  9. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  10. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia) with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada; Alexander Schmidt-Durán; Kevin Quesada-Montero; Ileana Moreira-González

    2015-01-01

    Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the bigge...

  11. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  12. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAcri-Nunes-Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The ‘orchid code’ model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. Athens. The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    New chorological data are presented for 106 species and subspecies from Bulgaria (records no. 72-79, 84-94, 105-106), Greece (2-60, 95-104) and Turkey-in-Europe (1, 61-71, 80-83). The taxa belong to the following families: Amaranthaceae (18, 19), Amaryllidaceae (49, 50, 77), Apiaceae (3, 84, 85, 99......), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  14. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  15. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period with a....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  16. Check list of the Iberian and Balearic orchids. 2. Ophrys L. - Spiranthes Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Ophrys to Spiranthes, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Lectotypes for Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot. and O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot are designated hereSe presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Ophrys a Spiranthes, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ambito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinonimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico. Se designan los lectotipos de Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot, y O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot.

  17. Sex and the Catasetinae (Darwin's favourite orchids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Whitten, W Mark; Salazar, Gerardo; Gerlach, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well.

  18. Patrones de distribución de epífitas vasculares en "robledales".

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    Alzate G. Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las epífitas son un componente conspicuo de los bosques de montaña tropicales, sin embargo el conocimiento de la función de estos componentes en la dinámica del bosque es aun críptica. Para determinar la composición y estructura de la vegetación epífita en un bosque alto-andino, tanto a nivel vertical como horizontal se establecieron 3 líneas de muestreo en tres niveles altitudinales y tres estratos en cada línea. Los resultados muestran que más del 60% de los hospederos fue Quercus humboldtii, y se encontraron un total de 8 familias y 41 especies de epífitas fanerógamas, de las cuales las familias Orchidaceae y Bromeliaceae fueron las más representativas. La familia Orchidaceae mostró una mayor frecuencia en los estratos bajos, al contrario la familia Bromeliaceae se encontró mas en el dosel. Entre los tres transectos ubicados a diferentes alturas sobre el nivel del mar se observaron algunas diferencias floristicas posiblemente debido a la diferencia estructural de los bosques.

  19. Two additions to the Mexican orchid flora Dos adiciones a la orquideoflora mexicana

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    Gerardo A. Salazar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Orchidaceae are recorded here for the first time in Mexico, namely Cryptarrhena guatemalensis and Domingoa gemma. Cryptarrhena guatemalensis is widespread in the Neotropics and can be distinguished from C. lunata, the only other species of the genus, by possessing pseudobulbs and narrowly triangular, attenuate apical labellum lobules. Domingoa gemma, previously known only from Guatemala and El Salvador, differs from the similar D. purpurea in the smooth, linear-lanceolate leaves and labellum lacking a prominent sac at the base. Both species are known in Mexico from single localities in the state of Chiapas.Se registran aquí por primera vez en México 2 especies de Orchidaceae, Cryptarrhena guatemalensis y Domingoa gemma. Cryptarrhena guatemalensis está ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico y se distingue de C. lunata, la única otra especie del género, por presentar pseudobulbos y por los lóbulos apicales del labelo angostamente triangularesy atenuados. Domingoa gemma, previamente conocida sólo de Guatemala y El Salvador, difiere de D. purpurea, especie similar, en las hojas lisas, linear-lanceoladas y el labelo sin un saco prominente en la base. En México sólo se conoce una localidad para cada especie y ambas se ubican en el estado de Chiapas.

  20. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The "orchid code" model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. "Athens." The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for

  1. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

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    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  2. CHECKLIST DAS MONOCOTILEDÔNEAS DO CEARÁ, BRASIL

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    REGINA CELLI ARAÚJO DE FREITAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of lists from the obtaining of primary data in herbaria contributes to enrich knowledge about the Brazilian flora. Mainly, for botanical groups present in the region semiarid and characterized by low availability of information as the monocotyledons. In this way, this work presents a floristic survey of monocotyledons of the State of Ceará, northeast of Brazil, analyzing the taxa richness. The data, which are computerized and available in the software BRAHMS 6.7, were obtained from collecting of the Herbarium Prisco Bezerra (EAC. A total of 3,472 exsicates from collections in the State of Ceará were analyzed, representing 540 species, 207 genera and 28 families. The richest families were: Poaceae (193 spp., Cyperaceae (104 spp., Orchidaceae (51 spp., Bromeliaceae (38 spp. and Araceae (35 spp.. The richest genera were: Cyperus (31 spp., Paspalum (26 spp., Panicum (23 spp., Rhynchospora (17 spp., Eleocharis (16 spp. and Eragrostis (13 spp..

  3. Anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Øvstedal, Dag Olav

    2003-08-01

    The main anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae were isolated from a purified methanolic extract by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined to be cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside). The structure determinations were mainly based on extensive use of 2D and 1D NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and MS. The anthocyanin contents of species belonging to the subtribe Pleurothallidinae including genus Dracula Luer (Orchidaceae) have previously not been determined. The high content of anthocyanin rutinosides found in D. chimaera and D. cordobae (78 and 28% of the total anthocyanin content, respectively) differs from previously analysed orchid species, in which glucose is found as the only anthocyanin sugar moiety.

  4. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

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    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  5. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

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    H. P. Linder

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  6. Bioguided identification of antifungal and antiproliferative compounds from the Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Leticia F; Santin, Silvana M O; Chiavelli, Lucas U R; Silva, Cleuza C; Faria, Terezinha J; Faria, Ricardo T; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Pomini, Armando M

    2014-01-01

    The Orchidaceae family is appreciated worldwide for the beauty of its flowers, and hundreds of species of this family occur in Brazil. Yet little is known about the potential of orchids for therapeutic application. We have investigated bioactive compounds produced by the South Brazilian orchid Miltonia flavescens Lindl. Bioguided studies with the fungus Cladosporium herbarum allowed the identification of hydrocinnamic acid as the active antifungal compound. In addition, the chloroform fraction exhibited an interesting activity against human cancer cells, and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyflavone isolated from this fraction was found to be active against seven human cancer cell lines, including NCI/ADR-RES ovary sarcoma, with an IC50 value of 2.6 microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytostatic activity of this flavone against human ovary sarcoma. PMID:24772822

  7. Isolation and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from leaves of the Chinese daffodil Narcissus tazetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, L S; Wang, H; Ng, T B; Ooi, V E

    1998-01-01

    A mannose-binding lectin was isolated from leaves of the Chinese daffodil Narcissus tazetta (family Amaryllidaceae) using a procedure that comprised extraction with aqueous buffer, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel Blue gel and mannose-agarose, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superose 12. The lectin was adsorbed on mannose-agarose and unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel Blue gel. It was an unglycosylated homodimer with a molecular mass of 26 kDa. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence of the N. tazetta lectin revealed considerable homology to lectins from the daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus, the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis (family Amaryllidaceae), the tulip Tulipa, and Kidachi aloe Aloe arborescens (family Liliaceae), and the orchid lectins (family Orchidaceae). The most striking likeness exists among the Amaryllidaceae lectins. The N. tazetta lectin exhibits hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes. PMID:10099780

  8. PRODUÇÃO IN VITRO DE MUDAS DE Cattleya walkeriana E Cyrtopodium palmifrons A PARTIR DE SEMENTES IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF Cattleya walkeriana AND Cytopodium palmifrons FROM SEEDS

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    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Sementes de Cattleya walkeriana e de Cyrtopodium palmifrons (Orchidaceae foram transferidas assepticamente para meios de cultura Knudson, MS (Murashige & Skoog e MS suplementado com IAA (1, 15 e 30 mg L-1 e cinetina (0,25, 5 e 10 mg L-1, para germinação. Elas foram incubadas à temperatu ra de 23 +/- 2°C, sob luz fluorescente por um período de 30 a 45 dias. As plântulas obtidas foram repicadas para meio Knudson, permanecendo em incubação por quatro meses e, em seguida, transferidas para meio fresco, até atingirem tamanho para aclimatação. O cultivo in vitro de ambas as espécies foi considerado viável, havendo comportamento diferente entre as espécies, em relação à produção de protocormóides, níveis de oxidação e crescimento in vitro. Os resultados mostraram que um meio me nos concentrado como Knudson pode ser utilizado sem adição de reguladores de crescimento para produção de mudas tanto para Cattleya walkeriana quanto para Cyrtopodium palmifrons.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Orchidaceae; cultura de tecidos; orquídea.

    Seeds of Cattleya walkeriana and Cyrtopodium palmjfrons (Orchidaceae were aseptically transferred to culture medium Knudson, MS (Murashige& Skoog and MS supplemented with IAA (l, 15 and 30 mg L-1 and kinetine (0.25, 5 and 10 mg L-1 for germination. They were kept at room temperature (23 +/- 2°C under fluorescent light for 30 to 45 days. The seedlings were transferred to pots containing culture medium Knudson and incubated for four months at room temperature and transferred to fresh culture medium until the seedlings attained approximately 1.0 to 2.0 cm size for

  9. 天麻种子与小菇属真菌共生萌发的研究%SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION BETWEEN GASTRODIA ELATA AND FUNGAL SPECIES OF MYCENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 郭顺星; 范黎; 娜仁

    2001-01-01

    Four fungal species of Mycena were identificated from the strains isolated from the protocorm and roots of Orchidaceae species.M. osmundicola was isolated from the proocorm of G.elata, M. orchidicola, M.dendrobii and M. anoectochila respectively separated from the roots of Cymbidium sinense, Dendrobium candidum and Anoectochilus roxburghii. The symbiotic germination test beteen G. Elata seeds and the above fungal species demonstrated that these fungal species can stimulate the seed germination, which means the species of Mycena may be the key mycorrhizal fungi of G elata, because there were no reports about the other fungal species which stimulate G.elata seed germination. Besides G. elata, the above species of Mycena also distributed the roots of the other orchids.

  10. Morphobiochemical Variability and Selection Strategies for the Germplasm of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don Soo: An Endangered Medicinal Orchid

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    R. S. Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don Soo (Orchidaceae is an important endangered medicinal herb, distributed in subalpine to alpine regions of the Himalayas. Its tubers are important constituents of many medicines and health tonics. Overexploitation for medicinal uses has decreased availability in natural habitats and this species has been enlisted as endangered, making conservation and cultivation studies necessary. Variability studies may serve as an important tool for effective conservation and for a crop improvement program. Therefore, natural populations of D. hatagirea were analyzed for variability on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and isoenzyme patterns. The studied populations were grouped into two clusters. Existing variability among different populations opens up new areas for conservation and perspectives for a genetic improvement program for D. hatagirea.

  11. Vascular Epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye: A Comparative Study, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia

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    Zeleke Assefa Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes comprise about 10% of the world’s total flora. However, the survival of these important elements of the global vegetation is recognized to be increasingly threatened, and surveys made to study them remain far from being complete. This study has focused on investigating the vascular epiphytes (true epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and accidental epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye forests of Gamo Gofa zone, southwest Ethiopia. A total of 40 (20 in each 25 m × 25 m quadrats were established along four line transects for vegetation data collection. A total of 35 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded in the two sites (22 and 14 species from Doshke and Kurpaye, resp.. Drynaria volkensii was the only species to be recorded from the two sites. Doshke and Kurpaye forests also varied in the number of phorophytes (17 and 10 phorophytes species, resp.. The richest epiphyte family of Doshke is Orchidaceae (5 species and that of Kurpaye is Polypodiaceae (3 species while Orchidaceae dominate the combined flora being represented by 7 species. In terms of vertical distribution, most species were located at the canopy area. Most vascular epiphytes showed no preference for host trees except for a few species which exhibited higher occurrence rates on the host plant species Syzygium guineense, Schrebera alata, and Acacia tortilis. Vascular epiphyte abundance and species richness were both significantly positively correlated with host tree size. Vascular epiphytes of the studied forests are under a serious pressure, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, and this may lead to their local extinction.

  12. Las Orquídeas de San José de Suaita (Santander, Colombia

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    González Garavito Favio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tratamiento taxonómico de la familia Orchidaceae para la Inspección de Policía de San José de Suaita, municipio de Suaita, departamento de Santander, Colombia (73º 27’ O y 6º 9’ N, 1.550-2.100 msnm. Se registran tres subfamilias, 35 géneros y 91 especies, que
    representan el 12% de la flora local. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Epidendrum con 15 especies, Maxillaria con 11, Pleurothallis con nueve, Dichaea con ocho y Oncidium con cuatro especies. En estos cinco géneros se reúne más del 50% de las especies de
    Orchidaceae de San José de Suaita. Cinco especies constituyen registros nuevos para Colombia y una de ellas es nueva para la ciencia. Así mismo, se encontró que el 75% de las especies son exclusivamente epífitas, el 22% son terrestres y el 23% restante crecen indistintamente como
    epífitas, terrestres o rupícolas. El tratamiento taxonómico incluyó claves, descripciones, ilustraciones y comentarios ecológicos, taxonómicos y corológicos, para los taxones registrados. Se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos empleados en las descripciones, así como su variación en
    taxones considerados (subfamilias, subtribus, géneros. Así mismo, se presenta una evaluación de la distribución latitudinal y altitudinal para 75 de las especies, y se realiza el análisis de las afinidades florísticas de la orquideoflora de la zona con respecto a la de otras localidades neotropicales. Por último, se propone la inclusión de al menos 11 especies en la lista roja de plantas amenazadas con base en su distribución regional, nacional y local.

  13. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action. PMID:24090143

  14. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

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    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  15. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from dendrobium.

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    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available In this study, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene was cloned from Dendrobium candidum using homology cloning and RACE. The full-length sequence and catalytic active sites that appear in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum are also found: PAL cDNA of D. candidum (designated Dc-PAL1, GenBank No. JQ765748 has 2,458 bps and contains a complete open reading frame (ORF of 2,142 bps, which encodes 713 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of DcPAL1 has more than 80% sequence identity with the PAL genes of other plants, as indicated by multiple alignments. The dominant sites and catalytic active sites, which are similar to that showing in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, are also found in DcPAL1. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DcPAL is more closely related to PALs from orchidaceae plants than to those of other plants. The differential expression patterns of PAL in protocorm-like body, leaf, stem, and root, suggest that the PAL gene performs multiple physiological functions in Dendrobium candidum.

  16. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.

  17. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  18. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA DE UM INSELBERGUE NO AGRESTE PARAIBANO, MUNICÍPIO DE ESPERANÇA, NORDESTE DO BRASIL

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    Paulinea Andreazza Ferreira Porto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the floristic check-list of a inselberg at the Fazenda Timbaúba (35o52'50.3", 7o1'0.8", municipality of Esperança/PB, Agreste da Borborema Microregion, were realized the present study. The inselberg flora comprise 127 species, 101 genera and 53 families of wich the Leguminosae family with 17 species showed the higher richness, followed by the Asteraceae (9 spp., Poaceae (7 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Orchidaceae (6 spp. families. Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae, despite of not be the higher richness, are covering extents areas, suggesting a higher importance for those families in inselbergs colonization. Comparing the families with other inselberg floras, 29 of them also were raising in Quixadá/CE, 28 in Pão de Açúcar and 24 in Serra do Mar/RJ inselbergs. The majority of species showed xenomorphic adaptations due hydric stress observed in the Southern and Northeastern Brazilian inselbergs. The differences in the floristic composition, especially at genus and species level seem to result of different speciation pressure what aid the taxa with better adaptation at these environments.

  19. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  20. 香荚兰产品质量标准研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万瑶; 尹桂豪; 宗迎; 谭乐和; 徐志; 吴晓春

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香荚兰(Vanilla planifolia(salisb.)Ames或v.fragrans Andrews)又名香子兰、香草兰、香果兰、扁叶香草兰、哗呢拉,属兰科(Orchidaceae)香子兰属,是热带雨林下的攀缘植物,原产于中美洲,主要分布在南北纬25"以内,海拔700米以下地区.世界香荚兰产地目前主要集中在马达加斯加、印度尼西亚、科摩罗、留旺尼、乌干达、塞舌尔、墨西哥和塔希提等岛屿国或地区.我国的香荚兰是1960年从印度尼西亚引种,并由福建省亚热带植物研究所在室内试种获得成功.

  1. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs.

  2. RESPONSE OF Cattleya forbesii ORCHID TO INCREASING SILICON CONCENTRATIONS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONAN CARLOS COLOMBO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of Silicon (Si to culture media has been shown to improve the development of seedlings grown in vitro , and to reduce losses during the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro growth of Cattleya forbesii (Orchidaceae in MS medium containing five different concentrations of SiO 2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g·L −1 . At day 200, the following variables were measured: number of roots, average length of the root system, leaf area, number of leaves and shoots, shoot height, fresh and dry masses of roots and shoots, water content of roots and shoots, and pH of the culture medium. Most variables decreased as the concentration of Si increased, reducing the in vitro vegetative growth of C. forbesii . Accumulation of Si in leaf tissues was detected by scanning electron microscopy, confirming uptake by plants. The Si source and concentrations tested showed no beneficial effect on in vitro growth of C. forbesii .

  3. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs. PMID:26792590

  4. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  6. A Novel Flavonoid Glucoside from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate- and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anoectochilus roxburghii(Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods,the structures of these compounds were elucidated as quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6"-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 8-C-p-Hydroxybenzylquercetin (compound 2), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 6), 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 7), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 8). Of the compounds isolated, compound 1 was a new flavonoid glucoside and exhibited strong scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, whereas the ethanolic extract showed weak activity. Compounds 2-8 were obtained from this family for the first time.

  7. Effects of individual and population parameters on reproductive success in three sexually deceptive orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewoestijne, S; Róis, A S; Caperta, A; Baguette, M; Tyteca, D

    2009-05-01

    Reproductive success (RS) in orchids in general, and in non-rewarding species specifically, is extremely low. RS is pollinator and pollination limited in food deceptive orchids, but this has rarely been studied in sexually deceptive orchid species. Here, we tested the effects of several individual (plant height, inflorescence size, nearest neighbour distance and flower position) and population (patch geometry, population density and size) parameters on RS in three sexually deceptive Ophrys (Orchidaceae) species. Inter-specific differences were observed in RS of flowers situated in the upper versus the lower part of the inflorescence, likely due to species-specific pollinator behaviour. For all three species examined, RS increased with increasing plant height, inflorescence size and nearest neighbour distance. RS generally increased with decreasing population density and increasing patch elongation. Given these results, we postulate that pollinator availability, rather than pollinator learning, is the most limiting factor in successful reproduction for sexually deceptive orchids. Our results also suggest that olfactory 'display' (i.e. versus optical display), in terms of inflorescence size (and co-varying plant height), plays a key role in individual RS of sexually deceptive orchids. In this regard, several hypotheses are suggested and discussed.

  8. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  9. In vitro culture and germination of terrestrial Asian orchid seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-I

    2011-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and many of its species are highly valuable as herbal medicines and to the horticultural industry. To meet commercial requirements and to conserve natural resources, in vitro seed germination has been utilized to produce large quantities of uniform seedlings. In general, terrestrial orchid seeds are more difficult to germinate and grow than epiphytic orchids. Terrestrial orchid seeds have a hardened seed coat and more stringent requirements for germination in vitro. In this chapter, we document the timing of seed collection and pretreatments for improving in vitro germination of some terrestrial Asian orchids. The process of in vitro germination is demonstrated, including (1) the culture of immature seeds; (2) the culture of mature seeds; and (3) subsequent seedling development. For immature seed culture, optimal timing of seed harvest is key to maximizing germination; for mature seed culture, selection of adequate pretreatment conditions (i.e., the duration and concentrations of pretreatment solutions) is essential to improve germination.

  10. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  11. A narrowly endemic photosynthetic orchid is non-specific in its mycorrhizal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Sharma, Jyotsna; Taylor, Donald Lee; Yadon, Vern L

    2013-04-01

    Mycorrhizal association is a common characteristic in a majority of land plants, and the survival and distribution of a species can depend on the distribution of suitable fungi in its habitat. Orchidaceae is one of the most species-rich angiosperm families, and all orchids are fully dependent on fungi for their seed germination and some also for subsequent growth and survival. Given this obligate dependence, at least in the early growth stages, elucidating the patterns of orchid-mycorrhizal relationships is critical to orchid biology, ecology and conservation. To assess whether rarity of an orchid is determined by its specificity towards its fungal hosts, we studied the spatial and temporal variability in the host fungi associated with one of the rarest North American terrestrial orchids, Piperia yadonii. The fungal internal transcribed spacer region was amplified and sequenced by sampling roots from eight populations of P. yadonii distributed across two habitats, Pinus radiata forest and maritime chaparral, in California. Across populations and sampling years, 26 operational taxonomic units representing three fungal families, the Ceratobasidiaceae, Sebacinaceae and Tulasnellaceae, were identified. Fungi belonging to the Sebacinaceae were documented in orchid roots only at P. radiata forest sites, while those from the Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae occurred in both habitats. Our results indicate that orchid rarity can be unrelated to the breadth of mycorrhizal associations. Our data also show that the dominance of various fungal families in mycorrhizal plants can be influenced by habitat preferences of mycorrhizal partners.

  12. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMondragón Palomino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  13. Genome-wide annotation, expression profiling, and protein interaction studies of the core cell-cycle genes in Phalaenopsis aphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Chen, Jhun-Chen; Wei, Miao-Ju; Lien, Yi-Chen; Li, Huang-Hsien; Ko, Swee-Suak; Liu, Zin-Huang; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant and diverse families in the plant kingdom and its unique developmental patterns have drawn the attention of many evolutionary biologists. Particular areas of interest have included the co-evolution of pollinators and distinct floral structures, and symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal flora. However, comprehensive studies to decipher the molecular basis of growth and development in orchids remain scarce. Cell proliferation governed by cell-cycle regulation is fundamental to growth and development of the plant body. We took advantage of recently released transcriptome information to systematically isolate and annotate the core cell-cycle regulators in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. Our data verified that Phalaenopsis cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA) is an evolutionarily conserved CDK. Expression profiling studies suggested that core cell-cycle genes functioning during the G1/S, S, and G2/M stages were preferentially enriched in the meristematic tissues that have high proliferation activity. In addition, subcellular localization and pairwise interaction analyses of various combinations of CDKs and cyclins, and of E2 promoter-binding factors and dimerization partners confirmed interactions of the functional units. Furthermore, our data showed that expression of the core cell-cycle genes was coordinately regulated during pollination-induced reproductive development. The data obtained establish a fundamental framework for study of the cell-cycle machinery in Phalaenopsis orchids.

  14. Symbiotic in vitro seed propagation of Dendrobium: fungal and bacterial partners and their influence on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tsavkelova, Elena A; Zeng, Songjun; Ng, Tzi Bun; Parthibhan, S; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Rao, M V

    2015-07-01

    The genus Dendrobium is one of the largest genera of the Orchidaceae Juss. family, although some of its members are the most threatened today. The reason why many species face a vulnerable or endangered status is primarily because of anthropogenic interference in natural habitats and commercial overexploitation. The development and application of modern techniques and strategies directed towards in vitro propagation of orchids not only increases their number but also provides a viable means to conserve plants in an artificial environment, both in vitro and ex vitro, thus providing material for reintroduction. Dendrobium seed germination and propagation are challenging processes in vivo and in vitro, especially when the extreme specialization of these plants is considered: (1) their biotic relationships with pollinators and mycorrhizae; (2) adaptation to epiphytic or lithophytic life-styles; (3) fine-scale requirements for an optimal combination of nutrients, light, temperature, and pH. This review also aims to summarize the available data on symbiotic in vitro Dendrobium seed germination. The influence of abiotic factors as well as composition and amounts of different exogenous nutrient substances is examined. With a view to better understanding how to optimize and control in vitro symbiotic associations, a part of the review describes the strong biotic relations of Dendrobium with different associative microorganisms that form microbial communities with adult plants, and also influence symbiotic seed germination. The beneficial role of plant growth-promoting bacteria is also discussed. PMID:25940846

  15. Epiphytic Plants on Stand of Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. at Mount Lawu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to know: (1 the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2 the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.

  16. Heterogeneidade florística das fitocenoses de restingas nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Silva Magnago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar florísticamente as formações vegetacionais que compõe o ecossistema Restinga dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo. Para isto foi realizado uma compilação de dados de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos, sendo utilizado para esta análise o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, onde as interpretações se deram pela média de grupo (UPGMA. As 11 formações analisadas apresentaram uma riqueza total de 990 espécies, distribuídas em 141 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (73, Myrtaceae (59, Rubiaceae (48, Orchidaceae (44, Cyperaceae (38, Poaceae (36, Bromeliaceae (35, Euphorbiaceae (30, Asteraceae (30 as de maior riqueza. A similaridade entre as formações foi baixa, sendo o maior valor de 33%. Os resultados obtidos denotam uma alta heterogeneidade florística existente nas formações que compõe o ecossistema Restinga nos dois Estados analisados, sendo esta determinada por diferentes fatores que atuam em cada fitocenose.

  17. Ilhas de vegetação em afloramentos de quartzito-arenito no Morro do Pai Inácio, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Islands of vegetation on quartzite-sandstone outcrops, Pai Inácio Mountain, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ilhas de vegetação rodeadas de superfície rochosa foram estudadas em dois platôs do Morro do Pai Inácio (41°28'W e 12°27'S, na Chapada Diamantina. Tais platôs possuem afloramentos de quartzito-arenito entremeados por solos arenosos e ácidos, situados nas porções mais elevadas do Morro, entre 1.100 e 1.170 m acima do nível do mar, sob clima com estação seca bem definida. As ilhas foram assumidas como agrupamentos de uma ou mais espécies de plantas vasculares limitados pela superfície rochosa sem plantas vasculares em toda borda. O estudo incluiu 39 ilhas de vegetação de diferentes tamanhos em cada platô, onde predominaram ervas e arbustos de 63 espécies, sendo 22 comuns a ambos os platôs. Espécies de Liliopsida foram mais numerosas, freqüentes e dominantes, com predomínio das famílias Velloziaceae, Cyperaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae e Guttiferae nas ilhas de vegetação em ambos os platôs, assim como a forma de vida caméfita. Foram constatadas riquezas similares nas ilhas de ambos os platôs, sendo a maioria delas formada por até cinco espécies. O agrupamento das espécies utilizando UPGMA e o índice de similaridade de Jaccard revelou quatro grupos, dois deles constituídos por espécies características das ilhas mais expostas ao sol, enquanto outro é constituído por espécies mais relacionadas aos locais mais sombreados e um quarto relacionado a espécies mais generalistas. A associação entre Vellozia hemisphaerica Seub. e Trilepis lhotzkiana Nees mostrou-se típica dos afloramentos do Morro do Pai Inácio. Apenas as famílias Orchidaceae e Cyperaceae estiveram presentes nas duas menores classes de tamanho insular, enquanto Guttiferae, Rubiaceae e Bromeliaceae tiveram maior proporção de ocorrência na maior classe. Diferenças na composição e abundância de espécies entre os platôs sugerem a existência de diferenças ambientais e isolamentos, interferindo na distribuição espacial das espécies nas

  18. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  19. Plant DNA barcoding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Zhu LI; Jian-Quan LIU; Zhi-Duan CHEN; Hong WANG; Xue-Jun GE; Shi-Liang ZHOU; Lian-Ming GAO; Cheng-Xin FU; Shi-Lin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Identification is the keystone of biology (Bell, 1986).However, to biologists and students of biology, the total numbers of species that must be identified far outnumber the names commonly used in English, Chinese, or other living languages.In addition, the identification cues vary greatly between different taxonomical groups.Even for the taxonomists with long training and experience, it is difficult to remember all specific terms for a given group, e.g., Orchidaceae or Poaceae, without help of floristic books or monographs.It takes much time and effort to train a taxonomist, at a time when fewer and fewer young students are interested in this "classical" and "out-of-style", but extremely important, discipline.Many students elect to learn the more "advanced'' and "modem" biological disciples like molecular biology and biochemistry.Thus, in China and therest of the world, taxonomists are themselves becoming "endangered".The rise of the DNA barcoding is expected to mitigate, at least in part, this dilemma.

  20. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB, Blumenau, Southern Brazil

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    Andre de Gasper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species, Rubiaceae (129, Solanaceae (131, Poaceae (155, Melastomataceae (157, Myrtaceae (257, Orchidaceae (288, Fabaceae (323, and Asteraceae (426, between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30, Thelypteridaceae (31, Aspleniaceae (32, Dryopteridaceae (43, Pteridaceae (54 and Polypodiaceae (60. There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria.

  1. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

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    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  2. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

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    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  3. Caracterização florística da vegetação sobre afloramento rochoso na Estação Experimental de Itapeva, SP, e comparação com áreas de campos rupestres e de altitude. Floristic characterization on rocky outcrop in the Itapeva Experimental Station, SP, and comparison with areas of rocky grasslands and high-altitude grasslands.

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    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de comunidades vegetais nem sempre é tarefa fácil, principalmente quando se trata de tipos de vegetação pouco estudados. Esse é o caso davegetação sobre afloramento rochoso da Estação Experimental de Itapeva – EEI, situada no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, região que abriga remanescentes de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica. Visando caracterizar e classificar essa vegetação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de material botânico no período de agosto de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. A lista de espécies obtida foi comparada com a de campos rupestres e de altitude brasileiros. As comparações foram realizadas por meio de análise de agrupamento, “TWINSPAN” e “NMS”. Foram encontradas 135 espécies, 48 famílias e 108 gêneros. As famílias mais representativas foram Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae. A análise de agrupamento com os dados de distribuição de riqueza entre famílias sugeriu maior afinidade florística entre o afloramento rochoso estudado e os campos rupestres. Para os dados de composição de espécies, os diferentes métodos de ligação agruparam a área de estudo ora com campos de altitude ora com campos rupestres. A “NMS” evidenciou o caráter contínuo da variação florística, mas reiterou a maior similaridade entre a área de estudo e os campos rupestres. A “TWINSPAN” reforçou essa hipótese e apontou a família Fabaceae e as espécies Miconia albicans (Sw. Steud. e Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub como indicadoras de campos rupestres. O tipo de solo, formado a partir de rochas areníticas, constitui o fator determinante mais plausível para as relações florísticas encontradas.The classification of vegetation communities is not an easy task, especially regarding less studied vegetation types. This is the case for rocky outcrop vegetation in the Itapeva Experimental Station – EEI, located in the

  4. Caracterização da vegetação de restinga da RPPN de Maracaípe, PE, Brasil, com base na fisionomia, flora, nutrientes do solo e lençol freático Characterization of restinga vegetation at Maracaípe, Pernambuco State, Brazil, based on physiognomy, flora, soil nutrients, and water-table level

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    Eduardo Bezerra de Almeida Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar o levantamento florístico e descrever as fisionomias, relacionando-as com as formas de vida, fertilidade do solo e variações do lençol freático encontradas na restinga de Maracaípe. A área possui 76,2 ha de vegetação de restinga, sob as coordenadas 08º31'48"S e 35º01'05"W. Possui clima do tipo As' e solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico. Foram feitas caminhadas aleatórias nas três fisionomias existentes - floresta, campo não inundável e campo inundável, durante o período de julho/2003 a julho/2005, para coleta de material botânico. A lista florística foi comparada a outras listas de restinga da região Nordeste. Foram inventariadas 187 espécies, 148 gêneros, distribuídas em 71 famílias. Entre as famílias mais representativas, destacam-se: Poaceae (13 espécies, Cyperaceae (12, Myrtaceae (10, Orchidaceae (9, Rubiaceae (8, Bromeliaceae e Fabaceae (7. A forma de vida "fanerófito" foi elevada na fisionomia florestal e as formas "caméfito", "terófito" e "criptófito", nas fisionomias campo inundável e não inundável. Os solos das fisionomias diferiram quanto à composição química e só ocorreu afloramento do lençol freático na fisionomia campo inundável. Este estudo permitiu concluir que a proporção de formas de vida, variação no nível do lençol freático, matéria orgânica e teor de alumínio no solo foram determinantes na separação das fisionomias da restinga de Maracaípe.We undertook a floristic survey to describe the phytophysiognomies of a restinga at Maracaípe, and related these to life form, soil fertility, and variation in the local water-table level. The study area is located at 08º31'48"S and 35º01'05"W, and has 76.2 ha of restinga vegetation. The regional climate is classified as As' and local soils are sandy Neosols. Random walks to collect botanical material were made in the three different vegetation physiognomies found in the area - forest

  5. Species diversity and conservation of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong%广东南岭国家级自然保护区兰科植物物种多样性及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田怀珍; 陈林; 邢福武

    2013-01-01

    All known wild species of Orchidaceae are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). However, species diversity of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, China, is not well known. Based on field work, inspection of herbarium specimens, and previous records, 121 species in 49 genera of Orchidaceae are listed for the reserve. Of these, 75 species are terrestrial, 40 are epiphytic and 6 are saprophytic. Species fall mainly within genera such as Bulbophyl-lum (10 species), Calanthe (10 species), Goodyera (10 species), Liparis (8 species), Habenaria (7 species) and Cymbidum (6 species). A few species are widespread showing great abundance in the reserve, but most are rather rare having narrow distributions. Tropical type genera tend to dominate, although temperate orchids are more common at the species level. This indicates that the orchid flora is rather complex, being a mix of tropic Asian types and East Asian types, particularly of Sino-Japan kind. Thus the orchid flora of Nanling N. N. R has an obvious subtropical character, with affinities to that of Taiwan. We appeal for reasonable plan on eastablishing power stations and related rule of law should be found to control the illegal trade of the wild orchids in Nanling N. N. R.%所有野生兰科植物均在《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)的保护之列,但是对于广东南岭国家级自然保护区内兰科植物的资源状况仍不清楚.为此,作者于2004-2009年对保护区内兰科植物进行了详细调查,同时查阅了国内主要标本馆馆藏的保护区标本并参考文献记录,发现保护区有兰科植物49属121种,其中地生兰75种,附生兰40种,腐生兰6种,主要集中在石豆兰属(Bulbophyllum)(10种)、虾脊兰属(Calanthe)(10种)、斑叶兰属(Goodyera)(10种)、羊耳蒜属(Liparis)(8种)、玉凤花属(Habenaria)(7种)、兰属(Cymbidium)(6种)等.其中只有少数种类在保护区内

  6. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

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    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  7. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation. PMID:26752741

  8. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  9. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

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    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  10. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  11. 秦岭种子植物区系新记录%Some Newly Recorded Spermatophytes to Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎斌; 李思锋; 袁永明; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    报道了秦岭种子植物区系4新记录属[杜若属(Pollia Thunb.)、美冠兰属(Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.)、常山属(Dichroa Lour.)和吊灯花属(Ceropegia Linn.)],8新记录种[川杜若Pollia miranda (Lévl.)Hara、长距美冠兰Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.、常山Dichroa febri fuga Lour.、肉色土(栾)儿 Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker、柳叶蓬莱葛Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.、显脉獐牙菜Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C,B.Clarke、皱果赤瓟Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi和宝兴吊灯花Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li].%Four genera and eight species are reported as new records of spermatophyte flora to Qinling Mountain.4 newly recorded genera are Pollia Thunb.,Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.,Dichroa Lour.and Ceropegia Linn..8 newly recorded species are Pollia miranda (Lévl.) Hara (Commelinaceae),Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.(Orchidaceae),Dichroa febrifuga Lour.(Saxifragaceae),Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker (Leguminosae),Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.(Loganiaceae),Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C.B.Clarke (Gentianaceae),Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi (Cucurbitaceae) and Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li (Asclepiadaceae).

  12. RESEÑA HISTÓRICA, DESARROLLO Y ACTUALIDAD DEL HERBARIO DE LA PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA (HPUJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alvear-Pacheco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una reseña histórica sobre el origen, consolidación, actualidad y perspectivas del Herbario de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (HPUJ. Entre los sucesos más importantes se destaca la inscripción en el Index Herbariorum bajo el acrónimo HPUJ en 1986 y el registro oficial ante el Instituto Alexander von Humboldt en 2001 (Registro No. 11, según la Resolución 1115 de 2000 del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. El objetivo del HPUJ es ser una colección de referencia científica reconocida y centro de docencia e investigación de la flora de Colombia, que cumpla con las funciones de conservación,investigación, docencia, exhibición y servicio. Actualmente el HPUJ reúne cerca de 42 000 ejemplares organizados en dos grandes grupos uno la colección general que comprende las Spermatophyta(Angiospermae y Gymnospermae y un segundo grupo denominado colecciones menores que incluyen colecciones de tipos, pteridofitos, briofitos, líquenes, algas macroscópicas, micoteca (macrohongos,antoteca (flores en preservante líquido, carpoteca (frutos y semillas, xiloteca (muestras de madera, palinoteca (muestras de polen, colección en sílica gel, ilustraciones botánicas y productos etnobotánicos. Actualmente el herbario tiene su mayor fortaleza en la flora de alta montaña colombiana y en la familiaOrchidaceae.

  13. 福建泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物的利用初探%The Investigation on Utilization of Wild Medicinal Plants in Dietary Culture of Quanzhou, Southern Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀珍; 邹秀红

    2015-01-01

    采用民族植物学的研究方法和手段,在文献研究的基础上,结合民间调查、标本采集和鉴定及后期整理分析等,初步研究了泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物利用的传统知识.结果表明:1)泉州闽南饮食文化中,可利用的野生药用植物约有56科117属148种,其中野生蔬菜46种、药膳植物37种、代茶植物38种、野果植物22种、调味植物4种、制作凉粉植物1种;2)这些植物中种类较多的科是:菊科(Compositae)、禾本科(Gramineae)、唇形科(Lamiaceae)、蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、豆科(Leguminosae)、茜草科(Rubiaceae)、百合科(Liliaceae)、兰科(Orchidaceae)和桑科(Moraceae);3)对各种野生药用植物在区域内的利用状况进行了较详细的分析,对如何传承民间的野生植物饮食文化和保护这些药食两用野生植物资源进行了探讨.

  14. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Isabel eLira-De León

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of twelve plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts towards Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaecae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50 to 100 mg/mL against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the nontoxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts towards this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg and chloramphenicol (30 μg were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76 to 56.17 % against F. solani and 2.02 to 69.07 % against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL, and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops.

  15. Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong; Huang, Jia-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae. These fungi were represented by 25 ITS sequence types and clustered into seven major clades in the phylogenetic analysis of 5.8S sequences. Species of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium shared no fungal ITS sequence types in common, but their fungal taxa sometimes occurred in the same major clade of the 5.8S phylogenetic tree. Although it had several associated fungal ITS sequence types in a studied plot, each orchid species had in general only a single dominant type. The fungal sequence type spectra of different species of Paphiopedilum from similar habitats sometimes overlapped; however, the dominant sequence types differed among the species and so did the sequence-type spectra within Cypripedium. Orchids of P. micranthum and P. armeniacum transplanted from the field and grown in two greenhouses had a greater number of mycorrhizal associations than those sampled directly from the field. Root specimens from P. micranthum taken from the greenhouses were preferably associated with mycobionts of the Tulasnella calospora complex, while those from the field had mycorrhizal associations of other tulasnelloid taxa. Such plasticity in mycorrhizal associations makes ex situ conservation or even propagation by means of mycorrhization of axenically grown seedlings possible. PMID:20217434

  16. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  17. Kinetic characterization of a novel acid ectophosphatase from Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Galdiano Júnior, Renato F; Rodrigues, Gisele Regina; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pizauro Junior, João Martins

    2016-02-01

    Expression of acid ectophosphatase by Enterobacter asburiae, isolated from Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae) roots and identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, was strictly regulated by phosphorus ions, with its optimal activity being observed at an inorganic phosphate concentration of 7 mM. At the optimum pH 3.5, intact cells released p-nitrophenol at a rate of 350.76 ± 13.53 nmol of p-nitrophenolate (pNP)/min/10(8) cells. The membrane-bound enzyme was obtained by centrifugation at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 4 °C. p-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) hydrolysis by the enzyme follows "Michaelis-Menten" kinetics with V = 61.2 U/mg and K0.5 = 60 μM, while ATP hydrolysis showed V = 19.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 110 μM, and nH = 1.6 and pyrophosphate hydrolysis showed V = 29.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 84 μM, and nH = 2.3. Arsenate and phosphate were competitive inhibitors with K i = 0.6 mM and K i = 1.8 mM, respectively. p-Nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase) activity was inhibited by vanadate, while p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, EDTA, calcium, copper, and cobalt had no inhibitory effects. Magnesium ions were stimulatory (K0.5 = 2.2 mM and nH = 0.5). Production of an acid ectophosphatase can be a mechanism for the solubilization of mineral phosphates by microorganisms such as Enterobacter asburiae that are versatile in the solubilization of insoluble minerals, which, in turn, increases the availability of nutrients for plants, particularly in soils that are poor in phosphorus. PMID:26832666

  18. Strategies for functional validation of genes involved in reproductive stages of orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Su, Hong-Ji; Chang, Doris Chi-Ning; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2007-02-01

    Plants in the largest family of angiosperms, Orchidaceae, are diverse in both specialized pollination and ecological strategies and provide a rich source for investigating evolutionary relationships and developmental biology. However, studies in orchids have been hindered by several challenges that include low transformation efficiency and long regeneration time. To overcome such obstacles, we selected a symptomless cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) isolate for constructing virus-induced gene-silencing vectors. The feasibility of the virus vectors was first assessed with use of an orchid phytoene desaturase gene. The vector was able to induce gene silencing in orchids; however, because of the slow growth of orchids, the commonly used phytoene desaturase gene was not a good visual marker in orchids. We inserted a 150-nucleotide unique region of a B-class MADS-box family gene, PeMADS6, into pCymMV-pro60. The transcription level of PeMADS6 in inoculated Phalaenopsis plants was reduced by up to 73%, but no effect was observed for other MADS-box family genes. In contrast, in Phalaenopsis plants inoculated with CymMV transcripts containing 500 nucleotides of PeMADS6, a conserved region among MADS-box genes, the transcription level of PeMADS6 and the B- and C-class MADS-box genes was reduced by up to 97.8% as compared with plants inoculated with the vector alone. Flower morphology was affected in the MADS-box family gene-silenced plants as well. This in vivo experiment demonstrates an efficient way to study genes involved in the reproductive stage of plants with a long life cycle.

  19. Orchid seeds viability identification by tetrazolium test

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    Jackeline Schultz Soares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germinal potential optimizes the practice of in vitro germination of Orchidaceae. This work evaluated of the type and concentrations of tetrazolium solutions on reaction time and on the identification of viable orchid seeds. Were used seeds of the species Brassavola tuberculata Rchb f., Cattleya labiata Lindley var Amoema, Cattleya intermedia and Dendrobium antenatum and of two primary hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata Lindley var. Alba. The seeds (0.01g of each species or hybrid were soaked in 3 mL of aqueous and neutral solutions of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride at 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% ou 1,0% concentrations and stored in a light-free environment at 25±2 °C, being evaluated every 30 minutes for identification of the time needed for embryos coloring and later counting of the number of viable seeds by milligram of seed. A completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 6 x 2 x 5 (six genotypes of orchids, two types of tetrazolium solutions and five concentrations with 3 replications. The genotypes responded differently response both for viable seeds by milligram of seed and for the time required for embryos coloring and C. intermedia not respond to the test. Irrespective of solution type, concentrations only interfered in reaction time for the hybrids. It is recommended, therefore, the use of neutral tetrazolium solution at 0.5% for indentification of viable seeds of hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata var. Alba and use of aqueous solution at 0.125% for Brassavola tuberculata, Cattleya labiata var Amoema e Dendrobium antenatum.

  20. Review on Germination of Orchid Seeds%兰科植物种子萌发的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思思; 陈娟; 郭顺星

    2015-01-01

    兰科(Orchidaceae)植物属多年生单子叶植物,是被子植物中仅次于菊科与豆科的第三大科,具有很高的观赏、药用和经济价值.兰科植物种子细小量大,无胚乳,自然条件下需与适宜的菌根真菌共生才能萌友.自然环境的破坏和人为过度采挖,加上种子自身萌发条件苛刻,致使野生资源在原始生境的恢复异常困难,野生兰科植物极度濒危.研究表明,种苗快繁是实现濒危兰科植物资源再生和合理开发利用的有效途径,而种苗快繁技术的核心在于种子萌发.本文在综述了兰科植物种子成熟度、种子收集与预处理的基础上,重点阐述了种子非共生萌发和接菌(真菌)共生萌发,期望对兰科植物种子高效萌发用于产业化生产提供理论基础.

  1. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation.

  2. Orchid cryopreservation

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    Wagner Vendrame

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are lush and highly valuable plants due to their diversity and the beauty of their flowers, which increases their commercialization. The family Orchidaceae comprises approximately 35,000 species, distributed among more than 1,000 distinct genera and 100,000 hybrids, totaling approximately 8% to 10% of all flowering plants. With the advance of agriculture and the constant destruction of their natural habitat, orchid species are collected in an indiscriminate manner by collectors and vendors, and this extractive activity threatens many species with extinction, drastically reducing their genetic variability in nature. Therefore, it is essential to seek alternatives that make the preservation of such species feasible using techniques with low maintenance costs that provide greater storage time and that enable good phytosanitary conditions for the plant material for commercial use. Cryopreservation involves the conservation of biological materials at ultra-low temperatures, generally in liquid nitrogen at -196 ºC or in its vapor phase at -150 ºC. This is the only technique currently available for the long-term preservation of the germplasm of plant species that are vegetatively propagated or that have unviable, recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. The objective of this bibliographic review is to report on the importance, methods and application of cryopreservation for orchids. According to the studies reviewed, this is an incipient, developing and relevant field that generates a lot of discussion and requires further research relative to the type of treatment to use for cryopreservation and the methodology to be applied according to the species. The types of methods that are used for cryopreservation and the large variation in the responses of orchids to the cryopreservation methods observed in this study emphasize the need for the development of more appropriate protocols for the preservation of orchids.

  3. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

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    Shi-Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE, species-area relationship (SAR, water-energy dynamics (WED, Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP, with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  4. Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World Tropics.

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    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.

  5. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  6. 兰科植物欺骗性传粉%Deceptive pollination of orchids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宗昕; 王红; 罗毅波

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some "empty flowers", which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in an-giosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations to pollinators. Darwin described and identified most of the functional floral morphology and biomechanics in orchid pollination. However, he never recognized that many of the flowers that he examined lacked food rewards for pollinators. Floral evolution in the Orchidaceae appears to be dominated by modes of deceptive pollination, and more than one third of orchid species are thought to be pollinated by deceit. Deceptive pollination is thought to be one of key roles which has lead to relatively high species diversity within the Orchidaceae. Deceptive orchids frequently exploit the food foraging, sexual, oviposition and sleep/warmth behaviors of insects. The most common deception mechanisms include generalized food deception, Batesian floral mimicry, sexual deception, brood-site imitation and shelter imitation. Additionally, floral color, morphology and fragrance play key roles to cheat target pollinators. Relationships between deceptive orchids and their pollinators possibly involve asynchronous evolution; therefore orchids track the diversification of their pollinators. However, deception has negative impacts on the pollinators, which may exert selection on the pollinators. Because duped pollinators tend to avoid rewardless flowers, deceptive orchids suffer low visitation rates and fruit set, various environment factors can affect the reproductive success of these orchids. Deceptive orchids depend largely on insect pollinators for reproduction, and the proclivity of these

  7. Búsqueda de especies vegetales productoras de follaje útiles en la elaboración de arreglos florales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducuara Frank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se incluyen las fases de documentación, búsqueda, determinación, propagación y evaluación de algunas especies vegetales productoras de follaje para la elaboración de arreglos florales. En la fase de campo se realizaron colecciones botánicas en diferentes municipios de Cundinamarca (Colombia, incluyendo las plazas de mercado y los jardines de la ciudad de Bogotá. Se colectó un total de 57 especies en los diferentes ambientes, de las cuales 19 correspondieron a especies nativas y 38 a especies exóticas. En la fase de laboratorio se llevó a cabo la determinación y multiplicación del material utilizando diferentes formas de
    propagación. De esta forma se logró el enraizamiento por esquejes de 24 especies exóticas y cuatro nativas mediante la aplicación de la hormona líquida ácido indolbutírico (IBA 3.500 ppm + solución madre compuesta de hidróxido de sodio. La propagación por semillas se logró con una especie nativa (Dodonaea viscosa y con una especie exótica (Zantedeschia aethiopica. La propagación por bulbos se realizó eficientemente con la especie nativa Canna generalis y con una especie de la familia Orchidaceae. Finalmente las técnicas de cultivo in vitro fueron utilizadas para la siembra y multiplicación de Zantedeschia aethiopica como una contribución a la
    micropropagación de aráceas útiles en el sector floricultor. Para cada una de las especies propagadas se tuvo en cuenta su porcentaje de enraizamiento, el tiempo de enraizamiento y el tiempo que tardaron en producir tallos con los parámetros de calidad previamente establecidos. Los tallos fueron sometidos a las evaluaciones de cuarto frío, viaje simulado y evaluación en florero.

  8. Differential responses of vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

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    Sayuj eKoyyappurath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root and stem rot (RSR disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. ×tahitensis, Orchidaceae. Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have i identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, ii thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and iii evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions.Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in-vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in-vitro assay.The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21

  9. Differential Responses of Vanilla Accessions to Root Rot and Colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyappurath, Sayuj; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Dijoux, Jean Bernard; Lapeyre-Montès, Fabienne; Jade, Katia; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gatineau, Frédéric; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Besse, Pascale; Grisoni, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Root and stem rot (RSR) disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. × tahitensis, Orchidaceae). Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, (ii) thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and (iii) evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions. Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in vitro assay. The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21 accessions

  10. A checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district, southern KwaZulu-Natal and a review of their status in the Red Data List

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    Graham R.H. Grieve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern mistbelt forests are naturally fragmented forests with grassland which occur from the Eastern Cape to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. These were heavily logged by colonial settlers and continue to be harvested despite being protected. Consequently we documented a checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district (3029DA WEZA, southern KwaZulu-Natal, including Ngeli Forest and nearby indigenous forest patches to highlight their biodiversity status and need for conservation. We also reviewed their status in the Red Data List. Of the 1554 records included in this summary of plant species for the Weza district, there were 6 lichens (0.4%, 46 bryophytes (3.0%, 58 pteridophytes (3.7%, 6 gymnosperms (0.4% and the remaining 1424 species angiosperms (92.5%. Of the angiosperms, 27.3% were monocotyledons and 72.7% were dicotyledons. The most species-rich family was Asteraceae (239 species followed by Fabaceae (115 species, Liliaceae (used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 89 species, Orchidaceae (89 species, Iridaceae (59 species, Poaceae (58 species, Asclepidaceae (again used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 57 species, Scrophulariaceae (42 species, Euphorbiaceae (32 species, Lamiaceae (32 species and Rubiaceae (27 species. These 10 families each comprised more than 2% of the species in the list. Together they contributed 55% of the angiosperm species and 34.1% of the angiosperm genera. The biodiversity and conservation value of the study area are conserved pockets of eastern mistbelt forest, Drakensberg foothill moist grassland and mistbelt grassland. More than 4% of the species are under some degree of threat, as was evidenced by the number of species regarded as endangered (5, vulnerable (18, near threatened (10, critically rare (1, rare (20 or declining (11 amongst the 1554 species covered in the list.Conservation implications: In terms of taxa under some degree of threat, number of

  11. Differential Responses of Vanilla Accessions to Root Rot and Colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyappurath, Sayuj; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Dijoux, Jean Bernard; Lapeyre-Montès, Fabienne; Jade, Katia; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gatineau, Frédéric; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Besse, Pascale; Grisoni, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Root and stem rot (RSR) disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. × tahitensis, Orchidaceae). Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, (ii) thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and (iii) evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions. Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in vitro assay. The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21 accessions

  12. Outline of the classified system of the Chinese Leguminosae%中国豆科植物分类系统概览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相云

    2004-01-01

    豆科是被子植物中继兰科和菊科之后的第三大科,其中包括三个亚科:即云实亚科、含羞草亚科和蝶形花亚科.本文根据最新资料,整理出世界豆科有42族、634属、17 834种,中国有33族、169属、1 518种(另外含15亚种、167变种和41变型),其中外来种158种(含亚种和变种,隶属于73属).为建立中国豆科植物数据库,本文在Polhill豆科植物分类系统的基础上,结合一些新的资料,提出中国豆科植物系统概要.文中按分类等级进行排序,每一属含有世界和中国种数及分布.%The family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the largest one of flowering plants after the Compositae (or Asteraceae) and Orchidaceae, consist of three subfamilies such as Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. It comprises 42 tribes, 635 genera and 17 840 species in the world based on the present up to date statistic. In China, there are 33 tribes, 169 genera, 1 518 species, 15 subspecies, 167 varieties and 41 forms recorded so far. Of them, 158 exotic species (containing subspecies and varieties) are included, which belong to the 73 genera [1].For constituting a database of Chinese Legume, the outline for classified system of Chinese Leguminosae is summarized here. This paper aims to indicate the system of Chinese Leguminosae with some new taxonomical treatment (the tribes Wisterieae X. Y. Zhu[2] and Poiretieae (Burkart) H. Ohashi[3]) based on the previous system proposed by Polhill & Raven[[4] & Polhill [5]. The number of species and geographical distribution for each genus[3, 4, 6] is shown in this paper. Of them, black letters and numbers stand for the genera and species appearing in China[6~12]. 

  13. Mycorrhizal fungi isolated from native terrestrial orchids of pristine regions in Cordoba (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Di Pardo, Agustina; Chiocchio, Viviana M; Barrera, Viviana; Colombo, Roxana P; Martinez, Alicia E; Gasoni, Laura; Godeas, Alicia M

    2015-03-01

    Orchidaceae is a highly dependent group on the Rhizoctonia complex that includes Ceratorhiza, Moniliopsis, Epulorhiza and Rhizoctonia, for seed germination and the development of new orchid plants. Thus, the isolation and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi are important to understand the orchid-fungus relationship, which can lead to the development of efficient conservation strategies by in vivo germination of seeds from endangered orchid plants. The aim of our work was to isolate and characterize the different mycorrhizal fungi found in roots of terrestrial orchids from Cordoba (Argentina), and, to learn about the natural habit and fungal associations in the Chaco Serrano woodland pristine region. In this study, bloomed orchid root and rhizosphere soil samples were obtained in two times from Valle de Punilla during spring of 2007; samples were kept in plastic bags until processed within 48 hours, and mycorrhizal condition confirmed assessing peloton presence. A total of 23 isolates of the orchideous mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia complex were obtained. The isolates were studied based on morphological characters and ITS-rDNA sequences. Morphological characteristics as color of colonies, texture, growth rate, hyphal diameter and length and presence of sclerotia were observed on culture media. To define the number of nuclei per cell, the isolates were grown in Petri dishes containing water-agar (WA) for three days at 25 degrees C and stained with Safranine-O solution. The mycorrhizal fungi were grouped into binucleate (MSGib, 10 isolates) and multinucleate (MSGim, 13 isolates) based on morphological characteristics of the colonies. We obtained the ITS1-5.8s-ITS4 region that was amplified using primers ITSI and ITS4. Based on DNA sequencing, isolates Q23 and Q29 were found to be related to species of Ceratobasidium. Isolates Q24 and Q4 were related to the binucleated anastomosis group AG-C of Rhizoctonia sp. The rest of the isolates grouped in the Ceratobasidium

  14. Análise química em órgãos de reserva de algumas herbáceas e arbóreas ocorrentes na flora do Espírito Santo, Brasil Chemical analysis of storage organs in herb and tree species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscineia Kelli Clippel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a composição de carboidratos não estruturais em órgãos subterrâneos de reserva das herbáceas Dioscorea sp. 1 e Dioscorea sp. 2 (Dioscoreaceae, Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae, Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hérit. Herb. (Amaryllidaceae, Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn Raf. (Amaryllidaceae, Prescottia nivalis Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae e Sinningia aghensis Chautems (Gesneriaceae. O trabalho objetivou, também, avaliar os teores dos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular (PRPC e de nutrientes minerais em sementes de Cassia fistula L., Cassia grandis L.f., Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC., Erythrina variegata L., Hymenaea courbaril L. e Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms pertencentes à família Leguminosae. A espécie que apresentou maior conteúdo de frutose foi a bulbosa H. reticulatum (25% MS sugerindo a presença de frutanos em seus órgãos subterrâneos. Os maiores teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, especialmente a sacarose (63% MS, foram observados em rizomas de P. nivalis, indicando que esse carboidrato desempenhe papel osmorregulador nessa rupestre revivescente. Quanto aos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular, maiores valores foram encontrados em sementes de H. courbaril (70% MS, C. grandis (53% MS e C. rosea (40% de MS. Valores intermediários foram obtidos em C. fistula (24% de MS e E. variegata (11% MS. Sementes de O. arborea mostraram os mais baixos teores de PRPC não ultrapassando ao valor de 3% da MS. Trabalhos anteriores denotam que o polissacarídeo de reserva de H. courbaril é do tipo xiloglucano, enquanto o de C. grandis, C. fistula e C. rosea seja do tipo galactomanano. A identificação do tipo de polissacarídeo de E. variegata e de O. arborea depende de análises futuras através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Dos nutrientes minerais, sementes de C. rosea e E. variegata destacaram pelos elevados teores de N (60 g.kg-1 entre os macronutrientes e de Fe (160-170 mg.g-1 e Zn

  15. Orchid diversity in China’s Hainan Island: Distribution and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are widely distributed in many terrestrial ecosystems except for polar and desert areas and constitute a “flagship group” in biological conservation. As the largest tropical island of China, Hainan has five tropical forest vegetation types, namely deciduous monsoon forest, lowland rainforest, montane rainforest, montane evergreen forest, and montane cloud forest. There are 317 orchid species in the island, including 33 endemic, 158 epiphytic, 148 terrestrial, and 11 saprophytic species. Most orchids, which are mainly located in central and southern parts of the island, are generally distributed in damp tropical forests in mountains at an altitude of 500–1500 m. Highest level of endemism is also centred in these areas. Orchids are especially threatened by habitat fragmentation because they grow in small populations, and fragmentation may block gene flow and result in lower genetic diversity. In addition, due to their ornamental and medicinal value, many orchids are over-collected. Therefore, orchid conservation in Hainan Island is very urgent. The aim of this article is to determine the distribution pattern of orchids and expound research and conservation status in Hainan Island, and to propose conservation strategies for the future.Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se

  16. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela and its ties to other páramo floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuello, Nidia L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 252 vascular plant taxa belonging to 150 genera and 69 families were recorded from the study area. The most species rich families are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Ericaceae and Orchidaceae, followed by the ferns families Grammitidaceae and Lycopodiacae. The most diverse genera are the ferns Elaphoglossum, Huperzia and Hymenophyllum. The analysis of generic phytogeographical composition of páramo flora showed that 52.8% of the genera are Tropical. The Temperate component is represented by 33.3% of the genera and the Cosmopolitan component is represented by 13.9% of the genera. The Neo - tropical montane element (38.9% is high in Guaramacal páramo, the Páramo endemic element (1.9% and the Andean alpine element (0.9% and represented by only one genus (Lachemilla are low compared to other páramo areas. The vascular flora of Páramo de Guaramacal is largely composed of (1 a group of Neotropical widespread distributed species (32%, (2 a group of Andean distributed species (49%, part of them confined to the Northern Andes and part widespread in the Andes from Colombia to Bolivia, and (3 a group of Venezuelan endemics (19%. From an eight páramo flora comparative dataset, the closest relationships among páramos is observed between the generic páramo floras of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental of Sumapáz and Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, which are both closely related to that of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida in Venezuela. The generic páramo flora of

  17. Comparative Study on Photosynthesis between Three Dendrobia and Kalancho(e) Daigremontiana%三种石斛与大叶落地生根光合作用比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜; 王雁; 胡青; 任建武

    2011-01-01

    石斛属为兰科大属,部分物种光合作用行景天酸代谢途径.为了检验石斛的光合作用碳代谢途径,试验选用典型的专性景天酸代谢植物大叶落地生根为对照.光合作用测定结果表明,报春石斛的光饱和点为700 μmolphoton·m-2s-1,最大表现光合作用速率达3.826 μmol·CO2 m-2·s-1,光合作用日变化呈现出景天酸代谢植物的四阶段特征;鼓槌石斛的光饱和点为900μmolphoton·m-2·s-1,最大光合作用速率高达5.912 μmolCO2·m-2·s-1,光合作用日变化呈单峰曲线,最大值出现在中午前后,不具备景天酸代谢植物特征;金钗石斛表现为更适合荫蔽环境,光合作用日变化呈双峰曲线,中午光照最强烈的时段表观光合作用速率出现一定程度降低.%In the family of orchidaceae, dendrobium is a big genus, and some species performed crassulacean acid metab-olism(CAM) in their carbon assimilation. To testify the pathways of carbon assimilation among dendrobia, the typical obligate CAM plant named Kalanchoedaigremontiana was selected as control. The results showed that, the light saturation point of D. Primulinum was 700 pimolphoton · M-2 · S-1, and the maximum photosynthetic rate was 3. 826 μmolCO2 · M-2 · S-1. The diurnal change of photosynthesis in D. Primulinum was composed by four distinct phases. The light saturation point of D. Chrysotoxum was 900 μmolphoton · M-2 · S-1, and maximum photosynthetic rate was high and up to 5. 912 fimolCO2 · M-2 · S-1, while the diurnal change of photosynthesis showed single summit at noon, which meant that D. Chrysotoxum did not show the characteristics of CAM plant. For D. Nobile, it preferred to shade environment, whose diurnal change of photosynthesis exhibited double summits with declining to some extent at noon when illumination was intensive.

  18. An investigation on the resources of wild shade ornamental plants in Guangxi%广西野生阴生观赏植物资源及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋能; 宁世江; 盘波; 沈晓琳; 黄仕训

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the wild and shade ornamental plant resources and valuable germplasm hidden in Guangxi,the shade and half shade plant resources in Guangxi were studied by the methods of field investigation and specimen collection identification. The results showed that the five basic characteristics of Guangxi wild shade ornamental plants: rich species(162 families, 485 genera, and 1 309 species) , precious germplasm resources (including 195 species of the valuable and rare plant, and 136 species endemic to Guangxi) , diversity of growth soil texture (the calcicole, the acidophile and the intermediate plant), remarkable of the herbaceous ratio(the herb plants account for about 66. 1%) ,and great disparity of wild resources distribution. The six taxa were as following:Pteridophyte(43 families,240 species) ,Orchidaceae(37 genera,126 species) ,Liliaceae(21 genera,82species) ,Gesneriaceae(17 genera, 63 species) ,Begoniaceae(l genera,43 species) and Araceae(12 genera,30 species). The results would provide a reference for the rational development and u-tilization of wild shade ornamental plant resources.%为了解广西境内蕴藏的野生阴生观赏植物资源及珍贵种质,采取野外实地考察及标本采集鉴定相结合的方法,对广西全境分布的阴生和半阴生观赏植物资源进行研究.结果表明:广西野生阴生观赏植物有5个基本特点:种类丰富(162科485属1 309种)、种质资源珍贵(珍稀植物195种,广西特有植物136种)、生长基质多样(喜钙植物、喜酸植物和中间类型植物)、草本性状比值显著(草本植物约占总种数的66.1%)、野生资源贮藏量的多寡悬殊性.6个主要野生阴生观赏类群为:蕨类植物(43科240种)、兰科(37属126种)、百合科(21属82种)、苦苣苔科(17属63种)、秋海棠科(1属43种)、天南星科(12属30种).研究结果可为合理开发利用广西野生阴生观赏植物资源提供参考.

  19. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  20. 濒危植物扇脉杓兰的花部特征与繁育系统%Floral Characteristics and Breeding Systems of an Endangered Species Cypripedium japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芬; 李全健; 王彩霞; 连静静; 田敏

    2013-01-01

    Cypripedium japonicum, a perennial herb of Orchidaceae, with unique flower shape, brilliant flower color, ornamental and medicinal value. Due to over-harvesting and the environment changes,a large number of wild populations of C. japonicum reduced, and some genetic resources lost. The species is in endangered, and listed as a national endangered plant. Consequently, it is essential to execute studies on floral characteristics and breeding systems of C. japonicum for understanding its extinct mechanism. We conducted a field investigation, and experiments of pollen germination test, emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination, and applied out-crossing index, to study the flowering character, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, breeding system of C. japonicum in natural populations. We also observed surface pattern of pollen and stigma by using an electron microscope. Results showed that: C. japonicum bloomed from April to June and the flowering span was 23 days among populations. The life span of one single flower was approximately 12-16 days. The stigma receptivity started from bloom and lasted for 14 days, and the pollen viability was high in the whole florescence. The stigma exceeded stamen in position and the relative difference in position between the stamen and style remained unchanged in the whole flowering process. The total value of OCI was 4. Seed setting propagation coefficient of C japonicum was low under field conditions, with only 5% . Based on the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination experiments, C. japonicum is self-compatible and can't self-pollinate autokineticly and has no syngamy. Thus, the breeding system is pollinators depended.%通过野外观测,运用杂交指数(OCI),花粉萌发试验,去雄、套袋、人工授粉等方法对扇脉杓兰开花特性、花粉活力、柱头可授性、繁育系统进行研究,并对其柱头表面和花粉进行扫描电镜观察.结果表明:扇脉杓兰4-6

  1. 越南蒲马特国家自然保护区植物区系特征%Floristic characteristics of Pu Mat National Park,Nghe An Province, Central Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春强; 阮青闲; 阮义辰; 朱华

    2008-01-01

    Pu Mat National Park(PMNP)is situated in Nghe An Province, Central Vietnam and in the core area of the well-known biodiversity richness Annamite district. Based on the identification of specimens, 2 018 Species and 771 gene-ra belonging to 184 families of vascular plant were recorded in the protected area of PMNP. The flora of PMNP repre-sents 21%of the total Vietnamese flora. In the floristic composttion of PMNP,magnoliophyta contributes 90.98% spe-cies,90.4% genera, and 83.7% families of the total flora. The families with most species richness in the flora include Rubiaceae(37genera/129species),Euphorbiaceae(36/99),Orchidaceae(34/73),Lauraceae(11/66),Moraceae(10/54),Papilionaceae(24/51),Fagaceae(4/50),Myrsinaceae(5/48)and Rutaceae(14/45).From the study on the geographical el-ements of seed plants, 11areal types at family level and 14areal types at generic level were recognized. Tropical elements in total make up 95.6% of the total family and 90.1% of the total genera, in which tropical Asia elements contribute to 31.4% of the total genera. It is concluded that the flora of PMNP is typically tropical in nature, and is part of tropical A-sian flora.%蒲马特国家公园位于越南中部的义安省,国际著名的生物多样性极为丰富的Annamite山系的核心地区.基于植物标本鉴定,在蒲马特国家公园保护区内记录有维管束植物184科,771属,2018种(包括变种和亚种).该植物区系占整个越南植物区系的21%,其中的木兰亚纲植物占该植物区系总种数的90.98%,总属数的90.4%及总科数的83.7%.含种数最多的科包括茜草科(37属/129种),大戟科(36/99),兰科(34/73),樟科(11/66),桑科(10/54),蝶形花科(24/51),壳斗科(4/50),紫金牛科(5/48)及芸香科(14/45)等.在种子植物地理成分组成上,有11个科的分布区类型及14属分布区类型,其中,热带分布型分别占总科数的85.6%和总属数的90.1%,并且在其热带分布属中,热带亚洲成分占总属数的31.4%.这些

  2. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  3. 气候变暖致使墨兰(Cymbidium sinense)野外种群趋向灭绝%Climate warming brings about extinction tendency in wild population of Cymbidium sinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仲健; 陈利君; 刘可为; 李利强; 张玉婷; 黄来强

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse effects and climate changes have great influence on the survival of plants by affecting the development and the process of water cycling in plant, especially on Orchidaceae plants with high adaptation to the environment. Based on the investigation of biological characteristics and the observation of reproductive behavior among the wild populations of Cymbidium sinense in Shenzhen City, we calculated the quantity of survival plants, the frequency of appearance, the quantity of filial generation and the spatial distribution pattern at different age class, made static life graph and reproductivity graph of the population, drew the survival curve and age pyramid, and made up the Leslie matrix model, Levins model and consecutive decline model, Nt=Nt-1-Nt-1e-2.329, to predict the dynamic procedure of population quantityand test how C. sinense population responded to the climate changes combined with the analysis of meteorological data. The test result showed that, in conditions of low relative humidity arose from temperature rise and drought caused by rainfall imbalance, C. sinense showed a spatial structure of group distribution, and its age pyramid was kettle-shaped and the survival performance of population was similar to DeeveyⅠtype. The net reproduction rate, the intrinsic increase rate and finite increase rate of C. sinense were very low, indicating that the population was in a situation of downward tendency. And the reason is that, C. sinens is physiologically sensitive to drought condition and high temperature decreases its photosynthetic rate, which affects the accumulation of nutrients and directly restrains the differentiation of flower buds or even causes the abortion of flower buds, accordingly the sexual reproduction is influenced and the progeny production is reduced. Even though the sexual reproduction of C. sinense was achieved by attracting the honeybee, Apis cerana, to pollinate flowers by fragrance and extrafloral nectar and produced

  4. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acta Biológica Colombiana

    2003-12-01

    Mangos(Puerto López, Meta, Colombia / Epífitas vasculares como indicadores de regeneración en un bosque intervenido de la Amazonía Colombiana / Estudio preliminar de la comunidad macrobentónica del mesolitoral rocoso de bahía Concha (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona,Magdalena, Colombia / Caracterización flor��stica de un bosque pluvial tropical en el corregimiento de Pacurita, Quibdó, Chocó (Colombia / Revisión preliminar de la familia procyonidaeen Colombia / Evaluación y dinámica de uso del recurso hídrico en el corregimiento de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia / Viabilidad de la liberación de ardillas cola roja sciurus granatensisen el arboretum Francisco Bayón - Universidad Nacional de Colombia / Los rastros del megaterio comparación anatómica entre eremotherium rusconiiy bradypus variegatus / Comportamiento reproductivo de chiroxiphia lanceolata(pipridae:aves en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia / índice de agresividad en apis mellifera(hymenoptera: aapidae / Inserción de proteínas en membrana: algunas características del proceso / Comportamiento de félidos en cautiverio en el Zoológico de Santa Cruz, Colombia / Efecto de la forma tridimensional y el fenómeno de iluminación mutua en la percepción del color en el hombre / Tasa de hidratación de Physalaemus pustulosusR / Algunas serpientes venenosas presentes en la cuenca hidrográfica del Río Cabí, Chocó, Colombia / Embriogénesis somática y regeneración de plantas enepidendrum ruizianum (Orchidaceae / Germinación y crecimiento de una planta foránea, satureja sp.(labiaceae sobre tres sustratos orgánicos bajo condiciones controladas en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia / Caracterización de la comunidad de arañas (arachnida: aranae presente en bosque alto andino y en frailejonal del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia / Transporte