WorldWideScience

Sample records for christensonella orchidaceae maxillariinae

  1. Cypripediquinone A, a new phenanthraquinone from Cypripedium macranthum (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phenanthraquinone, cypripediquinone A, was isolated from the rhizome of Cypripedium macranthum ( Orchidaceae ) and its structure was established as 2,4,7-trimethoxy-9, 10- phenanthraquinone mainly by spectroscopic analysis.

  2. The genus Triphora (Triphoreae, Orchidaceae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, four species of Triphora (Orchidaceae are recognized. Two species (Triphora galeanoi and T. vichadaensis are newly described. As circumscribed here, the two new species occur exclusively in Colombia apart from T. foldatsii, being known from Colombia and Venezuela, and T. gentianoides, ranging from the USA (Florida in the north to Colombia in the south. For the species treated, a taxonomic description, synonymy and information about distribution are provided. Additionally,for the two new species, illustrations of flower parts are provided. A key for the determination of the Colombian species of Triphora is included.

  3. Chemical constituents of Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Betania B.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Alvesa, Tania M.A.; Zani, Carlos L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: zani@cpqrr.fiocruz.br; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeirop, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico de Farmacos; Pimenta, Adriano M.C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2008-07-01

    Habenarioside, a new natural product identified as [(2R)-2-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(2-methylpropyl) -1,4- dioxo-1,4-butanediyl]bis(oxymethylene-4,1-phenylene) bis-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, along with two known related metabolites, loroglossin and militarin, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant Habenaria petalodes Lindl. (Orchidaceae). The flavonoids isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of all compounds were established by analysis of their MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with published data. (author)

  4. Lista atualizada das Orchidaceae do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista João Aguiar Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a relação atualizada de Orchidaceae para o Distrito Federal (DF, a unidade da federação onde se situa a capital brasileira, localizada no centro do país. São reconhecidos 72 gêneros e 254 táxons (246 espécies e oito táxons subespecíficos, dos quais 17 (6,7% são conhecidos apenas localmente. Os gêneros mais significativos no DF são Habenaria (74 espécies e três táxons subespecíficos, Cyrtopodium (17 espécies, Cleistes (13 espécies e a subtribo Spiranthinae (11 gêneros com 34 espécies e dois táxons subespecíficos. Gêneros como Epidendrum (oito espécies, Pleurothallis (sete espécies, Oncidium (seis espécies e Maxillaria (três espécies são abundantes na Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro, mas pouco representados na região. Cerca de 73% das Orchidaceae do DF apresentam hábito terrestre, o que contrasta marcadamente com a Mata Atlântica e a região Amazônica, onde predominam espécies epifíticas. Dentro do Cerrado, o DF representa o local mais bem amostrado e com o maior número de espécies conhecidas, compreendendo cerca de 51% das orquídeas listadas para todo o bioma. Esta relação tem como objetivo subsidiar a monografia desta família para a flora do Distrito Federal.

  5. Myoxanthus ortizianus (Orchidaceae, a new species from southern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolanowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With over 3000 species, Colombian orchid flora represents one of the richest in the World. The neotropical subtribe Pleurothallidinae is the most diverse, but it is still a poorly recognized Orchidaceae group and numerous new discoveries within national representatives are described every year. An examination of material collected recently in the Colombian department of Putumayo revealed the existence of a new species of Myoxanthus, named M. ortizianus, which is described, illustrated and placed within an identification key for national species of the nominal section of the subgenus Myoxanthus.

  6. Orchidaceae no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha, RJ, Brasil Orchidaceae of Prainha Municipal Natural Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Faust Bocayuva Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no Parque Natural Municipal da Prainha são apresentadas. O Parque está localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro e abrange uma área total de 126 hectares. A cobertura vegetal predominantemente é floresta pluvial atlântica, com uma pequena faixa de restinga e diversos afloramentos rochosos. Foram encontrados na área 18 gêneros e 26 espécies: Bifrenaria (1 sp., Brassavola (1 sp., Catasetum (1 sp., Cattleya (2 sp., Cyclopogon (1 sp., Cyrtopodium (2 sp., Eltroplectris (1 sp., Epidendrum (4 sp., Gomesa (1 sp., Isochilus (1 sp., Maxillaria (2 sp., Oeceoclades (1 sp., Oncidium (1 sp., Pleurothallis (3 sp., Polystachya (1 sp., Prescottia (1 sp., Sarcoglottis (1 sp. e Sophronitis (1 sp.. Várias as espécies de Orchidaceae registradas na área apresentam ampla distribuição geográfica, porém 14 têm sua ocorrência associada ao domínio atlântico. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre forma de vida, floração e frutificação, distribuição geográfica e habitat.The Orchidaceae species that occur in Prainha Municipal Natural Park are presented. The Park is located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality and has126 hectares. Park vegetation is mainly Atlantic Rain Forest, with a small portion of sandy coastal plain vegetation and several rocky outcrops. Eighteen genera and 26 species of Orchidaceae were found in the area: Bifrenaria (1 sp., Brassavola (1 sp., Catasetum (1 sp., Cattleya (2 sp., Cyclopogon (1 sp., Cyrtopodium (2 sp., Eltroplectris (1 sp., Epidendrum (4 sp., Gomesa (1 sp., Isochilus (1 sp., Maxillaria (2 sp., Oeceoclades (1 sp., Oncidium (1 sp., Pleurothallis (3 sp., Polystachya (1 sp., Prescottia (1 sp., Sarcoglottis (1 sp. and Sophronitis (1 sp.. Several species are widely distributed geographically, but 14 occur only in the Atlantic Rain Forest domain. A species key, descriptions, illustrations, and comments on life form, flowering and

  7. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  8. Morfo-anatomia caulinear de nove espécies de Orchidaceae Stem anatomy of nine Orchidaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia del Carmen Oliveira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados sob o ponto de vista morfo-anatômico os sistemas caulinares (caule aéreo, rizoma e pseudobulbo de nove espécies de Orchidaceae (Catasetum fimbriatum, Dichaea bryophila, Encyclia calamara, Epidendrum campestre, Epidendrum secundum, Miltonia flavescens, Pleurothallis smithiana, Stanhopea lietzei e Vanda tricolor. Comparando-se as espécies foi possível reconhecer uma certa uniformidade na organização interna dessas estruturas. Os rizomas e caules aéreos são revestidos por epiderme unisseriada, apresentam córtex parenquimático e feixes vasculares colaterais distribuídos em dois ou mais anéis no cilindro central. Os pseudobulbos possuem epiderme unisseriada recoberta por espessa cutícula e feixes vasculares colaterais distribuídos irregularmente no tecido parenquimático fundamental, que é formado por células grandes e pequenas com grande quantidade de espaços intercelulares.Stem morphology and anatomy of nine species of Orchidaceae (Catasetum fimbriatum, Dichaea bryophila, Encyclia calamara, Epidendrum campestre, Epidendrum secundum, Miltonia flavescens, Pleurothallis smithiana, Stanhopea lietzei and Vanda tricolor were investigated. A comparative study of these species showed that the internal structure of the rhizome, aerial shoot and pseudobulb was homogeneous. The rhizomes and aerial shoots are covered by an uniseriated epidermis, have a parenchymatous cortex and collateral vascular bundles arranged in two or more rings in the central cylinder. The psudobulbs have an uniseriated epidermis covered by a thick cuticle and vascular bundles irregularly scattered throughout the parenchymatous ground tissue which are formed by large and small cells and have many intercelular spaces.

  9. Orchidaceae do Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, MG, Brasil Orchidaceae of Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Menini Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca (PEIB está situado no sudeste do estado de Minas Gerais, entre os municípios de Santa Rita de Ibitipoca e Lima Duarte, a 21º40'-21º44'S e 43º52'-43º55'W. Apresenta em sua área um mosaico de formações vegetais, das quais o campo rupestre ocupa a maior extensão, sendo também encontradas em seus domínios diversas formações florestais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento das espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes no PEIB. Foram registrados 118 táxons distribuídos em 47 gêneros. Os gêneros mais numerosos são Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. e um possível híbrido, Epidendrum (10 spp. e Maxillaria (9 spp.. O estudo da distribuição geográfica dos táxons revelou quatro novos registros para a flora de Minas Gerais e ampliou o conhecimento sobre a distribuição de muitas espécies. Uma comparação com as espécies de orquídeas ocorrentes em outras áreas de campo rupestre conhecidas até o momento demonstra que o PEIB, embora com área relativamente pequena, é uma das regiões com maior número de espécies.Ibitipoca State Park (PEIB is located in southeastern Minas Gerais, in Santa Rita de Ibitipoca and Lima Duarte municipalities (21º40'-21º44'S; 43º52'-43º55'W. It has a variety of vegetation types, with a predominance of "campo rupestre" (rocky grasslands mixed with forests. This work aimed to survey Orchidaceae species growing at PEIB. One-hundred-and-eighteen taxa belonging to 47 genera were found. The largest genera are Pleurothallis sensu lato (13 spp., Oncidium (12 spp. and one probable hybrid, Epidendrum (10 spp., and Maxillaria (9 spp.. Four species are new records for the flora of Minas Gerais state. Compared to other areas of "campos rupestres", PEIB is one of the most species-rich sites, in spite of having a relatively small area.

  10. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  11. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  12. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  13. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DE GOMESA BIFOLIA (ORCHIDACEAE, CYMBIDIEAE, ONCIDIINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Torretta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomesa bifolia (Orchidaceae, Cymbidieae, Oncidiinae es una orquídea epífita que presenta vistosas flores amarillas con marcas marrones en los sépalos y pétalos, carentes de fragancia y con aceite como recompensa. La biología floral de esta especie fue estudiada en individuos cultivados para describir la fenología, longevidad floral, conocer el sistema reproductivo (mediante tratamientos manipulativos de auto-polinización vs. polinización cruzada y sus polinizadores. Además, se realizaron observaciones directas sobre plantas expuestas al aire libre para identificar a los polinizadores, describiendo su comportamiento de forraje y la duración de las visitas. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que G. bifolia es una especie principalmente auto-incompatible, no autógama y dependiente de sus polinizadores. La formación de frutos en flores tratadas con polinización cruzada manual (100% fue superior a las flores manualmente auto-polinizadas (30,8%; mientras que las flores no tratadas no formaron frutos. Los únicos polinizadores observados fueron hembras de Centris trigonoides (Apidae, Centridini, y la tasa de visitas fue baja. Numerosas orquídeas Neotropicales de la subtribu Oncidiinae ofrecen aceites florales a sus polinizadores, como lo hacen los representantes de la familia Malpighiaceae. Los resultados obtenidos también permiten inferir que ambos grupos de plantas estarían formando parte de un gremio de especies polinizadas por abejas colectoras de aceites y que el síndrome de polinización por engaño no es verdadero para todas las especies de Oncidiinae.

  14. The evolution of floral deception in Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae): from indirect defense to pollination

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that floral deception has evolved in at least 7500 species of angiosperms, of which two thirds are orchids. Epipactis veratrifolia (Orchidaceae) is a model system of aphid mimicry as aphidophagous hoverflies lay eggs on false brood sites on their flowers. To understand the evolutionary ecology of floral deception, we investigated the pollination biology of E. veratrifolia across 10 populations in the Eastern Himalayas. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Epipactis and...

  15. Chemical composition of the inflorescence odor of Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae Composición química del olor de la inflorescencia de Malaxis rzedowskiana (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Kite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae from Mexico produces a pleasant floral odor reminiscent of violets in contrast to the unpleasant odors noted for several other members of Malaxideae. Analysis of the floral odor of M. rzedowskiana by headspace trapping and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of kaurene (76%, (E-β-ionone (18% and (E-α-ionone (4% as the main components. This is the first report of a floral odor containing a high proportion of kaurene.Malaxis rzedowskiana R.González (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae de México produce un agradable olor floral reminiscente del de violetas, en contraste con los olores desagradables que han sido detectados en varios otros miembros de Malaxideae. El análisis del olor floral deM. rzedowskiana a partir del aire que rodeaba la inflorescencia en un espacio cerrado ("headspace trapping" y cromatografía de gases-espectrometía de masas por deabsorción térmica reveló la presencia de kaureno (76%, (E-β-ionona (18% y (E-α-ionona (4% como sus principales constituyentes. Éste es el primer registro de un olor floral conteniendo una alta proporción de kaureno.

  16. Un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae en el litoral valenciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo TEJEDOR SIGNES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo híbrido del género Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae encontrado en Cullera (Valencia: Ophrys x donatiae. Es el resultado del cruce entre O. dianica y O. tenthredinifera, mostrando caracteres intermedios. El área de distribución de los parentales y la fenología son coincidentes.SUMMARY: Here we describe a new hybrid of genus Ophrys L. (Orchidaceae found in Cullera (Valencia: Ophrys x donatiae, which comes from the crossing between Ophrys dianica and O. tenthredinifera, and has intermediate characters. Distribution area and phenology are shared by parental plants.

  17. Adiciones y correcciones a la orquidoflora valenciana, V [Additions and corrections about valencian Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Serra i Laliga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se aportan datos sobre algunos táxones raros en la Comunidad Valenciana; a destacar la presencia de Orchis papilionacea subsp. grandiflora en Villena y Orchis collina en Santa Pola y Orihuela. También aportamos el comportamiento heterotrófico de Cephalanthera longifolia como novedad para España.ABSTRACT: Additions and corrections about valencian Orchidaceae. It is shown some data about rare orchid taxa at the Valencian Community, specially about Orchis papilionacea subsp. grandiflora in Villena and Orchis collina new in Santa Pola and Orihuela. We also provide heterotrophic behavior of Cephalanthera longifolia new for Spain.

  18. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  19. Orchidaceae no Parque Estadual da Cantareira e sua conservação. Orchidaceae in the Cantareira State Park and its conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ramos ZANDONÁ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC abriga uma das maiores florestas urbanas do mundo, declarada parte da Reserva da Biosfera do Cinturão Verde de São Paulo. A família Orchidaceae tem grande apelo ornamental e econômico, aspecto importante para a sensibilização de todos sobre a responsabilidade em conservar nossas espécies nativas e seus habitats. O presente trabalho visou, sobretudo, ao levantamento da família Orchidaceae no PEC. Para tal, foram realizadas coletas semanais, entre agosto de 2008 e fevereiro de 2014, utilizando o método da caminhada, tendo como base o mapa de fitofisionomias do PEC. A coleta de material botânico priorizou o resgate de plantas vivas em árvores e galhos caídos, sendo que as plantas foram incluídas em coleções vivas do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo – IBt e PEC para acompanhamento da floração, herborização, documentação fotográfica e identificação. As plantas foram identificadas com base no material vivo utilizando-se da diagnose floral para determinação da espécie, as exsicatas foram tombadas no herbário do Instituto Florestal – SPSF. As demais plantas resgatadas, após identificação, foram realocadas no habitat e são também utilizadas em atividades educativas. Até o momento foram levantadas 159 espécies, de 64 gêneros, entre elas 10 espécies presentes em listas vermelhas, e outras dificilmente encontradas, o que coloca o PEC como detentor de maior riqueza de Orchidaceae da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo em comparação com outros levantamentos. Das 159 espécies registradas, 105 foram resgatadas, totalizando 3.120 indivíduos, dos quais 450 foram incluídos em coleções do IBt e PEC, e o restante realocado no habitat para observações e estudos futuros. Atividades com visitantes do PEC indicam que a utilização de orquídeas como tema para educação é bastante promissor. – The Cantareira State Park (Parque Estadual da Cantareira – PEC, declared part

  20. Floral mimicry enhances pollen export: the evolution of pollination by sexual deceit outside of the orchidaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-11-01

    Although the majority of flowering plants achieve pollination by exploiting the food‐seeking behavior of animals, some use alternative ploys that exploit their mate‐seeking behavior. Sexual deception is currently known only from the Orchidaceae and almost always involves pollination by male hymenoptera. An outstanding problem has been to identify the selective factors in plants that favor exploitation of mating versus feeding behaviors in pollinators. Here we show that the insectlike petal ornaments on inflorescences of the daisy Gorteria diffusa elicit copulation attempts from male bombyliid flies and that the intensity of the mating response varies across geographical floral morphotypes, suggesting a continuum in reliance on feeding through mating responses for pollination. Using pollen analogues applied to a morphotype with prominent insectlike petal ornaments, we demonstrate that mate‐seeking male flies are several‐fold more active and export significantly more pollen than females. These results suggest that selection for traits that exploit insect mating behavior can occur through the male component of plant fitness and conclusively demonstrates pollination by sexual deception in Gorteria, making this the first confirmed report of sexual deception outside of the Orchidaceae.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae) in the State of Sergipe using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Santos, M S; Blank, A F; Rabbani, A R C; Silva-Mann, R; Santos, J B; Costa, A S; Menezes, T S A

    2016-06-03

    The Orchidaceae represent one of the largest and most diverse families on the planet. However, this family is constantly threatened by predators and by the advancement of urban centers over its natural habitats. The objective of this study was to use inter-simple sequence repeat markers to evaluate the genetic diversity between orchid accessions of the Laeliinae subtribe, which comprise part of the Orchidaceae study collection at the Department of Agronomic Engineering of the Federal University of Sergipe. DNA was extracted from each specimen by using an adapted 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide protocol. Similarity between individuals was calculated using the Jaccard method. Clustering was carried out by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method, with resampling and 10,000 bootstraps. Eighty-seven fragments were obtained, all of which were polymorphic, revealing high variability between accessions. The mean similarity was 35.77% between Encyclia sp individuals, and 35.90% between specimens of Cattleya tigrina. For Epidendrum secundum, a relationship between geographic and genetic distances was observed, and the accession collected in the southern part of the State of Sergipe (Serra de Itabaiana National Park) was more divergent than that of the other parts of the state. The data generated in this study will guide further research aimed at the ex situ conservation of these materials.

  2. Longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae inflorescences treated with 1-methylciclopropene Longevidade de inflorescências de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae tratadas com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum belongs to Orchidaceae family and nowadays it is commercialized on large scale due to its potential as cut flower. The species distinguishes decoratively in function of the high number of flowers golden yellow that compose its great and delicate inflorescence. The hormone ethylene performs an important function in the processes related with the senescence of cut flowers, and especially in relation to orchids anti-ethylene treatments are recommended to extend the vase life. Among chemicals used today for the postharvest treatment of flowers the 1-methylciclopropene (1-MCP is an efficient inhibitor of autocatalytic production of ethylene. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of 1-methylciclopropene (Control and 1-MCP: 250ppb, 500ppb, 1000ppb upon physiological aspects of cut inflorescences of Oncidium varicosum. The best treatment was 1-MCP 1000ppb and the flowers presented larger values of water content, soluble carbohydrates, reducing sugars, carotenoids and the respiration rates were lower. These results contributed to higher quality and longer life of inflorescences.Oncidium varicosum pertence à família Orchidaceae e atualmente vem sendo bastante comercializado pelo seu potencial como flor de corte. A espécie destaca-se ornamentalmente pelas inúmeras flores amarelas que compõem sua inflorescência grande e delicada. O hormônio etileno desempenha uma função importante nos processos relacionados com a senescência de flores cortadas e, especialmente para as orquídeas, são recomendados tratamentos antietileno para prolongar a vida de vaso. Entre os compostos mais usados recentemente como tratamento pós-colheita, destaca-se o 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, considerado um eficiente inibidor da produção autocatalítica do etileno. A presente pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de 1-MCP (250ppb, 500ppb, 1000ppb em relação a aspectos fisiológicos de

  3. Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G. G. Maiti, a new species of Orchidaceae from Sikkim Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debabrata MAITY; Neelima PRADHAN; Gaurgopal MAITI

    2007-01-01

    Myrmechis bakhimensis D.Maity,N.Pradhan & G.G.Maiti(Orchidaceae),a new species from Sikkim Himalaya,is described and illustrated.The new species most closely resembles M.japonica(Reichb.) Rolfe and M.chinensis Rolfe with similar shape and size of lamina and the"T"-shaped epichile.but differs by the perfectly glabrous and eciliate floral bract,5-nerved dorsal sepal,and emarginate,mucronate epichile.

  4. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae) to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pinheiro Moreira, Ana Sílvia; DE LEMOS FILHO, JOSÉ PIRES; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary

    2013-01-01

    The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light mic...

  5. Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Almeida

    Full Text Available Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae, two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae.

  6. Pollination ecology of two species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae): novel mechanisms and underlying adaptations to hummingbird pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C E P; Amorim, F W; Mayer, J L S; Sazima, M

    2016-01-01

    Relationships among floral biology, floral micromorphology and pollinator behaviour in bird-pollinated orchids are important issues to understand the evolution of the huge flower diversity within Orchidaceae. We aimed to investigate floral mechanisms underlying the interaction with pollinators in two hummingbird-pollinated orchids occurring in the Atlantic forest. We assessed floral biology, nectar traits, nectary and column micromorphologies, breeding systems and pollinators. In both species, nectar is secreted by lip calli through spaces between the medial lamellar surfaces of epidermal cells. Such a form of floral nectar secretion has not been previously described. Both species present functional protandry and are self-compatible yet pollinator-dependent. Fruit set in hand-pollination experiments was more than twice that under natural conditions, evidencing pollen limitation. The absence of fruit set in interspecific crosses suggests the existence of post-pollination barriers between these sympatric co-flowering species. In Elleanthus brasiliensis, fruits resulting from cross-pollination and natural conditions were heavier than those resulting from self-pollination, suggesting advantages to cross-pollination. Hummingbirds pollinated both species, which share at least one pollinator species. Species differences in floral morphologies led to distinct pollination mechanisms. In E. brasiliensis, attachment of pollinarium to the hummingbird bill occurs through a lever apparatus formed by an appendage in the column, another novelty to our knowledge of orchid pollination. In E. crinipes, pollinarium attachment occurs by simple contact with the bill during insertion into the flower tube, which fits tightly around it. The novelties described here illustrate the overlooked richness in ecology and morphophysiology in Orchidaceae.

  7. Fuentes fertilizantes orgánicas y minerales en Laelia anceps Lindl. subesp. anceps (Orchidaceae) en fase vegetativa

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Ángeles Aída Téllez-Velasco; Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Mayra Arguello-Quechuleño

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de fuentes fertilizantes orgánicas y minerales, aplicadas por separado y combinadas, en el crecimiento de plantas de Laelia anceps Lindl. subesp. anceps (Orchidaceae) en fase vegetativa (FV), clasificadas en grupos 1 y 2 (de 8 y 12 meses de edad, respectivamente), para evaluar su crecimiento al pasar de FV1 a FV2, y determinar si es posible disminuir el tiempo entre ambas fases. El experimento se realizó en invernadero; se usó como sustrato una mezcla 75% corteza de pino y...

  8. Root Character Evolution and Systematics in Cranichidinae, Prescottiinae and Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Coyolxauhqui; Salazar, Gerardo A.; Zavaleta, H. Araceli; Engleman, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have suggested that velamen characteristics are useful as taxonomic markers in Orchidaceae. Members of tribe Cranichideae have been assigned to two velamen types constructed based on combinations of characters such as the presence of secondary cell-wall thickenings and pores. However, such characters have not been analysed on an individual basis in explicit cladistic analyses. Methods The micromorphology of roots of 26 species of Cranichideae was examined through scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, scoring the variation and distribution of four characters: number of velamen cell layers, velamen cell-wall thickenings, presence and type of tilosomes, and supraendodermal spaces. The last three characters were analysed cladistically in combination with DNA sequence data of plastid trnK/matK and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and optimized on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Key Results Thickenings of velamen cell walls group Prescottiinae with Spiranthinae, whereas tilosomes, documented here for the first time in Cranichideae, provide an unambiguous synapomorphy for subtribe Spiranthinae. Supraendodermal spaces occur mostly in species dwelling in seasonally dry habitats and appear to have evolved three times. Conclusions Three of the four structural characters assessed are phylogenetically informative, marking monophyletic groups recovered in the combined molecular–morphological analysis. This study highlights the need for conducting character-based structural studies to overcome analytical shortcomings of the typological approach. PMID:18263628

  9. Identification of Orchidaceae species from Northern West of Syria based on chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I; Kamary, Y

    2010-08-01

    The plant family Orchidaceae has a great economic value (ornamental and medical uses, beside the aromatic features). Traditionally, identification of orchid species has relied heavily on morphological features. These features, however, are either not variable enough between species or too plastic to be used for identification at the species level. DNA-based markers could be the alternative strategy towards an accurate and robust identification of those species. Since the chloroplast DNA has a lower level of evolution compared to the nuclear genome, an attempt was made in this study to investigate polymorphism in the chloroplast DNA among orchid species distributed in North-West region of Syria using Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) technique for developing markers for the diagnosis of targeted species. CAPS analysis was carried out on 34 orchid samples that represent all species observed in the region. Universal primers were used to amplify targeted chloroplast regions. Generated PCR products were digested with various restriction enzymes. CAPS results revealed high polymorphism among species examined. This polymorphism was suffiecient for the diagnosis of all of those species apart from five species (Ophrys fuciflora (one sample), Oph. bornmuelleri, Ophrys sp., Oph. scolopax and Oph. argolica). Availability of such species-specific markers would ensure more authentic identification of orchid species compared to morphological characters and can be regarded as a valuable tool to guide in conservation programs of orchid species in Syria. CAPS data generated were converted to an identification key for orchid species studied.

  10. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  11. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytic xylariaceous fungi from medicinal plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

  12. Novel expressed sequence tags of an alpine-cold plant species,Gymnadenia conopsea (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gymnadenia conopsea,an alpine Orchidaceae plant,was one of the widely used Tibetan traditional medicines.In this study,we sequenced total 105 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a full-length cDNA expression library constructed by the Oligo-capping technique.The further bioinformatic analyses suggested that the 65 represented unique sequences showed high homology to previously identified genes in other plants:30 sequences matched to other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs),and 10 sequences showed no good matches to available sequences in DNA databases.Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (7 percent) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to G.conopsea.Fifty-five ESTs with matched proteins were involved in a series of diverse functions,in which molecular function such as "binding" (42.9 percent) and "catalytic activity" (25.0 percent) were the most frequent functions of the cDNAs.This cDNA library provided a critical basis for further investigation of functional genes expression under cold stress in this alpine species.In addition,13 ESTs-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and can also be used for genotypic identification and for the genetic diversity analysis of G.conopsea and its closely related species.

  13. Pengaruh asam absisat terhadap viabilitas biji sintetis Grammatophyllum scriptum (Orchidaceae selama masa penyimpana kering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVITA MULIAWATI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muliawati E, Anggarwulan E, Pitoyo A. 2015. Effects of abcissic acid on viability of synthetic seed of Grammatophyllum scriptum (Orchidaceae during dried storage periods. Bioteknologi 13: 1-8. This research was aimed to extend the self-life of plbs of Tiger orchid (Grammatophyllum scriptum by the development of desiccated synthetic seed, a hydrogel bead of calcium-alginate that embedded the plb inside them. The length of the self-life is achieved by the application of Abcissic Acid (ABA, a plant growth retardant. The experiment was prepared by completely randomized designed with 5 treatments of ABA concentrations (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L and 5 replication each treatment. The successful of the treatments would be presented by the ability of the synthetics seed to postpone their germination during storage periodes and can redraw to germinate after rehydration. The result shows that, dessication treatments during storage can inhibit the germination of synthetic seed. ABA application in low concentration, 5 mg/L, can protects the viability of plbs during storage periods and germinate them after rehydration.

  14. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytic xylariaceous fungi from medicinal plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU, and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

  15. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  16. Newly Recorded Species of Orchidaceae from Xizang (Tibet)%西藏兰科新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂凌健; 彭玉德; 黄云峰; 黄宝优; 李连强; 余丽莹

    2016-01-01

    报道了兰科(Orchidaceae)高山铠兰[Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.)Schltr.]和山珊瑚(Galeola faberi Rolfe)在中国西藏自治区的分布新记录。高山铠兰形态上因唇瓣先端边缘齿蚀状,花瓣与侧萼片在基部贴生,长7~8 mm,距暗红色而区别于铠兰属其他种;山珊瑚形态上因萼片狭椭圆形,唇瓣上散生褶片状附属物,边缘不规则齿状而区别于山珊瑚属其他种。凭证标本存放于广西药用植物园标本馆(GXMG)。%Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.)Schltr.and Galeola faberi Rolfe are reported as newly re-corded species in Xizang.Corybashimalaicus is different from other species in genus for the lip apical mar-gins erose,petals adnate to lateral sepals at base,7-8 mm long,spurs black red.Galeola faberi is differ-ent from other species in genus for the sepals narrowly elliptic,lip with scattered lamellate appendages and margin irregularly incised.The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants (GXMG).

  17. Post-harvest longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae flowers/ Longevidade pós-colheita de flores de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum from the Orchidaceae family has been widely used as pot flower, and, most recently, as cut flower. The objective of this work was to evaluate the longevity of the Oncidium varicosum, due to its low post-harvest resistance, after being conditioned in preservation solutions with different concentrations of sucrose. Oncidium varicosum stems grown in Holambra (SP were transported to Londrina (PR in climatized trucks at 5-7oC. Pre-treatment with pulsing (15% sucrose for 24 hours followed by conditioning in maintenance solution (1, 2, 3, and 4% of sucrose as well as conditioning in maintenance solution without pre-treatment were evaluated. Flower stems were distributed in an entirely casualized design, with ten treatments and five replications. Flowers were evaluated daily, using a score system developed to compare and verify the conservation of visual aspects. No treatment was superior to the control in maintaining the longevity of the flowers.A orquídea Oncidium varicosum é bastante utilizada como flor de vaso e atualmente vem se destacando como flor de corte. Devido sua baixa resistência pós-colheita, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade de Oncidium varicosum após o acondicionamento em soluções conservantes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As hastes de Oncidium varicosum, produzidas em Holambra (SP, foram transportadas para Londrina (PR em caminhão climatizado a 5-7°C. Foram avaliadas a utilização de prétratamento com “pulsing” (15% de sacarose por 24 horas seguido de acondicionamento em solução de manutenção (1, 2, 3 e 4% de sacarose e o acondicionamento em solução de manutenção sem prétratamento. As hastes florais foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e cinco repetições. As avaliações das flores foram diárias, sob critério de notas definido para comparar e verificar a conservação dos aspectos visuais. Nenhum dos tratamentos

  18. Influence of auxin on acclimatization of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae/ Influência de auxina na aclimatização de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate roots formation and vegetative development of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae using naftalen acetic acid (NAA during the acclimatization phase. The experiment was set up at the Agronomy Department – Universidade Estadual de Londrina – Paraná State, between March and October of 2005. Seedlings were obtained from seeds grew up “in vitro”, with culture medium (MS. Seedlings were taken out from dishes and washed using flow water, in order to remove the medium. After this, they were transplanted on trail, with sphagnum substrate and were set up on elevated tables at greenhouse (50% of solar radiation. Auxin was used by two ways: fast plants immersion, during 10 seconds (T2, T3, T4 and four weekly spraying on beds (T5, T6, T7. Treatments with NAA were: T1 – 0 mg.L-1; T2 – 40 mg.L-1; T3 – 200 mg.L-1; T4 – 1 g.L-1; T5 – 40 mg.L-1; T6 – 200 mg.L-1; T7 – 1 g.L-1. A randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was used as statistical model and ten plants composed each plot. Seven months after the trial settle the plants were evaluated by root length; roots number; plant height; sprouts number; and total fresh mass. It was observed that 200 mg.L-1 NAA spraying on seedlings of Oncidium baueri had better rooting and vegetative development, but seedlings immersion had no satisfactory results.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento e desenvolvimento vegetativo de plântulas de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae utilizando o ácido naftaleno acético (ANA, durante a fase de aclimatização. O experimento foi conduzido no período de março à outubro de 2005, no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (PR. As plântulas foram obtidas a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro, em meio de cultura (MS. Foram retiradas dos frascos e lavados em água corrente para a remoção do meio de cultura, e em seguida transplantadas em bandejas, com esfagno

  19. [Comparative leaf anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of 11 species of Laeliinae with emphasis on Brassavola (Orchidaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Savelli, Eliana; Jáuregui, Damelis

    2011-09-01

    Brassavola inhabits a wide altitude range and habitat types from Northern Mexico to Northern Argentina. Classification schemes in plants have normally used vegetative and floral characters, but when species are very similar, as in this genus, conflicts arise in species delimitation, and alternative methods should be applied. In this study we explored the taxonomic and phylogenetic value of the anatomical structure of leaves in Brassavola; as ingroup, seven species of Brassavola were considered, and as an outgroup Guarianthe skinneri, Laelia anceps, Rhyncholaelia digbyana and Rhyncholaelia glauca were evaluated. Leaf anatomical characters were studied in freehand cross sections of the middle portion with a light microscope. Ten vegetative anatomical characters were selected and coded for the phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out under maximum parsimony using the program NONA through WinClada. Overall, Brassavola species reveal a wide variety of anatomical characters, many of them associated with xeromorphic plants: thick cuticle, hypodermis and cells of the mesophyll with spiral thickenings in the secondary wall. Moreover, mesophyll is either homogeneous or heterogeneous, often with extravascular bundles of fibers near the epidermis at both terete and flat leaves. All vascular bundles are collateral, arranged in more than one row in the mesophyll. The phylogenetic analysis did not resolve internal relationships of the genus; we obtained a polytomy, indicating that the anatomical characters by themselves have little phylogenetic value in Brassavola. We concluded that few anatomical characters are phylogenetically important; however, they would provide more support to elucidate the phylogenetic relantionships in the Orchidaceae and other plant groups if they are used in conjunction with morphological and/or molecular characters.

  20. Novel swellable polymer of orchidaceae family for gastroretentive drug delivery of famotidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahboubeh Razavi,1 Shaik Nyamathulla,1,2 Hamed Karimian,1 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1,2 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Natural Products and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to develop hydrophilic, gastroretentive matrix tablets of famotidine with good floating and swelling properties. A novel gastroretentive drug delivery formulation was designed using salep, also known as salepi, a flour obtained from grinding dried palmate tubers of Orchis morio var mascula (Orchidaceae family. The main polysaccharide content of salep is glucomannan, highly soluble in cold and hot water, which forms a viscous solution. Salep was characterized for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, chemical interaction, and surface morphology using X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Ten different formulations (S1–S10 were prepared using famotidine to salep ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:5. Results demonstrated that all formulations were able to sustain the drug release for more than 24 hours. The S5 formulation, with a famotidine to salep ratio of 1:2.5, had the shortest floating lag time of 35 seconds and 100% drug release within 24 hours. The dissolution data were fitted into popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release. S5 showed Zero order release (R=0.9746 with Higuchi diffusion (R=0.9428. We conclude that salep, a novel polymer, can be used in controlled release formulations to sustain release for 24 hours, due to inherent swelling and gelling properties. Keywords: famotidine, floating matrix tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery, orchis, salep

  1. Metabolome of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) and related species under Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony Lionel; Grisoni, Michel; Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Jade, Katia; Bartet, Laetitia; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2012-11-01

    The genus Vanilla which belongs to the Orchidaceae family comprises more than 110 species of which two are commercially cultivated (Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla xtahitensis). The cured pods of these species are the source of natural vanilla flavor. In intensive cultivation systems the vines are threatened by viruses such as Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). In order to investigate the effect of CymMV on the growth and metabolome of vanilla plants, four accessions grown in intensive cultivation systems under shadehouse, CR01 (V. planifolia), CR17 (V. xtahitensis), CR03 (V. planifolia × V. xtahitensis) and CR18 (Vanilla pompona), were challenged with an isolate of CymMV. CymMV infected plants of CR01, CR03 and CR17 had a reduced growth compared to healthy plants, while there was no significant difference in the growth of CR18 vines. Interestingly, CR18 had qualitatively more phenolic compounds in leaves and a virus titre that diminished over time. No differences in the metabolomic profiles of the shadehouse samples obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were observed between the virus infected vs. healthy plants. However, using in- vitro V. planifolia plants, the metabolomic profiles were affected by virus infection. Under these controlled conditions the levels of amino acids and sugars present in the leaves were increased in CymMV infected plants, compared to uninfected ones, whereas the levels of phenolic compounds and malic acid were decreased. The metabolism, growth and viral status of V. pompona accession CR18 contrasted from that of the other species suggesting the existence of partial resistance to CymMV in the vanilla germplasm.

  2. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  3. Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae un nuevo registro para la Flora del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric F. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a Maxillaria jostii Dodson (Orchidaceae como una nueva adición a la Flora del Perú procedente de los substratos de roca arenisca de la Cordillera subandina de Huarango (provincia San Ignacio, departamento Cajamarca, una prolongación sureña de la Cordillera del Cóndor rica en especies. Maxillaria jostii ha sido considerada como una especie endémica para Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe, Morona-Santiago; sin embargo, con el presente estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hacia el Perú. Esta nueva contribución al conocimiento de la flora del país es el resultado del trabajo de campo y de herbario, gracias al Proyecto Binacional «Inventario Botánico de la Región de la Cordillera del Cóndor, Ecuador y Perú, 2005-2007», desarrollado entre las instituciones: MO, HUT, LOJA y QCNE. La contrastación específica se realizó con las especies documentadas en el «Catálogo de las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Perú» (Brako & Zarucchi 1993, «Diez años de adiciones a la flora del Perú: 1993-2003» (Ulloa Ulloa et al. 2004 y «Nuevas Adiciones de Angiospermas a la Flora del Perú» (Rodríguez et al. 2006b.

  4. MORFOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DE DOS ESPECIES DE BANDERITAS (ORCHIDACEAE: MASDEVALLIA EN COLOMBIA Morphology and Morphometry of Two Banderitas Species (Orchidaceae: Masdevallia in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA ADRIANA CUERVO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Masdevallia coccinea y Masdevallia ignea (Orchidaceae conocidas como "banderitas", son orquídeas ornamentales muy apreciadas por cultivadores aficionados y coleccionistas. En Colombia, la presión de colecta sobre estas especies ha sido enorme y pocas poblaciones naturales sobreviven en los departamentos de Boyacá (Arcabuco, Páramo de Berlín, Duitama y Santander (entre Málaga y Bucaramanga, estas poblaciones son reducidas y de difícil acceso; razón por la cual se encuentran en el apéndice II de CITES. Poco se sabe sobre su biología reproductiva, sistema reproductivo y polinización y parte de lo que consta en la literatura es incompleto. En este marco el objetivo general del trabajo fue estudiar la morfología y morfometría floral de M. coccinea y M. ignea en condiciones de semicultivo al aire libre en la finca Villa Rosa ubicada en el municipio de Guasca, Cundinamarca, para lo cual se realizó fotografía digital, pruebas histoquímicas, morfometría y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido. Los resultados principales de la morfometría mostraron que los sépalos dorsal y lateral fueron más largos en M. coccinea (X= 53,0 mm σ = 7,4 mm y X = 44,4 mm y σ = 8,3 mm en comparación a M. ignea (X = 34 mm σ = 7,7 mm y X = 31,5 mm y σ = 6,1 mm, pero las coloraciones de las partes florales de esta última fueron más intensas y su labelo fue más largo (X = 7,1 mm y σ = 0,6 mm. En las dos especies el labelo estuvo articulado a la columna y no se encontró presencia de glándulas con estructuras secretoras como nectarios ni osmóforos.Masdevallia coccinea and the Masdevallia ignea "banderitas" are ornamental orchids which are very prized by amateur farmers and collectors. In Colombia, the harvest pressure on these species has been enormous and few natural populations survive in the departments of Boyacá (Arcabuco of Berlin Páramo, Duitama and Santander (between Málaga and Bucaramanga, in which these populations are reduced and of

  5. Two Newly Recorded Species of Oberonia (Orchidaceae) from Mainland China%中国大陆鸢尾兰属(兰科)二新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 叶德平; 易绮斐; 邢福武

    2015-01-01

    Oberonia seidenfadenii (H. J. Su) Ormerod and O. segawae T. C. Hsu & S. W. Chung as two new records of Orchidaceae from mainland China are reported for the ifrst time. The voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of the South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (IBSC).%首次报道了中国大陆兰科(Orchidaceae)鸢尾兰属(Oberonia)二新记录种:密花鸢尾兰[O. seidenfadenii (H. J. Su) Ormerod]和齿唇鸢尾兰(O. segawae T. C. Hsu&S. W. Chung),并提供了它们的形态特征描述。

  6. Registros nuevos de Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae y Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae para el estado de Veracruz, México New records of Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae y Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae in the State of Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Campos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para el estado de Veracruz Ponthieva brenesii y Piper xanthostachyum. La primera especie es muy rara y tiene una distribución geográfica limitada; en México hasta ahora sólo se conocía de Cuernavaca, Morelos y Teziutlán, Puebla. La segunda especie se caracteriza por su forma de vida trepadora, hábito poco común en las especies del género Piper. En México esta especie sólo se conocía en Chiapas y Oaxaca. Ambas especies se encontraron en un bosque mesófilo de montaña del centro de Veracruz.Ponthieva brenesii (Orchidaceae and Piper xanthostachyum (Piperaceae are reported for the first time in the State of Veracruz, Mexico. The first species is very rare, and has a restricted distribution range previously limited within Mexico to Cuernavaca, Morelos and Teziutlán, Puebla. The second species is a climbing herb, uncommon growth habit in the genus Piper. Previously, this species had only been found in Chiapas and Oaxaca. Both species were found in a montane cloud forest of central Veracruz.

  7. Molecular Identification of Dendrobium Species (Orchidaceae Based on the DNA Barcode ITS2 Region and Its Application for Phylogenetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangguo Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The over-collection and habitat destruction of natural Dendrobium populations for their commercial medicinal value has led to these plants being under severe threat of extinction. In addition, many Dendrobium plants are similarly shaped and easily confused during the absence of flowering stages. In the present study, we examined the application of the ITS2 region in barcoding and phylogenetic analyses of Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae. For barcoding, ITS2 regions of 43 samples in Dendrobium were amplified. In combination with sequences from GenBank, the sequences were aligned using Clustal W and genetic distances were computed using MEGA V5.1. The success rate of PCR amplification and sequencing was 100%. There was a significant divergence between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances of ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Based on the BLAST1, nearest distance and TaxonGAP methods, our results showed that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of most Dendrobium samples examined; Second, we used ITS2 as a DNA marker to infer phylogenetic relationships of 64 Dendrobium species. The results showed that cluster analysis using the ITS2 region mainly supported the relationship between the species of Dendrobium established by traditional morphological methods and many previous molecular analyses. To sum up, the ITS2 region can not only be used as an efficient barcode to identify Dendrobium species, but also has the potential to contribute to the phylogenetic analysis of the genus Dendrobium.

  8. In vitro growth of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae at different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations / Crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The propagation in vitro is an important method for orchids reproduction, because the seeds don’t have endosperm and present low germination. The sugar is a important component in medium culture, serving as a source of carbon and energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth in vitro of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae in different macronutrients and sucrose concentrations. The treatments consisted: two formulations of the macronutrientes of the MS medium, in complete MS and MS modifed medium with half of the regular concentration of macronutrients, and different sucrose concentrations (30 gL-1, 40 gL-1e 60 gL-1, at pH 5,8. A randomized design with eight replications was used as statistical model and a fask with twenty plants composed each plot. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, complemented by the Tukey test at 5% of signifcance. The following variables were assessed six months after the beguining of the experiment: plant height, root length; number of roots, number of buds, dry mass and total fresh mass. The treatment that showed the best results was 40 gL-1 sucrose in a modifed MS medium with half of regular concentration of macronutrients, for vegetative development and rooting of Oncidium baueri orchid.A propagação in vitro é uma importante técnica na reprodução de orquídeas, devido às sementes serem desprovidas de endosperma e apresentarem uma baixa taxa de germinação na natureza. A sacarose é um componente importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia para as plântulas e os macronutrientes são essenciais para a nutrição e crescimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento in vitro de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de macronutrientes e sacarose. Os tratamentos consistiram em duas formulações dos macronutrientes do meio Murashige e Skoog (1962, sendo, MS completo e MS modifcado com metade da concentração dos

  9. Propagação in vitro de Oncidium baueri Lindl. (Orchidaceae sem uso de ágar = In vitro orchid propagation of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae without the use of agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a propagação in vitro de Oncidium baueri(Orchidaceae sem uso de ágar como agente solidificante do meio de cultura. As sementes foram germinadas em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS, 1962 modificado com a metade da concentração de macronutrientes. As plântulas, ao atingirem em média 1 cm de altura, foram subcultivadas para frascos de plástico de 600 mL, contendo 200 mL do mesmo meionutritivo utilizado para a germinação. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: 7 g de ágar por litro + meio 1/2 MS líquido; espuma de poliuretano picada + meio 1/2 MS líquido; esfagno + meio 1/2 MS líquido; areia grossa + meio 1/2 MS líquido. Oito meses após o início do experimento, as variáveis analisadas foram: altura da parte aérea, comprimento da maior raiz, número de brotações, número de raízes e matéria fresca total. As análises estatísticas demonstram que os tratamentos contendo esfagno ou areia não são indicados para substituírem o ágar, porém o tratamento com espuma de poliuretano picada proporcionou um ótimo enraizamento e ótimo desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas, sendo, portanto, uma alternativa eficiente e de menor custo para a substituição do ágar na propagação in vitro deOncidium baueri.This research aims at studying the in vitro propagation of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae without the use of agar as a solidifying agent of culture medium. The seeds were germinated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, 1962 modified with half of the macronutrients concentrations. When the seedlings reach an average height of 1 cm, they were subcultivated in 600 mL plastic flasks containing 200 mL of the same nutritive medium used for germination. The evaluated treatments were: 7 g of agar per liter + 1/2 MS medium liquid; chopped (polyurethane foam + 1/2 MS medium liquid; sphagnum + 1/2 MSmedium liquid; thick sand + 1/2MS medium liquid. The evaluated variables after 8 months of study were: aerial part height, tallest

  10. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi in roots of nine Holcoglossum plants (Orchidaceae) collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Chun-Lan; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Cui, Jin-Long; Chen, Juan; Guo, Shun-Xing; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2012-02-01

    Holcoglossum is one of the smaller genera of Orchidaceae, mainly distributed in southwest China. Some members of this genus as well as H. rupestre and H. flavescens are endemic and rare Chinese orchids. As far as we know, little work has been done concerning the relationships between the Holcoglossum plants and endophytic microorganisms. In this study, 46 culturable fungal endophytes were isolated and identified from roots of nine Holcoglossum plants collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan provinces of China based on molecular techniques. The results showed that all strains belonged to four classes, i.e., Sordariomycetes (41.30%), Dothideomycetes (36.96%), Agaricomycetes (17.39%), Leotiomycetes (4.35%). Thirty-six strains were identified at the genus level, including Alternaria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Colletotrichum, Cosmospora, Cryptosporiopsis, Cylindrocarpon, Didymella, Epulorhiza (Anamorphic Tulasnella), Fusarium, Myrmecridium, Leptosphaeria, Paraconiothyrium, Phomopsis, Pyrenochaeta, and Stephanonectria. Fusarium and Epulorhiza (Anamorphic Tulasnella) were the dominant fungal endophytes. Some orchids mycorrhizal fungi as well as Tulasnella calospora and Epulorhiza sp. were found in roots. This is the first report concerning endophytic fungi from Holcoglossum plants (Orchidaceae), suggesting that endophytic fungi in Holcoglossum plants are very abundant.

  11. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  12. Detecção de Azospirillum amazonense em raízes e rizosfera de orchidaceae e de outras famílias vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lange

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum amazonense é uma bactéria fixadora de N2 atmosférico de ampla ocorrência, principalmente em associações radiculares com gramíneas e palmeiras. Para verificar sua presença em outras espécies vegetais, ainda não estudadas, e a eficiência de meios para sua detecção, foram testados os meios Fam e LGI para contagens em solo rizosférico ou em culturas de enriquecimento com solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera. A. amazonense foi detectada no solo rizosférico, ecto e endorrizosfera de várias espécies de monocotiledôneas, incluindo Orchidaceae e dicotiledôneas, sendo o meio Fam mais eficiente para sua detecção

  13. Alternative substrata for xaxim on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Fonseca Sorace

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of different substrata by vegetal origin, to grow species of orchids (Orchidaceae. Seedlings of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, obtained by in vitro culture, and acclimated, with medium height of 5 cm, had the following substrata: 1- Defibered xaxim (control; 2- Carbonized rice husk; 3- Coconut fiber; 4- Husk pínus; 5- Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1; 6- Carbonized rice husk + Husk pínus (1:1; 7- Coconut fiber + Husk pinus (1:1; 8- Husk pínus + Carbonized rice husk + Coconut fiber (1:1:1. A randomized design with eight treatments and ten replications. Results were submited to Variance Analysis and Tukey Test at 5 %. Growing parameters evaluated after 17 months were: root length, roots number, height of above ground, buds number, leaves number, leaf length, leaf width, total fresh mass and root volume. Determinated substrata parameters were: pH, eletric conductivity and density. All studied substratum can be recommended to substitute xaxim but, coconut fiber was least efficient to develop roots and aerial parts of plants. Better results were showed by substratum only with carbonized rice husk + husk pine on culture of Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes substratos de origem vegetal no cultivo de espécies de orquídeas. Plântulas de Cattleya intermedia X Hadrolaelia purpurata, provenientes de cultivo in vitro, aclimatizadas e com altura média de 5 cm, foram plantadas nos substratos: 1-Xaxim desfibrado (testemunha; 2-Casca de arroz carbonizada; 3-Fibra de coco; 4-Casca de pínus; 5-Casca de pínus + Fibra de coco (1:1; 6-Casca de arroz + Fibra de coco (1:1; 7-Casca de arroz carbonizada + Casca de pínus (1:1; 8-Casca de pínus + Casca de arroz carbonizada + Fibra de coco (1:1:1. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e dez repeti

  14. Biologia reprodutiva de Cattleya eldorado, uma espécie de Orchidaceae das campinas amazônicas Reproductive biology of Cattleya eldorado, a species of Orchidaceae from the Amazonian white sand campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As Orchidaceae são muito apreciadas por suas flores exóticas e exuberantes. É a maior família de plantas apresentando mais de 24000 espécies, o que denota uma alta diversidade de formas e adaptações a diferentes ambientes, como também para atração, engano e manipulação de visitantes na realização da polinização cruzada. Cattleya eldorado ocorre em áreas de campinas, que são formações vegetais típicas da região amazônica, que se encontram sob forte ação antrópica. Este trabalho tem como um de seus principais objetivos conhecer parte dos processos biológicos de C. eldorado fornecendo subsídios para conservá-la e manejá-la em seu habitat natural. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Biológica de Campina, de 2000 a 2006, durante a sua floração. C. eldorado é uma espécie epifítica que apresenta a síndrome de melitofilia, estando adaptada ao seu polinizador, a abelha Eulaema mocsaryi, que reconhece suas flores pelo odor e pelo estímulo visual através de sua coloração e reflexão de luz ultravioleta. C. eldorado é uma espécie autocompatível, embora necessite de um agente polinizador para a transferência do polinário até sua deposição na cavidade estigmática da flor.The orchid plants are highly prized for their lush exotic flowers. It is the largest plant family with more than 24000 species, which indicates a high diversity of forms and adaptations to different environments, including the capacity to attract, deceive and manipulate visitors involved in cross-pollination. Cattleya eldorado occurs in areas of white sand campinas, a typical vegetation type of the Amazon region, which is under strong anthropogenic pressure. This work's main objectives to know the biological processes of C. eldorado providing subsidies to maintain and manage it in its natural habitat. This study was conducted from 2000 to 2006 in the Campina Biological Reserve, during its flowering period. C. eldorado is an epiphytic

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Si Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall. Lindl. (Orchidaceae is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64% sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-12-18

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  17. Orchidaceae novae malayenses XVII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1943-01-01

    Planta florens 62—72 cm alta. Caulis inferne vaginatus, ceterum foliatus. Folia c. 8, lineari-lanceolata ad linearia, breviter acuminata ad sensim acutata, acuta, sicco membranacea, 12.5—14 cm longa, 1.8—1.1 cm lata, superiora decrescentia et sensim in bracteas vergentia; vaginae inferiores longe tu

  18. Orchidaceae novae Malayenses XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Planta parva. Caules erecti, tenues, basi tantum ramosi, basi radicantes, c. 23 cm longi, inferne vaginati, superne 3—4-foliati. Folia erecto-patentia, lanceolata, acuminata, acutissima, basi acuta, nervis 5 majoribus sicco subtus et etiam supra prominentibus pluribusque tenuibus, sicco membranacea,

  19. Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae by in vitro techniques Indução e identificação de poliploides em Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (orchidaceae através de técnicas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Artur Konzen Xavier de Mello e Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colchicine on the protocorm-like bodies of Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae cultured in vitro was studied. Different concentrations of the drug (0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% as well as two times of culture (4 or 8 days were tested to determine the best treatment for the induction of tetraploid plants. Of the 3 colchicine levels applied, 0.05 and 0.10% of drug treatments appeared to be effective on the production of mixoploids and tetraploids and could be further used in breeding programs. The suitability of stomatal area and stomata density as criteria for the distinction between diploids and tetraploids was also tested. The results suggested that tetraploid plants could be identified with a fair amount of certainty when the screening was based on the density of stomata.No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da colchicina em corpos semelhantes a protocormos de Cattleya intermedia L. (Orchidaceae. Diferentes concentrações da droga (0,00; 0,05; 0,10 e 0,20%, bem como diferentes tempos de cultura (4 ou 8 dias foram testados para determinar o melhor tratamento para a indução de plantas tetraplóides. Dos três níveis de colchicina aplicados, os tratamentos com 0,05 e 0,10% da droga parecem ser mais efetivos na produção de mixoplóides e tetraplóides, sendo que tais tratamentos podem ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Como critério para distinção entre diplóides e tetraplóides, foram realizadas medidas de área de estômatos e densidade de estômatos das folhas. Os resultados sugerem que as plantas tetraplóides podem ser identificadas com elevado grau de certeza quando a seleção é realizada com base na densidade de estômatos.

  20. Zeuxine flava, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China%中国兰科线柱兰属一新记录种--黄花线柱兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 覃海宁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国兰科植物一新记录种,黄花线柱兰Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f..本种的唇瓣橘黄色并呈"T"形,前唇裂片成方形,长宽近相等,唇瓣基部囊内各具一枚钩状胼胝体.%Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f., a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is reported. This species is characterized by having flowers saffron, lip "T"-shaped, lobules of epichile squarish and not much longer than wide, and each side of sac with only one callus inside.

  1. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de protocormos de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae em associação com fungos micorrízicos do gênero Epulorhiza Seed germination and protocorm development of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae in association with Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na natureza, as espécies de Orchidaceae estão associadas a fungos micorrízicos. A compreensão da especificidade fungo-planta nessa associação pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas para propagação simbiótica das orquídeas. Fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. com maior freqüência. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocormos de E. secundum associados a diferentes isolados de fungos do gênero Epulorhiza. Utilizou-se 16 fungos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de diferentes populações de E. secundum. Após 44 dias, todos os fungos testados induziram a germinação das sementes. Entretanto, observou-se diferença na eficiência desses fungos em promover o desenvolvimento dos protocormos, mesmo entre os fungos que apresentam semelhanças morfológicas. O estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado dos protocormos e o maior índice de crescimento foram observados quando as sementes foram inoculadas com o isolado M65. Conclui-se que a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento dos protocormos de E. secundum dependem do fungo micorrízico e que, apesar da grande freqüência de associação entre essa espécie de orquídea e fungos do gênero Epulorhiza, é importante a seleção de isolados que apresentem maior eficiência simbiótica. Isolados eficientes são úteis na produção de mudas de orquídeas de importância econômica e ornamental e de espécies ameaçadas de extinção.In nature, species of Orchidaceae are always associated with mycorrhizal fungi. The comprehension of fungal-plant specificity in this association can assist with the establishment of programs that focus on symbiotic propagation of orchids. Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi have frequently been isolated from Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of E. secundum seeds and protocorm development associated

  2. Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitro en el desarrollo de híbridos de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seir Antonio Salazar Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of different in vitro culture media in the development of Phalaenopsis hybrid (OrchidaceaeTitulo corto: Evaluación de diferentes medios de cultivo in vitroResumen: Los híbridos de Phalaenopsis tienen una gran importancia económica a nivel mundial, como flor cortada y planta ornamental, debido a sus flores vistosas y a la capacidad de adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales. Las técnicas de cultivo in vitro resultan indispensables para mejorar la eficacia germinativa, el crecimiento y desarrollo de orquídeas con fines comerciales e investigativos. En esta investigación se determinó el medio de cultivo más apropiado para la germinación in vitro de un híbrido de Phalaenopsis. Inicialmente se evaluó la viabilidad de las semillas utilizando la prueba de tetrazolio (TZ. Las semillas se desinfectaron y se cultivaron aplicando el método de la jeringuilla. El porcentaje de viabilidad en promedio fue de 92,2% (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con un porcentaje de germinación entre todos los medios de 95,1 % (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD. El medio de cultivo más eficiente para la germinación de híbridos de Phalaenopsis a las 18 semanas de cultivo fue el Murashige & Skoog (MS suplementado con agua de coco, y jugo de piña con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P≤ 0,05: Tukey HSD, con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo, contribuyendo de esta manera al uso de componentes orgánicos con el fin de mejorar la germinación y desarrollo de Phalaenopsis.Palabras clave: Componente orgánico, germinación in vitro, hibrido,  Phalaenopsis,       viabilidad. Abstract: The Phalaenopsis hybrids have a significant economic importance throughout the world, as ornamental flower or plant. It is because of its attractive flowers and its adaptation capacity into different environments. The different culture media in vitro are vital to improve the efficacy of germination, growing and development of the Orchids for commercial and

  3. Efeito de combinações diferentes de reguladores de crescimento a partir da indução de botões de plântulas de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2106 Effects of different combinations of growth regulators for bud induction from seedlings of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vanessa Krapiec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram investigadas diferentes combinações e concentrações de auxinas e citocininas para ativar o desenvolvimento de brotos e multiplicar plântulas de Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae, sem estágio intermediário de calos. As plântulas de C. walkeriana foram cultivadas em meio B5, contendo 2% de sacarose, 0,65% de agar e combinações fatoriais das auxinas ácido naftalenoacético (NAA e ácido 3-indolbutírico (IBA, e das citocininas 6-benzilaminopurina (BA e cinetina (KIN, nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5mg/L. O maior número de brotos com folhas desenvolvidas foi formado nas plântulas cultivadas em meio contendo IBA e BA, enquanto o menor número de brotos foi observado na combinação NAA e KIN. Houve maior indução de brotos em meio contendo somente IBA (na ausência de citocininas nas três concentrações. A maior freqüência de indução de brotos usando as combinações de BA e IBA indicaram que essa combinação foi mais efetiva para a multiplicação in vitro de C. walkeriana, usando plântulas como explantesThe present study reports a research with different concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins to activate bud development and to obtain multiplication of Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae without an intermediate callus stage. Seedlings of C. walkeriana were cultured on B5 medium containing 2% sucrose and solidified with 0.65% agar, with factorial combinations of the auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3-indolbutyric acid (IBA, and cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BA and N-(2-furanyl-methyl-1-purine-6 amine (Kinetin at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L. The highest number of buds with elongated leaves occurred by cultivating seedlings on medium containing different concentrations of IBA and BA, while the lowest number was observed in NAA and KIN combination. IBA alone yielded better results at the three tested concentrations, when compared to the total absence of

  4. Indução in vitro da germinação de sementes de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae por fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides In vitro symbiotic seed germination of Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae by rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinto Liparini Pereira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocórmios de Oncidium flexuosum (Orchidaceae induzidos simbioticamente são descritos pela primeira vez. As sementes de O. flexuosum foram inoculadas com dez fungos micorrízicos rizoctonióides, previamente isolados de micorrizas de dez espécies de orquídeas neotropicais do Brasil, incluindo O. flexuosum. Foram utilizados um isolado pertencente à espécie Epulorhiza repens, dois pertencentes à Epulorhiza epiphytica, seis de Ceratorhiza spp. e um de Rhizoctonia sp. Sementes inoculadas com o isolado M2 de Ceratorhiza sp., originalmente isolado do sistema radicular de O. flexuosum em habitat natural, promoveu a germinação das sementes em sete dias e em, aproximadamente, 30 % das plântulas, houve formação de folhas após 50 dias de incubação, apresentando pelotons em algumas células do protocórmio e das radicelas. Os demais isolados promoveram a germinação das sementes; entretanto, não promoveram um desenvolvimento ótimo dos protocórmios. Sementes incubadas na ausência de fungos micorrízicos não germinaram. A especificidade e a alta dependência de O. flexuosum pela associação micorrízica ficaram claras. Aspectos relativos à especificidade, anatomia da interação fungo-planta e a importância da seleção de estirpes fúngicas, previamente ao uso de fungos micorrízicos para o cultivo simbiótico a partir de sementes de O. flexuosum são discutidos.Symbiotic in vitro seed germination and protocorm development of Oncidium flexuosum is described for the first time. O. flexuosum seeds were inoculated with ten mycorrhizal isolates, originally obtained from the mycorrhiza of ten neotropical Brazilian orchid species, including O. flexuosum. One of the isolates belongs to Epulorhiza repens, two to Epulorhiza epiphytica, six to Ceratorhiza spp., and one to Rhizoctonia sp. Seeds inoculated with the M2 isolate of Ceratorhiza sp., originally isolated from the root system of wild O

  5. Levantamento de espécies da família Orchidaceae em Águas de Sta. Bárbara (SP e seu cultivo A survey of the Orchidaceae family species to evaluate the biodiversity and their cultivation in the district of Águas de Santa Bárbara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Cardoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa avaliar a biodiversidade nas matas do Brasil, especificamente sobre a família das orquidáceas que possuem plantas com valor ornamental, medicinal e alimentício. O local de estudo foi o município de Águas de Sta. Bárbara, devido a grande quantidade de matas ciliares às margens dos Rios Novo e Pardo, além de remanescentes de cerrado e por ser uma cidade turística e agrícola com riscos de problemas ambientais. Foi realizada a caracterização, buscando conhecer, mapear, avaliar o potencial ornamental e estabelecer algumas técnicas de cultivo das espécies encontradas. Foram visitadas áreas particulares com matas ribeirinhas em trechos privilegiados das margens dos Rios Novo e Pardo, além de áreas remanescentes de cerrado presente na vegetação nativa do município. Nos locais de observação das espécies encontradas foram medidas a temperatura média e a umidade relativa do ambiente, buscando informações que auxiliem no cultivo dessas plantas. As espécies predominantes encontradas são pertencentes aos gêneros Brassavola, Catassetum, Cattleya, Eulophidium, Epidendrum, Ionopsis, Microlaelia, Oncidium, Pleurothallis, Polystachya e Rodriguezia, demonstrando a grande biodiversidade de orquidáceas presente no município. Na maioria são microrquídeas, sem valor ornamental, porém com grande potencial para a realização de cruzamentos, visando o melhoramento genético.The biodiversity of the Orchidaceae family species presenting potential ornamental, medical and nutritional values was studied. Águas de Santa Bárbara (Brazil was chosen due to the presence of gallery forests along the rivers Pardo and Novo, due to the occurrence of areas covered with Savannah vegetation and also due to the risks of environmental degradation by the presence of intense tourist and industrial activities in the area. Mapping and evaluation of the species with potential for ornamental purposes were done with the objective of

  6. 深圳香荚兰,首次发现于华南深圳的兰科新种%Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen, the first new species of Orchidaceae found in Shenzhen, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仲健; 陈心启; 茹正忠

    2007-01-01

    Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen,a new species of Orchidaceae,is described and illustrated.This is the first new species of Orchidaceae found in Shenzhen,South China.It is akin to Vanilla somai Hayata,from which it differs by having 4-flowered inflorescences,not fully opening flowers with their unlobed lip joined 3/4 of its length to the column,and a retrorse tuft of fimbriate appendage in the upper part of the lip.%对兰科新种深圳香荚兰Vanilla shenzhenica Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen作了描述与绘图.此新种为深圳发现的第一个兰科新种,与台湾香荚兰V.somai Hayata有亲缘关系.但是,本新种花序具4花,花较大,不完全开放;唇瓣不裂,紫红色,基部与蕊柱合生长度达3/4,刷状附属物位于唇盘的上部,甚易区别于台湾香荚兰.

  7. Notes on Goodyerinae (Orchidaceae) — I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Goodyera subregularis (Rchb. f.) Schltr. from New Caledonia and Vanuatu is transferred to Anoectochilus. A non-peloric Anoectochilus, possibly the normal form of A. papuanus (Schltr.) Kittr., is recorded from New Guinea for the first time. Platylepis bombus J.J. Sm. and P. tidorensis J.J. Sm. are tr

  8. Natural polyploidy in Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bory, Séverine; Catrice, Olivier; Brown, Spencer; Leitch, Ilia J; Gigant, Rodolphe; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Grisoni, Michel; Duval, Marie-France; Besse, Pascale

    2008-10-01

    Vanilla planifolia accessions cultivated in Reunion Island display important phenotypic variation, but little genetic diversity is demonstrated by AFLP and SSR markers. This study, based on analyses of flow cytometry data, Feulgen microdensitometry data, chromosome counts, and stomatal length measurements, was performed to determine whether polyploidy could be responsible for some of the intraspecific phenotypic variation observed. Vanilla planifolia exhibited an important variation in somatic chromosome number in root cells, as well as endoreplication as revealed by flow cytometry. Nevertheless, the 2C-values of the 50 accessions studied segregated into three distinct groups averaging 5.03 pg (for most accessions), 7.67 pg (for the 'Stérile' phenotypes), and 10.00 pg (for the 'Grosse Vanille' phenotypes). For the three groups, chromosome numbers varied from 16 to 32, 16 to 38, and 22 to 54 chromosomes per cell, respectively. The stomatal length showed a significant variation from 37.75 microm to 48.25 microm. Given that 2C-values, mean chromosome numbers, and stomatal lengths were positively correlated and that 'Stérile' and 'Grosse Vanille' accessions were indistinguishable from 'Classique' accessions using molecular markers, the occurrence of recent autotriploid and autotetraploid types in Reunion Island is supported. This is the first report showing evidence of a recent autopolyploidy in V. planifolia contributing to the phenotypic variation observed in this species.

  9. OBSERVACIONES DE LA POLINIZACIÓN Y FENOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DE Brassia cf. antherotes Rchb.f. (ORCHIDACEAE EN UN RELICTO DE SELVA SUBANDINA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LA MONTAÑA DEL OCASO EN QUIMBAYA, QUINDÍO (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ospina-Calderón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien para algunas especies del género Brassia se ha reportado el síndrome de polinización por engaño, específicamente para Brassia antherotes no existían estudios. Por esta razón, se observó la fenología reproductiva de B. antherotes en una selva relictual en Quimbaya, Quindío. La población estudiada constó de 60 individuos localizados entre los 0.5-30 m de altura sobre los forófitos. Durante 7 meses se hizo un seguimiento de la fenología reproductiva. Su floración duró aproximadamente 6 semanas, con un pico de floración masiva en la cuarta semana, y un pico de polinización en la quinta semana. El corrimiento de las fenofases corresponde a un típico caso de polinización por engaño donde existe un efecto de densodependencia entre la abundancia de flores y los eventos de polinización. El 45% de la población floreció, el 6% de las flores fueron fecundadas, pero se presentó aborto de frutos en el 43,67% de éstas.Sin embargo, el porcentaje de viabilidad de las semillas (75% se mantuvo dentro de los rangos reportados para la familia Orchidaceae. Tanto la antesis como la emisión de aromas por los osmóforos del callo son diurnos. Las flores tienen múltiples visitadores, y aparentemente un polinizador de la familia de Vespidae.

  10. Registros nuevos de Orchidaceae para Veracruz, México New records of Orchidaceae for Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Castañeda-Zárate; José Viccon-Esquivel; Sergio E. Ramos-Castro; Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Se registran como novedades para la flora de Veracruz 7 especies de orquídeas a partir de material recolectado en el estado durante los últimos 3 años, principalmente en fragmentos conservados de bosque mesófilo de montaña. Estas especies son Anathallis abbreviata, Galeoglossum tubulosum, Homalopetalum pumilum, Leochilus johnstonii, Lepanthes totontepecensis, Mormolyca moralesii y Ponthieva mexicana.Seven orchid species are reported for the first time from Veracruz. All of these were collecte...

  11. Registros nuevos de Orchidaceae para Veracruz, México New records of Orchidaceae for Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castañeda-Zárate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se registran como novedades para la flora de Veracruz 7 especies de orquídeas a partir de material recolectado en el estado durante los últimos 3 años, principalmente en fragmentos conservados de bosque mesófilo de montaña. Estas especies son Anathallis abbreviata, Galeoglossum tubulosum, Homalopetalum pumilum, Leochilus johnstonii, Lepanthes totontepecensis, Mormolyca moralesii y Ponthieva mexicana.Seven orchid species are reported for the first time from Veracruz. All of these were collected during the last 3 years, mainly in conserved fragments of cloud forest. These species are Anathallis abbreviata, Galeoglossum tubulosum, Homalopetalum pumilum, Leochilus johnstonii, Lepanthes totontepecensis, Mormolyca moralesii, and Ponthieva mexicana.

  12. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae / Enraizamento de estacas da baunilheira (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1 Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a capacity of 1.5L lined inside with transparent plastic bag and lidded with proper lid. 2 Solid substrate formed by the mixture of sand, carbonized rice husk, soil and cured cow manure in equal proportions of volume, they being placed in rigid polypropylene with a capacity of 0.28L. 3 Pre-rooting of the cuttings in liquid medium (20 days before planting, and later transferred into seedling tubes containing solid substrate. The cuttings planted in the solid substrate were maintained under intermittent mist condition controlled by a timer. After 90 days, the percentage of rooting was of 98-100%, regardless of the treatment. Larger and more vigorous sproutings were obtained from cuttings planted directly into solid substrate. Adventitious rooting of cuttings and formation of new vanilla cuttings occurred, when the cuttings were obtained from position P2 (ranging between 20 to 40cm in stem height and planted in solid substrate in greenhouse with intermittent misting system. A baunilheira (Vanilla planifolia é uma planta pouco explorada comercialmente, devido ao emprego de tecnologias de baixa eficiência para a produção de mudas. Assim sendo, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes substratos, no enraizamento adventício de estacas retiradas de diferentes posições na planta. Estacas com 20cm de comprimento, duas gemas e uma folha, tomadas na haste da planta, em cinco posições subseqüentes, a partir do ápice caulinar foram plantadas em diferentes substratos: 1 Meio líquido formado pela solução nutritiva de Clark acrescida de 2,5mg L-1 de AIB, sendo acondicionado em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 1,5L revestidas, internamente, com sacola plástica transparente e vedadas com tampa própria. As tampas foram perfuradas para introdução das estacas plantadas na orientação vertical normal, com uma gema imersa na solução. O arejamento contínuo do meio líquido foi realizado com o auxílio de um compressor de ar. 2 Substrato sólido (areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, solo e esterco bovino curtido, em proporções iguais de volume, acondicionado em tubetes de polipropileno com capacidade para 0,28L. 3 Pré-enraizamento das estacas em meio líquido (20 dias antes do plantio, e posterior transferência das mesmas para tubetes contendo substrato sólido. As estacas plantadas no substrato sólido foram mantidas sob condições de nebulização intermitente controlada por um timer. Após 90 dias de cultivo, verificou-se uma porcentagem de estacas enraizadas na ordem de 98% a 100%, independente do tratamento. Brotações maiores e mais vigorosas foram obtidas em estacas plantadas diretamente no substrato sólido. O enraizamento adventício de estacas e a formação de mudas de baunilheira foram favorecidos quando as estacas foram obtidas da posição P2 (compreendida entre 20 a 40cm do ápice e plantadas em substrato sólido, em casa de vegetação com sistema de nebulização intermitente.

  13. A new species of Listera from Nepal (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, N.P.

    1966-01-01

    Affinis L. longicauli King & Pantling, a qua tamen differt magnitudine minore totius plantae, racemis brevioribus, labello angustiore lineari-lanceolato, sepalis lateralibus 3—4-plo. longiore ad apicem bifido. Herba terrestris, erecta, gracilis, 6—20 cm alta, radicibus carnosis fibrosis e rhizomate

  14. The structure of nectary of Platanthera bifolia L. Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of Platanthera bifolia were studied. The epidermis inside the nectary spur showed characteristic features of secretory tissue. Many cells of this epidermis were protruded forming unicellular hairs. The protoplasts of secretory cells were characterized by few small vacuoles, a lot of mitochondria and leucoplasts, which stored starch before secretion. Numerous vesicles budded off from the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were accumulated near plasmalemma and fused with it. This fact probably indicates that these structures are involved in secretory processes. Nectar was released onto the surface through the pores in a ruptured cuticle, which covered the walls of secretory hairs.

  15. Registros nuevos de Orchidaceae para Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Castañeda-Zárate; José Viccon-Esquivel; Sergio E. Ramos-Castro; Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Se registran como novedades para la flora de Veracruz 7 especies de orquídeas a partir de material recolectado en el estado durante los últimos 3 años, principalmente en fragmentos conservados de bosque mesófilo de montaña. Estas especies son Anathallis abbreviata, Galeoglossum tubulosum, Homalopetalum pumilum, Leochilus johnstonii, Lepanthes totontepecensis, Mormolyca moralesii y Ponthieva mexicana.

  16. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  17. A study of seed micromorphology in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Cela, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed micromorphology of 19 taxa of the genus Ophrys have been studied using SEM and light microscope. Quantitative data (length and width of seed and embryo, number of testa cells along the longitudinal axis, volume of seed and embryo, and percentage of free air space, as well as qualitative characters (seed shape, features of the anticlinal and periclinal walls, ornamentation and colour were analysed. All the seeds are fusiform, with an asymmetrical basal pole, the periclinal walls of the medial cells have parallel and transverse to slanting ridges, and raised anticlinal walls. Statistical analyses show two large clusters according to the volumes of seed and embryo. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and their recent diversification, however, seed features are not congruent with the recognition of sections and groups within Ophrys.Se ha estudiado la micromorfología de semillas de 19 taxones del género Ophrys mediante el empleo de microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido. Se han analizado datos cuantitativos (longitud y anchura de la semilla y del embrión, número de células en la testa a lo largo del eje longitudinal, volumen de la semilla y del embrión, y porcentaje de espacio aéreo libre y cualitativos (morfología de la semilla, características de sus paredes anticlinales y periclinales, ornamentación y color. Todas las semillas analizadas son fusiformes, con polo basal asimétrico, ornamentación de las paredes periclinales formada por costillas paralelas y transversales a oblicuas, y paredes anticlinales prominentes. Los análisis estadísticos revelan dos grandes cluster según los valores de los volúmenes de la semilla y el embrión. Nuestros resultados apoyan la monofilia del género y su reciente diversificación, sin embargo, los caracteres micromorfológicos de las semillas no son congruentes con el reconocimiento de secciones y grupos dentro del género Ophrys.

  18. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    that the genetic composition of the three species is also very similar: they deviate mainly from each other in allele frequencies rather than by specific alleles. A hierarchical analysis of genetic differentiation showed that the between-species component is slightly higher (FSG=0.237) than the component between...... populations within species (FPS=0.141). Nevertheless, they are efficiently recognized by their genotypic compositions. In V. barbellata and V. claviculata 97-99% of all individuals were assigned to the correct species. Assignment to a wrong species occurred only with individuals at localities where species...... coexist. This suggests that the species may hybridize....

  19. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  20. Pseudopollen in Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. (Orchidaceae): Reward or Deception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In 1987, Kjellsson and Rasmussen described the labellar trichomes of Dendrobium unicum Seidenf. and proposed that these hairs function as pseudopollen. Pseudopollen is a mealy material that superficially resembles pollen, is usually laden with food substances and is formed when labellar hairs either fragment into individual cells or become detached from the labellum. However, the trichomes of D. unicum are very different from pseudopollen‐forming hairs found in other orchid genera such as Maxillaria and Polystachya. Moreover, Kjellsson and Rasmussen were unable to demonstrate the presence of food substances within these trichomes and argued that even in the absence of food substances, the hairs, in that they superficially resemble pollen, can still attract insects by deceit. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the labellar trichomes of D. unicum contain food reserves and thus reward potential pollinators or whether they are devoid of foods and attract insects solely by mimicry. • Methods Light microscopy, histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. • Key Results Dendrobium unicum produces pseudopollen. Pseudopollen here, however, differs from that previously described for other orchid genera in that the pseudopollen‐forming trichomes consist of a stalk cell and a ‘head’ of component cells that separate at maturity, in contrast to Maxillaria and some Polystachya spp. where pseudopollen is formed by the fragmentation of moniliform hairs. Moreover, the pseudopollen of Maxillaria and Polystachya largely contains protein, whereas in D. unicum the main food substance is starch. • Conclusions Flowers of D. unicum, rather than attracting insects solely by deceit may also reward potential pollinators. PMID:15159216

  1. Pseudopollen in Eria Lindl. Section Mycaranthes Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pseudopollen is a whitish, mealy material produced upon the labella of a number of orchid species as labellar hairs either become detached or fragment. Since individual hair cells are rich in protein and starch, it has long been speculated that pseudopollen functions as a reward for visiting insects. Although some 90 years have passed since Beck first described pseudopollen for a small number of Eria spp. currently assigned to section Mycaranthes Rchb.f., we still know little about the character of pseudopollen in this taxon. The use of SEM and histochemistry would re-address this deficit in our knowledge whereas comparison of pseudopollen in Eria (S.E. Asia), Maxillaria (tropical and sub-tropical America), Polystachya (largely tropical Africa and Madagascar) and Dendrobium unicum (Thailand and Laos) would perhaps help us to understand better how this feature may have arisen and evolved on a number of different continents. • Methods Pseudopollen morphology is described using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Hairs were tested for starch, lipid and protein using IKI, Sudan III and the xanthoproteic test, respectively. • Key Results and Conclusions The labellar hairs of all eight representatives of section Mycaranthes examined are identical. They are unicellular, clavate with a narrow ‘stalk’ and contain both protein and starch but no detectable lipid droplets. The protein is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and the starch is confined to amyloplasts. The hairs become detached from the labellar surface and bear raised cuticular ridges and flaky deposits that are presumed to be wax. In that they are unicellular and appear to bear wax distally, the labellar hairs are significantly different from those observed for other orchid species. Comparative morphology indicates that they evolved independently in response to pollinator pressures similar to those experienced by other unrelated pseudopollen-forming orchids on other continents. PMID:15451721

  2. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  3. Eight new species of Gomphichis (Orchidaceae, Spiranthoideae) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, S.; Szlachetko, D.L.; Mytnik-Ejsmont, J.; Cleef, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Gomphichis from Colombia are described. Each species is illustrated, and detailed habitat and distribution data are provided. A distribution map of the new species is presented. A dichotomous key for determination of the Gomphichis species in northern South America is

  4. Taxonomic revision of Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade (Laeliinae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Menini Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudolaelia is a genus endemic to eastern Brazil. The species are often epiphytes on Velloziaceae or are saxicolous, predominantly on granitic and gneissic outcrops (inselbergs in the Atlantic Forest and, less often, in the campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands of the cerrado (savanna and caatinga (shrublands. The genus is characterized by homoblastic pseudobulbs, long rhizomes, long and usually slender inflorescences, racemes or panicles, bearing pink, yellow or whitish flowers, labellum often 3-lobed, with simple, fimbriate or erose margin, semi-cylindrical or claviform column, cuniculus present. Twelve species are recognized; seven binomials are placed in synonymy. Of those seven, three are considered illegitimate because, contrary to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature guidelines, there are no corresponding type specimens deposited in a recognized herbarium, and those three were therefore lectotypified. We present descriptions of, illustrations of and a dichotomous key to Pseudolaelia species, as well as addressing their taxonomy, ecology, conservation and geographic distribution.

  5. Estructura y desarrollo del ginostemio en Dichromanthus michuacanus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Coyolxauhqui Figueroa; Gerardo A. Salazar; Teresa Terrazas; Patricia Dávila

    2012-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra la morfología y el desarrollo floral de Dichromanthus michuacanus, con énfasis en el ginostemio. Se examinaron inflorescencias en diferentes estadios de desarrollo mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y microscopía de luz. Los órganos florales se diferencian en dirección adaxial-abaxial en el orden siguiente: sépalos laterales, labelo, pétalos, antera y sépalo dorsal. Los ápices carpelares aparecen después, entre la antera y el labelo. Inicialmente hay alargamient...

  6. Evolution of resupination in Malagasy species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gunter A; Gravendeel, Barbara; Sieder, Anton; Andriantiana, Jacky; Heiselmayer, Paul; Cribb, Phillip J; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Samuel, Rosabelle; Kiehn, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Resupination is the orientation of zygomorphic flowers during development so that the median petal obtains the lowermost position in the mature flower. Despite its evolutionary and ecological significance, resupination has rarely been studied in a phylogenetic context. Ten types of resupination occur among the 210 species of the orchid genus Bulbophyllum on Madagascar. We investigated the evolution of resupination in a representative sample of these species by first reconstructing a combined nrITS and cpDNA phylogeny for a sectional reclassification and then plotting the different types of inflorescence development, which correlated well with main clades. Resupination by apical drooping of the rachis appears to have evolved from apical drooping of the peduncle. Erect inflorescences with resupinate flowers seem to have evolved several times into either erect inflorescences with (partly) non-resupinate flowers or pendulous inflorescences with resupinate flowers.

  7. A new species of Corybas (Orchidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kores, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Herba parva erecta, 1—3(—7) cm alta. Tuber globosum, 4—6 mm diam., albidum aut dilute brunneum, subtiliter villosum. Rhizomata atque pars subterranea albida. sparse villosa. Pars supraterranea caulis dilute viridis, glabra, ad basim per unicam vaginam tubularem inclusa. Vagina 8—12 mm longa, uninerv

  8. Morphological systematics of Serapias L. (Orchidaceae) in Southwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuis, C.; Venhuis, P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We measured morphological characters and relative DNA contents to assess variation and phylogenetic relationships among Serapias species in three populations of each of the 10 putative taxa that occur in Southwest Europe. DNA contents indicated diploidy for most species, except for tetrapl

  9. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi-Verde, Carlos L; Carnevali, German; Romero-González, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Encyclia from Mexico, Encyclia inopinata, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Encyclia diota but it can be distinguished by its usually more robust plants with 2-3 leaves per pseudobulb and its flowers with longer and narrower sepals (1.8±0.1 × 0.63±0.03 cm in Encyclia inopinata versus 1.48 ±0.14 × 0.65±0.06 cm in Encyclia diota) and petals (1.7±0.05 × 0.59±0.05 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 1.36 ±0.19 × 0.81±0.13 cm in Encyclia diota), and the labellum with narrower lateral lobes (0.18±0.02 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 0.41±0.10 cm in Encyclia diota). Other characters that differentiate these two species are the coriaceous sepals, pink callus, and white anther of Encyclia inopinata (versus fleshy-leathery sepals, white callus, and yellow anther of Encyclia diota). The new species can be found in deciduous forests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, near of the border with Guerrero state, at about 1200 m. It blooms between March and July.

  10. Micropropagation and vasorelaxant activity of Laelia autumnalis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Galicia, Jorge; Aguirre-Crespo, Francisco; Castillo-España, Patricia; Arroyo-Mora, Aurora; López-Escamilla, Ana Laura; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A simple and efficient protocol has been developed in order to obtain healthy seedlings by asymbiotic germination of seeds from Laelia autumnalis. Seeds from mature capsules were germinated asymbiotically after being cultured on full- or half-strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium, without plant growth regulators and with 3.0% or 1.5% of sucrose. The percentage of germinated seeds (% GS) was recorded during 6 weeks using three different conditions of incubation: light (80% GS, p < 0.05), darkness (30% GS) and white light photoperiod (100% GS, p < 0.05). The best seed germination percentages were found on the light and white light photoperiod conditions. Moreover, we also investigated the vasorelaxant action of the methanolic extracts from wild L. autumnalis (roots, pseudobulbs and leaves) and plantlets generated in vitro. Results showed that the methanolic extract of roots and pseudobulbs produced a significant vasodilator effect, in a concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent manner on norepinephrine (NE) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions in rat aortic thoracic rings. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract of leaves and plantlets showed no relevant vasorelaxant activity. Therefore, the results suggest that pseudobulbs and roots were the main tissues of the plant where vasorelaxant compounds are stored.

  11. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  12. Leaf carbon assimilation and molecular phylogeny in Cattleya species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Souza, V; Almeida, A-A F; Corrêa, R X; Costa, M A; Mielke, M S; Gomes, F P

    2009-08-11

    We examined leaf CO(2) assimilation and how it varied among species within the orchid genus Cattleya. Measurements of CO(2) assimilation and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) were made for mature leaves of nine species using a portable system for photosynthesis measurement and a portable fluorometer. Leaf area was measured with an area meter, and the specific leaf mass was determined. DNA of nine Cattleya species and two species of Hadrolaelia was extracted using the CTAB protocol. Each sample was amplified and sequenced using primers for the trnL gene. The phylogenetic analyses, using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, retrieved a group that included Cattleya and Hadrolaelia species, in which the unifoliate species were separated from the bifoliates. The topologies of the two cladograms showed some similarities. However, C. guttata (bifoliate) was placed in the unifoliate clade in the neighbor-joining tree, while C. warneri (unifoliate) was not placed in this clade in the maximum parsimony tree. Most Cattleya species keep the leaf stomata closed from 6 am to 4 pm. We suggest that C. elongata, C. tigrina and C. tenuis have C(3)-crassulacean acid metabolism since they open their stomata around 12 am. The Fv/Fm values remained relatively constant during the measurements of CO(2) assimilation. The same was observed for the specific leaf mass values, although great variations were found in the leaf area values. When the species were grouped using molecular data in the neighbor-joining analysis, no relation was observed with CO(2) assimilation.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barbosa Machado Neto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are valuable pot plants and Cattleya intermedia is a promising species underused in breeding programs. Recently, breeding work with this species produced superior plants that are believed to be not the true species owing to the morphological differences from wild plants. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity and interrelationships between wild and bred Cattleya intermedia collected at three different Brazilian states and from commercial breeders with RAPD markers. A total of 65 polymorphic bands were used to generate a genetic distance matrix. No specific groupings were revealed by the cluster analysis as bred materials were not different from wild plants. The genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.01626 was very low indicating a high gene flow in C. intermedia due to artificial crosses and a high differentiation between populations. The genetic variability available within this species is high enough to allow genetic progress in flower shape and size.

  14. Estructura y desarrollo del ginostemio en Dichromanthus michuacanus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae Gynostemium structure and development in Dichromanthus michuacanus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyolxauhqui Figueroa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra la morfología y el desarrollo floral de Dichromanthus michuacanus, con énfasis en el ginostemio. Se examinaron inflorescencias en diferentes estadios de desarrollo mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido y microscopía de luz. Los órganos florales se diferencian en dirección adaxial-abaxial en el orden siguiente: sépalos laterales, labelo, pétalos, antera y sépalo dorsal. Los ápices carpelares aparecen después, entre la antera y el labelo. Inicialmente hay alargamiento de antera y carpelo medio; el ápice de este último da origen al estigma, rostelo y viscidio y los ápices de los carpelos laterales no contribuyen a la superficie receptiva del estigma. El remanente rostelar es angostamente triangular y el viscidio lo envaina; en la antesis se aprecia una zona de ruptura entre ambas estructuras. Al final del desarrollo crece la parte columnar. La organogénesis temprana de D. michuacanus es similar a la de otros géneros de Spiranthinae y las diferencias estructurales entre las flores se generan en etapas tardías del desarrollo. La estructura del rostelo y viscidio muestra una correspondencia con la morfología del polinizador (Bombus diligens, Apidae; el angosto viscidio de D. michuacanus se adhiere a la superficie dorsal de la lengua del insecto.Floral morphology and development of Dichromanthus michuacanus, with an emphasis on the gynostemium, are described and illustrated. Inflorescences at different stages of development were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The floral organs differentiate in an adaxial-abaxial direction, in the following sequence: lateral sepals, labellum, petals, anther and dorsal sepal. The carpelar apices appear last between the anther and the labellum. Initially there is elongation of the anther and the median carpel; the latter gives rise to the stigma, rostellum and viscidium, and the lateral carpels do not contribute to the stigmatic receptive surface. The rostellum remnant is narrowly triangular and the viscidium sheaths it almost entirely; at anthesis, a zone of rupture between both structures is evident. The columnar part arises at the end of development. Early organogenesis of D. michuacanus is similar to that of other genera of Spiranthinae studied previously and the structural differences observed originate at the later stages. The structure of the rostellum and viscidium shows a correspondence with the morphology of the pollinator (Bombus diligens, Apidae; the narrow viscidium of D. michuacanus adheres to the dorsal surface of the tongue of the insect.

  15. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae del suroccidente de Ecuador A new natural hybrid of Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from southwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Javier Zambrano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.A new natural hybrid of Dracula from Ecuador is described and illustrated, Dracula x pinasensis, which was recently discovered in the Andean wet forest from Southwestern Ecuador. The new hybrid is compared with the South American D. mantissa, D. mopsus, and D. ophioceps, as well the Central American D. pusilla, the closest allies. D. mopsus and D. ophioceps are pointed out as the putative parents of this natural hybrid.

  16. Effect of silicon on the quality of flowers of Dendrobium nobile (OrchidaceaeEfeito do silício na qualidade de flores de Dendrobium nobile (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The orchid Dendrobium nobile Lindl is widely cultivated throughout the world as cut and potted flowers. Silicon (Si has demonstrated beneficial effects on various crops, increasing cell stiffness, giving protection to pathogens, increasing photosynthetic capacity and drought tolerance, promoting higher growth and longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of silicon on Dendrobium nobile orchid flowers. Treatments were performed with magnesium silicate (SiMg at the following concentrations: 0.0, 0.16; 0.32; 0.48 and 0.64 g L-1. The foliar applications were carried out fortnightly totaling four applications two months before flowering. The variables evaluated were: longevity of flowers, number of flowers per pot and number of shoots per plant. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and ten replications. The foliar applications of SiMg increased 59% flower production and shoots up to 66%, being more efficient with the increasing of concentrations. The increasing of longevity of the flowers in the dose 0.45 g L-1 was up to four days. A orquídea Dendrobium nobile Lindl é amplamente cultivada pelo mundo como flor de corte e em vasos. O silício (Si tem demonstrado efeito benéfico em diversas culturas, como por exemplo: aumentando a rigidez celular, conferindo proteção à fitopatógenos, aumento da capacidade fotossintética, tolerância à seca, promoção de maior crescimento e conservação pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silício em diferentes concentrações na qualidade de flores da orquídea Dendrobium nobile. Os tratamentos foram realizados com silicato de magnésio (SiMg nas seguintes concentrações: 0,0; 0,16; 0,32; 0,48 e 0,64g L-1. As aplicações foram realizadas quinzenalmente via foliar, totalizando quatro aplicações dois meses antes do florescimento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: longevidade das flores, número de flores por vaso e número de brotos por planta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos de dez repetições. As aplicações foliares de SiMg incrementaram a produção de flores em média de 59% e de brotos em até 66%, mostrando-se mais eficiente de acordo o aumento das concentrações testadas. Observa-se o aumento da longevidade das flores na dose 0,45 g L-1 em até quatro dias.

  17. Diversidade de fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae Diversity of mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp. isolated from Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos rizoctonioides Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de orquídeas do gênero Epidendrum e vêm sendo utilizados na germinação simbiótica das sementes de orquídeas. Epidendrum secundum é uma orquídea largamente distribuída em campos de altitude do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Minas Gerais, e pouco se sabe sobre a associação micorrízica dessa espécie nesse parque. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade morfológica dos fungos micorrízicos rizoctonioides isolados de quatro populações de E. secundum em três regiões de um campo de altitude localizado na subserra Totem Deitado, PESB. Vinte e seis isolados fúngicos foram obtidos, todos pertencentes ao gênero Epulorhiza. As características morfológicas qualitativas e quantitativas avaliadas revelaram, de modo geral, baixa variabilidade entre os isolados obtidos de uma mesma população e de populações localizadas na mesma região, porém grande variabilidade foi observada entre os isolados obtidos das populações de diferentes regiões. Com base nessas características morfológicas, os isolados foram divididos em quatro grupos: o primeiro constituído pelos fungos obtidos das populações I e II da região A, o segundo pelos fungos da população III da região B, o terceiro pelo isolado M61 da população II da região A, e o quarto pelo único isolado obtido na população IV da região C. A variabilidade morfológica observada é um indicativo da diversidade dos fungos Epulorhiza spp. associados a E. secundum no PESB.Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp. have been isolated from orchids of the genus Epidendrum and have been used to promote the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Epidendrum secundum is a widely distributed orchid in campo de altitude (high elevation grassy vegetation regions of the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and little is known about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species in the park. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological diversity of Rhizoctonialike mycorrhizal fungi isolated from four E. secundum populations growing in three regions of a campo de altitude, in the region of Totem Deitado Mountain, PESB. Twenty-six fungal isolates were obtained, all belonging to Epulorhiza. The quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics revealed, in general, low variability among the fungi isolated from the same orchid population and among isolates from the same region, but high variability among the fungi isolated from the populations from different regions. Based on these morphological characteristics, the isolates were separated into four groups. The first consisted of the fungi from populations I and II from region A, the second of isolates from population III from region B, the third of isolate M61 from population II from region C, and the fourth of a single isolate obtained from population IV from region C. The morphological variability observed indicates the existence of diversity of Epulorhiza spp. associated with E. secundum in PESB.

  18. A new species of Dichromanthus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae from Oaxaca, Mexico Una especie nueva de Dichromanthus (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dichromanthus yucundaa, a new orchid species from the Mixteca Alta region of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from D. cinnabarinus, the most similar species, by the more compact plants, glabrous inflorescence, prominent, broadly ovate, glabrous floral bracts which are abaxially glaucous, sparsely and minutely glandular-pubescent sepals (merely papillose near the apex, short column foot, viscidium sheathing the apex of the rostellum and without a retrorse prominence, and rostellum remnant stiff and pointed.Se describe e ilustra a Dichromanthus yucundaa, especie nueva de orquídea de la región de la mixteca alta de la sierra Madre del Sur en Oaxaca, México. Se distingue de D. cinnabarinus, la especie más similar, por las plantas más compactas, la inflorescencia glabra, las brácteas florales prominentes, ampliamente ovadas, glabras, abaxialmente glaucas, los sépalos diminuta y esparcidamente glandular-pubescentes (diminutamente papilosos cerca del ápice, el pie de columna corto, el viscidio envainando el ápice del rostelo y careciendo de una prominencia retrorsa y el remanente rostelar rígido y aguzado.

  19. Cultivo de Cattleya Lindley (Orchidaceae em substratos alternativos ao xaxim = Alternative substrates for Cattleya (Orchidaceae cultivation to substitute the tree fern fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kaoro Yamakami

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo de um híbrido de Cattleya Lindley. Os substratos avaliados foram: xaxim; fibra de coco; casca de pínus + casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (2:1v/v; casca de pínus+casca de arroz carbonizada (1:2v/v; casca de pínus e casca de arroz carbonizada. As mudas foram cultivadas em vasos de polipropileno, permanecendo em viveiro com 70% de luminosidade Os parâmetros avaliados um ano após o início do experimento foram: massa de matéria fresca total, altura da parte aérea, comprimento do pseudobulbo, comprimento da maior raiz, número de raízes, número de brotos, número de flores, pH e condutividade elétrica. O substrato constituído de fibra de coco proporcionou bons resultados, podendo ser considerado alternativo ao xaxim no cultivo deCattleya.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates tosubstitute tree fern fiber for cultivation of hybrids from the Cattleya species. Seedlings were cultivated in polypropylene vases, kept in screen shadowed nursery by a 70% of lighting. The following substrates were evaluated: tree fern fibers; coconut fiber; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (2:1 v/v; pinus bark+carbonized rice hull (1:2 v/v; pinus bark and carbonized rice hull. One year after the experiment, the followingparameters were evaluated: fresh matter mass, aerial part height, pseudobulb length, greater root length, number of buds, number of flowers, pH and electric conductivity. The substrate composed of coconut fiber showed better results, and can be used as the alternative substrate to tree fern fiber in the cultivation of Cattleya.

  20. A new species of Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae from Guerrero, Mexico Una nueva especie de Stelis (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae de Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stelis from the cloud forest of Guerrero, Mexico, is described and illustrated as S. desantiagoi. This species is similar to S. rubens, but is distinguished by its larger plants, the stems proportionally longer, the leaves wider, the sepals internally papillose (vs. pubescent, the petals flabellate (vs. cuneate, the labellum slightly arcuate with the apex straight (vs. geniculate with the apex strongly incurved, and the clinandrium entire (vs. trilobate.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Stelis del bosque nublado de Guerrero, México como S. desantiagoi. Esta especie es similar a S. rubens, pero se distingue por las plantas de mayor tamaño, los tallos proporcionalmente más largos, las hojas más anchas, los sépalos interiormente papilosos (vs. pubescentes, los pétalos flabelados (vs. cuneados, el labelo ligeramente arqueado con ápice recto (vs. geniculado con el ápice fuertemente incurvado y el clinandrio entero (vs. trilobado.

  1. Male and female reproductive success in natural and anthropogenic populations of Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermakowicz Edyta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study, male and female reproductive success was analyzed in relation to the population size, floral display and pollinators’ availability in natural and anthropogenic populations of the orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. Our results indicated significant differences between all investigated populations in parameters of floral display, including heights and number of flowers per inflorescence, as well the number of flowering individuals and their spatial structure. Additionally, populations differed both in male (pollinia removal and female (fruit set reproductive success, but only the fruit set clearly differentiated anthropogenic and natural populations. Despite the average flower number per plant being significantly higher in two of the anthropogenic populations, it was not related to the fruits set, which was significantly lower there. Moreover, our preliminary study concerning the potential pollinators of M. monophyllos showed a higher contribution of flies in natural habitats than in anthropogenic ones. Thus, we can suspect that the main factors influencing the level of female reproductive success in M. monophyllos populations are abundance of effective pollinators, as well as flower visitors, which may have resulted in a different level of pollen discounting in populations. Therefore, further studies concerning breeding system and pollination as important forces that shape demographic processes in M. monophyllos populations are necessary. Our results also indicate that suitable conservation methods in M. monophyllos should always include the preservation of potential pollinators, especially in these new, secondary habitats.

  2. The effect of the light environment on population size of the epiphytic herb, Lepanthes rupestris (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Canino, Francheska; Fernández, Denny; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia; Tremblay, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The demographic dynamics of plant populations will depend on the relative role of density-dependent versus density-independent factors on population reg- ulation. Density-independent factors (i.e. changes in climate, fire, hurricanes) will affect plant survival and reproduction within a population in a manner that is independent of the density of individuals.  The demographic dynamics of plant populations will depend on the relative role of density-dependent versus density-independent fact...

  3. Radicular anatomy of twelve representatives of the Catasetinae subtribe (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root structure of the Brazilian genera belonging to the Catasetinae subtribe is poorly known, we describe the roots of twelve representatives from this subtribe. For anatomical analysis, the roots were fixed in FAA 50, preserved in ethanol 70% and sectioned at its medium region using razor blades. The sections were stained with 0.05% astra blue and safranin and mounted in glycerin. For the identification of starch we used Lugol's solution; for lignin, floroglucin chloridric; for lipids, Sudan III, and for flavanoids, potassium hydroxide. The relevant aspects were registered using a digital camera joined with an Olympus microspope (BX51 model. The structural similarities of all roots support the placement of the subtribe Catasetinae into the monophyletic tribe Cymbidieae. Some root features are restricted to one or two taxa and can be useful in the systematics of the subtribe. For example, the occurrence of flavonoidic crystals characterizes the genera Catasetum and Cychnodes, and the number of the velamen layers and the shape of the epivelamen cells are useful to confirm the taxonomic position of Clowesia amazonica. The presence of velamen and flavonoidic crystals was interpreted as an adaptation to the epiphytic habit.Considerando que a estrutura das raízes de gêneros brasileiros pertencentes à subtribo Catasetinae é pouco conhecida, descrevemos as raízes de doze representantes desta subtribo. Para análise anatômica, as raízes foram fixadas em FAA 50, preservadas em álcool 70% e seccionadas na sua região média usando lâminas de barbear. Os cortes foram corados com astra blue e Safrablau 0,05% e montados em glicerina. Para a identificação do amido, utilizou-se a solução de Lugol; da lignina, floroglucina clorídrica, dos lipídios, Sudan III e dos flavonóides, hidróxido de potássio. Os aspectos relevantes foram registrados usando câmera digital acoplada a um microscópio Olympus (modelo BX51. As semelhanças estruturais observadas entre todas as raízes estudadas confirmam a inclusão da subtribo Catasetinae na tribo monofilética Cymbidieae. Algumas características radiculares são restritas a um ou dois táxons e podem ser úteis na taxonomia da subtribo. Por exemplo, a ocorrência de cristais flavonoídicos caracteriza os gêneros Catasetum e Cychnodes e o número de camadas do velame associado à forma das células do epivelame são úteis para confirmar a posição taxonômica de Clowesia amazônica. A presença de velame e de cristais flavonoídicos foi interpretada como adaptações ao hábito epifítico.

  4. Bulbophyllum pingnanense (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae, Dendrobiinae), a new species from Fujian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng; Lan, Si-Ren; He, Bi-Zhu; Liang, Yi-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new orchid species, Bulbophyllum pingnanense, is described and illustrated from Fujian, China. It is similar to Bulbophyllum brevipedunculatum and Bulbophyllum albociliatum in vegetative and floral morphology, but it can be distinguished from Bulbophyllum brevipedunculatum by having a longer dorsal sepal with longer white ciliate on margin, longer and lanceolate lateral sepals, and a glabrous lip. It can be distinguished from Bulbophyllum albociliatum by having a shorter inflorescence, and a longer dorsal sepal. PMID:27489491

  5. Phylogenetics of the Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchidaceae) based on combined evidence from DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pridgeon, Alec M.; Chase, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchida- ceae) comprises an estimated 4000 Neotropical species in about 30 genera (Luer 1986), accounting for 15-20% of the species in the entire family.  Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae: Orchida- ceae) comprises an estimated 4000 Neotropical species in about 30 genera (Luer 1986), accounting for 15-20% of the species in the entire family. 

  6. Un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) del suroccidente de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco Javier Zambrano; Rodolfo Solano-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra un nuevo híbrido natural de Dracula de Ecuador, Dracula x pinasensis, el cual fue recientemente descubierto en el bosque húmedo de los Andes del suroccidente de Ecuador. El nuevo híbrido es comparado con Dracula mantissa, D. mopsus y D. ophioceps de Sudamérica, así como D. pusilla de Centroamérica, orquídeas con las cuales está más relacionada. Se señala a D. mopsus y D. ophioceps como los progenitores putativos de este híbrido natural.

  7. Patterns of introduction and diversification of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bory, Severine; Lubinsky, Pesach; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Grisoni, Michel; Duval, Marie-France; Besse, Pascale

    2008-07-01

    The cultivated species Vanilla planifolia is a typical example of a crop introduced from its area of origin (America) to new regions where natural pollinators are absent. Although the Vanilla cultivars are exclusively vegetatively propagated, a high degree of phenotypic variation is observed among the cultivars in their introduction areas such as Reunion Island. To test several hypotheses explaining this variation-different introduction events, somatic mutations and sexual reproduction (through manual pollination)-we used AFLP markers to elucidate the patterns of introduction of V. planifolia. Most of the accessions cultivated in the world were derived from a single accession, possibly the Mexican cultivar Mansa. The patterns of diversification of this cultivated species were also studied and compared with other cultivated (V. tahitensis) and wild (V. pompona and V. bahiana) species. Except for one particular phenotype ('Aiguille'), which may come from sexual reproduction, cultivated accessions exhibit very low levels of genetic diversity. They have evolved by the accumulation of point mutations through vegetative multiplication. The genetic diversity revealed could not explain the phenotypic diversity, which may be related to epigenetics or polyploidy. This new understanding of the basis of genetic diversity of vanilla may assist to improve management of genetic resources.

  8. Inflorescence architecture affects pollinator behaviour and mating success in Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tatsunori; Nagasaki, Osamu; Ishii, Hiroshi S; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2012-01-01

    • Despite the wide inflorescence diversity among angiosperms, the effects of inflorescence architecture (three-dimensional flower arrangement) on pollinator behaviour and mating success have not been sufficiently studied in natural plant populations. • Here, we investigated how inflorescence architecture affected inter- and intra-plant pollinator movements and consequent mating success in a field population of Spiranthes sinensis var. amoena (S. sinensis). In this species, the flowers are helically arranged around the stem, and the degree of twisting varies greatly among individuals. The large variation in inflorescence architecture in S. sinensis results from variation in a single structural parameter, the helical angle (the angular distance between neighbour-flower directions). • The numbers of visits per inflorescence and successive probes per visit by leaf-cutting bees decreased with helical angle, indicating that individual flowers of tightly twisted inflorescences received less visitations. As expected from pollinator behaviour, pollinia removal and fruit set of individual flowers decreased with helical angle. Meanwhile, geitonogamy decreased in tightly twisted inflorescences. • Our novel findings demonstrate that natural variation in inflorescence architecture significantly affects pollinator behaviour and reproductive success, suggesting that inflorescence architecture can evolve under pollinator-mediated natural selection in plant populations. We also discuss how diverse inflorescence architectures may have been maintained in S. sinensis populations.

  9. NEW AND RARE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE IN THE FLORA OF CAMBODIA AND LAOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.

  10. Specklinia lugduno-batavae (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae), a new species in the S. digitalis group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, A.P.; Bogarín, D.; Gravendeel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Specklinia lugduno-batavae from the Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica is formally described and illustrated. The new species belongs to the Specklinia digitalis group and can be recognised by the creeping habit, purple spotted abaxial surface of the leaf and the almost immaculate whitis

  11. Glacial Refugia and Future Habitat Coverage of Selected Dactylorhiza Representatives (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The intensively discussed taxonomic complexity of the Dactylorhiza genus is probably correlated with its migration history during glaciations and interglacial periods. Previous studies on past processes affecting the current distribution of Dactylorhiza species as well as the history of the polyploid complex formation were based only on molecular data. In the present study the ecological niche modeling (ENM) technique was applied in order to describe the distribution of potential refugia for the selected Dactylorhiza representatives during the Last Glacial Maximum. Additionally, future changes in their potential habitat coverage were measured with regard to three various climatic change scenarios. The maximum entropy method was used to create models of suitable niche distribution. A database of Dactylorhiza localities was prepared on the grounds of information collected from literature and data gathered during field works. Our research indicated that the habitats of majority of the studied taxa will decrease by 2080, except for D. incarnata var. incarnata, for which suitable habitats will increase almost two-fold in the global scale. Moreover, the potential habitats of some taxa are located outside their currently known geographical ranges, e.g. the Aleutian Islands, the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, Newfoundland, southern Greenland and Iceland. ENM analysis did not confirm that the Balkans, central Europe or central Russia served as the most important refugia for individual representatives of the Dactylorhiza incarnata/maculata complex. Our study rather indicated that the Black Sea coast, southern Apennines and Corsica were the main areas characterized by habitats suitable for most of the taxa. PMID:26599630

  12. Floral biology of two Vanilloideae (Orchidaceae) primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, E R; Pansarin, L M

    2014-11-01

    Vanilloideae comprises 15 genera distributed worldwide, among which are Vanilla and Epistephium (tribe Vanilleae). Based on field and laboratory investigations, the pollination biology of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum was analysed. The former was surveyed in a semi-deciduous mesophytic forest at the biological reserve of Serra do Japi and in a marshy forest at the city of Pradópolis, southeastern Brazil. The latter was examined in rocky outcrop vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. In the studied populations, the tubular flowers of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum were pollinated by bees. Pollen was deposited on either their scutellum (V. dubia) or scutum (E. sclerophyllum). The mentum region of V. dubia is dry, whereas that of E. sclerophyllum presents a small quantity of dilute nectar. Flowers of E. sclerophyllum are scentless, while those of V. dubia are odoriferous. Although V. dubia is self-compatible, it needs a pollinator to produce fruit. In contrast, E. sclerophyllum sets fruit through spontaneous self-pollination, but biotic pollination also occurs. Both species are primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees. Pollination by Euglossina seems to have occurred at least twice during the evolution of Vanilleae. Furthermore, shifts between rewarding and reward-free flowers and between autogamous and allogamous species have been reported among vanillas.

  13. Autonomous self-pollination and insect visitors in partially and fully mycoheterotrophic species of Cymbidium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the reproductive ecology of mycoheterotrophic plants, but the existing literature hypothesizes that they adopt a self-pollinating strategy. Although growing evidence indicates that some rewarding mycoheterotrophic plants depend (at least partially) on an insect-mediated pollination system, it remains unclear whether some mycoheterotrophic plants can attract pollinators without nectar or other rewards. Moreover, in a broader evolutionary/ecological context, the question of whether the evolution of mycoheterotrophy induces a shift in pollination pattern is still unknown. Here I present a comparative investigation into the breeding system of two fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, Cymbidium macrorhizon and C. aberrans, and their closest extant relative, the mixotrophic C. lancifolium. Pollination experiments were conducted to determine the breeding system of these plants. In addition, flower visitors that might contribute to pollination were recorded. Flowers at different maturity stages were examined to investigate mechanisms enabling or limiting self-fertilization. While nectarless flowers of C. lancifolium and C. macrorhizon can successfully attract potential pollinator honeybees, all three Cymbidium possess an effective self-pollination system in which the rostellum that physically separates the stigma and pollinia is absent. Because mixotrophic and mycoheterotrophic Cymbidium occupy low-light niches, pollinator foraging would be negatively influenced by low-light intensity. In partial and fully mycoheterotrophic Cymbidium, autogamy would likely be favoured as a reproductive assurance to compensate for pollinator limitation due to their lack of nectar and pollinators' hostile habitat preferences.

  14. Telipogon peruvianus (Orchidaceae) Flowers Elicit Pre-Mating Behaviour in Eudejeania (Tachinidae) Males for Pollination

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are...

  15. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VII: Nervilia kasiensis, a new Lao endemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gale, S.W.; Phaxaysombath, T.

    2017-01-01

    A new species belonging to the terrestrial orchid genus Nervilia is described from Kasi District, Vientiane Province, northern Laos. Referable to the widespread and species-rich N. adolphi/punctata alliance on account of its solitary flower, slender white and violet-marked labellum and glabrous, ang

  16. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DEL GÉNERO GAVILEA (ORCHIDACEAE, CHLORAEINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de los últimos estudios filogenéticos de Gavilea, se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género. Se propone una nueva combinación, Gavilea chica, siguiendo la circunscripción monofilética actual del género. Esta revisión incluye: 1 la historia del género, 2 una clave para las 17 especies de Gavilea, 3 descripciones e ilustraciones de la mayoría de las especies, 4 la actualización de la distribución geográfica de sus especies, incluyendo la ampliación de la distribución de G. platyantha y G. supralabellata en Río Negro y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, respectivamente, 5 observaciones nomenclaturales y 6 listas sinonímicas completas y actualizadas. Se designan cinco lectotipos (Asarca araucana, G. australis, A. patagonica, G. supralabellata, y G. wittei.

  17. Molecular Identification of Mycorrhizae of Cymbidium kanran (Orchidaceae) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Suh, Hyoungmin; Kim, Oh Hong; Lee, Nam Sook

    2015-12-01

    A fungal internal transcribed spacer region was used to identify the mycorrhizae of Cymbidium kanran. The family Russulaceae was found to be the most frequently occurring group in both root and soil samples. In phylogenetic analyses, the majority of the Russulaceae clones were clustered with Russula brevipes and R. cyanoxantha. Therefore, C. kanran may form symbiotic relationships with the genus Russula.

  18. Morphotypes of Dactylorhiza incarnata (L. Soу (Orchidaceae seedlings in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Marakaev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphotypes, linear parameters and morphological features for Dactylorhiza incarnata seedlings in vitro have been set. The uneven growth and development of seedlings in depending from the location and degree of contact with the medium have been identified.

  19. Evaluation of the DNA barcodes in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae from mainland Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songzhi Xu

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has been proposed to be one of the most promising tools for accurate and rapid identification of taxa. However, few publications have evaluated the efficiency of DNA barcoding for the large genera of flowering plants. Dendrobium, one of the largest genera of flowering plants, contains many species that are important in horticulture, medicine and biodiversity conservation. Besides, Dendrobium is a notoriously difficult group to identify. DNA barcoding was expected to be a supplementary means for species identification, conservation and future studies in Dendrobium. We assessed the power of 11 candidate barcodes on the basis of 1,698 accessions of 184 Dendrobium species obtained primarily from mainland Asia. Our results indicated that five single barcodes, i.e., ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA, can be easily amplified and sequenced with the currently established primers. Four barcodes, ITS, ITS2, ITS+matK, and ITS2+matK, have distinct barcoding gaps. ITS+matK was the optimal barcode based on all evaluation methods. Furthermore, the efficiency of ITS+matK was verified in four other large genera including Ficus, Lysimachia, Paphiopedilum, and Pedicularis in this study. Therefore, we tentatively recommend the combination of ITS+matK as a core DNA barcode for large flowering plant genera.

  20. Estudios morfoanatómicos en Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae. I. Etapas tempranas del desarrollo del fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gamboa-Gaitán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La flor nacional de Colombia, Cattleya trianae, es un emblemático ejemplo de las orquídeas ornamentales de importancia económica. Si bien algunos estudios se han realizado en aspectos como reproducción y ecología, no hay estudios morfoanatómicos registrados para esta especie, por lo que con el presente manuscrito se pretende iniciar una serie de publicaciones que aporten información en este campo acerca de una especie particularmente atractiva por ser un símbolo nacional. Este estudio se centra en la anatomía del ovario y en los cambios que experimenta en los siguientes días a la polinización. El ovario muestra dos cavidades longitudinales, una para atraer al polinizador y otra para contener los óvulos que serán semillas tras la fertilización. Varios cambios anatómicos como la acumulación de un material de depósito que tapona el acceso a los óvulos y la formación de haces vasculares, son notables en los primeros días luego de la polinización en esta especie. La importancia de dichos cambios así como el uso de la anatomía para el estudio de la historia natural de las especies se discute aquí, ya que hay posiciones contradictorias al respecto.

  1. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  2. [Sibling species of rein orchid (Gymnadenia:Orchidaceae, Magnoliophyta) in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, P G

    2013-03-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the genus Gymnadenia have demonstrated that it contains sibling taxa, i.e., species that are hardly distinguishable according to morphological traits, yet are phylogenetically rather distant and distinctly distinguishable by molecular methods, which is a rare phenomenon for angiosperms. The sequencing of the ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 fragment allowed us the presence of the species G. densiflora to be demonstrated in Russia. The Russian specimens have confirmed a high degree of genetic differentiation between G. conopsea s. str. and G. densiflora, which proves their taxonomic status rank of species. Morphological analysis has shown that the features that allow for the best discrimination between these two species in Northwestern Russia are the length of the lower bract, length of the mid-lobe of the lip, and width of leaves. The ecological and phenological discrimination between G. conopsea s. str. and G. densiflora is briefly reviewed. The ITS sequence variation in these species has been analyzed; the molecular genetic distinctions of the G. conopsea individuals from the eastern part of the distribution area have been discovered for the first time. Different taxonomic interpretations of the Gymnadenia phylogenetic tree topology taking into account the presence sibling species are discussed in general.

  3. Niche conservatism and the future potential range of Epipactis helleborine (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current distribution of suitable niches for the invasive orchid species, Epipactis helleborine, and to estimate the possibility of its further expansion. Moreover, niche modeling tools were used to explain its rapid expansion in North America and to test the niche conservatism of the species. The maximum entropy method was used to create models of the suitable niche distribution. A database of E. helleborine localities was prepared based on the examination of herbarium specimens, information from electronic databases as well as data gathered during field works. The differences between the niches occupied by native and invasive populations were evaluated using the niche overlap and niche identity test indexes. Moreover, the coverage of the most suitable habitats for the species was measured for three future scenarios as well as for the present time model. Populations of E. helleborine occupy North American west coast habitats very similar to those preferred by native, Eurasian populations, while the expansion in the east coast is related to the niche shift. The created models of suitable niche distribution indicate that the species does not realize its potential niche in the native range. The total surface of the habitats potentially available for E. helleborine will decrease in all climate change scenarios created for 2080.

  4. First white-flowered species of Sertifera (Orchidaceae discovered in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlachetko Dariusz L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Sertifera is described and illustrated based on Colombian material. The novelty resembles Sertifera colombiana, but it is characterized by glandular leaf sheaths, larger, white flowers, ovate to oblong-ovate sepals, ligulatelanceolate petals and apically triangular lip. This is the first report of a white-flowered representative of the genus.

  5. Studies on the flora of the Guianas. 3. A survey of Habenaria Willd. in Suriname (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Snuverink, J.H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1983-01-01

    This is a preliminary survey of the Habenaria species now known from Suriname. A key and descriptions, as well as analytical drawings of the flowers are provided. The descriptions are based not only on collections from Suriname, but also on material from the other Guianas.

  6. Oberonia mucronata (D. Don Ormerod & Seidenf. (Orchidaceae, new addition to the flora of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mital R. Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oberonia mucronata (D.Don Ormerod & Seidenf. is characterized by its dense flowered racemose inflorescence, petals with erose-toothed margin, and tri-lobed lip with dentate margin. A brief description and images are provided here for easy identification of the species along with a report of its new distribution record in Gujarat State. 

  7. Telipogon peruvianus (Orchidaceae) Flowers Elicit Pre-Mating Behaviour in Eudejeania (Tachinidae) Males for Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairampoma, Lianka; Stauffer, Fred W.; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur. The flowers attract males of four tachinid species but only the males of an undescribed Eudejeania (Eudejeania aff. browni; Tachinidae) species are specific pollinators. Males visit the flowers during the first few hours of the day and the pollination success is very high (42% in one patch) compared with other sexually deceptive species. Female-seeking males are attracted to the flowers but do not attempt copulation with the flowers, as is usually described in sexually deceptive species. Nevertheless, morphological analysis and behavioural tests have shown an imperfect mimicry between flowers and females suggesting that the attractant stimulus is not based only on visual cues, as long thought. Challenging previous conclusions, our chemical analysis has confirmed that flowers of Telipogon release volatile compounds; however, the role of these volatiles in pollinator behaviour remains to be established. Pollinator behaviour and histological analyses indicate that Telipogon flowers possess scent-producing structures throughout the corolla. Our study provides the first confirmed case of (i) a sexually deceptive species in the Onciidinae, (ii) pollination by pre-copulatory behaviour and (iii) pollination by sexual deception involving tachinid flies. PMID:27812201

  8. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF POSTHARVEST SOLUTIONS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF CUT Oncidium varicosum (ORCHIDACEAE INFLORESCENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The orchid Oncidium varicosum is a tropical plant with significant commercial value due to the beauty of its yellow inflorescences. Several authors have observed a reduction in the water content of cut flowers, consequently, wilting and senescence of petals are the main reasons for the termination of the decorative life of cut flowers. In this research, we studied the effects of several chemical compounds on the postharvest life of cut inflorescences of Oncidium varicosum 'Samurai'. These chemicals are as follows: sucrose (5% plus 8-hidroxiquinoline citrate (8-HQC (100 mg L-1 plus silver nitrate (AgNO3 (50 mg L-1; sucrose (5% plus citric acid (75 mg L-1; quaternary ammonia at 30% (50 mg L-1; and sucrose (5% plus quaternary ammonia at 30% (50 mg L-1. The highest values for average of relative water content, reducing carbohydrates and soluble sugars were recorded in the flowers treated with the sucrose (5% plus 8-HQC (100 mg L-1 plus AgNO3 (50 mg L-1 solution. A reduction in color intensity occurred at 12 days postharvest in all treatments and the carotenoid content was reduced to the greatest extent in flowers maintained in distilled water. The lowest numbers of open flowers were observed at 12 and 15 days in the distilled water and quaternary ammonium treatments, being that the others treatments favored the anthesis. The Oncidium inflorescences treated with sucrose plus HQC plus AgNO3 demonstrated a higher number of open flowers and reached the longest longevity (22 days.

  10. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  11. Endophytic fungi from Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin (Orchidaceae), a threatened terrestrial orchid in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutima, Ruangwut; Dell, Bernard; Vessabutr, Suyanee; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2011-04-01

    Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from roots of the threatened terrestrial orchid, Pecteilis susannae (L.) Rafin. Phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment of internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear rDNA indicated that seven isolates belonged to the genus Epulorhiza and one to Fusarium. All fungal isolates were cultured with orchid seeds collected from three field sites near Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Seed germination and protocorm development were evaluated up to 70 days after sowing. Percent symbiotic seed germination was highest (86.2%) when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 013). The protocorm development was the most advanced up to stage 2, continued embryo enlargement, or rupture of the testa, and the highest percentage was 17.8% when seeds were cultured with Epulorhiza (CMU-Aug 007). Without fungi, seed germination and protocorm development were 62.1% and 11.1%, respectively. The dependency of P. susannae on fungal symbionts for early seedling development is yet to be determined. Optimizing seed germination and seedling fitness will assist the conservation of this threatened orchid in Thailand.

  12. Importance of woody debris in seed germination of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H; Whigham, D

    1998-06-01

    Concerns about declining populations of terrestrial orchids make it important to identify the environmental factors crucial to seedling recruitment. This study shows that seedlings of Tipularia discolor (cranefly orchid) primarily occur on decomposing wood. Extensive searches of decomposing logs and stumps in mature and successional forests revealed seedlings at 24 sites, of which 15 could be identified as originating from seven different deciduous trees and one conifer. Seeds were planted in natural habitats to test the hypothesis that germination requires decomposing wood. In one experiment, seeds were placed into soil at sites where adult plants were abundant; no germination resulted. In a second experiment, germination of seeds sown in ambient soil was compared with sowings in plots amended with decomposing wood collected from a stump where spontaneous seedlings grew. Germination was much more frequent in plots amended with decomposing wood. We conclude that germination of T. discolor is stimulated in substrates that contain decomposing wood; judging from the occurrence of spontaneous seedlings, wood from at variety of tree species offer a suitable substrate.

  13. In vitro propagation of Cyrtopodium saintlegerianum rchb. f. (orchidaceae, a native orchid of the Brazilian savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennis Afraire Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable production of large quantities of plantlets for reintroduction programs, as well as economic exploration, Cyrtopodium saintlegerianum seeds were sown on Knudson culture medium. After seed germination, the protocorms were inoculated on Knudson culture medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The obtained shoots were individually inoculated in Knudson supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3 in order to promote elongation. Seedlings were evaluated and then transplanted into trays containing commercial substrate Plantmax®-HT, or crushed Acuri leaf sheath. Auxin/ cytokinin ratio influenced in vitro propagation of C. saintlegerianum, resulting in increased shoot number when 2.0 mg L-1 BA was added to the culture medium in the absence or presence of 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. This species proved to be promising for massal in vitro multiplication. Despite having incremented in vitro shoots elongation, the use of GA3 is unnecessary since it contributed negatively in the acclimatization of plants.

  14. Widespread mycorrhizal specificity correlates to mycorrhizal function in the neotropical, epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J Tupac; Flanagan, Nicola S; Herre, E Allen; Ackerman, James D; Bayman, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Tropical orchids constitute the greater part of orchid diversity, but little is known about their obligate mycorrhizal relationships. The specificity of these interactions and associated fungal distributions could influence orchid distributions and diversity. We investigated the mycorrhizal specificity of the tropical epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides across an extensive geographical range. DNA ITS sequence variation was surveyed in both plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Phylogeographic relationships were estimated for the mycorrhizal fungi. Orchid functional outcomes were determined through in vitro seed germination and seedling growth with a broad phylogenetic representation of fungi. Most fungal isolates derived from one clade of Ceratobasidium (anamorphs assignable to Ceratorhiza), with 78% within a narrower phylogenetic group, clade B. No correlation was found between the distributions of orchid and fungal genotypes. All fungal isolates significantly enhanced seed germination, while fungi in clade B significantly enhanced seedling growth. These results show that I. utricularioides associates with a phylogenetically narrow, effective fungal clade over a broad distribution. This preference for a widespread mycorrhizae may partly explain the ample distribution and abundance of I. utricularioides and contrasts with local mycorrhizal diversification seen in some nonphotosynthetic orchids. Enhanced orchid function with a particular fungal subclade suggests mycorrhizal specificity can increase orchid fitness.

  15. Protocorm development of Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae in response to different saline formulations and culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gerent Voges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymbiotic technique of orchid seeds germination is an important method of mass production of seedlings. Studies on the best culture conditions for each species are important to obtain seedlings in less time and at lower costs. Current analysis evaluates different consistencies of culture medium, saline formulations and culture conditions on the germination rate and further development of protocorms of Epidendrum fulgens. After 45 days in culture the protocorms were classified into three categories of development. The liquid saline formulation of Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS provided the highest germination rate (83.5%, and the Knudson formulation (1946 the lowest (10.9%. The different consistencies or conditions or culture conditions did not affect the germination rate percentage, except the Knudson medium, which resulted in the highest rate in response to the gelled consistency. Protocorms cultured in liquid MS medium with or without agitation showed the fastest development.

  16. Proteome changes in Oncidium sphacelatum (Orchidaceae) at different trophic stages of symbiotic germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, R B S; Perotto, S; Santos, E C; Lambais, M R

    2014-07-01

    Mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi are a widespread phenomenon in nature. Particularly in orchids, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development. During the initial stages of symbiotic germination, before the onset of photosynthesis, orchid protocorms are fully mycoheterotrophic. The molecular mechanisms involved in orchid symbiotic germination and development are largely unknown, but it is likely that changes in plant energy metabolism and defense-related responses play a central role in these processes. We have used 2D-LC-MS/MS coupled to isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification to identify proteins with differential accumulation in Oncidium sphacelatum at different stages of mycorrhizal protocorm development (achlorophyllous and green protocorms) after seed inoculation with a Ceratobasidium sp. isolate. We identified and quantified 88 proteins, including proteins putatively involved in energy metabolism, cell rescue and defense, molecular signaling, and secondary metabolism. Quantitative analysis showed that the expected changes in carbon metabolism in green protocorms were accompanied by enhanced accumulation of proteins involved in the modulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, defense-related responses, and phytoalexins and carotenoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest profound metabolic changes in orchid protocorms during the switch from the fully mycoheterotrophic to the photosynthetic stage. Part of these changes may be also related to the obligatory nature of the interaction with the endomycorrhizal fungus.

  17. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants.

  18. Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future.

  19. Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B. Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M.; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E.; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the p...

  20. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupulin, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, the petals violet, the lip orange, the bifid synsepal with the apices of the lateral sepals not forming tails, the lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, the petals markedly convex with the upper lobe elliptic-lanceolate and the lobes of the lip connivent at apex. Lepanthes sanctiorum is characterized by the small plants less than 1.1 cm tall, the short peduncle less than 10 mm long, the petals as wide as the lip length and the blades of the lip distinctly diverging at apex. All the species are described and illustrated on the basis of Costa Rican material. A key to the species of the group is provided.Revisamos y caracterizamos el grupo de especies cercanas a Lepanthes guatemalensis. El grupo está compuesto por ocho especies en Costa Rica. Se describen e ilustran tres especies nuevas. Lepanthes durikäensis se caracteriza por las flores no resupinadas, los sépalos laterales ovados, con las colas apicales divergentes, el lóbulo inferior de los pétalos lanceolado-subfalcado, con curvatura hacia arriba y la columna rosada. Lepanthes leporina es reconocida por las flores resupinadas, los sépalos amarillos y ligeramente teñidos de rojo, los pétalos violeta, el labelo naranja, el sinsépalo bífido con los ápices de los sépalos laterales que no forman colas, los sépalos laterales subiguales al sépalo dorsal, los pétalos marcadamente convexo con el lóbulo superior elíptico-lanceolado y los lóbulos del labelo conniventes en el ápice. Lepanthes sanctiorum se caracteriza por las plantas pequeñas menores a 1,1 cm de largo, el pedúnculo corto menor a 10 mm de largo, los pétalos tan anchos como la longitud del labelo y las láminas del labelo claramente divergentes en el ápice. Todas las especies se describen e ilustran basadas en material de Costa Rica. Se presenta una clave para las especies del grupo.

  1. Insect Visitors and Potential Pollinators of Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae) in Southern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneresse, Thomas; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L.), and Bombus lapidarius (L.) were the most abundant species. Only five specimens bore one to more than 10 pollinia: four honeybees (A. mellifera) and one bumblebee worker (B. lapidarius). These two species should be considered as potential pollinators in the study area, but probably not confirmed ones. PMID:27694346

  2. Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Auberon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1 and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2 together with a known lignin dimer (3 and seven known stilbenoids (4–10 were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC, and HR-ESI-MS techniques, as well as comparison with respective literature reports. The cytoprotective activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to reduce beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability while the other compounds showed no significant activity at the highest concentration tested.

  3. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  4. Microsatellite Markers in the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Ross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Primers for 31 microsatellite-containing loci were developed for the threatened orchid Platanthera praeclara to enable characterization of the population genetics of this tallgrass prairie native. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from four populations. Six of these loci were not in linkage disequilibrium. The average number of alleles per locus per population ranged from 6.4 to 8.9. Conclusions: The results indicate that six of the polymorphic loci will be useful in future studies of population structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity.

  5. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity. Artificial crossing demonstrates that intrinsic sterility barriers are weak. Although we have found evidence of gene flow among and within the three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum, reports of natural hybrids are surprisingly rare, probably because putative parents are sufficiently similar to questionably warrant the status of species. Phenological separation and increased xeromorphy characterise the origin of subgenus Barlia. Several individual morphological characters show evidence of parallel acquisition, and loss of features is especially frequent in floral markings among members of section caprinum. Detailed patterns of gain and loss demonstrate that several different categories of flower markings are inherited independently. Along with the dimensions of labellar lobes, these pigmentation characters have been over-emphasised in previous taxonomic treatments. Increased plant vigour was a crucial element of the origin of the genus, but vegetative characters underwent remarkably little subsequent evolution. Attempts to reconstruct hypothetical ancestors at internal nodes of the phylogeny are weakened by (a uncertain placement of Steveniella as sister to Himantoglossum s.l. and (b uncertain relationships among subtly different putative species within section caprinum. Nonetheless, heterochronic/allometric trends, ultimately limited by functional constraints, clearly dictate transitions between contrasting flower sizes and complex labellum shapes.

  6. Barlia robertiana (Loisel.) Greuter (Orchidaceae) en la provincia de Huelva (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Bazo Coronilla, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Barlia robertiana (Loisel.) Greuter es una orquídea cuya distribución se extiende por todo el Sur de Europa, en la zona que comprende desde la Península Ibérica hasta las principales islas del Meditérraneo, así como por la zona norte del continente africano, desde Marruecos a Túnez incluyendo la zona Cirenaica. En la Península Ibérica, donde aparece en la mayor parte de ella, crece en matorrales, prados y claros de bosques y también en sistemas dunares desde el n...

  7. Notes on Costa Rican Pterichis (Orchidaceae) – new taxa and additions to national orchid flora

    OpenAIRE

    Kolanowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the orchid genus Pterichis, P. herrerae, and a new variety of P. habenarioides, P. habenarioides var. costaricensis, are described and illustrated based on Costa Rican material. Information about new Costa Rican records of P. pauciflora and P. parvifolia is provided. An updated key to Costa Rican species of Pterichis is presented.

  8. Environ: E00409 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00409 Pleione pseudobulb Crude drug Pleione [TAX:141751] Orchidaceae (orchid famil...y) Pleione pseudobulb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) E00409 Pleione pseudobulb ...

  9. Genotypes selection of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae in vitro propagation phase/ Seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium (Orchidaceae na fase de propagação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of artificial hibridization in orchids is used to obtain new varieties. The objective of the present paper was to select genotypes of Dendrobium favourable for in vitro propagation for commercial utilization through crossings and self polinization of selected matrice plants. Fifteen different plants with contrasting colors, flower sizes and plant heighs were used; the flowers were artificially polinated and the seeds germinated in vitro on MS medium, with half concentration of nutrients. The following crossings were made D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; and the self polinizations: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 and D6. The obtained plants were avaluated for: plant heigh, number of roots, fresh and dry matter weight. The best results was observed in the following crosses D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 and D14 x D7 and for self polinizations Df22 and D7.O processo de hibridação artificial em orquídeas é utilizado para obtenção de novas variedades. O trabalho teve como objetivo a seleção de genótipos de Dendrobium favoráveis à propagação in vitro em escala comercial através de cruzamentos e autofecundações de plantas matrizes selecionadas. Foram utilizadas 15 plantas com características contrastantes de coloração, tamanho das flores e altura da planta; as flores polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes germinadas in vitro em meio MS, com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Foram realizados os cruzamentos: D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D9 x D2; D16 x D15; D5 x D9; D14 x D7; D7 x D14; D4 x D9; D6 x D9; D3 x D8; e as autofecundações: Df22; D7; D5; D21; D2; D15; D8; D23; D3 e D6. As plantas resultantes do cultivo foram avaliadas para as características: altura da planta, número de raízes, peso das massas fresca e seca total. Os melhores resultados para as características analisadas foram observados nos cruzamentos D9 x D7; D11 x Df22; D6 x D15; D16 x D15 e D14 x D7, e nas autofecundações Df22 e D7.

  10. Propagação in vitro de Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. (Orchidaceae Propagation in vitro of Baptistonia pubes (Lindl. Chiron & V.P. Castro (Oncidium pubes Lindl. - Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Wagner Coelho Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Baptistonia pubes é uma epífita que ocorre na Floresta Atlântica do Brasil, no Paraguai e norte da Argentina. É considerada espécie vulnerável e ameaçada de extinção. Nossos objetivos foram avaliar a eficácia da germinação de suas sementes e o crescimento em dois pHs utilizando-se dois meios de cultura: Murashige-Skoog (modificado - (MS e meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica acrescido de NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN variando-se as concentrações de nutrientes e pH para a germinação e para o crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes germinaram em média 15 dias após a inoculação, em todas as condições. A porcentagem de germinação variou entre 2,6 a 11,6%, sendo que a maior porcentagem ocorreu no pH=5,2 BAN e a menor no pH=6,2 MS/2. O meio BAN foi mais eficiente na germinação. Os pHs, em cada meio, alteraram significativamente as médias das sementes germinadas. As plântulas cresceram mais no meio nutritivo à base de banana nanica no pH = 5,2.Baptistonia pubes is an epiphyte that grows in Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is considered vulnerable and threatened with extinction. Our aim was to verify seed germination efficiency and growth at two pHs, using two culture mediums: Murashige-Skoog (modified - (MS and banana pulp with added NPK 20-20-20 (Plant Prood® (BAN, with varied nutrient and pH concentrations for germination and for growth. The seeds germinated on average 15 days after the inoculation, at all conditions. The percentage of germination varied between 2.6 and 11.6 %. The highest percentage was at pH=5.2 BAN and the lowest at pH=6.2 MS/2. The banana pulp was most efficient for germination. The pHs, in each environment, altered significantly the averages of the germinated seeds. Seedling growth showed better results in the banana medium, pH = 5.2

  11. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the juvenils (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. The high relation between the densities of adults and juvenils had been demonstrated by the value of the linear correlation coefficient found, r = 0,61.

  12. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae = Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato decálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 μmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrationsof calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinatedseeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834 and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 gL-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25 ± 2ºC, 16h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the majornumber of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate C. loddigesii orchidplantlets.

  13. Aclimatização de Cattleya (Orchidaceae, em substratos alternativos ao xaxim e ao esfagno = Acclimatization of the Cattleya (Orchidaceae in alternative substrates to tree fern fiber and sphagno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O xaxim desfibrado e o esfagno são os substratos mais utilizados pelosprodutores brasileiros para aclimatização de orquídeas, porém ambos correm o risco de serem extintos e a coleta está proibida pelo Ibama. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos alternativos no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cattleyaintermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização. Os substratos testados foram: xaxim desfibrado; esfagno; casca de arroz carbonizada; casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1; casca de pínus; fibra de coco. Após dez meses, foram avaliados: comprimento de parte aérea; comprimento da maior raiz; número de pseudobulbos; número de raízes; massa fresca total; pH do substrato; condutividade elétrica do substrato. Verificou-se que o substrato fibra de coco e a mistura de casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1 são os mais indicados comoalternativa ao xaxim e ao esfagno para o cultivo de Cattleya intermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização.The tree fern fiber and sphagno are the most utilized substrates by Brazilian producers for the acclimatization of orchids; however, bothare considered endangered species and their collection is forbidden by the authorities. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative substratesin the development of Cattleya intermedia plantules during the acclimatization stage. The tested substrates were: tree fern fiber; sphagno; carbonized rice hull; pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1; pinus bark; coconut fiber. After 10 months, the following were evaluated: length of aerial part; length of the bigger root; number of pseudobulbs; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH of the substrate; electric conductivity of the substrate. It was verifiedthat the substrate of coconut fiber and the mixture of pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1 are the most indicated as alternatives to tree fern fiber and sphagno for the cultivation of Cattleya intermedia during the acclimatization stage.

  14. Survival and development in vitro of Cattleya (Orchidaceae submitted to treatments with different treatments of colchicinesSobrevivência e desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya (Orchidaceae submetida a tratamentos com colchicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy produces desirable characteristicsin orchids that are represented by increase of the floral pieces, succulency degree, intensification of color, durability and larger resistance of flowers. The colchicine as polyploidy inductor agent in in vitro culture of plants has limitations, because when in high concentrations or very long treatments, it becomes poisonous for the vegetal tissues. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the influence of concentrations and times of exposition to the colchicine, on the survival and on the in vitro development of Cattleya tigrina. Protocorms were treated with colchicine in the concentrations of 0.5 and 1g.L-1 during 24, 48 and 72 hours. There were evaluated the tax of survival of the protocorms (%, percentage of plantlings with multiple buds and plant height after three and seven months. The increase of the concentration and of the time of exposition to colchicine caused a larger plant mortality and an increase of plantlings with reduced height. Nas orquidáceas, a poliploidia produz características desejáveis, que se traduzem em aumento das peças florais, grau de suculência, intensificação do colorido, durabilidade e maior resistência das flores. A colchicina como agente indutor de poliploidia em cultura de plantas in vitro tem suas limitações, pois em elevadas concentrações ou tratamentos muito prolongados, torna-se tóxica. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina, na sobrevivência e no desenvolvimento in vitro de Cattleya tigrina. Protocormos foram tratados com colchicina em concentrações de 0,5 e 1g.L-1 durante 24, 48 e 72 horas. Foram avaliados taxa de sobrevivência dos protocormos (%, porcentagem de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura após três e sete meses. Com o aumento da concentração e do tempo de exposição à colchicina houve maior mortalidade e aumento do número de plântulas com múltiplas brotações e altura reduzida.

  15. Qualidade de luz na biometria e anatomia foliar de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii L. (Orchidaceae micropropagadas Light quality in the biometrics and leaf anatomy of Cattleya loddigesii L. seedlings (Orchidaceae micropropagated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de luz pode alterar a morfogênese das plantas por meio de uma série de processos mediados por receptores de luz, principalmente na região do vermelho e azul. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar alterações anatômicas foliares e características biométricas de Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo', cultivadas in vitro, sob diferentes malhas coloridas com nível de radiação de 50% de sombreamento. Plântulas oriundas de autopolinização e sementes germinadas in vitro, com aproximadamente 1,0cm de comprimento e com raízes, foram inoculadas em meio WPM e submetidas a diferentes condições de incubação. Testou-se o efeito de sombrites coloridos (vermelho e azul sobre os frascos cultivados em casa de vegetação (CV e sala de crescimento (SC, além dos tratamentos, nos dois ambientes, sem utilização das telas coloridas. A avaliação foi efetuada 180 dias após inoculação. Com os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o ambiente de cultivo promove alterações anatômicas e biométricas em plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo' micropropagadas. As alterações promovidas pelo cultivo em luz natural evidenciam maior capacidade fotossintética, por meio de maior diferenciação dos tecidos clorofilianos, promovendo uma superfície foliar anatomicamente adaptada à fase de aclimatização.The light quality is responsible for the morphogenesis in plants. It is mediated by a series of processes involving light receptors, mainly in the red blue region. The aim of this research was to observe the anatomical leaf alterations as well as the biometric characteristics of in vitro cultured Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo'. Two different colour shading nets (red and blue, 50% mesh were tested and compared with a control without the shading nets in greenhouse and growth room. Plantlets of 1.0cm in length with roots produced by self pollinization and by seeds in vitro germination were inoculated in WPM medium and submitted to these different incubation environments. After 180 days of inoculation the plantlets were evaluated. It was observed that the culture environment promote anatomical and biometric alterations in Cattleya loddigesii 'Tipo' plantlets micropropagated. The changes promoted by the cultivation in natural light show greater photosynthetic capacity, through greater differentiation of the chlorenchyma tissue, promoting a leaf surface anatomically adapted to the acclimatization stage.

  16. Anatomia foliar de quatro espécies do gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae do Planalto Central Brasileiro Foliar anatomy of four species of genus Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae of the Brazilian Central Planalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zanenga-Godoy

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies analisadas (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. apresentam epiderme uniestratificada em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar, ocorrendo estômatos na face abaxial; deposição de cera epicuticular em crostas, escamas, flocos e plaquetas; em C. araguaiensis ocorrem estegmatas incrustados nas células epidérmicas; em todas as espécies ocorre hipoderme com células de paredes espessadas; mesofilo bifacial, compacto; células paliçádicas atípicas, com barras de espessamento; feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos alternadamente, acompanhados por bainha de fibras; cordões fibrosos acompanhados por estegmatas ocorrem longitudinalmente na lâmina foliar; presença de ráfides. Os aspectos descritos revelam acentuada xeromorfia, em função de economia de água.The analyzed species (Cattleya araguaiensis Pabst, C. bicolor Lindl., C. nobilior Rchb. e C. walkeriana Gardn. present unistratified epidermis at both surfaces with stomata at abaxial surface; deposition of epicuticular wax in crusts, scales, granules and plates; C. araguaiensis presents stegmata at epidermal cells; others characteristics present at all species are: hypodermis cells with thick walls; bifacial and compact mesophyll; atipic cells ofpalisade parenchyma with thichness bars; collateral vascular bundles alternate accompanied by sheath fibers; cordon fibers accompanied by stegmata in the foliar blade; raphids. The described aspects reveal accentuate xeromorphy for water economy.

  17. Morfoanatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae = Morphoanatomic characterization of the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. (Oncidiineae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar os tecidos especializados que tornam Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f. capaz de ocupação do ambiente epifítico, seus órgãos vegetativos foram analisados morfoanatomicamente. As folhas estão recobertas por cutícularelativamente fina, e os estômatos estão presentes apenas na face abaxial. A hipoderme adaxial está formada por uma camada de células e o parênquima clorofiliano é do tipo homogêneo. Nos feixes vasculares foliares, do tipo colateral, há calotas de fibras em ambosos polos de tecidos condutores, enquanto que, nos pseudobulbos e rizoma, mostram-se com calota mais evidente junto ao polo floemático. Compondo o parênquima fundamental dos pseudobulbos, estão células de dimensões variadas, sempre com paredes finas. Nas raízes, ocorrem 3-5 camadas de velame e 5-8 camadas corticais. A exoderme apresenta paredes pouco espessadas, enquanto que, na endoderme, são espessadas em “U” ou “O” quando maduras.The objective of this study was to morphologically and anatomically analyze the vegetative organs of Miltonia regnellii (Lindl. Rchb. f., in order to characterize the specialized tissues that enable thisspecies to thrive in epiphytic environments. The leaves are covered by a relatively thin cuticle, with the stomata present only in the abaxial surface. A single layer of cells makes up the adaxial hypodermis, and the chlorenchyma is homogeneous. In the collateral vascular bundles, there are fiber sheaths on both poles of conductor tissues, while pseudobulbs and rhizomes present a more evident sheath of fibers only by the phloematic pole. Cells of various dimensions, with thin walls, compose the fundamental parenchyma of thepseudobulb. Roots are composed of three to seven velamen layers and five to eight cortical layers. The exodermis features thin walls, while in the endoderm they are thickened in a “U” or “O” shape when mature.

  18. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P Cattleya mendelii is an endemic orchid species from Colombia, which has a great ornamental value which is in danger of extinction due to massive collection and their natural habitat's destruction by human activities. In vitro culture is an alternative to preserve this species and/or carry out its marketing. In this study the asymbiotic germination and seedling development of seeds of C. mendelii, in several in vitro culture media were evaluated. Mature capsules were collected. Seed viability with tetrazolium test was done; seeds were disinfected at the same time and planted by the syringe method to evaluate the effect of five growth culture media on the development of C. mendelii after 16 weeks of cultivation. It was found that seed viability was 93%, the highest percentage of germination was found in the culture medium Murashige-Skoog plus coconut water (MS+AC with significant differences compared to other culture media (P < 0.05, Tukey. This study showed that MS medium supplemented with coconut water and pineapple juice, were more efficient in asymbiotic germination and seedling development of C. mendelii orchids compared with other culture media. It could be an option to reduce the costs generated by using phytohormones.

  19. The chemical composition of the floral extract of Epipogium aphyllum sw. (Orchidaceae: A clue for their pollination biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubska-Busse Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipogium aphyllum is a rare European obligate mycoheterotrophic orchid lacking chlorophyll. It has not been studied previously with respect to pollination biology. We studied the association between the composition of floral scent emission and its pollination systems. Field observation indicates that the main pollinators of Epipogium aphyllum are representatives of the genus Bombus (Hymenoptera, B. lucorum, B. hortorum, B. terrestris, B. pascuorum and B. proteus, and the genus Apis (Hymenoptera namely A. mellifera. The main potential vector (observed to accidentally carry pollen, is most likely Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera, Syrphidae. The chemical composition of the floral extracts of 4 populations of Epipogium aphyllum Sw. growing naturally in Poland and the Czech Republic was examined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS techniques. According to GC-MS analysis, 9-tricosene, nonadecane, 1-nonadecene and nonacosane predominated in the floral extracts. The studied samples were also characterized by relatively high amounts of benzenoids, e.g. methyl cinnamate, which is known as an attractant to the males of various orchid bees. LC-ESI-MS revealed the presence of flavor compounds such as vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and its derivative acetovanillone, together with higher amounts of aliphatic and phenolic acids. Additionally, we detected the presence of indole and morphine derivatives.

  20. Quelato de hierro y agua de coco en la germinación in vitro de Rossioglossum grande (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay & G.C. Kenn es una orquídea nativa mexicana, considerada en peligro de extinción por la NOM-059-Semarnat-2010. Teniendo en cuenta que la germinación asimbiótica in vitro es una herramienta estratégica para la conservación de orquídeas amenazadas, en este estudio se generó información básica mediante la comparación de la germinación de R. grande en medios Knudson C (KC y Dalla Rosa y Laneri modificado con quelato de hierro y agua de coco (DR. Para el efecto se utilizaron un cultivo madre (CM y dos subcultivos (C1 y C2 y los tratamientos se dispusieron en un diseño experimental totalmente aleatorio. Los resultados se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza y comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (P < 0.05 y Chi-cuadrada. A 60 días en el CM el medio de cultivo DR favoreció el desarrollo, la tasa de sobrevivencia y disminuyó la clorosis de los protocormos. A los 12 meses se presentó mayor desarrollo y mayor regeneración de protocormos. En los subcultivos C1 y C2 se registraron resultados similares lo que confirma que el DR acelera el desarrollo de los protocormos e incrementa su tamaño y tasa de regeneración. En síntesis, el empleo de hierro-quelato y agua de coco promueven el desarrollo in vitro de protocormos de R. grande.

  1. Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid–pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves. PMID:21502502

  2. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii amino acid - protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm - like body (PLB organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin.

  3. DNA Barcoding Evaluation and Its Taxonomic Implications in the Recently Evolved Genus Oberonia Lindl. (Orchidaceae) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuling; Tong, Yi; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-01-01

    The orchid genus Oberonia Lindl., is a taxonomically complex genus characterized by recent species radiations and many closely related species. All Oberonia species are under conservation as listed in the CITES and the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Given its difficulties in taxonomy and conservation status, Oberonia is an excellent model for developing DNA barcodes. Three analytical methods and five DNA barcoding regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, ITS, and ITS2) were evaluated on 127 individuals representing 40 species and 1 variety of Oberonia from China. All the three plastid candidates tested (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) have a lower discriminatory power than the nuclear regions (ITS and ITS2), and ITS had the highest resolution rate (82.14%). Two to four combinations of these gene sets were not better than the ITS alone, but when considering modes of inheritance, rbcL+ITS and matK+ITS were the best barcodes for identifying Oberonia species. Furthermore, the present barcoding system has many new insights in the current Oberonia taxonomy, such as correcting species identification, resolving taxonomic uncertainties, and the underlying presence of new or cryptic species in a genus with a complex speciation history. PMID:27994608

  4. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by King Carlos III in the second half of 18th Century, the Spanish government demonstrated a serious interest in the study of the rich floras of the colonies of the New World. The Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, led by Ruiz and Pavón, continued for 11 years in the two colonies and was followed by the activities of Tafalla and Manzanilla, who botanized in Peru and Ecuador. Two preliminary accounts of the flora of Peru were published in 1794 and 1798, but only three of the planned eleven volumes and five supplements of the Flora Peruviana et Chilensis were eventually published. The seventh volume, devoted to the Orchids, never saw the light of day. Due to the short descriptions published in 1798, and the dispersal of large parts of Ruiz and Pavón’s herbarium, the concepts of several of their orchid species remained obscure to modern botanists. These species can now be identified for the first time through the critical study of the unpublished illustrations and manuscripts of the expedition, kept at the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid (RJB. The results in orchidology of the expedition, with a discussion of the new findings and interpretations, made possible by the study of Ruiz and Pavón’s orchid iconography, are presented in two contributions. In this first part – an introduction – notes on the illustrators and their work, as well as on the orchid manuscripts and collections, are given. Orchid taxa are presented alphabetically, from Acianthera to Maxillariella. For each taxon references to the nomenclatural types, synonymy, illustrations and exsiccata prepared during the expedition, as well as to Ruiz’s diaries and the unpublished manuscripts of the expedition’s botanists, are provided. In the absence of any actual specimens referable to the type collections and associated with the protologues, Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa, and M. Triphylla are formally lectotypified with the type illustrations conserved in MA. New combinations are proposed for the basionyms Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia po lystachya, Maxillaria ramosa, and M. Triphylla.

    Bajo el impulso del rey Carlos III, el gobierno español demostró en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII un serio interés en el estudio de las ricas floras de sus colonias en el Nuevo Mundo. La Real Expedición al Perú y Chile, liderada por Ruiz y Pavón, trabajó por 11 años en las dos colonias y fue continuada posteriormente por Tafalla y Manzanilla, quienes botanizaron en el Perú y en el Ecuador. En 1794 y 1798 se publicaron dos trabajos preliminares sobre la flora del Perú, pero solamente tres de los 11 volúmenes y cinco suplementos de la Flora Peruviana et Chilensis vieron finalmente la luz. El séptimo volumen, dedicado a las Orquídeas, nunca se publicó. Debido a las descripciones sintéticas publicadas en 1798 y a la dispersión de una parte cuantiosa del herbario de Ruiz y Pavón, muchos conceptos de sus especies de orquídeas quedaron obscuros para los botánicos modernos. El estudio crítico de las ilustraciones y manuscritos inéditos de la expedición, conservados en el Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (RJB, permiten ahora identificar por primera vez muchas de estas especies. Los resultados orquideológicos de la expedición, con una discusión de los nuevos hallazgos e interpretaciones hechos posibles por el estudio de la iconografía de orquídeas de Ruiz y Pavón, se presentan en dos contribuciones. En esta primera parte se proporcionan una introducción, notas sobres los ilustradores y su obra, así como sobre los manuscritos y colecciones de orquídeas. Los táxones de orquídeas se presentan alfabéticamente, de Acianthera a Maxillariella. Para cada uno de los táxones se proveen referencias a los tipos nomenclaturales, sinonimia, ilustraciones y exsiccata preparados durante la expedición, así como a los diarios de Ruiz y a los manuscritos inéditos de los botánicos de la expedición. En ausencia de especímenes de material original o de alguna manera asociable a los protólogos, se lectotipifican Bletia repanda, Epidendrum cordatum, E. viride, Fernandezia laxa, Maxillaria longipetala, M. ramosa y M. Triphylla con las ilustraciones de los tipos conservadas en MA. Se proponen nuevas combinaciones para los basiónimos Bletia parviflora, Fernandezia punctata, Humboldtia polysta chya, Maxillaria ramosa y M. Triphylla.

  5. Genetic diversity of wild Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae)populations from Hubei based on Inter-simple sequence repeats analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiaohong; GAO Li; YANG Bo

    2007-01-01

    Cymbidium goeringii is a diploid and nonrewarding,bumblebee-pollinated species,which is distributed in China,Japan and Korea Peninsula.This species is now highly endangered due to the mass collection and forest clearance in China.In the present study,we investigated the distribution of genetic variation within and between eleven populations of Cymbidium goeringii in central China by using Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers.Eleven primers produced a total of 127 clear and reproducible bands of which 112 were polymorphic.High genetic diversity was detected in Cymbidium goeringii for both population level (P = 63.1%;He = 0.194 5) and species level (P = 88.2%;He = 0.262 8).A higher level of genetic differentiation was detected among populations (GST = 0.244 0,FST = 0.220 7)with Nei's Gsr analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA),and no correlation was found between geographical and genetic distance.Genetic drift rather than gene flow played an important role in forming the present population structure of Cymbidium goeringii.Limited gene flow among populations and gene drift increase the extinction risk of local populations.Some conservation concerns are therefore discussed together with possible strategies for implementing in situ and ex situ conservation.

  6. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. II

    OpenAIRE

    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the second part of the study of the orchid illustrations produced during the Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, headed by Ruiz and Pavón in late XVIII century. Species of the genera included between Oncidium and Zygopetalum are discussed. For each taxon references to the nomenclatorial types, synonymy, illustrations and exsiccata prepared during the expedition, as well as to Ruiz’ diaries and the unpublished manuscripts of the expediti...

  7. The Orchidaceae of Ruiz & Pavón’s “Flora Peruviana et Chilensis”. A taxonomic study. I

    OpenAIRE

    Pupulin, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by King Carlos III in the second half of 18th Century, the Spanish government demonstrated a serious interest in the study of the rich floras of the colonies of the New World. The Royal expedition to Peru and Chile, led by Ruiz and Pavón, continued for 11 years in the two colonies and was followed by the activities of Tafalla and Manzanilla, who botanized in Peru and Ecuador. Two preliminary accounts of the flora of Peru were published in 1794 and 1798, but only three of the planned ...

  8. Five New Records of Orchidaceae from Hainan, China%海南兰科植物新记录5种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田怀珍; 董全英; 李星霖

    2012-01-01

    Five orchid species:Aphyllorchis caudata Rolfe ex Downie,Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod,Pinalia amica (H.G.Reichenbach) Kuntze,Zeuxine agyokuma Fukuyama and Z.sakagutii Tuyama.are newly recorded from Hainan Island.Aphyllorchis caudata and Didymoplexis vietnamica are saprophytic,Pinalia amica is epiphytic and Zeuxine agyokuana and Z.sakagutii are terrestrial orchids.All specimens are deposited at the Herbarium of East China Normal University (HSNU).%报道了5个海南兰科植物新记录种:尾萼无叶兰(Aphyllorchis cuadata Rolfe ex Downie)、中越双唇兰(Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod)、粗茎苹兰[Pinalia amica(H.G.Reichenbach)Kuntze]、绿叶线柱兰(Zeuxine agyokuana Fukuyama)和黄唇线柱兰(Z.sakagutii Tuyama.).其中尾萼无叶兰和中越双唇兰为腐生兰,粗茎苹兰为附生兰,绿叶线柱兰与黄唇线柱兰为地生种类.凭证标本均保存于华东师范大学生物学系植物标本馆(HSNU).

  9. An additional note on Chinese Otochilus (Orchidaceae)%中国兰科耳唇兰属补志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈心启; 罗毅波

    2002-01-01

    在第18卷中记载了四种国产耳唇兰属Otochilus植物.其中的白花耳唇兰O. albus系根据某些植物学家的引证,而不是作者自己检视的标本.在第一作者近来的一次赴欧访问中,仔细检视了保存在那里的耳唇兰属标本,特别是Smith与Seidenfaden所引证的标本:Forrest 9493(E)、16168(K, E)、27753(K, P, E)与F. E. Younghusband s. n. (K).其中只有F. E. Younghusband s. n.是真正的白花耳唇兰,其余的应是宽叶耳唇兰O. lancilabius和耳唇兰O. porrectus.作为对第18卷的补充,本文对白花耳唇兰作了订正,并根据西藏标本进行了描述.

  10. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species.

  11. In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiao-Meng; Sheng, Chun-Ling; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attract germination promoting fungi. Of the two fungi isolated from seed baiting, Tulasnella spp. and Trichoderma spp., Tulasnella, enhanced seed germination by 13.6 %, protocorm formation by 85.7 %, and seedling development by 45.2 % (all P germination promoting fungi isolated from Cymbidium mannii, also enhanced seed germination (6.5 %; P germination by 26.4 % (P germination stage success was not dependent on fungi, we recommend that Tulasnella be introduced for facilitating D. aphyllum seed germination at the protocorm formation stage and that light be provided for increasing germination as well as further seedling development. Our findings suggest that in situ seed baiting can be used to isolate seed germination-enhancing fungi for the development of seedling production for conservation and reintroduction efforts of epiphytic orchids such as D. aphyllum.

  12. Characterization of seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum (Orchidaceae promoted by mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtopodium glutiniferum is an endemic orchid of Brazil with potential medicinal and ornamental applications. As mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the initiation of the orchid life cycle, the aim of this study was to determine the strains of mycorrhizal fungi suitable for seed germination and protocorm development of C. glutiniferum and to characterize the symbiotic development of protocorms. Seeds of C. glutiniferum were inoculated with nine mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza spp., Ceratorhiza spp., Rhizoctonia sp., originally isolated from Brazilian neotropical orchids. Only Epulorhiza isolates promoted seed germination and protocorm development. Three Epulorhiza isolates (M1, M6 = E. epiphytica, M20 = Epulorhiza sp. promoted protocorm development until leaf production at 63 days. The protocorms are comprised of parenchyma cells delimited by a unistratified epidermis; the parenchyma cells of the upper part of the protocorms are smaller than those located more towards the base. Intact and digested pelotons were observed inside of protocorms implying that the seedlings were capable of mycotrophy. Additionally, the development of a bud primordium only occurred after colonization by fungus. This study suggests that C. glutiniferum has a preference for strains of Epulorhiza and that fungus digestion is essential to protocorm development.

  13. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African Orchids 1. A New Species of Angraecum set. Pectinaria (Orchidaceae) from Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stévart, T.; Cawoy, V.; Damen, T.H.J.; Droissart, V.

    2010-01-01

    During a recent survey of Atlantic central African orchids, we collected four orchid specimens in Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea) that share the general morphology of Angraecum gabonense, the most frequent member of Angraecum section Pectinaria in Central Africa, but differ in leaf shape and flower siz

  14. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae) from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponert, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel; Vuong, Truong Ba; Rybková, Romana; Suda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macro)morphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy), assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis), determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry) and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences). Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma. PMID:27008538

  15. A New Species of Cleisostoma (Orchidaceae from the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in Vietnam: A Multidisciplinary Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    Full Text Available A new species, Cleisostoma yersinii J. Ponert & Vuong, is described and illustrated based on the material collected in the Hon Ba Nature Reserve in southern Vietnam. In addition to conventional (macromorphological examination we comparatively investigated root and leaf anatomy (using light and fluorescent microscopy, assessed nectar characteristics (using HPLC analysis, determined nuclear genome size (using DNA flow cytometry and reconstructed phylogenetic relationships (using nrITS sequences. Cleisostoma yersinii differs from its putative closest relative C. birmanicum in wider and shorter leaves, larger flowers, distinct lip with S-shaped tip of the mid-lobe, and a shallow spur with two large nectar sacks separated by prominent calli and septum. Nectar is sucrose-dominant and very rich in sugars. Stomata are developed on both sides of the leaf and have prominent hyperstomatal chambers and substomatal cavities. Roots with well-developed exodermis and tracheoidal idioblasts are covered by a two-layer Vanda-type velamen. Chloroplasts occur not only in the cortex but are also abundant in the stele. Mean 1C-value was estimated to 2.57 pg DNA. An updated identification key is provided for SE Asian sections and all Vietnamese species of Cleisostoma.

  16. 中国石斛属一新种%A new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 张玉武; 肖丽萍

    2001-01-01

    @@Dendrobium fanjingshanense Z. H. Tsi ex X. H. Jin et Y. W. Zhang, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Habitu D. wilsonii Rolfe simile, a quo tepalis revolutis fulvis, lobo labelli intermedii infra medium macula una flabellata purpurea ornato. Epiphyticum; caulis teres, 20~40 cm altus, 2~3 mm crassus, caespitosus, superne 5~6-foliatus, internodiis 1~1.5 cm longis. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, subcoriacea, 2~5 cm longa, 5~15 mm lata, apice obtusa et plus minusve hamata, basi vaginis tubulatis membranaceis obtecta. Inflorescentiae e lateribus partium superarum caulium annotinorum defoliatorum nascentes, versus apicem caulis laterales, 1~2-florae; pedunculi 2~3 mm longi, ca. 1 mm crassi, basi vaginis 3~4 membranaceis 3~4 mm longis instructi; bracteae ovato-triangulatae, 3~5 mm longae, apice acutae, macula atro-fusca ornatae. Flores patentes; pedicelli cum ovario ca. 2~3 cm longi; tepala revoluta, fulva, apice obtusa; sepalum intermedium oblongum 2 cm longum, medio 6~7 mm latum, apice fere obtusum; sepala lateralia paulo oblique ovato-lanceolata, sepalo intermedio aequilonga sed medio paulo angustiora, apice obtusa, basi cum pede columnae mentum obconoideum ca. 8 mm longum 6 mm latum apice obtusum formantia; petala subelliptica, ca. 2 cm longa, medio 6 mm lata, apice subobtusa; labellum fulvum, basi purpureum et dense velutinum, obscure trilobatum, lobis lateralibus semiorbiculatis erectis, basi (inter lobos laterales) callo uno purpureo praeditis, lobo intermedio ovato, ca. 1 cm longo, 7 mm lato, apice subacuto et recurvo, supra medio carinato, glabro; columna alba, ca. 3 mm longa, basi in pedem ca. 9 mm longum producta, pede medio purpurato, glabro; operculum antherae album, ambitu rhombicum, glabrum; pollinia 4.

  17. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  18. Seed propagation and re-introduction of the U.S. federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence W. Zettler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. [syn = Peristylus holochila (Hbd N. Hallé] is the rarest of three orchids endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. As of 2011, 33 individual plants of this U.S. Federally endangered species remained on three islands with only one specimen known to occur on Kauai. This paper presents a summary of experiments aimed at cultivating this species from seed leading to the reintroduction of seedlings. We describe: 1 the mycorrhizal fungi acquired from P. holochila protocorms on Molokai, 2 the role of light vs. dark pretreatment on symbiotic seed germination using a mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, and 3 asymbiotic germination on three media (Murashige and Skoog, Knudson C, P723. Protocorms recovered in situ using seed packets yielded seven strains of a mycorrhizal fungus assignable to the anamorphic genus Epulorhiza Moore, but none of these strains prompted seed germination in vitro. Using the mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, no significant differences were detected between light pre-treatment vs. dark incubation on seed germination or development, but statistical differences were evident among two agar types tested. Seeds sown on acidified (pH 5.0 asymbiotic medium P723 (PhytoTechnology Labs developed to the leaf-bearing stage 351 days after sowing and incubation in darkness at 16–19 °C. Seedlings illuminated 451 days after sowing were eventually established on soil in a greenhouse (ex vitro. A total of 85 seedlings were promptly transported to Hawaii in March 2011. A minimum of 3.1 years is required for the propagation of P. holochila from seed using acidified asymbiotic medium P723.

  19. An assessment of plant growth regulators on asymbiotic development and germination\tof immature embryos of Beclardia Macrostachya (orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshwar Puchooa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beclardia macrostahya is one of the rarest orchids in Mauritius. In vitro techniques are being used for mass propagating this orchid for subsequent restoration programs. Successful asymbiotic germination of Beclardia macrostachya was obtained through embryo rescue. Modified half MS media supplemented with 10% coconut milk was used as basal culture media and the effect of plant growth regulators at different concentrations on embryo development was assessed through qualitative and quantitative parameters. Diameter of embryos, length of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs and length of developing shoots were calculated using digital photography. Maximal growth was obtained in treatments without any plant growth regulators and 0.5mg/l N6 Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP. Higher levels of Thiadurazon/TDZ (0.3mg/l and BAP (1.0 mg/l though they stimulated embryo development faster, yielded higher level of necrosis later. The results also suggest that plant growth regulator treatments that stimulate fastest embryo development from immature embryos/ovules need not be reliable for further development to PLB and plantlet regeneration.

  20. Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae), from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Mesa, Neftali; Urueña, Gloria

    2007-06-01

    Cattleya trianae is an endemic species from the tropical rainforest in the Colombian Andes. Its survival is currently threatened due to habitat loss and commercial overexploitation. This study evaluates ten substrates, some organic (pine bark, coconut fiber and wood shavings), some inert icopor (polystyrene foam), vegetable coal and their combinations, and the effects these have on morphometric and phenotypic traits in the hardening phase of 250 plants of C. trianae cultivated in vitro. Recorded data include percent survival, length of longest leaf, biomass (wet weight) and number of roots and leaves at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After the hardening phase, the plants were taken to a greenhouse and later to the natural environment. Coconut fiber alone or mixed in equal parts with pine bark and coal was the most efficient substrate when percent survival (80+/-SE=0.3742), biomass, and leaf length were evaluated. Hardened plants displayed qualitative characteristics such as vigor, hardness and waxy texture, strength of green coloration in the leaves, and velamen formation. Under greenhouse conditions, plants grew better with filtered light, relative humidity bordering on 80 %, permanent aeration, misting with water, and an average temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. Invigorated plants were firmly anchored on their host trees.

  1. Germinação, crescimento e desenvolvimento in vitro de orquídeas (Cattleya spp., Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As orquídeas no ambiente natural sofrem exploração devido a sua importância ornamental, levando algumas espécies à extinção. O cultivo in vitro é uma forma alternativa para a conservação ex-situ. Procurou-se determinar um meio de cultura eficiente para a germinação in vitro de sementes e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cattleya forbesii, bem como para o crescimento de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya harrisoniana. No primeiro caso, sementes foram inoculadas em meio de cultura básico de Murashige & Skoog (MS = T1 e MS básico acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado (CA = T2. No segundo, plântulas com 1 ± 0,2 cm de altura foram submetidas aos tratamentos T1, T2, MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes (T3 e MS com a metade da concentração original de macro-micronutrientes suplementado com 1,25 g L-1 de CA (T4. Verificou-se aos 30 dias em C. forbesii uma porcentagem de germinação de 45% em T1 e 90% em T2. A adição de CA ao meio de cultura trouxe aumento na altura de plântulas de C. forbesii de acordo com análises realizadas aos 180 dias de cultivo. Em relação ao crescimento de C. harrisoniana, aos 240 dias observou-se que todos os parâmetros médios avaliados (altura da parte aérea, massa de matéria fresca total, número de raízes e folhas, comprimento da maior raiz e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram significativamente maiores em T2. Dessa forma, sugere-se o uso do meio MS acrescido de 2,5 g L-1 de CA (T2, uma vez que é significativamente favorável tanto para a germinação de sementes quanto para o crescimento de ambas as espécies.

  2. Simple-sequence repeat markers of Cattleya coccinea (Orchidaceae), an endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, M; Rodrigues, J F; Pinheiro, F; Oliveira, G C X; Veasey, E A; Koehler, S

    2013-09-03

    Microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered Brazilian orchid species Cattleya coccinea to describe its genetic diversity and structure and to support conservation studies. Nine microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using an enriched genomic library. All loci are polymorphic at least in the 2 populations sampled, except for loci Cac05 and Cac09 for the Petrópolis population. The mean number of alleles per locus was 8.8 between populations. The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.541 (ranging from 0 to 1) and 0.639 (ranging from 0 to 0.9), respectively. Cross-amplifications were performed in 7 additional Epidendroideae species, and at least 2 loci were successful in 3 additional Cattleya species, Epidendrum secundum, and Brasiliorchis gracilis. All markers described herein will be useful in further studies evaluating the genetic diversity, population dynamics, and conservation genetics of C. coccinea and related species.

  3. Two widespread green Neottia species (Orchidaceae) show mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales in various habitats and ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitelová, Tamara; Kotilínek, Milan; Jersáková, Jana; Joly, François-Xavier; Košnar, Jiří; Tatarenko, Irina; Selosse, Marc-André

    2015-03-01

    Plant dependence on fungal carbon (mycoheterotrophy) evolved repeatedly. In orchids, it is connected with a mycorrhizal shift from rhizoctonia to ectomycorrhizal fungi and a high natural (13)C and (15)N abundance. Some green relatives of mycoheterotrophic species show identical trends, but most of these remain unstudied, blurring our understanding of evolution to mycoheterotrophy. We analysed mycorrhizal associations and (13)C and (15)N biomass content in two green species, Neottia ovata and N. cordata (tribe Neottieae), from a genus comprising green and nongreen (mycoheterotrophic) species. Our study covered 41 European sites, including different meadow and forest habitats and orchid developmental stages. Fungal ITS barcoding and electron microscopy showed that both Neottia species associated mainly with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B, a group of rhizoctonia symbionts of green orchids, regardless of the habitat or growth stage. Few additional rhizoctonias from Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae, and ectomycorrhizal fungi were detected. Isotope abundances did not detect carbon gain from the ectomycorrhizal fungi, suggesting a usual nutrition of rhizoctonia-associated green orchids. Considering associations of related partially or fully mycoheterotrophic species such as Neottia camtschatea or N. nidus-avis with ectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade A, we propose that the genus Neottia displays a mycorrhizal preference for Sebacinales and that the association with nonectomycorrhizal Sebacinales Clade B is likely ancestral. Such a change in preference for mycorrhizal associates differing in ecology within the same fungal taxon is rare among orchids. Moreover, the existence of rhizoctonia-associated Neottia spp. challenges the shift to ectomycorrhizal fungi as an ancestral pre-adaptation to mycoheterotrophy in the whole Neottieae.

  4. A new myco-heterotrophic genus, Yunorchis, and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Calypsoeae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available We identified a new holomycotrophic orchid that is related to the myco-heterotrophic Calypsoeae. Because chloroplast genes are primarily lacking or are highly divergent, key morphological characters are either reduced or lost from many myco-heterotrophs, and the phylogenetic relationships of weakly supported paraphyletic Calypsoeae within Epidendroideae have been poorly understood in previous molecular systematic studies. Using chloroplast rbcL, psaB, and matK and nuclear Xdh and ITS sequences, we determined the circumscription and systematic positions of the new orchid and the tribe. The results indicate that the epidendroid taxa include most of the clades that are successively sister to the grade of clades representing previously recognized tribes. Calypsoeae comprising four well-supported clades with 12 genera (except for the previous temporarily placed Wullschlaegelia is supported as a monophyletic and sister clade to Epidendreae (excluding Coeliinae. The new orchid is nested in Calypsoeae and is a sister to Dactylostalix and/or Calypso. This new holomycotrophic orchid presents a subumbel inflorescence that grows underground, and flower with a long pedicel reputing the ground to open and two fragments at the base of the hook, which are obviously morphologically different from those of Calypsoeae. To accommodate this species in the current generic circumscription, a new genus Yunorchis was created.

  5. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  6. Are some life-history strategies more vulnerable to the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation? A case study using South Australian Caladenia R. Br. (Orchidaceae) species

    OpenAIRE

    Farrington, Lachlan; Facelli, José; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, through land clearing, has been attributed in the demise of many species of plants and animals throughout the world (Kinzig and Harte 2000). Not surprisingly, much research effort has been devoted toward understanding the dynamics of populations subject to fragmentation.  Habitat fragmentation, through land clearing, has been attributed in the demise of many species of plants and animals throughout the world (Kinzig and Harte 2000). Not surprisingly, much research ef...

  7. Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata,a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-sheng ZHANG; Ya-li LV; Yue ZHAO; Shun-xing GUO

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus,commonly known as "Jewel Orchid",is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension,diabetes,and heart disease.The existence of A.formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss,human and animal consumption,etc.The highly potent medicinal activity of A.formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites,especially kinsenosides and flavonoids.This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship.Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them,which are related to plant growth,yield and changes in secondary metabolites.This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A.formosanus in pot culture.The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation:increased shoot height,shoot dry weight,and leaf numbers by 16.6%,31.3%,and 22.5%,respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides,isorhamnetin-3-O-[β-D-rutinoside,and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%,226.1%,and 196.0%,respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and,significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells.Moreover,F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A.formosanus.These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts,although further physiological,genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.

  8. Epipactis krymmontana (Orchidaceae), a new species endemic to the Crimean Mountains and notes on the related taxa in the Crimea and bordering Russian Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fateryga, A.V.; Kreutz, K.; Fateryga, V.V.; Efimov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    A new obligately self-pollinating species, Epipactis krymmontana, is described from the Crimea. The species is closely related to E. condensata from which it differs by its relatively loose and usually much shorter inflorescence, relatively elongate ovaries, much paler epichile with less protruding

  9. Revisión del género Cephalanthera (Orchidaceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, María Luisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Cephalanthera in the Iberian Peninsula and NW of Africa has been done. Three species have been accepted. These species, C. rubra, C. longifolia and C. damasonium, have been listed with their synonyms in the study zone, a detailed description of each, and distribution maps. The indumentum pollen and seeds have been studied by SEM. C. damasonium has been typified.Se revisa el género Cephalanthera en la Península Ibérica, Baleares y NW de África. Se aceptan tres especies: C. rubra, C. longifolia y C. damasonium, para las que se dan los sinónimos usados en la zona de estudio, descripción detallada y mapas de distribución. Se estudia el indumento, polen y semillas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se neotipifica C. damasonium.

  10. Propagación in vitro de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae a partir de protocormos, mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal "RITA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirado Jorge Mario

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocormos in vitro de Phalaenopsis de tres meses de edad se transfirieron a contenedores RITA® con el fin de propagarlos masivamente. Los factores evaluados fueron la concentración de sacarosa en el medio y la frecuencia de inmersión. Se dispusieron cinco pares de contenedores RITA® con medio de cultivo líquido a concentraciones de sacarosa de 0, 15, 30, 45 y 60 g/L. El medio utilizado fue el MS a la mitad de la concentración de las sales, suplementado con vitaminas y tidiazuron (5 mg/L. El experimento se realizó en dos etapas, cada una con duración de dos meses. La primera etapa con una frecuencia de inmersión de cuatro horas y la segunda con una frecuencia de inmersión de ocho horas, ambas con un tiempo de inmersión de un minuto. Los resultados mostraron que la mejor respuesta proliferativa, con 8,2 protocormos adventicios por protocormo por mes, se obtuvo en el medio con 15 g/L de sacarosa y un tiempo de inmersión de un minuto cada cuatro horas. Palabras clave: Phalaenopsis, protocormo, propagación in vitro, inmersión temporal, RITA.

  11. Butterfly pollination in Pteroglossa (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): a comparative study on the reproductive biology of two species of a Neotropical genus of Spiranthinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, Emerson R; Ferreira, Alessandro W C

    2015-05-01

    Spiranthinae orchids are known for being self-compatible and offering nectar as a reward. Although data on their pollinators are scarce, members of this tribe are mostly pollinated by bees, hummingbirds and moths. Some of them even reproduce through facultative self-pollination. Nothing is known about the pollinators and reproduction system in Pteroglossa. Based on records on flowering phenology, floral morphology, reward production, pollinators and breeding system, this paper aims to study the reproductive biology of two Pteroglossa spp. Both species offer nectar as a resource and are pollinated exclusively by diurnal Lepidoptera at the studied areas. Nectar is produced by two glandular nectaries, and is stored in a spur. Pollinaria possess a ventrally adhesive viscidium that is deposited on the basal portion of butterfly proboscides. Both species are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The reproductive success is low when compared to other Spiranthinae. Although no evident mechanical barrier to avoid self-pollination or geitonogamy was identified, the erratic behavior of the butterflies, with their infrequent visits to only one flower per inflorescence, contributes to an increased fruit set produced through cross-pollination. The presence of ventrally adhesive viscidia in Spiranthinae is responsible for greater pollinator diversity when compared to bee-pollinated Goodyerinae with dorsally adhesive viscidia, adapted to attach to bee mouthparts.

  12. A comparative study of the seed germination capabilities of Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae, a threatened terrestrial orchid, and other more common Anacamptis species, by asymbiotic culture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing emphasis on terrestrial orchid conservation has led to conservation actions for a wide range of threatened Mediterranean species. Many terrestrial orchids are currently at great risk for extinction as a result of a multiplicity of threatening processes. We focus on orchid seed germination capabilities in vitro, specifically germination capability of a threatened species, Anacamptis palustris, compared to three other more common species (A. laxiflora, A. morio, and A. papilionacea, and also discuss its potential impact on orchid distribution and conservation. Asymbiotic germination tests were performed with mature seeds using BM-1 medium. In vitro seed germination and protocorm developmental stages were evaluated up to 20 weeks after sowing. Significant differences in seedling development were detected among the species, and a correlation was evident between the rarity of the species and their germinability. Thus, the presence of intrinsic, biological factors that affect and limit the distribution of A. palustris may exist.

  13. Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Mycorrhizal Fungi from Paphiopedilum hirsutissimun (Orchidaceae)%带叶兜兰菌根真菌分离和初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓国; 卢家仕; 周主贵; 李秀玲; 陈廷速; 卜朝阳

    2016-01-01

    了解带叶兜兰菌根真菌的群落组成,为优良菌株的筛选奠定基础,对采自广西乐业县的野生带叶兜兰进行了菌根真菌分离,通过根段直接培养法分离菌根真菌,以确定75%乙醇和10%NaCl0的最适表面消毒时间,并应用形态学方法对分离的菌株进行了属的鉴定.研究结果显示,带叶兜兰菌根真菌最适表面消毒时间是75%乙醇8min,10%NaCl0 8min.从带叶兜兰菌根中分离到的63株真菌,除8株菌株分类地位不能确定外,其余菌株归属于镰刀菌属(Fusarium)、轮层菌属(Daldinia,)、碳团菌属(Hypoxylon)、毛壳菌属(Chaetomiaceae)、胶膜菌属(Tulasnella)5属,其中镰刀菌属和轮层菌属为优势菌属.

  14. Comparative seed germination and seedling development of the ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae), and molecular identification of its mycorrhizal fungus from South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen H.; Kane, Michael E.; Radcliffe, Ellen N.; Zettler, Lawrence W.; Richardson, Larry W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The endangered leafless ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii, one of the most renowned orchids in the world, is difficult to grow under artificial conditions. Published information on asymbiotic and symbiotic (co-culture with a mycobiont) seed germination, seedling anatomy and developmental morphology of this leafless orchid is completely lacking. This information is critical for the development of efficient procedures for ghost orchid production for successful reintroduction. Methods Ghost orchid seedling early development stages were morphologically and anatomically defined to compare germination, embryo and protocorm maturation and seedling development during asymbiotic and symbiotic culture with one of two mycorrhizal strains (Dlin-379 and Dlin-394) isolated from ghost orchid roots in situ. Key Results Seeds symbiotically germinated at higher rates when cultured with fungal strain Dlin-394 than with strain Dlin-379 or asymbiotically on P723 medium during a 10-week culture period. Fungal pelotons were observed in protocorm cells co-cultured with strain Dlin-394 but not Dlin-379. Some 2-year-old seedlings produced multinode inflorescences in vitro. Production of keikis from inflorescence nodes indicated the capacity for clonal production in the ghost orchid. Conclusions Ghost orchid embryo and seedling development were characterized into seven stages. Fungal strain Dlin-394 was confirmed as a possible ghost orchid germination mycobiont, which significantly promoted seed germination and seedling development. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing data confirmed that Dlin-394 belongs within the genus Ceratobasidium. These results offer the opportunity to examine the benefits of using a mycobiont to enhance in vitro germination and possibly ex vitro acclimatization and sustainability following outplanting. PMID:28025292

  15. 进境卡特兰种苗有害生物风险分析%Risk analysis on the invasive species, Cattleya hybrida (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文辉

    2008-01-01

    依据国际植物检疫实施标准,对我国进境卡特兰可能携带的有害生物进行风险评估,确定了8种检疫性有害生物,5种潜在的非检疫性有害生物,并提出相应的风险管理措施.

  16. Asymbiotic culture of Cattleya intermedia Graham (Orchidaceae: the influence of macronutrient salts and sucrose concentrations on survival and development of plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Hisayuki Sasamori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCattleya intermediais an Atlantic Forest species endemic to Brazil that is classed as vulnerable on the list of threatened species. In this study, C. intermedia plantlets were micropropagated in an asymbiotic culture and the influence of different concentrations of sucrose (15, 30, 45 and 60 g L-1, plus a zero sucrose medium and macronutrient salts (complete Murashige and Skoog (MS medium and half MS medium (with half-strength macronutrients on survival and development of the plantlets was evaluated. In all treatments 100% plantlet survival was achieved. The integrated analysis of height of aerial part, number of leaves per plantlet, fresh mass, number of roots per plantlet and length of the longest root showed that the plantlets exhibited greatest development at the half-strength macronutrient concentrations with 45 or 60 g L-1 of sucrose, as well as at the complete macronutrient concentration with 60 g L-1 of sucrose. Plantlets acclimatized and reintroduced to an environment in which the species occurs naturally exhibited 98.6% survival. The results obtained in this study allowed the establishment of optimal conditions for asymbiotic micropropagation, which is a requisite for future studies focused on conservation of C. intermedia.

  17. 中国云南兰科一新变种--长苞蝉兰%Cymbidium lowianum var. ailaoense, a new variety from Yunnan (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向明; 陈利君; 欧阳雄

    2005-01-01

    基于采自中国云南哀牢山的植物,对兰科新变种长苞蝉兰Cymbidium lowianum var. Ailaoense作了描述与绘图. 此新变种与原变种碧玉兰C.lowianum var. Lowianum的区别在于花苞片线状披针形,长1.0~2.2 cm. 此性状在兰属附生种类中是罕见的.%A new orchid variety, Cymbidium lowianum (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. var. ailaoense X.M.XU, is described and illustrated based on the plants collected from the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan, China. The new variety differs from C.lowianum var. lowianum by having linear-lanceolate bracts 1.0-2.2 cm long, an uncommon feature in the epiphytic cymbidiums.

  18. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Mercado Seir Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del

    93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demãs medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y

    *ugo de pi+a fueron mãs eficientes en la germinación asim4iótica y en el desarrollo de plãntulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utili7ación de las fitohormonas.

  19. Germinación asimbiótica de semillas y desarrollo in vitro de plántulas de Cattleya mendelii Dombrain (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya mendelii es una orquídea endémica de Colombia de gran valor ornamental que se encuentra en peligro de extinción a causa de la recolección masiva y a la destrucción de sus hábitats naturales por la acción antrópica. El cultivo in vitro es una alternativa para la conservación de esta especie o su comercialización. En esta investigación se evaluaron la germinación asimbiótica y el desarrollo de plántulas de las semillas de orquídeas de la especie C. mendelii, en diferentes medios de cultivos in vitro. Inicialmente se recolectaron cápsulas maduras; posteriormente, se determinó la viabilidad de las semillas con la prueba de Tetrazolio. En forma paralela, las semillas se desinfectaron y sembraron con el método de jeringuilla para evaluar el efecto de cinco medios de cultivo en el desarrollo de C. mendelii después de dieciséis semanas de cultivo. Se encontró que la viabilidad de las semillas fue del 93%. El mejor porcentaje de germinación se halló en el medio de cultivo Murashige-Skoog más agua de coco (MS + AC con diferencias significativas (P < 0.05, Tukey con respecto a los demás medios de cultivo. En este estudio se demostró que los medios de cultivos MS suplementados con agua de coco y jugo de piña fueron más eficientes en la germinación asimbiótica y en el desarrollo de plántulas en la orquídea C. mendelii con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo, lo cual los convierte en una opción en la reducción de los costos generados por la utilización de las fitohormonas.

  20. Fungicide and germicide on contamination escaping in the in vitro propagation of Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae Avaliação da fitotoxicidade de fungicidas e germicida na propagação in vitro de Oncidium varicosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae para o controle de microorganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lopes Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problem of in vitro production of seedling is the contamination of the culture medium during the micropropagation stages. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fungicides and germicide on the plant growth and rooting, degree of phytotoxicity and control of contamination during in vitro cultivation of O. varicosum orchid. The flowers were pollinated artificially and the capsules seeds were sowed in MS culture medium modified with half of the macronutrients. The seedlings were transferred to the same culture medium uded for germination, added with the fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil ( 0 g.L-1 , 0.1 g.L-1 ; 0.2 g.L-1 ; 0.4 g.L-1 ; 0.6 g.L-1 and 0.8 g.L-1 or sodium hypochloride with 10% active chloride ( 0 mL. L-1 , 0,5 mL.L-1 ; 0,75 mL. L-1 ; 1,00 mL. L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 ; 1,50 mL. L-1. A complete randomized block design was used with ten replications per treatment and five plantlets per flask. The treatment containing 1.5 mL L-1 sodium hypochloride was the best in preventing contamination by microorganisms and did not cause any apparent harm development and in vitro rooting of Oncidium varicosum plantlets.Um dos maiores problemas na produção de mudas in vitro, é a contaminação por fungos e bactérias do meio de cultura durante as etapas de micropropagação, mesmo havendo todos os cuidados de assepsia. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fungicidas e germicida no crescimento vegetativo e enraizamento in vitro da orquídea Oncidium varicosum Lindl. As flores foram polinizadas artificialmente e as sementes foram germinadas no meio MS modificado com a metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. As plântulas obtidas foram subcultivadas no mesmo meio de germinação, adicionando-se os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorothalonil nas concentrações: 0,1 g.L-1; 0,2 g.L-1 ; 0,4 g.L-1; 0,6 g .L-1 e 0,8 g.L-1 O germicida hipoclorito de sódio com 10% de cloro ativo foi adicionado ao meio nutritivo nas concentrações: 0,5 mL. L-1; 0,75 mL .L-1 ; 1,00 mL .L-1 ; 1,25 mL. L-1 e 1,50 mL. L-1 . O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento e cinco plântulas por frasco. O tratamento contendo hipoclorito de sódio 1,5 mL . L-1 mostrou-se o menos tóxico, pois não afetou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e o enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Oncidium varicosum.

  1. Substratos e extrato pirolenhoso no cultivo de orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae = Substratum and pyroligneous extract in the cultivation of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento vegetativo e de raízes de espécies das orquídeas brasileiras Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley e Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley utilizando diferentes substratos e extrato pirolenhoso foi avaliado. Mudas produzidas in vitro foram transferidas para recipientes com: T1 – casca de pinus (Pi, fibra de coco (Co e casca de arroz carbonizada (Ca; T2 – PiCoCa e carvão vegetal (Car; T3 – PiCoCaCar, sendo o carvão vegetal tratado com extrato pirolenhoso (EP; T4 – CoCaCarEP; e T5 – CoCaCar. Todos os materiais foram utilizados na mesma proporção. Altura da parte aérea, número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, número de brotos, massa fresca total e pH foram avaliados sete meses após a instalação do experimento. Para C. intermedia, o T3 foi superior aos outros tratamentos, com valores maiores para os parâmetros estudados. O T4 e, a seguir, o T2 foram os tratamentos nos quais os valores mais seaproximaram do melhor tratamento. Para Milt. clowesii, a mesma tendência se verificou, entretanto sem a mesma magnitude nas diferenças entre os tratamentos. De maneira geral, o extrato pirolenhoso incrementou o desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular das orquídeas estudadas.The vegetative and root development of the species of Brazilian orchids Cattleya intermedia (John Lindley and Miltonia clowesii (John Lindley using different substrates and pyroligneous extract were assessed. Seedlings from in vitro propagation were transferred to vessels with: T1 - Pinus bark (Pi, coconut fibers (Co and charred peel of rice (Cr; T2 – PiCoCr and vegetal charcoal (Ch, T3 – PiCoCrCh with the charcoal treated with pyroligneous extract (PE;T4 - CoCrChEP and T5 - CoCrCh. The materials used in substrates were placed in the same ratio. Plant height, number of roots, length of the greater root, number of buddings, total fresh mass and pH were assessed seven months after experiment onset. For Para C. intermedia, T3 was superior than the other treatments, with higher values for the studied parameters. T4, followed by T2, were the treatments in which the values were closer to the best treatment. For Milt. clowesii the same tendency was found, although without the same magnitude in the differences among treatments. In general, pyroligneous extract incremented the vegetative and root development of the studied orchids.

  2. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae / Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defibered xaxim (control; PBC= sugar cane bagasse powder; PBC:I= sugar cane bagasse powder: estruted polystyrene (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= sugar cane bagasse powder: sphagnum (1:1, v:v; PBC:PC = sugar cane bagasse powder: husk pinus (1:1, v:v; CP= coconut powder and PBC:PC= coconut powder: sugar cane bagasse powder (1:1, v:v. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with seven treatments, and ten replications. Growing parameters evaluated after 12 months were: height of above ground part (APA, length of the heigher pseudobulb (CMP, diameter of the heigher pseudobulb (DMP, length of the heigher root (CMR, number of roots (NR, number of buds (NB, total fresh mass weight (MFT and substrate pH. All the studied substrates, except the sugar cane bagasse powder with sphagnum, can be recommended to substitute xaxim on the hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. crop.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar substratos alternativos ao xaxim, no desenvolvimento vegetativo e radicular de plantas aclimatizadas do híbrido primário de orquídea Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. Mudas com aproximadamente oito meses, obtidas por propagação in vitro e com altura média 6,4 ± 0,5 cm, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação com 60% de sombreamento em vasos de polipropileno número um, contendo os seguintes substratos: XD= xaxim desfibrado (controle; PBC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar; PBC:I= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: isopor picado (1:1, v:v; PBC:E= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno (1:1, v:v; PBC:CP= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: casca de pínus (1:1, v:v; PC= pó de coco e PBC:PC= pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: pó de coco (1:1, v:v. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com 10 plantas por tratamento. As variáveis avaliadas após 12 meses do início do experimento foram: altura da parte aérea (APA, comprimento do maior pseudobulbo (CMP, diâmetro do maior pseudobulbo (DMP, comprimento da maior raiz (CMR, número de raízes (NR, número de brotos (NB, massa fresca total (MFT e pH do substrato. Todos os substratos avaliados, com exceção do pó de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: esfagno podem ser utilizados como substitutos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook.

  3. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in treatments under white light, while red light promoted greater chlorophyll b, plantlets with fewer and shorter roots, and high ex vitro mortality. The addition of 2.0g L-1 of active charcoal to the culture medium and the use of white light provided greater development efficiency both on in vitro culture and ex vitro plant survival.

  4. Caracterização morfo-anatômica dos órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664 Morpho-anatomic characterization of vegetative organs of Cattleya walkeriana Gardner (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de orquídeas epífitas possuem adaptações morfo-anatômicas singulares e que as tornam aptas a ocuparem ambientes onde a escassez de água e de nutrientes é freqüente, como os ramos e troncos das árvores. Nelas são comuns os tecidos especializados para a reserva de água, tanto nas folhas quanto nas raízes e nos pseudobulbos, tendo este estudo o objetivo de caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente os órgãos vegetativos de Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. As folhas são coriáceo-carnosas, revestidas com espessa cutícula, hipostomáticas e com mesofilo tendendo para a dorsi-ventralidade. Nos pseudobulbos, a cutícula e algumas camadas de células subjacentes impermeabilizam o parênquima fundamental, formado por grandes células que reservam água e carboidratos na forma de grãos de amido. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais, tendo os maiores, calotas de fibras em ambos os polos de tecidos condutores. Nas raízes o velame e o tecido cortical estão formados por várias camadas de células, embora tanto a exoderme quanto a endoderme mostrem-se pouco espessadasThe epiphytic orchids species have singular morpho-anatomic adaptations, which enable them to stay in places where water and nutrients scarcity are frequent, such as trees branch and trunk. The tissues specialized in water reservation are common in these species, as much as in leaves, roots and pseudobulbs. This study aimed to distinguish morpho-anatomically the vegetative organs of ,em>Cattleya walkeriana Gardner. Their leaves are coriaceous-fleshy in texture, covered by thick cuticle, hypostomatic and their mesophyll tends to the dorsal-ventral. In the pseudobulbs, the cuticle and some underlying cell layers waterproof the fundamental parenchyma, formed by big cells that reserve water and grains of starch. The vascular bundles are collateral, and the longest ones have sclerenchyma cap in both conductor tissue poles. In the roots, the velamen and the cortical tissue are formed by several cell layers, although both exoderm and endoderm are not very thick

  5. Levantamento de espécies da família Orchidaceae em Águas de Sta. Bárbara (SP) e seu cultivo A survey of the Orchidaceae family species to evaluate the biodiversity and their cultivation in the district of Águas de Santa Bárbara

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Carlos Cardoso; Manoel Israel

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho visa avaliar a biodiversidade nas matas do Brasil, especificamente sobre a família das orquidáceas que possuem plantas com valor ornamental, medicinal e alimentício. O local de estudo foi o município de Águas de Sta. Bárbara, devido a grande quantidade de matas ciliares às margens dos Rios Novo e Pardo, além de remanescentes de cerrado e por ser uma cidade turística e agrícola com riscos de problemas ambientais. Foi realizada a caracterização, buscando conhecer, mapear, av...

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement MX: Buried Trench Construction and Test Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    CACTACEAE : Carnegiea gigantea - sanuaro Ferocactus wis2izeni - barrel cactus Mamnillaria tetrancstra - pincushion cactus Opuntia acanthocarpa - buckhorn...families: lliaceae (lily family), amaryllidaceae (amaryllis family), orchidaceae (orchid family), crassulaceae (orpine family), cactaceae (cactus family

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  8. Dendrochilum hampelii (Coelogyninae, Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) traded as ‘Big Pink’ is a new species, not a hybrid: evidence from nrITS, matK and ycf1 sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, Bobby P.; Boos, Ronny; Cootes, James E.; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2013, an unidentified species of Dendrochilum appeared in cultivation under the commercial trade name ‘Big Pink’. Using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and of the plastid matK and ycf1 genes, we examined the phylogenetic relationships between ‘Big Pink’ and six other species of the phenetically defined Dendrochilum subgen. Platyclinis sect. Eurybrachium. Separate and combined analyses (using Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Parsimony inference) showed consistent placement of the unidentified species within a statistically well supported clade. Furthermore, the multi-copy nrITS marker showed clear distinct peaks. Thus, we found no evidence that ‘Big Pink’ could be a hybrid. Against this background, and further supported by species-specific mutations in (at least) nrITS and ycf1, we formally describe ‘Big Pink’ as a new species under the name Dendrochilum hampelii. Morphologically, it is most similar to Dendrochilum propinquum, but it differs in a number of characters. Of the two cultivated individuals available for our study, one was of unrecorded provenance. The other allegedly originated from the Philippines. Observations of the species occurring in the wild in the Philippines in the northern provinces of Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental on the island of Mindanao confirmed this. PMID:26491388

  9. 微生物共同作用下的铁皮石斛组培苗生长效应研究%Interaction Effect of Symbiotic Microorganisms on Seedling Growth of Dendrobium catenatum Lindley (Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 钟云芳; 宋希强; 王晓鸣; 王健

    2013-01-01

    植物体和植物根际均是复杂的微生态系统,其内栖息着关系复杂的共生微生物,共同影响植物的生长发育.为探讨混合接种真菌与细菌对兰科植物生长的影响,筛选出真菌与细菌的优势促生组合,本研究选取经分离、筛选获得的4株促生内生真菌(铁皮石斛内生真菌C22、C35,美花石斛内生真菌L12、L28)和3株促生内生细菌(铁皮石斛菌内生细菌TX-7、TX-16、TX-19),以“真菌+细菌”的方式混合接种于铁皮石斛无菌组培苗中,共培养120 d.结果获得了3组优势组合:C22 +TX-19、L28+ TX-16和L28+ TX-19,它们对铁皮石斛组培苗的生长均表现出正效应,其中C22 +TX-19和L28+ TX-19对促进组培苗生物量的增长具有协同效应,L28+ TX-19对提高组培苗的根分枝率具有协同效应,3个组合对增加组培苗的分蘖数和根尖数均表现为累加效应.研究结果表明,内生真菌与内生细菌的共同作用可显著促进铁皮石斛的生长,混合接种有可能更大地发挥微生物的效能.%Complex micro-ecosystems exist between plants and rhizosphere, where various symbiotic microorganisms with complicated interactions jointly influence the growth and development of the plant. To better understand the interaction effect of fungi and bacteria on orchid growth,we screened four endophytic fungi that beneficially promote growth,among which two strains were isolated from Dendrobium catenatum and two from Dendrobium loddigesii. Three growth-promoting endophytic bacteria were also screened from D. catenatum, and combinations of tested fungi and bacteria were inoculated on the roots of seedlings for 120 days to investigate the growth effect on D. catenatum. Inocula combinations C22 +TX-19,L28 +TX-16, and L28+TX-19 demonstrated the best growth effect on the host,showing additive effects on the number of tillers and root tips of seedlings. Moreover,C22 +TX-19 and L28 +TX-19 combinations synergistically increased seedling biomass,and L28+TX-19 inocula synergistically promoted root branching. Results indicated that interactions between endophytic fungi and endophytic bacteria had significant growth promoting effects on the host. It may be possible to develop endophytic inocula for orchid growth.

  10. INDUÇÃO E HISTOLOGIA DE EMBRIÕES SOMÁTICOS PRIMÁRIOS E SECUNDÁRIOS DO HÍBRIDO Phalaenopsis CLASSIC SPOTTED PINK (ORCHIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia ULISSES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos inducir la formación de embriones somáticos in vitro en el híbrido Phalaenopsis Classic Spotted Pink, utilizando diferentes medios nutritivos, y evaluar la morfología interna de estos embriones mediante análisis histológico e histoquímico. Hojas jóvenes de plantas cultivadas in vitro se utilizaron como explantes para la inducción de embriones somáticos en diferentes medios nutritivos: New Dogashima Medium, contenido de ANA (0.537 mM y BAP (4.440 μM además de phytagel y con pH 5.8 (NDM y el Murashige Skoog con la mitad de la concentración de sales, además de ANA (0.537 μM y TDZ (13.621 μM, gelificado gelrite y pH 5.2 (½ MS. Se obtuvieron embriones somáticos primarios a los 90 días de cultivo en el medio ½ MS y a estos se les transfirió al mismo medio (½ MS para la obtención de embriones secundarios. Los embriones somáticos primarios y secundarios fueron subcultivados para MS con la mitad de la concentración de sales, sin reguladores de crecimiento y sometidos a fotoperiodo de 16 horas, lo que estimuló la producción de clorofila tanto en los embriones primarios como en los secundarios, promoviendo el desarrollo de los protocormos y más tarde en las plantas. Los análisis histológicos demostraron que los embriones somáticos fueron formados directamente en las capas epidérmicas de los explantes, sin pasar por la fase de callo, vía embriogénesis somática directa. Los métodos histoquímicos hicieron posible destacar la deposición de almidón y lípidos en las células embriogénicas como resultado de mecanismos fisiológicos, que permiten el desarrollo de los embriones primarios y secundarios en las plantas. Por lo tanto, el medio ½ MS contenido de ANA (0.537 μM y TDZ (13.621 μM, con gelrite y pH 5.2 permitió obtener embriones primarios y secundarios con capacidad para regenerar plantas con caracteres morfológicos similares a los dela planta matriz.

  11. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro de orquídeas é bastante utilizada para a produção de mudas. A busca por meios de cultura alternativos para este fim vem sendo amplamente estudada devido à complexidade dos meios comumente utilizados, como o meio MS. Os híbridos de Phalaenopsis encontram-se dentre as orquídeas mais comercializadas no mundo devido à longevidade e à beleza peculiar de suas flores. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações de fertilizantes comerciais e adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' em meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (P. amabilis x P. equestris. Plântulas germinadas in vitro, em meio MS, foram subcultivadas em meios de cultura à base de fertilizantes comerciais e meio MS modificado com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes. Os meios de cultura foram avaliados com e sem a adição de polpa de banana 'Nanica' (100 g L-1 no estádio de maturação quatro. A base dos meios de cultura foi composta por sacarose (30 g L-1, carvão ativado (1 g L-1 e ágar (9 g L-1. Aos 180 dias foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: área foliar, número de folhas e raízes, comprimento de raízes e massas de matérias secas de folhas e raízes. Conclui-se que o tratamento composto por Biofert® acrescido de polpa de banana apresentou os melhores resultados para o desenvolvimento in vitro do híbrido, inclusive apresentando resultados estatisticamente superiores em relação ao meio MS sem banana.The in vitro propagation of orchids is a largely used procedure for the production of seedlings. The search for alternative culture media with this purpose has been widely studied due to the complexity of the commonly used media, e.g. the MS medium. The hybrids of Phalaenopsis are among the most commercialized orchids in the world due to the longevity and distinct beauty of its flowers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fertilizers' formulations and the addition of 'Nanica' banana pulp in a culture medium for in vitro cultivation of a hybrid of Phalaenopsis. Seedlings germinated in vitro, in MS medium, were subcultivated in culture media with a basis of commercial fertilizers and MS medium modified with half the concentration of macronutrients. The culture media were evaluated with and without the addition of the banana pulp (100g L-1 during the stage of maturation 4. The basis of these culture media was composed of sucrose (30g L-1, activated charcoal (1g L-1 and agar (9g L-1. After 180 days the following variables were analyzed: leaf area, number of leaves and roots, root length and dry weight of leaves and roots. We were able to conclude that the treatment composed by Biofert® supplemented with banana pulp presented the best results for the hybrid development in vitro, and actually presented statistically superior results in relation to MS without banana.

  12. Dendrochilum hampelii (Coelogyninae, Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) traded as 'Big Pink' is a new species, not a hybrid: evidence from nrITS, matK and ycf1 sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, Bobby P; Boos, Ronny; Cootes, James E; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, an unidentified species of Dendrochilum appeared in cultivation under the commercial trade name 'Big Pink'. Using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and of the plastid matK and ycf1 genes, we examined the phylogenetic relationships between 'Big Pink' and six other species of the phenetically defined Dendrochilum subgen. Platyclinis sect. Eurybrachium. Separate and combined analyses (using Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Parsimony inference) showed consistent placement of the unidentified species within a statistically well supported clade. Furthermore, the multi-copy nrITS marker showed clear distinct peaks. Thus, we found no evidence that 'Big Pink' could be a hybrid. Against this background, and further supported by species-specific mutations in (at least) nrITS and ycf1, we formally describe 'Big Pink' as a new species under the name Dendrochilum hampelii. Morphologically, it is most similar to Dendrochilum propinquum, but it differs in a number of characters. Of the two cultivated individuals available for our study, one was of unrecorded provenance. The other allegedly originated from the Philippines. Observations of the species occurring in the wild in the Philippines in the northern provinces of Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental on the island of Mindanao confirmed this.

  13. Odontochilus poilanei (Gagnep.) Ormerod, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from Fujian Province%福建省兰科一新记录种——齿爪齿唇兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明河; 陈世品; 兰思仁; 彭东辉; 黎茂彪

    2013-01-01

    报道了福建省兰科一新纪录种——齿爪齿唇兰(Odontochilus poilanei(Gagnep.) Ormerod),提供种的简要描述和照片;并分析了该植物分类学地位的变化情况,特别是与齿唇兰属(Odontochilus)和叠鞘兰属(Chamaegastrodia)的关系.基于Ormerod的观点,以福建省齿唇兰属的一新纪录种发表.

  14. Propagación in vitro de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae mediante técnicas simbióticas y asimbióticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Karol Chávez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Para su germinación, las orquídeas dependen de hongos micorrízicos y muchas de las características únicas de estas plantas están asociadas con el hongo que las coloniza. En este trabajo se evaluó la germinación de semillas de la orquídea Comparettia falcata en condiciones de laboratorio utilizando los métodos simbióticos: dos hongos micorrízicos de orquídeas de diferentes especies y un aislamiento patogénico de Rhizoctonia solani obtenido de arroz, y los asimbioticos: formulación de Knudson C y MS (Murashie & Skood. Se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre tratamientos, resultando mejor el método asimbiótico con la formulación Knudson C y el simbiótico con R. solani, patógeno de arroz. Además, se observó que los tratamientos donde se implementó la metodología simbiótica tuvieron menor porcentaje de contaminación por microorganismos que los tratamientos de tipo asimbiótico.

  15. 美花石斛菌根真菌接菌方式与接种效应初步研究%Inoculation Methods and Effects of Beneficial Symbiotic Fungi of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.(Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝玲; 宋希强; 胡美姣; 杨福孙

    2011-01-01

    Symbiosis with orchid mycorrhizal fungi is essential to the orchid seeds germination and seedlings growth in nature. To study the effects of orchid mycorrhizae on the growth of orchid seedlings, especially the direct relationship between inoculation methods and inoculation effects in laboratory, three mycorrhizal fungi ( M1,M2 and M3 ) was isolated from fresh nutritious roots of Denclrobium loddigesii and used to establish the asymbiotic culture system, single and mixed inoculation were adopted, inoculation effects on D. loddigesii seedlings was analyzed. At last, beneficial fungi M1 and M3 were screened out, and mixed inoculating was good for biomass accumulation of D. loddigesii seedlings, such as inoculation modes with two myeorrhizal fungi M1-M2, M2-M3 and with three mycorrhizal fungi M1-M2-M3. Mixed inoculating would play an effective role in orchids production,which has great practical significance.%自然条件下,兰科菌根真菌的共生对于兰科植物种子萌芽和植株生长是必不可少的.为探讨有益共生真菌对兰科植物生长的促进作用,特别是在实验室环境下接菌方式的改变与接种效应直接的联系,本研究从野生美花石斛(Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.)新鲜营养根中分离、筛选出3种菌根真菌(M1、M2和M3),采用单一接菌和混合接菌的接种方式,分析3个菌株及其不同接种方式对美花石斛生长的影响.研究得到优势菌株M1和M3,并证实混合接菌对美花石斛的生物量增长具有较好的正效应,两两混合接种方式M1-M2、M2-M3及3个混合接种方式M1-M2-M3均能较好的促进美花石斛生物量的积累.充分发挥混合接菌对兰科植物生长发育所产生的效能,提高生产效率.具有较强的现实意义.

  16. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and coconut fiber. The in vitro plants were kept in MS culture medium. For the qualitative anatomical analysis, samples of leaves and roots were collected from ex vitro and in vitro plants. The acclimatized plants presented morphological and anatomical structure similar to the mother plant. The anatomical structure of in vitro plants did not affect plant survival during the acclimatization process, as this cultivar has great phenotypic plasticity. Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants have high capacity of adaptation to the environment and this characteristic is likely to be responsible for their survival rate of 100% during acclimatization.

  17. In vitro growth of Brassocattleya orchid hybrid in different concentrations of KNO3, NH4NO3 and benzylaminopurine Cultivo in vitro de Brassocattleya (Orchidaceae em diferentes concentrações de KNO3, NH4NO3 e benzilaminopurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C Cardoso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of plant tissue culture is mass propagation of ornamental plants. This experiment evaluated the effect of different concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 and BAP on the in vitro growth of orchid hybrid Brassocattleya 'Pastoral'. Seedlings of this orchid hybrid were used as explants and cultivated in medium with mineral salts and vitamins from the MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962, with the macronutrients P, Ca and Mg reduced by half, and with an addition of 25 g L-1 of sucrose, 0.1 g L-1 of myo-inositol and 1.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Agar-agar was added (6.5 g L-1 and the pH was adjusted to 5.8. As treatments, four concentrations of the NH4NO3 and KNO3 (2x; 1x; ½ and ¼ MS medium and three concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 were assayed. The multiplication, growth in height, fresh and dry weight and sugar level in dry weight of sprouts were evaluated. There occurred a higher growth in height with 0.25x NH4NO3 and KNO3 salts concentrations of MS medium and higher rate of multiplication with combination of NH4NO3 and KNO3 reduced by half of the MS medium concentration and 1.0 mg L-1 BAP.Entre as maiores aplicações da cultura de tecidos de plantas está a propagação massal de mudas de plantas ornamentais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de orquídea Brassocattleya em diferentes concentrações de NH4NO3, KNO3 e BAP. Foram utilizadas sementes do híbrido de orquídea Brassocattleya 'Pastoral' e as plantas foram cultivadas em meio MS com redução pela metade das fontes de P, Mg e Ca e adição de 25 g L-1 de sacarose, 100 mg L-1 de mio-inositol, 1,5 g L-1 de carvão ativo e 6,5 g L-1 de ágar-ágar, sendo o pH ajustado para 5,8. Como tratamentos foram usados quatro concentrações dos sais NH4NO3 e KNO3 (2x; 1x; ½ e ¼ do meio MS e três concentrações de BAP (0,0; 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1. Avaliou-se a multiplicação, o crescimento em altura, massa fresca e seca, além dos teores de açucares redutores na massa seca das mudas. Observou-se grande influência das doses de NH4NO3 e KNO3 sobre o crescimento em altura das mudas, massa fresca e seca e teores de açucares redutores em Bc. ('Pastoral' x Auto. A dose de ¼ da utilizada no meio MS promoveu aumento significativo do crescimento das plantas. Para multiplicação, houve melhor resultado com a dose de ½ dos sais NH4NO3 e KNO3 utilizados no meio MS e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP.

  18. Efeitos da escarificação química e da concentração de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento in vitro de Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae Effect of chemical scarification and concentration of nitrogen on the germination and in vitro development of Vanilla planifolia Jack ex Andr. (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia é uma espécie com grande valor comercial, porém sua propagação é dificultada devido à baixa germinação de suas sementes. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar a influência da escarificação destas sementes por meio da imersão em H2SO4 concentrado durante 60, 120 e 180 segundos, bem como de diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Sessenta segundos de escarificação e 25% de nitrogênio no meio de cultura proporcionaram os melhores resultados sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de V. planifolia, constituindo-se em um procedimento viável para a produção comercial dessa espécie.Vanilla planifolia is a species with a large commercial value; however, it is difficult to propagate due to low seeds germination. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the influence of scarification of the seeds by soaking them in concentrated H2SO4 for 60, 120 and 180 seconds, as well as different concentrations of nitrogen, on germination and plant development. Sixty seconds of scarification and 25% nitrogen in the culture medium provided the best results for germination and is a viable procedure for the commercial production of this species.

  19. New Records and Name Changes for the Orchids in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One genus (Anoectochilus and 12 species (Agrostophyllum neoguineense, Anoectochilus papuanus, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum aemulum, B. bisepalum, B. nubigenum, B. ochroleucum, B. phreatiopse, Corybas solomonensis, Crepidium laevis, Didymoplexis striata, Epipogium roseum of orchids (Orchidaceae are first recorded to the flora of the Solomon Islands during the 2012–2015 field expeditions. Geographic data, ecological and taxonomic notes and illustrations of those species are provided. A new combination (Pinalia oligotricha and a new name (Dendrobium bougainvilleanum are also proposed for fitting recent systematic alterations within Orchidaceae.

  20. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Sriram; Sundar, Durai

    2016-01-01

    The orchid species Dendrobium nobile belonging to the family Orchidaceae and genus Dendrobium (a vast genus that encompasses nearly 1,200 species) has an herbal medicinal history of about 2000 years in east and south Asian countries. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. nobile from northeastern India for the first time.

  1. Studies in tropical teratology, 2nd Series, No. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H.J.

    1937-01-01

    Dr J. J. Smith is best known by his studies about Orchidaceae. But since 1904 he published regularly in collaboration with Dr J. C. Costerus in the ”Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg“, the results of their researches in teratology of tropical plants. Some years ago, Dr J. J. Smith was so kin

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  3. A tale of two orchids: comparative reproductive development in Vanilla and Phalaenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The orchid family of flowering plants (Orchidaceae) represents the largest, most diverse, and most successful family of flowering plants in the world yet they are one of the most understudied groups from a molecular and genomic perspective. To further the long-term goal of developing enabling genom...

  4. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a previou

  5. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George; Vold, Gert

    2008-01-01

    ), Dipsacaceae (7), Elaeagnaceae (74), Euphorbiaceae (8), Fabaceae (9, 35-36, 67-71, 80-83, 89), Gentianaceae (37), Geraniaceae (38), Iridaceae (52, 53), Juncaceae (54), Lamiaceae (10, 39, 102, 103), Liliaceae s.l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae...

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    (76, 77), Liliaceae (24-27), Onagraceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), (63), (76, 77), (24-27), (17), Orchidaceae (28), Papaveraceae (18), Plantaginaceae (78), Poaceae (29-37, 87-98, 94, 101-103), Polygonaceae (19, 79), Primulaceae (51), Ranunculaceae (20, 38-40, 54-56, 64-66), Rosaceae (52, 53, 65, (19, 79...

  7. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    .l. (55, 56, 92), Linaceae (40), Malvaceae (90), Onagraceae (11), Orchidaceae (66, 79), Plumbaginaceae (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae...

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Sfikas, George

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  9. Introduction of Cover Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  10. Printed and Mimeographed Issues Obtainable from Flora Malesiana Foundation, Rijksherbarium, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1967-01-01

    Index to the Enumeration of the Orchidaceae of Sumatra, by J.J. Smith. At the Rijksherbarium there was a handwritten copy compiled by the late Dr. J.J. Smith of his important enumeration of Sumatran Orchids, published in Fedde, Repertorium 32 (1933) 130-386, which was obviously for reasons of econom

  11. OBSERVACIONES DE LA POLINIZACIÓN Y FENOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DE Brassia cf. antherotes Rchb.f. (ORCHIDACEAE) EN UN RELICTO DE SELVA SUBANDINA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LA MONTAÑA DEL OCASO EN QUIMBAYA, QUINDÍO (COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ospina-Calderón; M. Diazgranados-Cadelo; P. Viveros-Bedoya

    2007-01-01

    Si bien para algunas especies del género Brassia se ha reportado el síndrome de polinización por engaño, específicamente para Brassia antherotes no existían estudios. Por esta razón, se observó la fenología reproductiva de B. antherotes en una selva relictual en Quimbaya, Quindío. La población estudiada constó de 60 individuos localizados entre los 0.5-30 m de altura sobre los forófitos. Durante 7 meses se hizo un seguimiento de la fenología reproductiva. Su floración duró aproximadamente 6 s...

  12. 带叶兜兰种子原地共生萌发及有效菌根真菌的分离与鉴定%In situSymbiotic Seed Germination, Isolation and Identification of Effec-tive Mycorrhizal Fungus inPaphiopedilum hirsutissimum(Orchidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓颖; 张武凡; 刘红霞

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to obtain the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of lithophyticPaphiopedilum hirsutissimum usingin situseed baiting technique. Two natural small seedlings were harvested after in situ seed germination. The effective symbiotic fungi of genusEpulorhizawere isolated from these developed seedlings. In order to verify the effect of the isolated fungal strains on seed germination, one of strains, Phs34, was used to thein vitrosymbiotic seed germination ofP. hirsutissimumon the sterile habitat substrate. After cultured for 6 weeks, seeds inoculated with Phs34 started to develop into protocorms and average germination rate was (58.35±3.41)%, whereas seeds without the fungus failed to germinate. These indicated that the fungal strain Phs34 was compatible mycorrhizal fungus ofP. hirsutissimum, and it will be helpful in seedling production and orchid conservation ofP. hirsutissimum.%为获得带叶兜兰(Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum)种子萌发的共生真菌,采用原地共生萌发技术获得了2株自然萌发的小幼苗,并分离和筛选出了有效的种子萌发共生菌——瘤菌根菌(Epulorhiza sp.)。为验证分离菌株对带叶兜兰种子萌发的有效性,将Phs34号菌株与带叶兜兰种子在灭菌后的原生境基质上进行室内共生萌发试验,结果表明,经过6周的培养,对照组没有观察到种子的萌发;接菌的种子胚明显膨大,突破种皮,形成原球茎,平均萌发率为(58.35±3.41)%。这表明分离得到的瘤菌根菌能促进带叶兜兰的种子萌发。

  13. Ex situ symbiotic seed germination, isolation and identification of effective symbiotic fungus in Cymbidium mannii (Orchidaceae)%硬叶兰种子的迁地共生萌发及有效共生真菌的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春玲; 李勇毅; 高江云

    2012-01-01

    Aims The in situ and ex situ seed baiting techniques, which have been developed in recent years, are effective methods to study the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of orchids. Our aim was to obtain the compatible mycorrhizal fungi of epiphytic Cymbidium mannii using the ex situ seed baiting technique. Methods Bark, moss, litter and humus around the roots of adult plants of C. mannii were collected as substrate to cultivate C. mannii seeds in the laboratory. The fungi were isolated from developed protocorms and identified by morphological and molecular characteristics. The effects of different mycorrhizal fungi and light on seed germination were examined by in vitro symbiotic germination. Important findings The isolated fungus was identified as a species of the genus Epulorhiza and was named as FCb4. After 58 days cultivation, seeds inoculated with FCb4 strain and FDaI7 strain (Tulasnella, isolated from Dendrobium aphyllum) had a high germination ratio, whereas seeds without the fungus failed to germinate. There was no significant difference between the germination ratios of seeds inoculated with FCb4 and FDaI7 strains, but FCb4 was significantly superior for seedling formation and development compared with FDaI7 in light. This indicated a lower degree of symbiotic fungal specificity on seed germination than the protocorm development stage in C. mannii. The fungus we obtained was effective for seed germination, and protocorm and seedling development for C. mannii. Germination and protocorm production were higher in the dark (0/24 h light/dark) than the light condition (12/12 h light/dark), whereas the subsequent protocorm development was better with light. These findings will aid in seedling production and reintroduction of C. mannii.%兰科植物的种子原地和迁地共生萌发技术是近年发展起来的开展兰科植物种子和共生真菌研究的有效方法.该研究对兰属(Cymbidium)附生植物硬叶兰(C.mannii)开展了种子的迁地共生萌发研究,试图获得其种子萌发的有效真菌.利用硬叶兰成年植株根部周围的树皮、苔藓、枯枝落叶、腐殖质等作为培养基质,进行种子的共生培养.在培养133天后,成功地获得了处于不同阶段的已萌发种子、原球茎和幼苗,并从原球茎中分离得到一种瘤菌根菌属(Epulorhiza)真菌.用所分离到的FCb4菌株和一种从兜唇石斛(Dendrobium aphyllum)分离到的胶膜菌属(Tulasnella) FDaI7菌株和硬叶兰种子在燕麦琼脂培养基上进行共生萌发,设置不接菌作为对照处理,以检验FCb4菌株对硬叶兰种子萌发的有效性.经过58天的培养,不接菌的对照处理中种子没有萌发,接种FCb4和FDaI7菌株的处理都有很高的种子萌发率,两种接菌处理在不同光照条件下的种子萌发率均无显著性差异.但暗培养条件下,种子萌发形成原球茎后,表现出生长停滞的趋势,仅有很少的原球茎继续生长达到幼苗阶段,说明原球茎发育后期与幼苗发育阶段需要光照.在光照条件下,接种FCb4菌株处理中达到幼苗阶段种子的比例为(25.67±9.27)%,显著高于接种FDaI7菌株处理的(3.04±2.27)%(W=56,p=0.026,Mann-Whimey U-test),表明此研究中分离到的瘤菌根菌属真菌能有效地促使硬叶兰种子萌发并生长发育到幼苗阶段.

  14. Fontes de nitrogênio no crescimento in vitro de plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. (Orchidaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309 Nitrogen sources in the in vitro development of the Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Zampiere Arce Zarraga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de nitrato de cálcio e nitrato de amônio no crescimento in vitro de orquídea. Plântulas de Cattleya loddigesii oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, com 1,0 cm de comprimento, foram inoculadas em frascos contendo 60 mL de meio de cultura WPM modificado em suas concentrações de nitrato de cálcio (0, 278, 556, 834 e 1112 mg L-1 e nitrato de amônio (0, 200, 400, 600 e 800 mg L-1. O meio foi acrescido de 20 g L-1 de sacarose, 150 g L-1 de polpa de banana ‘nanica’ madura e 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, pH ajustado para 5,7 ± 0,1 e solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar, antes da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1,5 atm, por 20 min. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h e 35 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Decorridos 90 dias, observaram-se melhores resultados para número de folhas e de brotos com 400 e 450 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio, respectivamente, enquanto que o maior número de raízes foi obtido com 600 mg L-1 de nitrato de amônio e 278 mg L-1 de nitrato de cálcio. Recomenda-se a utilização do meio WPM em sua composição original, sem nitrato de cálcio na micropropagação desta espécie.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of calcium and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro development of orchids. Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets, 1.0 cm in size produced by self pollinization and also by in vitro germinated seeds, were inoculated in flasks containing 60 mL of WPM culture medium, modified with different concentrations of calcium nitrate (0, 278, 556, 834, and 1112 mg L-1 and ammonium nitrate (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg L-1. The culture medium was supplemented with 20 g L-1 of sucrose, 150 g L-1 of ‘Nanica’ banana pulp, activated charcoal 2 g L-1, solidified with agar 6 g L-1, and pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1 before being autoclaved at 121ºC, 1.5 atm pressure during 20 minutes. After inoculations, the flasks were transferred to a growth room with controlled temperature around 25±2ºC, 16 h photoperiod regime, with a light intensity of 35 µmol m-2 s-1. After 90 days, it was observed that the best results in terms of number of leaves was achieved with 400 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, and the highest number of sprouts was obtained with 450 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate, but the major number of roots was verified in the treatment with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate. In resume, it is recommended to use the WPM medium in its original composition, without calcium nitrate to micropropagate Cattleya loddigesii ‘Tipo’ orchid plantlets. The best rooting was achieved with 600 mg L-1 of ammonium nitrate and 278 mg L-1 of calcium nitrate added in the medium.

  15. Molecular cloning of a new immunomodulatory protein from Anoectochilus formosanus which induces B cell IgM secretion through a T-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chou Kuan

    Full Text Available An immunomodulatory protein (IPAF was purified and cloned from Anoectochilus formosanus, an Orchidaceae herbal plant in Asia. The major targeting immune cells of IPAF and its modulating effects toward B lymphocytes were investigated. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was conducted to clone the IPAF gene, and the obtained sequence was BLAST compared on the NCBI database. MACS-purified mouse T and B lymphocytes were stimulated with IPAF and the cell proliferation, activation, and Igs production were examined. IPAF comprised a 25 amino acids signal peptide and a 138 amino acids protein which was homologous to the lectins from Orchidaceae plant. IPAF selectively induced the cell proliferation in mouse splenic B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. The IPAF-induced B cells exhibited increased CD69 and MHC class II expression, and a dose- and time-dependent enhancement in IgM production. These results suggested potential benefits of IPAF to strengthen the humoral immunity.

  16. Kinsenoside inhibits the inflammatory mediator release in a type-II collagen induced arthritis mouse model by regulating the T cells responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Wu, Jin-Bin; Lin, Ho; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Anoectochilus formosanus has been used as a Chinese folk medicine and is known as the “King of medicine” in Chinese society due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as anti-hypertension, anti-diabetes, anti-heart disease, anti-lung and liver diseases, anti-nephritis and anti-Rheumatoid arthritis. Kinsenoside is an essential and active compound of A. formosanus (Orchidaceae). However, the anti-arthritic activity of kinsenoside has still not been demonstrated. In the present...

  17. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  18. Deceptive pollination of orchids

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some “empty flowers”, which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in angiosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations t...

  19. More than symbioses : orchid ecology ; with examples from the Sydney Region

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Orchidaceae are one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. Orchids grow as terrestrial, lithophytic, epiphytic or climbing herbs but most orchids native to the Sydney Region can be placed in one of two categories. The first consists of terrestrial, deciduous plants that live in fire-prone environments, die back seasonally to dormant underground root tubers, possess exclusively subterranean roots, which die off as the plants become dormant, and belong to the subfamil...

  20. Pollination by sexual mimicry in Mormolyca ringens: a floral chemistry that remarkably matches the pheromones of virgin queens of Scaptotrigona sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Adriana; Marsaioli, Anita J; Singer, Rodrigo B; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Menezes, Cristiano; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Corrêa, Arlene G

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of some volatile (2-heptanol) and nonvolatile constituents (a homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) of Mormolyca ringens flowers and Scaptotrigona sp. queen waxes (homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) and cephalic extracts (homologous series of 2-alkanols, including 2-heptanol) involved with the pseudocopulation or sexual mimicry in Orchidaceae pollination is compared. The similarity in chemical composition of flowers and insects is assigned to the chemically induced copulatory activity in Scaptotrigona males.

  1. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terre...

  2. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eAcri-Nunes-Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The ‘orchid code’ model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. Athens. The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  3. Contribución al conocimiento del endemismo de la flora vascular en Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castillo-Campos; Ma. Elena Medina Abreo; Patricia Dolores Dávila Aranda; José Alejandro Zavala Hurtado

    2005-01-01

    Se elaboró una lista de taxa endémicos de la flora vascular de Veracruz. Se registraron 94 géneros de 56 familias que contienen 131 especies y 10 taxa subespecíficos con distribución restringida a los límites del estado. Las familias con el mayor número de unidades endémicas fueron Orchidaceae (11), Myrtaceae (10), Bromeliaceae (9), Poaceae (8), Begoniaceae (7), Zamiaceae (5) y Polypodiaceae (5). Los tipos de vegetación que presentaron la mayor diversidad de endemismo, son el bosque tropical ...

  4. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  5. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer A Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae, EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae, Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae, Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae. These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections.

  6. Estudo fitossociológico de uma comunidade vegetal sobre canga como subsídio para a reabilitação de áreas mineradas no quadrilátero ferrífero, MG Phytosociological study of a plant community on ironstone as support for recovery of a mined area in the iron quadrangle, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Jacobi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura e composição de um campo rupestre sobre canga para servir de base a estudos sobre reabilitação de áreas degradadas pela mineração de ferro. Estudou-se uma canga no Parque Estadual da Serra do Rola-Moça, MG. Em 30 parcelas de 2 m², foram amostrados 2.151 indivíduos pertencentes a 32 espécies e 16 famílias, com diversidade de 2,45 nats/ind. A altura média foi de 15,8 ± 16,3 cm, com 80% dos indivíduos menores do que 25 cm. As famílias mais importantes foram Orchidaceae, Poaceae e Cyperaceae, e as espécies com maior valor de importância foram Andropogon ingratus (Poaceae, Lychnophora pinaster (Asteraceae, Bulbostylis fimbriata (Cyperaceae, Sophronitis caulescens (Orchidaceae e Sebastiania glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae. Sugere-se que essas espécies mais importantes, aquelas com crescimento clonal como gramíneas, ciperáceas e orquídeas epilíticas, as facilitadoras como Stachytarpheta glabra e Mimosa calodendron e espécies tolerantes a metais pesados como Vellozia spp. sejam candidatas prioritárias em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas por mineração de ferro.This work aimed to characterize the structure and composition of a Rupestrian field over ironstone as a basis for rehabilitation studies of areas degraded by iron mining activities. An ironstone outcrop at Serra do Rola Moça State Park, MG, was studied. In 30 plots of 2 m², 2,151 individuals were found, belonging to 32 species and 16 families, with a diversity of 2.45 nats/ind. Mean height was 15.7 ± 16.3 cm, with 80% below 25 cm. The most important families were Orchidaceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and the species with highest importance value were Andropogon ingratus (Poaceae, Lychnophora pinaster (Asteraceae, Bulbostylis fimbriata (Cyperaceae, Sophronitis caulescens (Orchidaceae, and Sebastiania glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae. We suggest that these species, together with those presenting clonal growth, such

  7. Caracterización molecular de Laelia halbingeriana y su propagación in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Raya Montaño, Yurixhi Atenea

    2013-01-01

    Laelia halbingeriana pertenece a la familia Orchidaceae y debido a su descubrimiento relativamente reciente, no se ha caracterizado morfológica, cromosómica ni molecularmente. Con la finalidad de conocer la diversidad de esta especie y su posible relación con L. anceps, L. superbiens y L. autumnalis, la caracterización molecular mediante el análisis de RAPDs se utilizaron 16 iniciadores, cuatro iniciadores mostraron productos de amplificación aceptable. Se observó 60.97 % de polimorfismo que...

  8. NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA LA FLORA DE HONDURAS Y EL PARQUE NACIONAL MONTAÑA DE CELAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes VEGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  9. Nuevos registros para la flora de Honduras y el Parque Nacional Montaña de Celaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Vega

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 11 novedades para la flora de Honduras a partir de ejemplares recolectados en el Parque Nacional Montaña Celaque. Los nuevos registros son: Tillandsia mateoensis (Bromeliaceae, Diastema affine (Gesneriaceae, Scutellaria costaricana (Lamiaceae, Miconia contrerasii (Melastomataceae, Acianthera violacea, Dendrophylax porrectus, Epidendrum santaclarense, Lepanthes enca-barcenae, L. fratercula, L. isabelae y Sarcoglottis schaffneri (Orchidaceae. Por otra parte, Potosia guatemalensis es sinonimizado bajo S. schaffneri. Se incluyen fotos de todas las especies, hábitats y un mapa de distribución con sus localidades en Honduras.

  10. Composição, diversidade e distribuição geográfica de plantas vasculares de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Renato Augusto Ferreira de; Souza,Vinícius de Castro; Dittrich,Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira; Salino,Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Na floresta Ombrófila Densa do Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho - PECB (ca. 37.000 ha) foi avaliada a composição, riqueza e distribuição geográfica das espécies vasculares nativas. A análise de 1143 espécies pertencentes a 140 famílias (sensu APG III) confirmaram o padrão encontrado para outras florestas do Leste do Brasil, com altas riquezas de Myrtaceae (85 espécies), Orchidaceae (81), Fabaceae (57), Asteraceae, Melastomataceae (54), Lauraceae (53), Rubiaceae (51), Bromeliaceae (43), Piper...

  11. Species diversity and conservation of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhen Tian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available All known wild species of Orchidaceae are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. However, species diversity of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, China, is not well known. Based on field work, inspection of herbarium specimens, and previous records, 121 species in 49 genera of Orchidaceae are listed for the reserve. Of these, 75 species are terrestrial, 40 are epiphytic and 6 are saprophytic. Species fall mainly within genera such as Bulbophyllum (10 species, Calanthe (10 species, Goodyera (10 species, Liparis (8 species, Habenaria (7 species and Cymbidum (6 species. A few species are widespread showing great abundance in the reserve, but most are rather rare having narrow distributions. Tropical type genera tend to dominate, although temperate orchids are more common at the species level. This indicates that the orchid flora is rather complex, being amix of tropic Asian types and East Asian types, particularly of Sino-Japan kind. Thus the orchid flora of Nanling N. N. R has an obvious subtropical character, with affinities to that of Taiwan. We appeal for reasonable plan on establishing power stations and related rule of law should be found to control the illegal trade of the wild orchids in Nanling N. N. R.

  12. Sex and the Catasetinae (Darwin's favourite orchids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Whitten, W Mark; Salazar, Gerardo; Gerlach, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well.

  13. Patrones de distribución de epífitas vasculares en "robledales".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzate G. Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las epífitas son un componente conspicuo de los bosques de montaña tropicales, sin embargo el conocimiento de la función de estos componentes en la dinámica del bosque es aun críptica. Para determinar la composición y estructura de la vegetación epífita en un bosque alto-andino, tanto a nivel vertical como horizontal se establecieron 3 líneas de muestreo en tres niveles altitudinales y tres estratos en cada línea. Los resultados muestran que más del 60% de los hospederos fue Quercus humboldtii, y se encontraron un total de 8 familias y 41 especies de epífitas fanerógamas, de las cuales las familias Orchidaceae y Bromeliaceae fueron las más representativas. La familia Orchidaceae mostró una mayor frecuencia en los estratos bajos, al contrario la familia Bromeliaceae se encontró mas en el dosel. Entre los tres transectos ubicados a diferentes alturas sobre el nivel del mar se observaron algunas diferencias floristicas posiblemente debido a la diferencia estructural de los bosques.

  14. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis, and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1, which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family. PMID:28386268

  15. Check list of the Iberian and Balearic orchids. 2. Ophrys L. - Spiranthes Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Ophrys to Spiranthes, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Lectotypes for Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot. and O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot are designated hereSe presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Ophrys a Spiranthes, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ambito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinonimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico. Se designan los lectotipos de Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot, y O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot.

  16. Catálogo de las orquídeas ibéricas y baleares. 1. Aceras R. Br. - Nigritella Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Aceras to Nigritella, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems.Se presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Aceras a Nigritella, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos los híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ámbito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinónimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico

  17. Two additions to the Mexican orchid flora Dos adiciones a la orquideoflora mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Salazar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Orchidaceae are recorded here for the first time in Mexico, namely Cryptarrhena guatemalensis and Domingoa gemma. Cryptarrhena guatemalensis is widespread in the Neotropics and can be distinguished from C. lunata, the only other species of the genus, by possessing pseudobulbs and narrowly triangular, attenuate apical labellum lobules. Domingoa gemma, previously known only from Guatemala and El Salvador, differs from the similar D. purpurea in the smooth, linear-lanceolate leaves and labellum lacking a prominent sac at the base. Both species are known in Mexico from single localities in the state of Chiapas.Se registran aquí por primera vez en México 2 especies de Orchidaceae, Cryptarrhena guatemalensis y Domingoa gemma. Cryptarrhena guatemalensis está ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico y se distingue de C. lunata, la única otra especie del género, por presentar pseudobulbos y por los lóbulos apicales del labelo angostamente triangularesy atenuados. Domingoa gemma, previamente conocida sólo de Guatemala y El Salvador, difiere de D. purpurea, especie similar, en las hojas lisas, linear-lanceoladas y el labelo sin un saco prominente en la base. En México sólo se conoce una localidad para cada especie y ambas se ubican en el estado de Chiapas.

  18. Las plantas vasculares de los afloramientos rocosos de Suesca, Cordillera Oriental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Julio César

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon las plantas vasculares presentes en tres tipos de afloramientos rocosos del municipio de Suesca, departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia, ubicados entre 2.800 y 3.000 m de altitud. Estos sitios se denominaron Valle de los Halcones (VH, Farallones de Suesca (FS y Los Monolitos (LM. Cada planta fue recolectada, determinada y se le anotó la superficie en la que crecía (placa, repisa o fisura y el hábito de crecimiento (erecta, colgante o perpendicular a la superficie. Se encontraron 97 especies, correspondientes a 38 familias y 70 géneros. La familia más diversa fue Asteraceae, seguida de Poaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae y Polypodiaceae. El género con más especies fue Tillandsia, seguido de Polypodium. Los sitos de muestreo con mayor diversidad fueron VH y FS. En LM las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae y Poaceae, en FS Poaceae y Asteraceae y en VH Asteraceae y Orchidaceae. En VH las placas fue la superficie con mayor número de especies, mientras que en LM fueron las repisas y en FS las placas y las repisas. La mayoría de las especies encontradas en todos los sitos fueron erectas, seguidas de las perpendiculares a la superficie. Los tres sitios de muestreo mostraron alta similitud florística entre sí.

  19. Building a Genetic Manipulation Tool Box for Orchid Biology: Identification of Constitutive Promoters and Application of CRISPR/Cas9 in the Orchid, Dendrobium officinale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kui, Ling; Chen, Haitao; Zhang, Weixiong; He, Simei; Xiong, Zijun; Zhang, Yesheng; Yan, Liang; Zhong, Chaofang; He, Fengmei; Chen, Junwen; Zeng, Peng; Zhang, Guanghui; Yang, Shengchao; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen; Cai, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Orchidaceae is the second largest family of flowering plants, which is highly valued for its ornamental purposes and medicinal uses. Dendrobium officinale is a special orchid species that can grow without seed vernalization. Because the whole-genome sequence of D. officinale is publicly available, this species is poised to become a convenient research model for the evolutionary, developmental, and genetic studies of Orchidaceae. Despite these advantages, the methods of genetic manipulation are poorly developed in D. officinale. In this study, based on the previously developed Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system, we identified several highly efficient promoters for exogenous gene expression and successfully applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system for editing endogenous genes in the genome of D. officinale. These two basic techniques contribute to the genetic manipulation toolbox of Orchidaceae. The pCambia-1301-35SN vector containing the CaMV 35S promoter and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) and Superfolder green fluorescence protein (SG) as reporter genes were introduced into the plant tissues by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. Fluorescence emission from the transformed plants confirmed the successful transcription and translation of SG genes into functional proteins. We compared the GUS activity under different promoters including four commonly used promoters (MtHP, CVMV, MMV and PCISV) with CaMV 35S promoter and found that MMV, CVMV, and PCISV were as effective as the 35S promoter. Furthermore, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing system successfully in D. officinale. By selecting five target genes (C3H, C4H, 4CL, CCR, and IRX) in the lignocellulose biosynthesis pathway, we showed that, for a given target, this system can generate edits (insertions, deletions, or substitutions) at a rate of 10 to 100%. These results showed that our two genetic manipulation tools can efficiently express exogenous genes and edit endogenous genes in D

  20. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The "orchid code" model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. "Athens." The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for

  1. Anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Øvstedal, Dag Olav

    2003-08-01

    The main anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D. cordobae were isolated from a purified methanolic extract by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined to be cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside). The structure determinations were mainly based on extensive use of 2D and 1D NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and MS. The anthocyanin contents of species belonging to the subtribe Pleurothallidinae including genus Dracula Luer (Orchidaceae) have previously not been determined. The high content of anthocyanin rutinosides found in D. chimaera and D. cordobae (78 and 28% of the total anthocyanin content, respectively) differs from previously analysed orchid species, in which glucose is found as the only anthocyanin sugar moiety.

  2. AMO-DATA en la taxonomía y en el manejo de colecciones

    OpenAIRE

    Hágsater, Eric; Sánchez-Saldaña, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    AMO-DATA es un sistema de bancos de datos, rela- cionados todos ellos entre sí, para el manejo de colec- ciones botánicas y taxonomía. Reúnen información de familias, géneros, especies, localidades, tipos de vegetación y nomenclatorial, entre otros; en sí, toda la información necesaria para los trabajos de tipo taxo- nómico de la familia Orchidaceae  AMO-DATA es un sistema de bancos de datos, rela- cionados todos ellos entre sí, para el manejo de colec- ciones botánicas y taxon...

  3. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  4. Review: Kandungan Mannan pada Tanaman Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMARWOTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannan is a kind of polysaccharide that shaped from mannose and glucose with molar ratio 3:2. Sum of total mannan have a variation rate, influenced by the age, kind of plant, beginning treatment before drying and many other reason. This kind of carbohydrate is important for the plant, it self, and for human, it can be used for many industries. This polysaccharide produced most by a tuber like iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. mannan polymer has a special character which have an attitude between cellulose and galactomannan, so have and ability to crystallize and shaping soft patterns. Besides Amorphophallus, mannan can be found in a small number of another plant, like Ivory nut, and some of Orchidaceae and some in subdivision Gymnosperm. The way to isolate can be in physically and chemically. And the benefits are for the development of many industries, like food, medical, paper, laboratory, etc.

  5. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  6. 天麻种子与小菇属真菌共生萌发的研究%SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION BETWEEN GASTRODIA ELATA AND FUNGAL SPECIES OF MYCENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 郭顺星; 范黎; 娜仁

    2001-01-01

    Four fungal species of Mycena were identificated from the strains isolated from the protocorm and roots of Orchidaceae species.M. osmundicola was isolated from the proocorm of G.elata, M. orchidicola, M.dendrobii and M. anoectochila respectively separated from the roots of Cymbidium sinense, Dendrobium candidum and Anoectochilus roxburghii. The symbiotic germination test beteen G. Elata seeds and the above fungal species demonstrated that these fungal species can stimulate the seed germination, which means the species of Mycena may be the key mycorrhizal fungi of G elata, because there were no reports about the other fungal species which stimulate G.elata seed germination. Besides G. elata, the above species of Mycena also distributed the roots of the other orchids.

  7. CÁTALOGO DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES DEL SECTOR EL SILENCIO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba RUIZ VEGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan  nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.   Catalogue of Vascular Epiphytic Sector Silencio (Natural National Park Paramillo and Buffer Zone, Cordoba, ColombiaThe catalogue of the vascular epiphyte vegetation of Silencio sector (Paramillo National Natural Park and buffer zone (Córdoba is showed. Sampling was conducted in an area of 0,1 ha, collecting all vascular epiphytes distributed in phorophytes with a DAP≥2,5 cm, in four sectors. Collections were performed in the Silencio sectors (PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba and Alto Chibogadó (buffer zone of the tropical rain forest (Bh -T in Tierralta town. 2504 individuals were recorded as vascular epiphytes. The catalog includes 73 species in 41 genera and 18 families. The sector Tuis Tuis showed the greatest representation of

  8. CHECKLIST DAS MONOCOTILEDÔNEAS DO CEARÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REGINA CELLI ARAÚJO DE FREITAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of lists from the obtaining of primary data in herbaria contributes to enrich knowledge about the Brazilian flora. Mainly, for botanical groups present in the region semiarid and characterized by low availability of information as the monocotyledons. In this way, this work presents a floristic survey of monocotyledons of the State of Ceará, northeast of Brazil, analyzing the taxa richness. The data, which are computerized and available in the software BRAHMS 6.7, were obtained from collecting of the Herbarium Prisco Bezerra (EAC. A total of 3,472 exsicates from collections in the State of Ceará were analyzed, representing 540 species, 207 genera and 28 families. The richest families were: Poaceae (193 spp., Cyperaceae (104 spp., Orchidaceae (51 spp., Bromeliaceae (38 spp. and Araceae (35 spp.. The richest genera were: Cyperus (31 spp., Paspalum (26 spp., Panicum (23 spp., Rhynchospora (17 spp., Eleocharis (16 spp. and Eragrostis (13 spp..

  9. KOLEKSI TUMBUHAN TERANCAM KEPUNAHAN DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Wahyu Candra Kusuma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia possesses 386 plant species that are categorized as threatened. Dipterocarpaceae contributes the largest number, reaching 36.79 % of the total threatened plant species, followed by Myristicaceae (13.73 % and Nepenthaceae (6.99%. Of these 386 threatened species, 29.27 % are critically endangered, 17.88% are endangered, and 52.85 % are vulnerable. Bogor Botanic Garden recently maintains 68 threathened plant species if Orchidaceae and Nepenthaceae members are not included on the list. Two species have been regarded as extinct, namely Dipterocarpus cinereus and Calamus spectabilis, while two other species are regarded as extinct in the wild (Mangifera casturi, and Mangifera rubropetala. This information can be useful for everyone for different purposes, especially for those who concern in the conservation of threatened plant species in Indonesia.

  10. PRODUÇÃO IN VITRO DE MUDAS DE Cattleya walkeriana E Cyrtopodium palmifrons A PARTIR DE SEMENTES IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF Cattleya walkeriana AND Cytopodium palmifrons FROM SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Sementes de Cattleya walkeriana e de Cyrtopodium palmifrons (Orchidaceae foram transferidas assepticamente para meios de cultura Knudson, MS (Murashige & Skoog e MS suplementado com IAA (1, 15 e 30 mg L-1 e cinetina (0,25, 5 e 10 mg L-1, para germinação. Elas foram incubadas à temperatu ra de 23 +/- 2°C, sob luz fluorescente por um período de 30 a 45 dias. As plântulas obtidas foram repicadas para meio Knudson, permanecendo em incubação por quatro meses e, em seguida, transferidas para meio fresco, até atingirem tamanho para aclimatação. O cultivo in vitro de ambas as espécies foi considerado viável, havendo comportamento diferente entre as espécies, em relação à produção de protocormóides, níveis de oxidação e crescimento in vitro. Os resultados mostraram que um meio me nos concentrado como Knudson pode ser utilizado sem adição de reguladores de crescimento para produção de mudas tanto para Cattleya walkeriana quanto para Cyrtopodium palmifrons.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Orchidaceae; cultura de tecidos; orquídea.

    Seeds of Cattleya walkeriana and Cyrtopodium palmjfrons (Orchidaceae were aseptically transferred to culture medium Knudson, MS (Murashige& Skoog and MS supplemented with IAA (l, 15 and 30 mg L-1 and kinetine (0.25, 5 and 10 mg L-1 for germination. They were kept at room temperature (23 +/- 2°C under fluorescent light for 30 to 45 days. The seedlings were transferred to pots containing culture medium Knudson and incubated for four months at room temperature and transferred to fresh culture medium until the seedlings attained approximately 1.0 to 2.0 cm size for

  11. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2006-09-01

    A 3,000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25 degrees 30" S 48 degrees 23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Pleurothallis and Prosthechea. Eight families were represented by one species each. Most species were classified as obligatory holoepiphytes (62 %), followed by the relatively more rare preferential holoepiphytes (13 %), facultative epiphytes (11 %), hemiepiphytes (9 %) and accidental epiphytes (6 %).

  12. CÁTALOGO DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES DEL SECTOR EL SILENCIO (PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba RUIZ VEGA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥ 2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.

  13. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots.

  14. Vascular Epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye: A Comparative Study, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Assefa Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes comprise about 10% of the world’s total flora. However, the survival of these important elements of the global vegetation is recognized to be increasingly threatened, and surveys made to study them remain far from being complete. This study has focused on investigating the vascular epiphytes (true epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and accidental epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye forests of Gamo Gofa zone, southwest Ethiopia. A total of 40 (20 in each 25 m × 25 m quadrats were established along four line transects for vegetation data collection. A total of 35 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded in the two sites (22 and 14 species from Doshke and Kurpaye, resp.. Drynaria volkensii was the only species to be recorded from the two sites. Doshke and Kurpaye forests also varied in the number of phorophytes (17 and 10 phorophytes species, resp.. The richest epiphyte family of Doshke is Orchidaceae (5 species and that of Kurpaye is Polypodiaceae (3 species while Orchidaceae dominate the combined flora being represented by 7 species. In terms of vertical distribution, most species were located at the canopy area. Most vascular epiphytes showed no preference for host trees except for a few species which exhibited higher occurrence rates on the host plant species Syzygium guineense, Schrebera alata, and Acacia tortilis. Vascular epiphyte abundance and species richness were both significantly positively correlated with host tree size. Vascular epiphytes of the studied forests are under a serious pressure, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, and this may lead to their local extinction.

  15. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  16. The vascular flora of the cerrado in Emas National Park (Central Brazil: a savanna flora summarized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Batalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado may be divided in two main phytogeographic sectors: one characterized by Piptocarpha rotundifolia, in which the Emas National Park (ENP is located, and other characterized by Curatella americana. We carried out a floristic survey in ENP, which allowed an assessment of the taxonomic composition, taxa size, and similarity with other sites for the ENP's vascular flora. We compared the ENP's flora with southeastern outlying cerrado sites, also in the Piptocarpha sector, and with general floristic patterns in the cerrado vegetation. The distribution of species per family in ENP was significantly different from that obtained for each component of the general cerrado flora. The herbaceous component was characterized by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and an underproportion of Orchidaceae and Lythraceae; and the woody component, by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae. When compared with outlying cerrado sites, the ENP was quite distinct, not only at species level, but also at family level.O cerrado pode ser dividido em dois principais setores fitogeográficos: um caracterizado por Piptocarpha rotundifolia, em que o Parque Nacional das Emas (PNE está localizado, e outro caracterizado por Curatella americana. Realizamos um levantamento florístico no PNE, que nos permitiu determinar a composição taxonômica de sua flora vascular e sua similaridade com outros sítios. Comparamos a flora do PNE com sítios disjuntos de cerrado, também no setor Piptocarpha, e com padrões florísticos gerais do cerrado. A distribuição de espécies por família foi significativamente diferente daquela obtida para cada componente da flora do cerrado. O componente herbáceo-subarbustivo se caracterizou pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e pela sub-representação de Orchidaceae e Lythraceae; e o componente arbustivo-arbóreo, pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e Nyctaginaceae. Quando comparado aos sítios disjuntos, o PNE se

  17. Las Orquídeas de San José de Suaita (Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Garavito Favio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tratamiento taxonómico de la familia Orchidaceae para la Inspección de Policía de San José de Suaita, municipio de Suaita, departamento de Santander, Colombia (73º 27’ O y 6º 9’ N, 1.550-2.100 msnm. Se registran tres subfamilias, 35 géneros y 91 especies, que
    representan el 12% de la flora local. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Epidendrum con 15 especies, Maxillaria con 11, Pleurothallis con nueve, Dichaea con ocho y Oncidium con cuatro especies. En estos cinco géneros se reúne más del 50% de las especies de
    Orchidaceae de San José de Suaita. Cinco especies constituyen registros nuevos para Colombia y una de ellas es nueva para la ciencia. Así mismo, se encontró que el 75% de las especies son exclusivamente epífitas, el 22% son terrestres y el 23% restante crecen indistintamente como
    epífitas, terrestres o rupícolas. El tratamiento taxonómico incluyó claves, descripciones, ilustraciones y comentarios ecológicos, taxonómicos y corológicos, para los taxones registrados. Se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos empleados en las descripciones, así como su variación en
    taxones considerados (subfamilias, subtribus, géneros. Así mismo, se presenta una evaluación de la distribución latitudinal y altitudinal para 75 de las especies, y se realiza el análisis de las afinidades florísticas de la orquideoflora de la zona con respecto a la de otras localidades neotropicales. Por último, se propone la inclusión de al menos 11 especies en la lista roja de plantas amenazadas con base en su distribución regional, nacional y local.

  18. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Cezar Neubert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.

  19. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  20. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB, Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre de Gasper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species, Rubiaceae (129, Solanaceae (131, Poaceae (155, Melastomataceae (157, Myrtaceae (257, Orchidaceae (288, Fabaceae (323, and Asteraceae (426, between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30, Thelypteridaceae (31, Aspleniaceae (32, Dryopteridaceae (43, Pteridaceae (54 and Polypodiaceae (60. There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria.

  1. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2016-10-29

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  2. Effects of individual and population parameters on reproductive success in three sexually deceptive orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewoestijne, S; Róis, A S; Caperta, A; Baguette, M; Tyteca, D

    2009-05-01

    Reproductive success (RS) in orchids in general, and in non-rewarding species specifically, is extremely low. RS is pollinator and pollination limited in food deceptive orchids, but this has rarely been studied in sexually deceptive orchid species. Here, we tested the effects of several individual (plant height, inflorescence size, nearest neighbour distance and flower position) and population (patch geometry, population density and size) parameters on RS in three sexually deceptive Ophrys (Orchidaceae) species. Inter-specific differences were observed in RS of flowers situated in the upper versus the lower part of the inflorescence, likely due to species-specific pollinator behaviour. For all three species examined, RS increased with increasing plant height, inflorescence size and nearest neighbour distance. RS generally increased with decreasing population density and increasing patch elongation. Given these results, we postulate that pollinator availability, rather than pollinator learning, is the most limiting factor in successful reproduction for sexually deceptive orchids. Our results also suggest that olfactory 'display' (i.e. versus optical display), in terms of inflorescence size (and co-varying plant height), plays a key role in individual RS of sexually deceptive orchids. In this regard, several hypotheses are suggested and discussed.

  3. Plant DNA barcoding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Zhu LI; Jian-Quan LIU; Zhi-Duan CHEN; Hong WANG; Xue-Jun GE; Shi-Liang ZHOU; Lian-Ming GAO; Cheng-Xin FU; Shi-Lin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Identification is the keystone of biology (Bell, 1986).However, to biologists and students of biology, the total numbers of species that must be identified far outnumber the names commonly used in English, Chinese, or other living languages.In addition, the identification cues vary greatly between different taxonomical groups.Even for the taxonomists with long training and experience, it is difficult to remember all specific terms for a given group, e.g., Orchidaceae or Poaceae, without help of floristic books or monographs.It takes much time and effort to train a taxonomist, at a time when fewer and fewer young students are interested in this "classical" and "out-of-style", but extremely important, discipline.Many students elect to learn the more "advanced'' and "modem" biological disciples like molecular biology and biochemistry.Thus, in China and therest of the world, taxonomists are themselves becoming "endangered".The rise of the DNA barcoding is expected to mitigate, at least in part, this dilemma.

  4. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  5. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Powell, Martyn P.; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A.; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H.; Whitten, W. Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M.; Chase, Mark W.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry—a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model–one mimic system—operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant–animal interactions. PMID:23804617

  6. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  7. 香荚兰产品质量标准研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万瑶; 尹桂豪; 宗迎; 谭乐和; 徐志; 吴晓春

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香荚兰(Vanilla planifolia(salisb.)Ames或v.fragrans Andrews)又名香子兰、香草兰、香果兰、扁叶香草兰、哗呢拉,属兰科(Orchidaceae)香子兰属,是热带雨林下的攀缘植物,原产于中美洲,主要分布在南北纬25"以内,海拔700米以下地区.世界香荚兰产地目前主要集中在马达加斯加、印度尼西亚、科摩罗、留旺尼、乌干达、塞舌尔、墨西哥和塔希提等岛屿国或地区.我国的香荚兰是1960年从印度尼西亚引种,并由福建省亚热带植物研究所在室内试种获得成功.

  8. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from dendrobium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available In this study, a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene was cloned from Dendrobium candidum using homology cloning and RACE. The full-length sequence and catalytic active sites that appear in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum are also found: PAL cDNA of D. candidum (designated Dc-PAL1, GenBank No. JQ765748 has 2,458 bps and contains a complete open reading frame (ORF of 2,142 bps, which encodes 713 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of DcPAL1 has more than 80% sequence identity with the PAL genes of other plants, as indicated by multiple alignments. The dominant sites and catalytic active sites, which are similar to that showing in PAL proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, are also found in DcPAL1. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DcPAL is more closely related to PALs from orchidaceae plants than to those of other plants. The differential expression patterns of PAL in protocorm-like body, leaf, stem, and root, suggest that the PAL gene performs multiple physiological functions in Dendrobium candidum.

  9. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.

  10. Epiphytic Plants on Stand of Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. at Mount Lawu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to know: (1 the diversity of epiphyte species at the stand of puspa trees (Schima wallichii (D.C. Korth. in Cemoro Sewu and Cemoro Kandang of mount Lawu, and (2 the distribution and cover abundance of the species based on its location from the land surface. The research objects were all species of epiphyte plants on the stand of puspa trees. The procedures of data collection were including species collection in the field, make up herbariums, observation of epiphyte vegetation using transect method and morphology observation in the laboratory. The results show that in the south slope of the mount Lawu were found 23 species of epiphyte consisting 4 species of lichenes, 2 species of Fungi, 3 species of Bryophyte, 10 species of Pterydophyte, 2 species of Orchidaceae and 2 species of liana. The species with the highest density was Bryophyte, and the highest diversity was Pterydophyte. The height of the trees affects the distribution, diversity and density of the epiphyte plants.

  11. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA DE UM INSELBERGUE NO AGRESTE PARAIBANO, MUNICÍPIO DE ESPERANÇA, NORDESTE DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulinea Andreazza Ferreira Porto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the floristic check-list of a inselberg at the Fazenda Timbaúba (35o52'50.3", 7o1'0.8", municipality of Esperança/PB, Agreste da Borborema Microregion, were realized the present study. The inselberg flora comprise 127 species, 101 genera and 53 families of wich the Leguminosae family with 17 species showed the higher richness, followed by the Asteraceae (9 spp., Poaceae (7 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Orchidaceae (6 spp. families. Bromeliaceae and Cactaceae, despite of not be the higher richness, are covering extents areas, suggesting a higher importance for those families in inselbergs colonization. Comparing the families with other inselberg floras, 29 of them also were raising in Quixadá/CE, 28 in Pão de Açúcar and 24 in Serra do Mar/RJ inselbergs. The majority of species showed xenomorphic adaptations due hydric stress observed in the Southern and Northeastern Brazilian inselbergs. The differences in the floristic composition, especially at genus and species level seem to result of different speciation pressure what aid the taxa with better adaptation at these environments.

  12. Tianma modulates proteins with various neuro-regenerative modalities in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Umamaheswari; Manavalan, Arulmani; Sundaramurthi, Husvinee; Sze, Siu Kwan; Feng, Zhi Wei; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Tianma (Rhizoma gastrodiae) is the dried rhizome of the plant Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae family). As a medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) its functions are to control convulsions, pain, headache, dizziness, vertigo, seizure, epilepsy and others. In addition, tianma is frequently used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders though the mechanism of action is widely unknown. Accordingly, this study was designed to examine the effects of tianma on the proteome metabolism in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to explore its specific effects on neuronal signaling pathways. Using an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based proteomics research approach, we identified 2390 modulated proteins, out of which 406 were found to be altered by tianma in differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Based on the observed data, we hypothesize that tianma promotes neuro-regenerative signaling cascades by controlling chaperone/proteasomal degradation pathways (e.g. CALR, FKBP3/4, HSP70/90) and mobilizing neuro-protective genes (such as AIP5) as well as modulating other proteins (RTN1/4, NCAM, PACSIN2, and PDLIM1/5) with various regenerative modalities and capacities related to neuro-synaptic plasticity.

  13. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Novel Flavonoid Glucoside from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate- and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anoectochilus roxburghii(Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods,the structures of these compounds were elucidated as quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6"-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 8-C-p-Hydroxybenzylquercetin (compound 2), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 6), 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 7), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 8). Of the compounds isolated, compound 1 was a new flavonoid glucoside and exhibited strong scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, whereas the ethanolic extract showed weak activity. Compounds 2-8 were obtained from this family for the first time.

  15. E. A. C. L. E. (Ted Scheipe (1924-1985 — a biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Prof. E.A.C.L.E. Scheipe was born in Durban on 27 July 1924 and died in Cape Town on  12 October 1985. He studied at the University of Natal and at Oxford, England. He was awarded an M.Sc. (S. Afr. for a thesis on the ecology of the Natal Drakensberg and a D. Phil. (Oxon. for a thesis on the ecology of bryophytes. For a brief period he was Curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. In  1953 he was appointed Lecturer in Botany at the University of Cape Town, until in  1973 he was awarded a full professorship (ad hominem and the title of Director of the Bolus Herbarium. Here he established a school of taxonomy and promoted  22  theses. His main fields of research were the taxonomy and phytogeography of Pteridophyta (especially African groups and of Orchidaceae.He has  112 publications to his credit and collected over 7 000 numbers in various regions of Africa, in Europe and the Himalayas. He was a keen gardener and was active in several societies promoting horticulture, orchidology and nature conservation. He was a member of several scientific committees and was repeatedly honoured for his work.Three children were born from his marriage to Sybella Gray, also a botanist.

  16. RESPONSE OF Cattleya forbesii ORCHID TO INCREASING SILICON CONCENTRATIONS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONAN CARLOS COLOMBO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of Silicon (Si to culture media has been shown to improve the development of seedlings grown in vitro , and to reduce losses during the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro growth of Cattleya forbesii (Orchidaceae in MS medium containing five different concentrations of SiO 2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g·L −1 . At day 200, the following variables were measured: number of roots, average length of the root system, leaf area, number of leaves and shoots, shoot height, fresh and dry masses of roots and shoots, water content of roots and shoots, and pH of the culture medium. Most variables decreased as the concentration of Si increased, reducing the in vitro vegetative growth of C. forbesii . Accumulation of Si in leaf tissues was detected by scanning electron microscopy, confirming uptake by plants. The Si source and concentrations tested showed no beneficial effect on in vitro growth of C. forbesii .

  17. Gastrodia elata attenuates inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Min; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Tian, Ke; Gu, Chen-Xi; Li, Zhi-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (GE), which belongs to the Orchidaceae family, was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effect of GE on inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) remains largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GE on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in RA-FLS and the underlying molecular mechanism was also explored. Our results demonstrated that GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in RA-FLS. GE also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 expression in RA-FLS. Furthermore, pretreatment with GE significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced the expression of p-p65 and IκBα degradation in RA-FLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that GE attenuated inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway signaling in RA-FLS. Thus, GE might have a therapeutic potential towards the treatment of RA.

  18. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M C; Kawakita, K; Slusarski, S R; Pereira, G F

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq-Site 6). The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.

  19. Ilhas de vegetação em afloramentos de quartzito-arenito no Morro do Pai Inácio, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Islands of vegetation on quartzite-sandstone outcrops, Pai Inácio Mountain, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ilhas de vegetação rodeadas de superfície rochosa foram estudadas em dois platôs do Morro do Pai Inácio (41°28'W e 12°27'S, na Chapada Diamantina. Tais platôs possuem afloramentos de quartzito-arenito entremeados por solos arenosos e ácidos, situados nas porções mais elevadas do Morro, entre 1.100 e 1.170 m acima do nível do mar, sob clima com estação seca bem definida. As ilhas foram assumidas como agrupamentos de uma ou mais espécies de plantas vasculares limitados pela superfície rochosa sem plantas vasculares em toda borda. O estudo incluiu 39 ilhas de vegetação de diferentes tamanhos em cada platô, onde predominaram ervas e arbustos de 63 espécies, sendo 22 comuns a ambos os platôs. Espécies de Liliopsida foram mais numerosas, freqüentes e dominantes, com predomínio das famílias Velloziaceae, Cyperaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae e Guttiferae nas ilhas de vegetação em ambos os platôs, assim como a forma de vida caméfita. Foram constatadas riquezas similares nas ilhas de ambos os platôs, sendo a maioria delas formada por até cinco espécies. O agrupamento das espécies utilizando UPGMA e o índice de similaridade de Jaccard revelou quatro grupos, dois deles constituídos por espécies características das ilhas mais expostas ao sol, enquanto outro é constituído por espécies mais relacionadas aos locais mais sombreados e um quarto relacionado a espécies mais generalistas. A associação entre Vellozia hemisphaerica Seub. e Trilepis lhotzkiana Nees mostrou-se típica dos afloramentos do Morro do Pai Inácio. Apenas as famílias Orchidaceae e Cyperaceae estiveram presentes nas duas menores classes de tamanho insular, enquanto Guttiferae, Rubiaceae e Bromeliaceae tiveram maior proporção de ocorrência na maior classe. Diferenças na composição e abundância de espécies entre os platôs sugerem a existência de diferenças ambientais e isolamentos, interferindo na distribuição espacial das espécies nas

  20. Global climate change is confounding species conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopowitz, Harold; Hawkins, Bradford A

    2012-06-01

    Most organisms face similar problems with respect to their conservation in the face of global climate change. Here, we examine probable effects of climate change on the hyperdiverse plant family Orchidaceae. In the 20th century, the major concerns for orchid conservation revolved around unsustainable harvest for the orchid trade and, more importantly, land conversion from natural ecosystems to those unable to support wild orchid populations. Land conversion included logging, fire regimes and forest conversions to agricultural systems. Although those forms of degradation continue, an additional suite of threats has emerged, fueled by global climate change. Global climate change involves more than responses of orchid populations to increases in ambient temperature. Increasing temperature induces secondary effects that can be more significant than simple changes in temperature. Among these new threats are extended and prolonged fire seasons, rising sea levels, increases in cyclonic storms, seasonal climate shifts, changes in orthographic wind dew point and increased drought. The long-term outlook for orchid biodiversity in the wild is dismal, as it is for many animal groups, and we need to start rethinking strategies for conservation in a rapidly changing world.

  1. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  2. In vitro culture and germination of terrestrial Asian orchid seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-I

    2011-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and many of its species are highly valuable as herbal medicines and to the horticultural industry. To meet commercial requirements and to conserve natural resources, in vitro seed germination has been utilized to produce large quantities of uniform seedlings. In general, terrestrial orchid seeds are more difficult to germinate and grow than epiphytic orchids. Terrestrial orchid seeds have a hardened seed coat and more stringent requirements for germination in vitro. In this chapter, we document the timing of seed collection and pretreatments for improving in vitro germination of some terrestrial Asian orchids. The process of in vitro germination is demonstrated, including (1) the culture of immature seeds; (2) the culture of mature seeds; and (3) subsequent seedling development. For immature seed culture, optimal timing of seed harvest is key to maximizing germination; for mature seed culture, selection of adequate pretreatment conditions (i.e., the duration and concentrations of pretreatment solutions) is essential to improve germination.

  3. A narrowly endemic photosynthetic orchid is non-specific in its mycorrhizal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Sharma, Jyotsna; Taylor, Donald Lee; Yadon, Vern L

    2013-04-01

    Mycorrhizal association is a common characteristic in a majority of land plants, and the survival and distribution of a species can depend on the distribution of suitable fungi in its habitat. Orchidaceae is one of the most species-rich angiosperm families, and all orchids are fully dependent on fungi for their seed germination and some also for subsequent growth and survival. Given this obligate dependence, at least in the early growth stages, elucidating the patterns of orchid-mycorrhizal relationships is critical to orchid biology, ecology and conservation. To assess whether rarity of an orchid is determined by its specificity towards its fungal hosts, we studied the spatial and temporal variability in the host fungi associated with one of the rarest North American terrestrial orchids, Piperia yadonii. The fungal internal transcribed spacer region was amplified and sequenced by sampling roots from eight populations of P. yadonii distributed across two habitats, Pinus radiata forest and maritime chaparral, in California. Across populations and sampling years, 26 operational taxonomic units representing three fungal families, the Ceratobasidiaceae, Sebacinaceae and Tulasnellaceae, were identified. Fungi belonging to the Sebacinaceae were documented in orchid roots only at P. radiata forest sites, while those from the Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae occurred in both habitats. Our results indicate that orchid rarity can be unrelated to the breadth of mycorrhizal associations. Our data also show that the dominance of various fungal families in mycorrhizal plants can be influenced by habitat preferences of mycorrhizal partners.

  4. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMondragón Palomino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  5. Genome-wide annotation, expression profiling, and protein interaction studies of the core cell-cycle genes in Phalaenopsis aphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Chen, Jhun-Chen; Wei, Miao-Ju; Lien, Yi-Chen; Li, Huang-Hsien; Ko, Swee-Suak; Liu, Zin-Huang; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant and diverse families in the plant kingdom and its unique developmental patterns have drawn the attention of many evolutionary biologists. Particular areas of interest have included the co-evolution of pollinators and distinct floral structures, and symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal flora. However, comprehensive studies to decipher the molecular basis of growth and development in orchids remain scarce. Cell proliferation governed by cell-cycle regulation is fundamental to growth and development of the plant body. We took advantage of recently released transcriptome information to systematically isolate and annotate the core cell-cycle regulators in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. Our data verified that Phalaenopsis cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA) is an evolutionarily conserved CDK. Expression profiling studies suggested that core cell-cycle genes functioning during the G1/S, S, and G2/M stages were preferentially enriched in the meristematic tissues that have high proliferation activity. In addition, subcellular localization and pairwise interaction analyses of various combinations of CDKs and cyclins, and of E2 promoter-binding factors and dimerization partners confirmed interactions of the functional units. Furthermore, our data showed that expression of the core cell-cycle genes was coordinately regulated during pollination-induced reproductive development. The data obtained establish a fundamental framework for study of the cell-cycle machinery in Phalaenopsis orchids.

  6. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rocha-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants.

  7. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra Gomes Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The checklist was compared with 51 other areas composed of ombrophilous forests and/or ecotones with other physiognomies using UPGMA (with Sørensen index, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. We recorded 138 species, and Orchidaceae and Polypodiaceae were the richest families (51 and 23 species, respectively. The UPGMA showed the importance of physiognomy and elevation in the floristic relationships, and CCA reinforced the influence of elevation, in addition to the shortest distance to the ocean and minimum annual temperature; however, in this analysis, the physiognomies showed little influence on the relationships. The epiphytic flora of MOF of Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil has different relationships compared with the data available for shrubs and trees, suggesting a greater importance of phorophytic species than geographical distance and, to some extent, environmental variables.

  8. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  9. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  10. Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br.: A Systemic Review of the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of an Important Asian Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Hu; Miao, Xiaolou; Zhang, Jiyu

    2017-01-01

    Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) is a perennial herbaceous orchid plant that grows widely throughout Europe and in temperate and subtropical zones of Asia. In China, its tuber has been used in traditional Chinese medicines, Tibetan medicines, Mongolian medicines and other ethnic medicines, and taken to treat numerous health conditions. The present paper provides a review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology to highlight the future prospects of the plant. More than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated, and the primary components are glucosides, dihydrostilbenes, phenanthrenes, aromatic compounds, and other compounds. G. conopsea and its active constituents possess broad pharmacological properties, such as the tonifying effect, anti-oxidative activity, anti-viral activity, immunoregulatory, antianaphylaxis, antigastric ulcer, sedative, and hypnotic activities, etc. However, overexploitation combined with the habitat destruction has resulted in the rapid decrease of the resources of this plant, and the sustainable use of G. conopsea is necessary to study. Meanwhile, the toxicity of this plant had not been comprehensively studied, and the active constituents and the mechanisms of action of the tuber were still unclear. Further, studies on G. conopsea should lead to the development of scientific quality control and new drugs and therapies for various diseases; thus, its use and development require additional investigation. PMID:28217096

  11. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GIBERELIN DAN AIR KELAPA TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN BIJI ANGGREK BULAN (Phalaenopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Hidayatul Mukminin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis sp. atau dikenal dengan nama dagang anggrek bulan termasuk famili Orchidaceae yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi. Pembudidayaan tanaman anggrek selama ini terkendala pada biji anggrek yang memiliki daya kecambah kurang dari 1%. Daya kecambah biji yang rendah disebabkan oleh ukuran biji yang kecil dan tidak mempunyai endosperm. Oleh karena itu, perkecambahan biji anggrek perlu didukung oleh hormon tumbuh yang sesuai. Giberelin dan air kelapa diketahui dapat berperan dalam perkecambahan biji. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Giberelin (GA3 dan air kelapa terhadap perkecambahan biji anggrek bulan (Phalaenopsis sp. Tahapan penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu melakukan sterilisasi, kemudian biji Anggrek diinokulasikan dalam medium MS dengan perlakuan variasi konsentrasi GA3 1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm dan perlakuan variasi konsentrasi air kelapa 10 mL, 20 mL, dan 25 mL beserta kombinasinya kemudian diamati pada hari ke-21. Parameter yang diamati berupa perkembangan morfologi protocorm dan fase perkembangan protocorm yang dianalisis secara deskriptif, sedangkan daya kecambah protocorm dianalisis ANOVA dan dilanjutkan uji Tukey pada tingkat kepercayaan 95% untuk melihat adanya perbedaan antarperlakuan. Perkembangan protocorm pada 3 perlakuan memperlihatkan fase perkembangan protocorm yang berbeda, yaitu embrio membengkak dan merobek testa, protocorm putih dengan absorbing hair, protocorm putih kekuningan, dan protocorm hijau bulat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian giberelin (GA3 3 ppm menghasilkan daya kecambah paling rendah dan pemberian kombinasi antara GA3 dan air kelapa menunjukan daya kecambah yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan MS.

  12. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton University, London (United Kingdom). Whitelands College

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  13. southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.N. Batista

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran Cyrtopodium klenii y C. brandoniamum subsp. lageanum (Orchidaceae, Cymbidieae, Cyrtopodiinae de la región sur de Brasil. C klenii se asemeja a un grupo de especies caracterizado por los pseudobulbos pequeños, enterrados en el suelo, y por las flores pequeñas; pero se distingue por el color de las flores, los lóbulos laterales del labelo poco o nada falcados, aproximadamente tan largos como anchos, por el lóbulo mediano del labelo con base poco o nada constricta y por la distribución geográfica. C. brandoniamum subsp. lageanum es similar a la variedad tipo en cuanto al patrón general de coloración, pero se distingue por florecer más tempranamente, por las hojas poco desarrolladas en la antesis, y por la forma y coloración del labelo. Ambos son taxones poco frecuentes, sólo conocidos para el sur de Brasil.

  14. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs.

  15. Genetic structure is associated with phenotypic divergence in floral traits and reproductive investment in a high-altitude orchid from the Iron Quadrangle, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Bruno; Chaves, Anderson V; Russo, Philip; Batista, João A N; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the role of Neotropical montane landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and local adaptation is essential for understanding the evolutionary processes that have shaped the extraordinary species diversity in these regions. In the present study, we examined the landscape genetics, estimated genetic diversity, and explored genetic relationships with morphological variability and reproductive strategies in seven natural populations of Cattleya liliputana (Orchidaceae). Nuclear microsatellite markers were used for genetic analyses. Spatial Bayesian clustering and population-based analyses revealed significant genetic structuring and high genetic diversity (He = 0.733 ± 0.03). Strong differentiation was found between populations over short spatial scales (FST = 0.138, p < 0.001), reflecting the landscape discontinuity and isolation. Monmonier´s maximum difference algorithm, Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified one major genetic discontinuity between populations. Divergent genetic groups showed phenotypic divergence in flower traits and reproductive strategies. Increased sexual reproductive effort was associated with rock outcrop type and may be a response to adverse conditions for growth and vegetative reproduction. Here we discuss the effect of restricted gene flow, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity as drivers of population differentiation in Neotropical montane rock outcrops.

  16. Phenodynamics of five orchids species growing on rock outcrops in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Coutinho de Santana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated the vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns of the orchids Cattleya elongata, Cyrtopodium aliciae, Epidendrum orchidiflorum, Epistephium lucidum, and Sobralia liliastrum (Orchidaceae growing on sandstone outcrops in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains in northeastern Brazil. Phenological events were associated with abiotic factors, leaf longevity, life form, plant growth pattern, and pollination syndrome. Phenological observations were made for 18 months and followed the phenophases of: stem/pseudobulb emission, leaf flush, leaf fall, flowering, immature fruit and mature fruit. Seasonality, synchrony, and correlations between phenophases and environmental variables were tested. The orchid species demonstrated aseasonal vegetative phenologies, except for pseudobulb emission. Reproductive events were seasonal, except for flowering in E. orchidiflorum. There was high flowering overlap between the species pairs S. liliastrum and C. aliciae (dry season and C. elongata and E. lucidum (rainy season. Dispersal occurred during both the rainy and dry seasons. The vegetative phenophases exhibited low synchrony, and were related to certain morphofunctional characters (stems/pseudobulbs, CAM metabolism. The reproductive phenophases showed high synchrony consistent with the deceit pollination strategy usually associated with the group.

  17. Genetic structure is associated with phenotypic divergence in floral traits and reproductive investment in a high-altitude orchid from the Iron Quadrangle, southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leles

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the role of Neotropical montane landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and local adaptation is essential for understanding the evolutionary processes that have shaped the extraordinary species diversity in these regions. In the present study, we examined the landscape genetics, estimated genetic diversity, and explored genetic relationships with morphological variability and reproductive strategies in seven natural populations of Cattleya liliputana (Orchidaceae. Nuclear microsatellite markers were used for genetic analyses. Spatial Bayesian clustering and population-based analyses revealed significant genetic structuring and high genetic diversity (He = 0.733 ± 0.03. Strong differentiation was found between populations over short spatial scales (FST = 0.138, p < 0.001, reflecting the landscape discontinuity and isolation. Monmonier´s maximum difference algorithm, Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified one major genetic discontinuity between populations. Divergent genetic groups showed phenotypic divergence in flower traits and reproductive strategies. Increased sexual reproductive effort was associated with rock outcrop type and may be a response to adverse conditions for growth and vegetative reproduction. Here we discuss the effect of restricted gene flow, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity as drivers of population differentiation in Neotropical montane rock outcrops.

  18. The epiphytic orchids Ionopsis utricularioides and Psygmorchis pusilla associate with different Ceratobasidium lineages at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borges da Silva Valadares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Orchidaceae, association with symbiotic fungi is required for seed germination and seedling development, thereby being the main energy source during the first steps of germination. Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity of orchids, with an estimated 3,200 species, but few studies on orchid mycorrhiza have been conducted. In our study, we isolated and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region of fungi from two co-occurring Colombian epiphytic orchids, I. utricularioides and P. pusilla, both belonging to the subtribe Oncidiinae. All sequences were recognized as belonging to the genus Ceratobasidium, known to be a common orchid mycorrhizal fungus in both tropical and temperate orchids. One sequence was 100% similar to fungi isolated from I. utricularioides in Costa Rica in a previous study. I. utricularioides was confirmed to be a specialist, associating with only one clade of mycorrhizal fungi. However, P. pusilla was shown to be a generalist, associating with three clades. This finding indicates that the variation in mycorrhizal specificity could be an important factor in the co-existence of orchids. The high affinity between the subtribe Oncidiinae and Ceratobasidium was also reinforced.

  19. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  20. COMUNIDADE EPIFÍTICA DE SYAGRUS CORONATA (MART. BECC. (ARECACEAE EM ÁREAS DE PASTAGENS NA CAATINGA, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ULDÉRICO RIOS OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide information on the ecology and floristic composition of vascular epiphytes on specimens of licurizeiro (Syagrus coronata, palm tree native to the Brazilian Backlands, whose individuals were isolated in pasture areas in the municipality of Várzea da Roça - BA. The epiphytic species were classified according to their ecological category and dispersion forms. The vascular epiphytes were represented by 26 species, 21 genera and seven families, and Bromeliaceae (8 spp., Cactaceae (7 spp., Polypodiaceae (4 spp. and Orchidaceae (3 spp. the most representative. The true holoepiphytes and accidental epiphytes were the most frequent categories, gathering, respectively, 42.31% and 30.76% of the species inven-toried. Regarding the dispersion forms, it is observed the predominant of zoochoric species (14 spp. while anemochoric were represented by 12 species. The results show the importance of licurizeiro in the maintenance of the epiphytic community in areas of Caatinga and show its role as maintainer of biological diversity in an-thropogenic environments.

  1. How prevalent is crassulacean acid metabolism among vascular epiphytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the epiphyte community of a lowland forest of the Atlantic slope of Panama was investigated. I hypothesized that CAM is mostly found in orchids, of which many species are relatively small and/or rare. Thus, the relative proportion of species with CAM should not be a good indicator for the prevalence of this photosynthetic pathway in a community when expressed on an individual or a biomass basis. In 0.4 ha of forest, 103 species of vascular epiphytes with 13,099 individuals were found. As judged from the C isotope ratios and the absence of Kranz anatomy, CAM was detected in 20 species (19.4% of the total), which were members of the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Cactaceae. As predicted, the contribution of CAM epiphytes to the total number of individuals and to total biomass (69.6 kg ha(-1)) was considerably lower (3.6% or 466 individuals and, respectively, 3.0% or 2.1 kg ha(-1)).

  2. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  3. Species diversity and conservation of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong%广东南岭国家级自然保护区兰科植物物种多样性及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田怀珍; 陈林; 邢福武

    2013-01-01

    All known wild species of Orchidaceae are listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). However, species diversity of orchids in Nanling National Nature Reserve, China, is not well known. Based on field work, inspection of herbarium specimens, and previous records, 121 species in 49 genera of Orchidaceae are listed for the reserve. Of these, 75 species are terrestrial, 40 are epiphytic and 6 are saprophytic. Species fall mainly within genera such as Bulbophyl-lum (10 species), Calanthe (10 species), Goodyera (10 species), Liparis (8 species), Habenaria (7 species) and Cymbidum (6 species). A few species are widespread showing great abundance in the reserve, but most are rather rare having narrow distributions. Tropical type genera tend to dominate, although temperate orchids are more common at the species level. This indicates that the orchid flora is rather complex, being a mix of tropic Asian types and East Asian types, particularly of Sino-Japan kind. Thus the orchid flora of Nanling N. N. R has an obvious subtropical character, with affinities to that of Taiwan. We appeal for reasonable plan on eastablishing power stations and related rule of law should be found to control the illegal trade of the wild orchids in Nanling N. N. R.%所有野生兰科植物均在《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》(CITES)的保护之列,但是对于广东南岭国家级自然保护区内兰科植物的资源状况仍不清楚.为此,作者于2004-2009年对保护区内兰科植物进行了详细调查,同时查阅了国内主要标本馆馆藏的保护区标本并参考文献记录,发现保护区有兰科植物49属121种,其中地生兰75种,附生兰40种,腐生兰6种,主要集中在石豆兰属(Bulbophyllum)(10种)、虾脊兰属(Calanthe)(10种)、斑叶兰属(Goodyera)(10种)、羊耳蒜属(Liparis)(8种)、玉凤花属(Habenaria)(7种)、兰属(Cymbidium)(6种)等.其中只有少数种类在保护区内

  4. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  5. Alongamento de plantas de Dendrobium nobile Lindl. com pulverização de ácido giberélico Elongation of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. plants by gibberellic acid pulverization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mívia Rosa de Medeiros Vichiato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (olho-de-boneca é uma das orquídeas mais populares do Brasil, ocupando posição de destaque no mercado de plantas de corte e de vaso. Entretanto, o desenvolvimento muito lento da família Orchidaceae tem contribuído para o elevado valor unitário de suas plantas, sendo necessárias técnicas que promovam a obtenção mais rápida de plantas comercializáveis. Objetivando avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico no alongamento de plantas de D. nobile, foi realizado experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco concentrações de GA3 (0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg.L-1 e treze repetições. Efetuaram-se quatro pulverizações com soluções de ácido giberélico a intervalos quinzenais e noventa dias após início dos tratamentos, avaliaram-se as seguintes características: altura e diâmetro do pseudobulbo, número de folhas, largura e comprimento das folhas. A aplicação do GA3 promoveu, em comparação às plantas testemunhas, incrementos de 64,08% em altura e 44,27% no comprimento das folhas e decréscimos de 50% no diâmetro do pseudobulbo e 56,09% na largura das folhas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações de GA3 testadas. Portanto, o ácido giberélico nas concentrações de 50 a 400 mg.L-1 é igualmente eficiente no alongamento de plantas D. nobile.The Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (olho-de-boneca is one of the most popular orchids of Brazil, occupying prominence position in the market of cut plants and pot. However, the very slow development of the family Orchidaceae has been contributing to the high unitary value of the plants, being necessary techniques that promote the fastest way of obtaining plants in the marketed. With the objective of evaluating the effect of the gibberellic acid in the elongation of plants of D. nobile spread by cutting, an entirely randomized experimental design was carried out with five concentrations of GA3 (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg.L-1 and thirteen replications

  6. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade de epífitas vasculares em uma área de ecótono em Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of the vascular epiphyte community in a transition area at Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Lopes Geraldino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área de ecótono de aproximadamente 30 hectares entre Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Mista, localizada na Capela do Calvário, município de Campo Mourão, PR. Para a análise fitossociológica foram selecionados 80 forófitos. No levantamento total foram encontradas 61 espécies, 39 gêneros e 13 famílias de epífitas (10 de Pteridófitas e 51 de Magnoliófitas. As famílias mais ricas foram: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae e Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% e Piperaceae (8%, que juntas compõem 83% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae e Peperomia (Piperaceae foram os mais ricos, com cinco espécies. A anemocoria foi constatada em 67% das espécies e 86% foram classificadas como holoepífitas verdadeiras. Das 61 espécies inventariadas, 43 ocorreram nas áreas de amostragem, sendo cinco em maior freqüência: Microgramma squamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta, Tillandsia loliacea, Tillandsia recurvata e Pecluma sicca. O índice de Shannon (H’ registrado para a área foi de 3,175 e a equabilidade (J 0,863. Foram encontradas nove espécies epifíticas restritas a apenas um forófito. Microgramma squamulosa foi a espécie mais importante em toda área amostral. O trecho de vegetação em área de interflúvio, por apresentar estágio avançado de desenvolvimento, teve riqueza superior à área de vegetação ribeirinha.This study was conducted in a transition area of approximately 30 hectares between Semideciduous Forest and Araucaria Forest located in the Capela do Calvário, at Campo Mourão, Paraná. For the phytosociological analysis 80 phorophytes were selected. The survey found 61 species, 39 genera and 13 families of epiphytes (10 pteridophytes and 51 magnoliophytes. The richest families were: Orchidaceae (38%, Bromeliaceae and Polypodiaceae (13%, Cactaceae (11% and Piperaceae (8%, which together make up 83% of the sampled species. Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae

  7. Caracterização florística da vegetação sobre afloramento rochoso na Estação Experimental de Itapeva, SP, e comparação com áreas de campos rupestres e de altitude. Floristic characterization on rocky outcrop in the Itapeva Experimental Station, SP, and comparison with areas of rocky grasslands and high-altitude grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de comunidades vegetais nem sempre é tarefa fácil, principalmente quando se trata de tipos de vegetação pouco estudados. Esse é o caso davegetação sobre afloramento rochoso da Estação Experimental de Itapeva – EEI, situada no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, região que abriga remanescentes de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica. Visando caracterizar e classificar essa vegetação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de material botânico no período de agosto de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. A lista de espécies obtida foi comparada com a de campos rupestres e de altitude brasileiros. As comparações foram realizadas por meio de análise de agrupamento, “TWINSPAN” e “NMS”. Foram encontradas 135 espécies, 48 famílias e 108 gêneros. As famílias mais representativas foram Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae. A análise de agrupamento com os dados de distribuição de riqueza entre famílias sugeriu maior afinidade florística entre o afloramento rochoso estudado e os campos rupestres. Para os dados de composição de espécies, os diferentes métodos de ligação agruparam a área de estudo ora com campos de altitude ora com campos rupestres. A “NMS” evidenciou o caráter contínuo da variação florística, mas reiterou a maior similaridade entre a área de estudo e os campos rupestres. A “TWINSPAN” reforçou essa hipótese e apontou a família Fabaceae e as espécies Miconia albicans (Sw. Steud. e Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub como indicadoras de campos rupestres. O tipo de solo, formado a partir de rochas areníticas, constitui o fator determinante mais plausível para as relações florísticas encontradas.The classification of vegetation communities is not an easy task, especially regarding less studied vegetation types. This is the case for rocky outcrop vegetation in the Itapeva Experimental Station – EEI, located in the

  8. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. Methodology To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Results Nectar addition increased (ppollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (ppollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. Conclusions This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers. PMID:28141838

  9. OrchidBase: a collection of sequences of the transcriptome derived from orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Yun-Wen; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Huang, Yueh-Min; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2011-02-01

    Orchids are one of the most ecological and evolutionarily significant plants, and the Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant families of the angiosperms. Genetic databases will be useful not only for gene discovery but also for future genomic annotation. For this purpose, OrchidBase was established from 37,979,342 sequence reads collected from 11 in-house Phalaenopsis orchid cDNA libraries. Among them, 41,310 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained by using Sanger sequencing, whereas 37,908,032 reads were obtained by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) including both Roche 454 and Solexa Illumina sequencers. These reads were assembled into 8,501 contigs and 76,116 singletons, resulting in 84,617 non-redundant transcribed sequences with an average length of 459 bp. The analysis pipeline of the database is an automated system written in Perl and C#, and consists of the following components: automatic pre-processing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences and storage of the analyzed information in SQL databases. A web application was implemented with HTML and a Microsoft .NET Framework C# program for browsing and querying the database, creating dynamic web pages on the client side, analyzing gene ontology (GO) and mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways. The online resources for putative annotation can be searched either by text or by using BLAST, and the results can be explored on the website and downloaded. Consequently, the establishment of OrchidBase will provide researchers with a high-quality genetic resource for data mining and facilitate efficient experimental studies on orchid biology and biotechnology. The OrchidBase database is freely available at http://lab.fhes.tn.edu.tw/est.

  10. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Isabel eLira-De León

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of twelve plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts towards Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaecae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50 to 100 mg/mL against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the nontoxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts towards this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg and chloramphenicol (30 μg were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76 to 56.17 % against F. solani and 2.02 to 69.07 % against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL, and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops.

  11. Establecimiento simbiótico para la propagación y conservación de Orquídeas en condiciones ex citu en el Jardín Botánico de Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora N. Samantha E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Orchidaceae es la productora de flores más grande del reino vegetal y se estima que el número de miembros oscila entre 17.000 y 35.000 especies agrupadas en 650.900 géneros (Rivera Coto G 1998. Las orquídeas pueden establecer asociaciones de diversa naturaleza, clasificados desde el punto de vista humano en neutrales, mutualistas y antagonistas. Las asociaciones de los más importantes dentro de las orquídeas son las micorrizas con hongos micromicetes,
    capaces de establecer asociaciones simbióticas con orquídeas a nivel de la raíz (Alexopoulos, 1986. Se analizaron 326 ejemplares de orquídeas colectadas en el Cañón de Arcabuco, Boyacá, Colombia y mantenidas en el sustrato anterior como un mecanismo para la evaluación y conservación ex citu, 30 días después de la siembra, se analizó la población encontrándose nueve en estado de inflorescencia del genero Oncidium sp., Stellis sp. y las especies Masdevallia cumniculata, M. amisomorfa, Epidendrum secundum,  Odontoglosum coronarium, Miltonia warscewiczii, Eleantus cinnabarium. Al hacer el respectivo análisis del tipo de sustrato utilizado se determinó que es viable para el cultivo y propagación de las orquídeas en condiciones ex citu.

  12. Strategies for functional validation of genes involved in reproductive stages of orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Su, Hong-Ji; Chang, Doris Chi-Ning; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2007-02-01

    Plants in the largest family of angiosperms, Orchidaceae, are diverse in both specialized pollination and ecological strategies and provide a rich source for investigating evolutionary relationships and developmental biology. However, studies in orchids have been hindered by several challenges that include low transformation efficiency and long regeneration time. To overcome such obstacles, we selected a symptomless cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) isolate for constructing virus-induced gene-silencing vectors. The feasibility of the virus vectors was first assessed with use of an orchid phytoene desaturase gene. The vector was able to induce gene silencing in orchids; however, because of the slow growth of orchids, the commonly used phytoene desaturase gene was not a good visual marker in orchids. We inserted a 150-nucleotide unique region of a B-class MADS-box family gene, PeMADS6, into pCymMV-pro60. The transcription level of PeMADS6 in inoculated Phalaenopsis plants was reduced by up to 73%, but no effect was observed for other MADS-box family genes. In contrast, in Phalaenopsis plants inoculated with CymMV transcripts containing 500 nucleotides of PeMADS6, a conserved region among MADS-box genes, the transcription level of PeMADS6 and the B- and C-class MADS-box genes was reduced by up to 97.8% as compared with plants inoculated with the vector alone. Flower morphology was affected in the MADS-box family gene-silenced plants as well. This in vivo experiment demonstrates an efficient way to study genes involved in the reproductive stage of plants with a long life cycle.

  13. Kinetic characterization of a novel acid ectophosphatase from Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Galdiano Júnior, Renato F; Rodrigues, Gisele Regina; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pizauro Junior, João Martins

    2016-02-01

    Expression of acid ectophosphatase by Enterobacter asburiae, isolated from Cattleya walkeriana (Orchidaceae) roots and identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, was strictly regulated by phosphorus ions, with its optimal activity being observed at an inorganic phosphate concentration of 7 mM. At the optimum pH 3.5, intact cells released p-nitrophenol at a rate of 350.76 ± 13.53 nmol of p-nitrophenolate (pNP)/min/10(8) cells. The membrane-bound enzyme was obtained by centrifugation at 100,000 × g for 1 h at 4 °C. p-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) hydrolysis by the enzyme follows "Michaelis-Menten" kinetics with V = 61.2 U/mg and K0.5 = 60 μM, while ATP hydrolysis showed V = 19.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 110 μM, and nH = 1.6 and pyrophosphate hydrolysis showed V = 29.7 U/mg, K0.5 = 84 μM, and nH = 2.3. Arsenate and phosphate were competitive inhibitors with K i = 0.6 mM and K i = 1.8 mM, respectively. p-Nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase) activity was inhibited by vanadate, while p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, EDTA, calcium, copper, and cobalt had no inhibitory effects. Magnesium ions were stimulatory (K0.5 = 2.2 mM and nH = 0.5). Production of an acid ectophosphatase can be a mechanism for the solubilization of mineral phosphates by microorganisms such as Enterobacter asburiae that are versatile in the solubilization of insoluble minerals, which, in turn, increases the availability of nutrients for plants, particularly in soils that are poor in phosphorus.

  14. Is the timing of scent emission correlated with insect visitor activity and pollination in long-spurred Satyrium species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, T; Jürgens, A; Johnson, S D

    2015-01-01

    Plants are expected to emit floral scent when their pollinators are most active. In the case of long-tubed flowers specialised for pollination by crepuscular or nocturnal moths, scent emissions would be expected to peak during dawn. Although this classic idea has existed for decades, it has rarely been tested quantitatively. We investigated the timing of flower visitation, pollination and floral scent emissions in six long-spurred Satyrium species (Orchidaceae). We observed multiple evening visits by pollinaria-bearing moths on flowers of all study species, but rarely any diurnal visits. The assemblages of moth pollinators differed among Satyrium species, even those that co-flowered, and the lengths of moth tongues and floral nectar spurs were strongly correlated, suggesting that the available moth pollinator fauna is partitioned by floral traits. Pollinarium removal occurred more frequently during the night than during the day in four of the six species. Scent emission, however, was only significantly higher at dusk than midday in two species. Analysis of floral volatiles using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry yielded 168 scent compounds, of which 112 were species-specific. The scent blends emitted by each species occupy discrete clusters in two-dimensional phenotype space, based on multivariate analysis. We conclude that these long-spurred Satyrium species are ecologically specialised for moth pollination, yet the timing of their scent emission is not closely correlated with moth pollination activity. Scent composition was also more variable than expected from a group of closely related plants sharing the same pollinator functional group. These findings reveal a need for greater understanding of mechanisms of scent production and their constraints, as well as the underlying reasons for divergent scent chemistry among closely related plants.

  15. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  16. 福建泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物的利用初探%The Investigation on Utilization of Wild Medicinal Plants in Dietary Culture of Quanzhou, Southern Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀珍; 邹秀红

    2015-01-01

    采用民族植物学的研究方法和手段,在文献研究的基础上,结合民间调查、标本采集和鉴定及后期整理分析等,初步研究了泉州闽南饮食文化中野生药用植物利用的传统知识.结果表明:1)泉州闽南饮食文化中,可利用的野生药用植物约有56科117属148种,其中野生蔬菜46种、药膳植物37种、代茶植物38种、野果植物22种、调味植物4种、制作凉粉植物1种;2)这些植物中种类较多的科是:菊科(Compositae)、禾本科(Gramineae)、唇形科(Lamiaceae)、蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、豆科(Leguminosae)、茜草科(Rubiaceae)、百合科(Liliaceae)、兰科(Orchidaceae)和桑科(Moraceae);3)对各种野生药用植物在区域内的利用状况进行了较详细的分析,对如何传承民间的野生植物饮食文化和保护这些药食两用野生植物资源进行了探讨.

  17. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper, a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%. Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%, whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%. Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation.

  18. DNA barcoding Bromeliaceae: achievements and pitfalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Maia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been successfully established in animals as a tool for organismal identification and taxonomic clarification. Slower nucleotide substitution rates in plant genomes have made the selection of a DNA barcode for land plants a much more difficult task. The Plant Working Group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL recommended the two-marker combination rbcL/matK as a pragmatic solution to a complex trade-off between universality, sequence quality, discrimination, and cost. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It is expected that a system based on any one, or a small number of plastid genes will fail within certain taxonomic groups with low amounts of plastid variation, while performing well in others. We tested the effectiveness of the proposed CBOL Plant Working Group barcoding markers for land plants in identifying 46 bromeliad species, a group rich in endemic species from the endangered Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Although we obtained high quality sequences with the suggested primers, species discrimination in our data set was only 43.48%. Addition of a third marker, trnH-psbA, did not show significant improvement. This species identification failure in Bromeliaceaecould also be seen in the analysis of the GenBank's matK data set. Bromeliaceae's sequence divergence was almost three times lower than the observed for Asteraceae and Orchidaceae. This low variation rate also resulted in poorly resolved tree topologies. Among the three Bromeliaceae subfamilies sampled, Tillandsioideae was the only one recovered as a monophyletic group with high bootstrap value (98.6%. Species paraphyly was a common feature in our sampling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that although DNA barcoding is an important tool for biodiversity assessment, it tends to fail in taxonomy complicated and recently diverged plant groups, such as Bromeliaceae. Additional research might be needed to develop markers capable to

  19. Promise and Challenge of DNA Barcoding in Venus Slipper (Paphiopedilum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Huang, Lai-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Orchidaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 27,000 species described and all orchids are listed in CITES. Moreover, the seedlings of orchid species from the same genus are similar. The objective of DNA barcoding is rapid, accurate, and automated species identification, which may be used to identify illegally traded endangered species from vegetative specimens of Paphiopedilum (Venus slipper), a flagship group for plant conservation with high ornamental and commercial values. Here, we selected eight chloroplast barcodes and nrITS to evaluate their suitability in Venus slippers. The results indicate that all tested barcodes had no barcoding gap and the core plant barcodes showed low resolution for the identification of Venus slippers (18.86%). Of the single-locus barcodes, nrITS is the most efficient for the species identification of the genus (52.27%), whereas matK + atpF-atpH is the most efficient multi-locus combination (28.97%). Therefore, we recommend the combination of matK + atpF-atpH + ITS as a barcode for Venus slippers. Furthermore, there is an upper limit of resolution of the candidate barcodes, and only half of the taxa with multiple samples were identified successfully. The low efficiency of these candidate barcodes in Venus slippers may be caused by relatively recent speciation, the upper limit of the barcodes, and/or the sampling density. Although the discriminatory power is relatively low, DNA barcoding may be a promising tool to identify species involved in illegal trade, which has broad applications and is valuable for orchid conservation.

  20. The Wild Endemic Resources of Ornamental Plants and Their Utilization in Hainan Island%海南特有野生花卉资源及其利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新生; 钟云芳; 宋希强; 邢福武

    2011-01-01

    Based on the literature review and field investigation, the results show that there are 320 species wild flower resources endemic to Hainan Island. These species belong to 69 families and 182 genera, and the dominant families include Rubiaceae (32 species), Lauraceae (27 species), Bambusaceae (16 species), Myrtaceae(13 species), Orchidaceae (13 species), Cyperaceae (11 species),Papilionaceae (11 species) and Asclepiadaceae (9 species) et al.. The species, distribution, important groups and ornamental characters of wild flower resources endemic to Hainan Island were summarized. The suggestions on protecting and utilizing the wild flower resources endemic to Hainan Island were also proposed.%通过对海南特有野生植物资源的实地考察和文献查阅,初步统计了海南特有野生花卉约320种,隶属于69科182属,主要为茜草科(32种)、樟科(27种)、竹亚科(16种)、桃金娘科(13种)、兰科(13种)、莎草科(11种)、蝶形花科(11种)和萝藦科(9种)等所含种类.对海南特有野生植物资源的种类、重要类群与观赏特性等进行了综述,最后就其资源保护与利用提出了建议.

  1. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  2. RESEÑA HISTÓRICA, DESARROLLO Y ACTUALIDAD DEL HERBARIO DE LA PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA (HPUJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alvear-Pacheco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una reseña histórica sobre el origen, consolidación, actualidad y perspectivas del Herbario de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (HPUJ. Entre los sucesos más importantes se destaca la inscripción en el Index Herbariorum bajo el acrónimo HPUJ en 1986 y el registro oficial ante el Instituto Alexander von Humboldt en 2001 (Registro No. 11, según la Resolución 1115 de 2000 del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. El objetivo del HPUJ es ser una colección de referencia científica reconocida y centro de docencia e investigación de la flora de Colombia, que cumpla con las funciones de conservación,investigación, docencia, exhibición y servicio. Actualmente el HPUJ reúne cerca de 42 000 ejemplares organizados en dos grandes grupos uno la colección general que comprende las Spermatophyta(Angiospermae y Gymnospermae y un segundo grupo denominado colecciones menores que incluyen colecciones de tipos, pteridofitos, briofitos, líquenes, algas macroscópicas, micoteca (macrohongos,antoteca (flores en preservante líquido, carpoteca (frutos y semillas, xiloteca (muestras de madera, palinoteca (muestras de polen, colección en sílica gel, ilustraciones botánicas y productos etnobotánicos. Actualmente el herbario tiene su mayor fortaleza en la flora de alta montaña colombiana y en la familiaOrchidaceae.

  3. Revision of the Bee Genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Part II: South American Species and Generic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the rare bee genus Chlerogella Michener (Halictinae: Augochlorini are revised, completing the study of the genus. Chlerogella diversity is significantly expanded beyond the five previously described South American species of Cherlogella azurea (Enderlein, comb. n., C. nasus (Enderlein, C. mourella Engel, C. octogesima (Brooks & Engel, comb. n., and C. buyssoni (Vachal. Twenty-two new species are described – C. agaylei sp. n., C. arhyncha sp. n., C. borysthenis sp. n., C. breviceps sp. n., C. cochabambensis sp. n., C. cooperella sp. n., C. cyranoi sp. n., C. dolichorhina sp. n., C. elysia sp. n., C. eumorpha sp. n., C. euprepia sp. n., C. hauseri sp. n., C. hypermeces sp. n., C. materdonnae sp. n., C. oresbios sp. n., C. picketti sp. n., C. rostrata sp. n., C. silvula sp. n., C. terpsichore sp. n., C. tychoi sp. n., C. vachali sp. n., C. xuthopleura sp. n. – and the distribution of the genus is expanded beyond Perú and Ecuador to include Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela. The female of C. azurea is described for the first time while the placement of Halictus buyssoni Vachal in Chlerogella is considered tentative, following the usage of previous authors, as the holotype and sole specimen is untraceable. The genus is newly diagnosed based on a greater understanding of variation in malar length across the species and a dichotomous key is provided. New floral records for species of Chlerogella include Psychotria pongoana Standl. (Rubiaceae and a putative record on Phragmopedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb.f. Rolfe (Orchidaceae.

  4. A comparative in vitro study on antifungal and antioxidant activities of Nervilia aragoana and Atlantia monophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Himakar; Sharma, P V G K; Reddy, O V S

    2010-05-01

    Ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Nervilia aragoana Gaud. (Orchidaceae) and ethanol extract of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla Linn. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for antifungal and antioxidant activities. At 5 mg/mL concentration of the extracts, the former exhibited more inhibitory activity than the latter against fungi. The order of MIC values for Nervilia aragoana were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1.4 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (1.2 mg/mL) > Aspergillus fumigatus (0.95 mg/mL) > Cryptococcus neoformans (0.75 mg/mL). In the case of Atlantia monophylla values were Cryptococcus neoformans (1 mg/mL) > Candida albicans (0.95 mg/mL) > Aspergillus niger (0.65 mg/mL). TLC-DPPH method assay was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Further DPPH radical, superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, and reducing power activities were carried out. N. aragoana (85%) extract exhibited more scavenging activity than that of A. monophylla (66%) by DPPH free radical scavenging method. A. monophylla extract exhibited more superoxide, nitric oxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging activities than that of N. aragoana. The acute toxicity studies of both extracts have shown no mortality rate even up to 3 g/kg body weight in albino rats. Screening for secondary metabolites showed the presence of carbohydrates in both extracts. Flavonoids were found only in the ethyl acetate extract of N. aragoana. Tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids and steroids were present in A. monophylla. Total phenols present in N. aragoana and A. monophylla were 340 and 560 mg/g extract of gallic acid equivalents, respectively.

  5. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  6. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs, which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS. The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS, were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  7. Review on Germination of Orchid Seeds%兰科植物种子萌发的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思思; 陈娟; 郭顺星

    2015-01-01

    兰科(Orchidaceae)植物属多年生单子叶植物,是被子植物中仅次于菊科与豆科的第三大科,具有很高的观赏、药用和经济价值.兰科植物种子细小量大,无胚乳,自然条件下需与适宜的菌根真菌共生才能萌友.自然环境的破坏和人为过度采挖,加上种子自身萌发条件苛刻,致使野生资源在原始生境的恢复异常困难,野生兰科植物极度濒危.研究表明,种苗快繁是实现濒危兰科植物资源再生和合理开发利用的有效途径,而种苗快繁技术的核心在于种子萌发.本文在综述了兰科植物种子成熟度、种子收集与预处理的基础上,重点阐述了种子非共生萌发和接菌(真菌)共生萌发,期望对兰科植物种子高效萌发用于产业化生产提供理论基础.

  8. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  9. Effects of fluoride air pollution on citrus orchards in the Kanbara district, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1967-01-01

    Since the construction of the largest Japanese aluminum plant in 1942 in Kanbara, the effects of fluorides have been evident in the surrounding agricultural and silk industries. Kanbara is a principal citrus growing area, and for several years, the orange crop has been severely affected. During the rainy spring and summer, air pollution from fluoride increases, causing leaf and fruit drop as well as poor tree growth. Trees yield poorly, and the quality of the fruit which is produced is inferior. Spraying with OED or lime-sulfur solutions had no effect on these damages; the use of wind-breaking hedges to shut out the fluoride-laden air was slightly beneficial. The resistance of 251 wild and cultivated plants around the factory was investigated. Plants of the Equisetaeae, Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Rosaceae, and Rutaceae families are sensitive to the effects of fluorides. Plants belonging to the Composita, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Teaceae families are not. Of the citrus plants, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbec) is sensitive to fluorides, as are Matsudaidai, Iyo and Satsuma orange trees. According to a leaf analysis performed in September 1966, affected and non-affected leaves of Satsuma orange trees from 30 orchards up to 20 km distant from the factory, contained 135-378 p.p.m. fluoride in the affected area, while leaves from non-affected areas contained 9-82 p.p.m. Recommended indicator plants for fluoride air pollution are Equisetum arvense L., Sasa species, Reymoutria japonica Hout, Colocasia antiquorum Schott, Prunus mume Sieb, Irida species, and Gladiolus gandavensis Hout.

  10. 秦岭种子植物区系新记录%Some Newly Recorded Spermatophytes to Qinling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎斌; 李思锋; 袁永明; 张莹

    2013-01-01

    报道了秦岭种子植物区系4新记录属[杜若属(Pollia Thunb.)、美冠兰属(Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.)、常山属(Dichroa Lour.)和吊灯花属(Ceropegia Linn.)],8新记录种[川杜若Pollia miranda (Lévl.)Hara、长距美冠兰Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.、常山Dichroa febri fuga Lour.、肉色土(栾)儿 Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker、柳叶蓬莱葛Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.、显脉獐牙菜Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C,B.Clarke、皱果赤瓟Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi和宝兴吊灯花Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li].%Four genera and eight species are reported as new records of spermatophyte flora to Qinling Mountain.4 newly recorded genera are Pollia Thunb.,Eulophia R.Br.ex Lindl.,Dichroa Lour.and Ceropegia Linn..8 newly recorded species are Pollia miranda (Lévl.) Hara (Commelinaceae),Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr.(Orchidaceae),Dichroa febrifuga Lour.(Saxifragaceae),Apios carnea (Wall.)Benth.ex Baker (Leguminosae),Gardneria lanceolata Rehd.et Wils.(Loganiaceae),Swertia nervosa (G.Don) Wall.ex C.B.Clarke (Gentianaceae),Thladiantha henryi Hemsl.var.henryi (Cucurbitaceae) and Ceropegia paohsingensis Tsiang et P.T.Li (Asclepiadaceae).

  11. Vascular epiphytes in seasonal semideciduous forest in the Espírito Santo State and similarity with other seasonal forests in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayvid Rodrigues Couto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliamos a composição florística de epífitos vasculares em remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semedicidual na bacia hidrográfica do rio Itapemirim, sul do estado do Espírito Santo, com o intuito de analisar sua similaridade com outras florestas semidecidual estudadas no Brasil. Excursões quinzenais foram realizadas entre junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 e os epífitos coletados e registrados (55 espécies, 34 gêneros e seis famílias. Orchidaceae, com 21 espécies, foi a mais rica, enquanto os gêneros com o maior riqueza foram Tillandsia (7 spp., Rhipsalis (4, Aechmea, Epidendrum e Peperomia, com três espécies cada. A categoria ecológica mais representativa foi holoepífita característica com 84% das espécies. O ambiente mais importante para a flora epifítica foi as matas ciliares. Análise de similaridade e PCA sustentaram quatro grupos, onde a área estudada aparece disjunta das demais, corroborando a hipótese de que a proximidade geográfica, a altitude e clima tem forte efeito sobre a composição florística, condicionando a formação de floras distintas. Estudos detalhados sobre a composição florística e estrutura dessa comunidade é importante para a elaboração de estudos de impactos ambientais coerentes, porque epífitas é típico de florestas tropicais, e é importante componente florístico, estrutural e funcional desses ecossistemas.

  12. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-De León, Karla I; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50-100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76-56.17% against F. solani and 2.02-69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops.

  13. Orchid seeds viability identification by tetrazolium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Schultz Soares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germinal potential optimizes the practice of in vitro germination of Orchidaceae. This work evaluated of the type and concentrations of tetrazolium solutions on reaction time and on the identification of viable orchid seeds. Were used seeds of the species Brassavola tuberculata Rchb f., Cattleya labiata Lindley var Amoema, Cattleya intermedia and Dendrobium antenatum and of two primary hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata Lindley var. Alba. The seeds (0.01g of each species or hybrid were soaked in 3 mL of aqueous and neutral solutions of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride at 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% ou 1,0% concentrations and stored in a light-free environment at 25±2 °C, being evaluated every 30 minutes for identification of the time needed for embryos coloring and later counting of the number of viable seeds by milligram of seed. A completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 6 x 2 x 5 (six genotypes of orchids, two types of tetrazolium solutions and five concentrations with 3 replications. The genotypes responded differently response both for viable seeds by milligram of seed and for the time required for embryos coloring and C. intermedia not respond to the test. Irrespective of solution type, concentrations only interfered in reaction time for the hybrids. It is recommended, therefore, the use of neutral tetrazolium solution at 0.5% for indentification of viable seeds of hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata var. Alba and use of aqueous solution at 0.125% for Brassavola tuberculata, Cattleya labiata var Amoema e Dendrobium antenatum.

  14. Floristic study of Mekongga protected forest: towards establishment of Mekongga National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anita Widjaja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mekongga is one of the highest mountains in Southeast Sulawesi. The Mekongga region was declared as protected forest in 1994, after logging had been done in this area. A floristic study of this forest was conducted from 2009 through 2011 by visiting the area twice a year, once each during the dry and wet seasons, and collecting specimens from the flowering and fruiting plants. Other species were also  recorded, but most of them cannot be identified because the plants were too young or were not in flower or fruit at the time of collection.  Specimens of 855 species in 155 families were collected, of which 5% (44 species are endemic to Sulawesi and 11% (91 species are introduced species from China, South America, India, or even Madagascar.  In addition, new records for Sulawesi were collected from Mekongga for species originally recorded from Java (50    species, Malaysia (35 species, the Philippines (28 species, New Guinea (14 species, Sumatra (13 species, Borneo (11 species, Moluccas (4 species and the Lesser Sunda Islands (3 species. Based on these data, it seems that species have mostly migrated to Mekongga from Java, then from Malaysia and the Philippines. More than 10 new species are proposed from this area, including a bamboo (Poaceae and members of the families Orchidaceae, Gesneriaceae,   Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Araliaceae. Further study of the floristic account will be done, which can be used as baseline data in support of an important proposal to designate the Mekongga area as a national park. 

  15. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  16. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE, species-area relationship (SAR, water-energy dynamics (WED, Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP, with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  17. Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World Tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.

  18. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  19. 兰科植物欺骗性传粉%Deceptive pollination of orchids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宗昕; 王红; 罗毅波

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some "empty flowers", which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in an-giosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations to pollinators. Darwin described and identified most of the functional floral morphology and biomechanics in orchid pollination. However, he never recognized that many of the flowers that he examined lacked food rewards for pollinators. Floral evolution in the Orchidaceae appears to be dominated by modes of deceptive pollination, and more than one third of orchid species are thought to be pollinated by deceit. Deceptive pollination is thought to be one of key roles which has lead to relatively high species diversity within the Orchidaceae. Deceptive orchids frequently exploit the food foraging, sexual, oviposition and sleep/warmth behaviors of insects. The most common deception mechanisms include generalized food deception, Batesian floral mimicry, sexual deception, brood-site imitation and shelter imitation. Additionally, floral color, morphology and fragrance play key roles to cheat target pollinators. Relationships between deceptive orchids and their pollinators possibly involve asynchronous evolution; therefore orchids track the diversification of their pollinators. However, deception has negative impacts on the pollinators, which may exert selection on the pollinators. Because duped pollinators tend to avoid rewardless flowers, deceptive orchids suffer low visitation rates and fruit set, various environment factors can affect the reproductive success of these orchids. Deceptive orchids depend largely on insect pollinators for reproduction, and the proclivity of these

  20. Outline of the classified system of the Chinese Leguminosae%中国豆科植物分类系统概览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相云

    2004-01-01

    豆科是被子植物中继兰科和菊科之后的第三大科,其中包括三个亚科:即云实亚科、含羞草亚科和蝶形花亚科.本文根据最新资料,整理出世界豆科有42族、634属、17 834种,中国有33族、169属、1 518种(另外含15亚种、167变种和41变型),其中外来种158种(含亚种和变种,隶属于73属).为建立中国豆科植物数据库,本文在Polhill豆科植物分类系统的基础上,结合一些新的资料,提出中国豆科植物系统概要.文中按分类等级进行排序,每一属含有世界和中国种数及分布.%The family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the largest one of flowering plants after the Compositae (or Asteraceae) and Orchidaceae, consist of three subfamilies such as Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. It comprises 42 tribes, 635 genera and 17 840 species in the world based on the present up to date statistic. In China, there are 33 tribes, 169 genera, 1 518 species, 15 subspecies, 167 varieties and 41 forms recorded so far. Of them, 158 exotic species (containing subspecies and varieties) are included, which belong to the 73 genera [1].For constituting a database of Chinese Legume, the outline for classified system of Chinese Leguminosae is summarized here. This paper aims to indicate the system of Chinese Leguminosae with some new taxonomical treatment (the tribes Wisterieae X. Y. Zhu[2] and Poiretieae (Burkart) H. Ohashi[3]) based on the previous system proposed by Polhill & Raven[[4] & Polhill [5]. The number of species and geographical distribution for each genus[3, 4, 6] is shown in this paper. Of them, black letters and numbers stand for the genera and species appearing in China[6~12]. 

  1. A checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district, southern KwaZulu-Natal and a review of their status in the Red Data List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R.H. Grieve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern mistbelt forests are naturally fragmented forests with grassland which occur from the Eastern Cape to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. These were heavily logged by colonial settlers and continue to be harvested despite being protected. Consequently we documented a checklist of the plants of the forests and grasslands in the Weza district (3029DA WEZA, southern KwaZulu-Natal, including Ngeli Forest and nearby indigenous forest patches to highlight their biodiversity status and need for conservation. We also reviewed their status in the Red Data List. Of the 1554 records included in this summary of plant species for the Weza district, there were 6 lichens (0.4%, 46 bryophytes (3.0%, 58 pteridophytes (3.7%, 6 gymnosperms (0.4% and the remaining 1424 species angiosperms (92.5%. Of the angiosperms, 27.3% were monocotyledons and 72.7% were dicotyledons. The most species-rich family was Asteraceae (239 species followed by Fabaceae (115 species, Liliaceae (used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 89 species, Orchidaceae (89 species, Iridaceae (59 species, Poaceae (58 species, Asclepidaceae (again used for purposes of comparison against older studies – 57 species, Scrophulariaceae (42 species, Euphorbiaceae (32 species, Lamiaceae (32 species and Rubiaceae (27 species. These 10 families each comprised more than 2% of the species in the list. Together they contributed 55% of the angiosperm species and 34.1% of the angiosperm genera. The biodiversity and conservation value of the study area are conserved pockets of eastern mistbelt forest, Drakensberg foothill moist grassland and mistbelt grassland. More than 4% of the species are under some degree of threat, as was evidenced by the number of species regarded as endangered (5, vulnerable (18, near threatened (10, critically rare (1, rare (20 or declining (11 amongst the 1554 species covered in the list.Conservation implications: In terms of taxa under some degree of threat, number of

  2. Differential responses of vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuj eKoyyappurath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root and stem rot (RSR disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. ×tahitensis, Orchidaceae. Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have i identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, ii thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and iii evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions.Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in-vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in-vitro assay.The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21

  3. Differential Responses of Vanilla Accessions to Root Rot and Colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyappurath, Sayuj; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Dijoux, Jean Bernard; Lapeyre-Montès, Fabienne; Jade, Katia; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gatineau, Frédéric; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Besse, Pascale; Grisoni, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Root and stem rot (RSR) disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (Forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia and V. × tahitensis, Orchidaceae). Breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to RSR and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of Forv. In this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to RSR including V. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relatives, (ii) thoroughly described the colonization pattern of Forv into selected vanilla accessions, confirming its necrotic non-vascular behavior in roots, and (iii) evidenced the key role played by hypodermis, and particularly lignin deposition onto hypodermal cell walls, for resistance to Forv in two highly resistant vanilla accessions. Two hundred and fifty-four vanilla accessions were evaluated in the field under natural conditions of infection and in controlled conditions using in vitro plants root-dip inoculated by the highly pathogenic isolate Fo072. For the 26 accessions evaluated in both conditions, a high correlation was observed between field evaluation and in vitro assay. The root infection process and plant response of one susceptible and two resistant accessions challenged with Fo072 were studied using wide field and multiphoton microscopy. In susceptible V. planifolia, hyphae penetrated directly into the rhizodermis in the hairy root region then invaded the cortex through the passage cells where it induced plasmolysis, but never reached the vascular region. In the case of the resistant accessions, the penetration was stopped at the hypodermal layer. Anatomical and histochemical observations coupled with spectral analysis of the hypodermis suggested the role of lignin deposition in the resistance to Forv. The thickness of lignin constitutively deposited onto outer cell walls of hypodermis was highly correlated with the level of resistance for 21 accessions

  4. Embryogenic Callus Induction of Pencil Orchid (Papilionanthe hookeriana Rchb.f. Through in Vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atra Romeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilionthe hookeriana  Rchb.f.  (Orchidaceae,  popularly known as ‘Anggrek Pinsil’  in Indonesia, is a perennial ephiphyte orchid, found only at Dendam Tak Sudah Lake in Bengkulu. The aims of this research were to find the best sterilization technique of P.  hookeriana explant and to induce maximum formation of embryogenic calli. Rapid multiplication of this orchid was achieved through culture of shoot tips and young leaf segments of mature plants by in vitro cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium  enriched with 50 g L-1 banana pulp.    The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. In the first stage, the explants were sterilized using three compositions of sterilant. In the second stage, the explants were planted on the MS basal medium with addition of five levels of 2,4-Diclhorophenoxy Acetis Acid concentrations, namely 0, 0.25,  0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg L-1.  The result showed that the best sterilization method to reduce explant contaminant  was method 3, in which the explant  was washed with detergent, rinsed with flowing water, soaked in 0.1%  (v/v HgCl2 solution for 30 minutes, soaked again in the 10% (v/v Natrium hypocloride solution for 20 minutes,  rinsed three times with sterile water before planted and then soaked in  sterile  water + 10% (v/v  betadhine before planted on treated medium. This method was able to reduce contamination levels up to 70% from explants cultured for 5 months on MS medium.  MS medium added with 1.00 mg L-1 2,4-D produced the highest number of embryogenic calli, and the biggest callus diameter ( 3.5 cm , characterized by  transparent green color and  friable callus structure

  5. Mycorrhizal fungi isolated from native terrestrial orchids of pristine regions in Cordoba (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Di Pardo, Agustina; Chiocchio, Viviana M; Barrera, Viviana; Colombo, Roxana P; Martinez, Alicia E; Gasoni, Laura; Godeas, Alicia M

    2015-03-01

    Orchidaceae is a highly dependent group on the Rhizoctonia complex that includes Ceratorhiza, Moniliopsis, Epulorhiza and Rhizoctonia, for seed germination and the development of new orchid plants. Thus, the isolation and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi are important to understand the orchid-fungus relationship, which can lead to the development of efficient conservation strategies by in vivo germination of seeds from endangered orchid plants. The aim of our work was to isolate and characterize the different mycorrhizal fungi found in roots of terrestrial orchids from Cordoba (Argentina), and, to learn about the natural habit and fungal associations in the Chaco Serrano woodland pristine region. In this study, bloomed orchid root and rhizosphere soil samples were obtained in two times from Valle de Punilla during spring of 2007; samples were kept in plastic bags until processed within 48 hours, and mycorrhizal condition confirmed assessing peloton presence. A total of 23 isolates of the orchideous mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia complex were obtained. The isolates were studied based on morphological characters and ITS-rDNA sequences. Morphological characteristics as color of colonies, texture, growth rate, hyphal diameter and length and presence of sclerotia were observed on culture media. To define the number of nuclei per cell, the isolates were grown in Petri dishes containing water-agar (WA) for three days at 25 degrees C and stained with Safranine-O solution. The mycorrhizal fungi were grouped into binucleate (MSGib, 10 isolates) and multinucleate (MSGim, 13 isolates) based on morphological characteristics of the colonies. We obtained the ITS1-5.8s-ITS4 region that was amplified using primers ITSI and ITS4. Based on DNA sequencing, isolates Q23 and Q29 were found to be related to species of Ceratobasidium. Isolates Q24 and Q4 were related to the binucleated anastomosis group AG-C of Rhizoctonia sp. The rest of the isolates grouped in the Ceratobasidium

  6. Búsqueda de especies vegetales productoras de follaje útiles en la elaboración de arreglos florales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducuara Frank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se incluyen las fases de documentación, búsqueda, determinación, propagación y evaluación de algunas especies vegetales productoras de follaje para la elaboración de arreglos florales. En la fase de campo se realizaron colecciones botánicas en diferentes municipios de Cundinamarca (Colombia, incluyendo las plazas de mercado y los jardines de la ciudad de Bogotá. Se colectó un total de 57 especies en los diferentes ambientes, de las cuales 19 correspondieron a especies nativas y 38 a especies exóticas. En la fase de laboratorio se llevó a cabo la determinación y multiplicación del material utilizando diferentes formas de
    propagación. De esta forma se logró el enraizamiento por esquejes de 24 especies exóticas y cuatro nativas mediante la aplicación de la hormona líquida ácido indolbutírico (IBA 3.500 ppm + solución madre compuesta de hidróxido de sodio. La propagación por semillas se logró con una especie nativa (Dodonaea viscosa y con una especie exótica (Zantedeschia aethiopica. La propagación por bulbos se realizó eficientemente con la especie nativa Canna generalis y con una especie de la familia Orchidaceae. Finalmente las técnicas de cultivo in vitro fueron utilizadas para la siembra y multiplicación de Zantedeschia aethiopica como una contribución a la
    micropropagación de aráceas útiles en el sector floricultor. Para cada una de las especies propagadas se tuvo en cuenta su porcentaje de enraizamiento, el tiempo de enraizamiento y el tiempo que tardaron en producir tallos con los parámetros de calidad previamente establecidos. Los tallos fueron sometidos a las evaluaciones de cuarto frío, viaje simulado y evaluación en florero.

  7. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  8. Orchid diversity in China’s Hainan Island: Distribution and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are widely distributed in many terrestrial ecosystems except for polar and desert areas and constitute a “flagship group” in biological conservation. As the largest tropical island of China, Hainan has five tropical forest vegetation types, namely deciduous monsoon forest, lowland rainforest, montane rainforest, montane evergreen forest, and montane cloud forest. There are 317 orchid species in the island, including 33 endemic, 158 epiphytic, 148 terrestrial, and 11 saprophytic species. Most orchids, which are mainly located in central and southern parts of the island, are generally distributed in damp tropical forests in mountains at an altitude of 500–1500 m. Highest level of endemism is also centred in these areas. Orchids are especially threatened by habitat fragmentation because they grow in small populations, and fragmentation may block gene flow and result in lower genetic diversity. In addition, due to their ornamental and medicinal value, many orchids are over-collected. Therefore, orchid conservation in Hainan Island is very urgent. The aim of this article is to determine the distribution pattern of orchids and expound research and conservation status in Hainan Island, and to propose conservation strategies for the future.Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se

  9. Análise química em órgãos de reserva de algumas herbáceas e arbóreas ocorrentes na flora do Espírito Santo, Brasil Chemical analysis of storage organs in herb and tree species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscineia Kelli Clippel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a composição de carboidratos não estruturais em órgãos subterrâneos de reserva das herbáceas Dioscorea sp. 1 e Dioscorea sp. 2 (Dioscoreaceae, Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae, Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hérit. Herb. (Amaryllidaceae, Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn Raf. (Amaryllidaceae, Prescottia nivalis Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae e Sinningia aghensis Chautems (Gesneriaceae. O trabalho objetivou, também, avaliar os teores dos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular (PRPC e de nutrientes minerais em sementes de Cassia fistula L., Cassia grandis L.f., Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC., Erythrina variegata L., Hymenaea courbaril L. e Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms pertencentes à família Leguminosae. A espécie que apresentou maior conteúdo de frutose foi a bulbosa H. reticulatum (25% MS sugerindo a presença de frutanos em seus órgãos subterrâneos. Os maiores teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, especialmente a sacarose (63% MS, foram observados em rizomas de P. nivalis, indicando que esse carboidrato desempenhe papel osmorregulador nessa rupestre revivescente. Quanto aos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular, maiores valores foram encontrados em sementes de H. courbaril (70% MS, C. grandis (53% MS e C. rosea (40% de MS. Valores intermediários foram obtidos em C. fistula (24% de MS e E. variegata (11% MS. Sementes de O. arborea mostraram os mais baixos teores de PRPC não ultrapassando ao valor de 3% da MS. Trabalhos anteriores denotam que o polissacarídeo de reserva de H. courbaril é do tipo xiloglucano, enquanto o de C. grandis, C. fistula e C. rosea seja do tipo galactomanano. A identificação do tipo de polissacarídeo de E. variegata e de O. arborea depende de análises futuras através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Dos nutrientes minerais, sementes de C. rosea e E. variegata destacaram pelos elevados teores de N (60 g.kg-1 entre os macronutrientes e de Fe (160-170 mg.g-1 e Zn

  10. MULTIPLICATION “IN VITRO” OF Cattleya x mesquitae BY ETIOLATION OF STEM SEGMENTS METHOD MULTIPLICAÇÃO “IN VITRO” DE Cattleya x mesquitae PELO MÉTODO DE ESTIOLAMENTO DE SEGMENTOS CAULINARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vieira Ramos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to stimulate the formation of larger number of shoots and new explants by growth regulators addition to culture medium of in vitro stem segment orchid Cattleya x mesquitae. The stem segments were cut off plants obtained from in vitro seedlings, standardized to 1.0 cm long and grown at temperature of 25C ± 2C, in the dark, for sixty days. The culture medium was MS with reduction of macronutrients by half, containing three concentrations of ANA (0 mg L-1, 0.1 mg L-1, and 2.0 mg L-1 and three concentrations of BAP (0 mg L-1, 0.5 mg L-1, and 2.0 mg L-1. In general, there was a higher shoot production on the base than on the nodes, what indicates a low development of the axillary shoots. With the addition of 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP there was an average production of five shoots per etiolated explant, which represented an increase of up to two shoots as related to the absence of the growth regulator. A higher concentration of BAP in the medium (2.0 mg L-1 revealed to be harmful, causing a 50% reduction in new shoot production. The absence of light was determinant for stem lengthening, whereas the application of growth regulators was unnecessary, although a larger formation of nodes has occurred when 2.0 mg L-1 of ANA was used.

    KEY-WORDS: Orchidaceae; orchid; micropropragation; growth regulators.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi estimular a formação de maior número de brotações e de novos explantes, por meio de fitorreguladores adicionados ao meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de segmentos caulinares da orquídea Cattleya x mesquitae. Os segmentos caulinares foram excisados de plântulas originadas de semeadura in vitro, uniformizados para 1,0 cm de comprimento e cultivados em temperatura de 25ºC ± 2ºC, no escuro, durante sessenta dias. O meio de cultura foi o MS com

  11. New Records of Seed Plants from Some Provinces in China (Ⅰ)%中国种子植物省级分布新记录(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相银龙; 周磊; 丛义艳; 刘克明

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen species and two varieties are reported as new records to four provinces in China, ie Impatiens sulcata Wall. (Balsaminaceae), Impatiens racemosa DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f. et L. K. Dai ex P. C. Li. (Leguminosae) for Sichuan, Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens macrovexilla var. yaoshanensis S. X. Yu, Y. L. Chen & H. N. Qin,(Balsaminaceae), Impatiens monticoia Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae), Eutrema tenue Makino (Brassicaceae),Hilliella changhuaensis Y. H. Zhang (Brassicaceae), Desmodium heterocarpon (Linn) DC. (Leguminosae),Ficus sarmentosa Buch. -Ham. ex J. E. SM. Var. thunbergii (Maxim.) Corner (Moraceae), A mpelopsis delavayana Planch. var. glabra (Diels & Gilg) C. L. Li (Vitaceae), Tetrastigrna erubescens Planch.(Vitaceae), Ilex tutcheri Merr. (Aquifoliaceae) and Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.(Orchidaceae) for Hunan, Impatiens napoensis Y. L. Chen(Balsaminaceae) and Impatiens chiulungensis Y.L. Chen, (Balsaminaceae) for Yunnan, Impatiens yui S. H. Huang (Balsaminaceae) for Xizang.%报导了凤仙花科、十字花科、豆科、桑科、葡萄科、冬青科和兰科共15种2变种植物在我国4个省区的分布新记录.其中四川分布新记录有槽茎凤仙花(Impatiens sulcata Wall.)、总状凤仙花(Impatiens racemosa DC.)和云南甘草(Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Cheng f.et L.K.Dai ex P.C.Li.);湖南分布新记录有管茎凤仙花(Impatiens tubulosa Hemsl.)、瑶山凤仙花(Impatiens macrovexilla var.yaoshanensis S.X.Yu,Y.L.Chen & H.N.Qin,)、山地凤仙花(Impatiens monticoia Hook.f.)、日本山嵛菜(Eutrema tenue Makino)、昌化泡果荠(Hilliella changhuaensis Y.H.Zhang)、糙毛假地豆(Desmodium heterocarpon(Linn)DC.)、少脉爬藤榕(Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham.ex J.E.SM.var.thunbergii(Maxim.)Corner)、掌裂蛇葡萄(Ampelopsis delavayana Planch.var.glabra(Diels & Gilg)C.L.Li)、红枝崖爬藤(Tetrastigma erubescens Planch.)、罗浮冬青(Ilex tutcheri Merr

  12. 濒危植物扇脉杓兰的花部特征与繁育系统%Floral Characteristics and Breeding Systems of an Endangered Species Cypripedium japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芬; 李全健; 王彩霞; 连静静; 田敏

    2013-01-01

    Cypripedium japonicum, a perennial herb of Orchidaceae, with unique flower shape, brilliant flower color, ornamental and medicinal value. Due to over-harvesting and the environment changes,a large number of wild populations of C. japonicum reduced, and some genetic resources lost. The species is in endangered, and listed as a national endangered plant. Consequently, it is essential to execute studies on floral characteristics and breeding systems of C. japonicum for understanding its extinct mechanism. We conducted a field investigation, and experiments of pollen germination test, emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination, and applied out-crossing index, to study the flowering character, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, breeding system of C. japonicum in natural populations. We also observed surface pattern of pollen and stigma by using an electron microscope. Results showed that: C. japonicum bloomed from April to June and the flowering span was 23 days among populations. The life span of one single flower was approximately 12-16 days. The stigma receptivity started from bloom and lasted for 14 days, and the pollen viability was high in the whole florescence. The stigma exceeded stamen in position and the relative difference in position between the stamen and style remained unchanged in the whole flowering process. The total value of OCI was 4. Seed setting propagation coefficient of C japonicum was low under field conditions, with only 5% . Based on the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination experiments, C. japonicum is self-compatible and can't self-pollinate autokineticly and has no syngamy. Thus, the breeding system is pollinators depended.%通过野外观测,运用杂交指数(OCI),花粉萌发试验,去雄、套袋、人工授粉等方法对扇脉杓兰开花特性、花粉活力、柱头可授性、繁育系统进行研究,并对其柱头表面和花粉进行扫描电镜观察.结果表明:扇脉杓兰4-6

  13. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云

    2012-01-01

      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  14. An investigation on the resources of wild shade ornamental plants in Guangxi%广西野生阴生观赏植物资源及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋能; 宁世江; 盘波; 沈晓琳; 黄仕训

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the wild and shade ornamental plant resources and valuable germplasm hidden in Guangxi,the shade and half shade plant resources in Guangxi were studied by the methods of field investigation and specimen collection identification. The results showed that the five basic characteristics of Guangxi wild shade ornamental plants: rich species(162 families, 485 genera, and 1 309 species) , precious germplasm resources (including 195 species of the valuable and rare plant, and 136 species endemic to Guangxi) , diversity of growth soil texture (the calcicole, the acidophile and the intermediate plant), remarkable of the herbaceous ratio(the herb plants account for about 66. 1%) ,and great disparity of wild resources distribution. The six taxa were as following:Pteridophyte(43 families,240 species) ,Orchidaceae(37 genera,126 species) ,Liliaceae(21 genera,82species) ,Gesneriaceae(17 genera, 63 species) ,Begoniaceae(l genera,43 species) and Araceae(12 genera,30 species). The results would provide a reference for the rational development and u-tilization of wild shade ornamental plant resources.%为了解广西境内蕴藏的野生阴生观赏植物资源及珍贵种质,采取野外实地考察及标本采集鉴定相结合的方法,对广西全境分布的阴生和半阴生观赏植物资源进行研究.结果表明:广西野生阴生观赏植物有5个基本特点:种类丰富(162科485属1 309种)、种质资源珍贵(珍稀植物195种,广西特有植物136种)、生长基质多样(喜钙植物、喜酸植物和中间类型植物)、草本性状比值显著(草本植物约占总种数的66.1%)、野生资源贮藏量的多寡悬殊性.6个主要野生阴生观赏类群为:蕨类植物(43科240种)、兰科(37属126种)、百合科(21属82种)、苦苣苔科(17属63种)、秋海棠科(1属43种)、天南星科(12属30种).研究结果可为合理开发利用广西野生阴生观赏植物资源提供参考.

  15. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase Gene (DoSERK) fromDendrobium officinaleKimura et Migo%铁皮石斛体细胞胚胎发生类受体激酶基因DoSERK的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 张建霞; 何春梅; 曾宋君; 吴坤林; 段俊

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the function of somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase gene (DoSERK) fromDendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, the full-length cDNA ofDoSERK was cloned based on transcription sequences data. The results showed thatDoSERK had high homology toSERK gene in other plants, encoding 633 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoSERK was a hydrophilic protein locating in plasma membrane. DoSERK had typical domains of SERK proteins, containing one signal peptide, one speciifc proline-rich region, five leucine-rich repeat motifs, one transmembrane domain and one conservative protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic tree based on SERKs revealed thatD. officinale was close toCyrtochilum loxense and Cattleya maxima of Orchidaceae.DoSERK could widely express in tissues ofD. officinale, and the expression was high in roots of seedlings. So, it was suggested thatDoSERK not only involved in somatic embryogenesis, but also in many other processes of growth and development.%为了解铁皮石斛(Dendrobium officinale)中的体细胞胚胎发生类受体激酶基因DoSERK的功能,在转录组测序数据的基础上克隆了DoSERK的全长cDNA。结果表明,DoSERK与其他植物的SERK高度同源,编码633个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明,DoSERK蛋白为亲水蛋白并定位于质膜,具有1个信号肽、1个富脯氨酸区域、1个跨膜区、5个富亮氨酸重复序列以及1个保守的蛋白激酶活性结构域,属于SERK蛋白家族成员。系统进化树分析表明,DoSERK与同为兰科植物的文心兰(Cyrtochilum loxense)以及卡特兰(Cattleya maxima)的SERK亲缘关系最近。组织表达分析表明,DoSERK在铁皮石斛中广泛表达,以幼嫩小苗根部的表达量最高。这些说明DoSERK除了可能参与铁皮石斛体胚发生过程以外,还参与其他生长发育过程。

  16. CATÁLOGO DE LA FAMILIA POACEAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giraldo-Cañas

    2011-01-01

    distribución asociada con la altura sobre el nivel del mar y/o con la precipitación; así tenemos que las Panicoideae son más diversas en las tierras bajas y húmedas y en áreas abiertas de zonas subandinas, las Pooideae en las tierras alto-andinas (páramos, las Chloridoideae en las áreas secas, los bambúes herbáceos en la Región Amazónica y los bambúes leñosos en la Región Andina. Las Poaceae constituyen la sexta familia más rica en la flora de Colombia, después de las Orchidaceae, las Asteraceae, las Rubiaceae, las Fabaceae y las Melastomataceae.

  17. 气候变暖致使墨兰(Cymbidium sinense)野外种群趋向灭绝%Climate warming brings about extinction tendency in wild population of Cymbidium sinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仲健; 陈利君; 刘可为; 李利强; 张玉婷; 黄来强

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse effects and climate changes have great influence on the survival of plants by affecting the development and the process of water cycling in plant, especially on Orchidaceae plants with high adaptation to the environment. Based on the investigation of biological characteristics and the observation of reproductive behavior among the wild populations of Cymbidium sinense in Shenzhen City, we calculated the quantity of survival plants, the frequency of appearance, the quantity of filial generation and the spatial distribution pattern at different age class, made static life graph and reproductivity graph of the population, drew the survival curve and age pyramid, and made up the Leslie matrix model, Levins model and consecutive decline model, Nt=Nt-1-Nt-1e-2.329, to predict the dynamic procedure of population quantityand test how C. sinense population responded to the climate changes combined with the analysis of meteorological data. The test result showed that, in conditions of low relative humidity arose from temperature rise and drought caused by rainfall imbalance, C. sinense showed a spatial structure of group distribution, and its age pyramid was kettle-shaped and the survival performance of population was similar to DeeveyⅠtype. The net reproduction rate, the intrinsic increase rate and finite increase rate of C. sinense were very low, indicating that the population was in a situation of downward tendency. And the reason is that, C. sinens is physiologically sensitive to drought condition and high temperature decreases its photosynthetic rate, which affects the accumulation of nutrients and directly restrains the differentiation of flower buds or even causes the abortion of flower buds, accordingly the sexual reproduction is influenced and the progeny production is reduced. Even though the sexual reproduction of C. sinense was achieved by attracting the honeybee, Apis cerana, to pollinate flowers by fragrance and extrafloral nectar and produced

  18. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acta Biológica Colombiana

    2003-12-01

    Mangos(Puerto López, Meta, Colombia / Epífitas vasculares como indicadores de regeneración en un bosque intervenido de la Amazonía Colombiana / Estudio preliminar de la comunidad macrobentónica del mesolitoral rocoso de bahía Concha (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona,Magdalena, Colombia / Caracterización flor��stica de un bosque pluvial tropical en el corregimiento de Pacurita, Quibdó, Chocó (Colombia / Revisión preliminar de la familia procyonidaeen Colombia / Evaluación y dinámica de uso del recurso hídrico en el corregimiento de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia / Viabilidad de la liberación de ardillas cola roja sciurus granatensisen el arboretum Francisco Bayón - Universidad Nacional de Colombia / Los rastros del megaterio comparación anatómica entre eremotherium rusconiiy bradypus variegatus / Comportamiento reproductivo de chiroxiphia lanceolata(pipridae:aves en un bosque intervenido del Tolima, Colombia / índice de agresividad en apis mellifera(hymenoptera: aapidae / Inserción de proteínas en membrana: algunas características del proceso / Comportamiento de félidos en cautiverio en el Zoológico de Santa Cruz, Colombia / Efecto de la forma tridimensional y el fenómeno de iluminación mutua en la percepción del color en el hombre / Tasa de hidratación de Physalaemus pustulosusR / Algunas serpientes venenosas presentes en la cuenca hidrográfica del Río Cabí, Chocó, Colombia / Embriogénesis somática y regeneración de plantas enepidendrum ruizianum (Orchidaceae / Germinación y crecimiento de una planta foránea, satureja sp.(labiaceae sobre tres sustratos orgánicos bajo condiciones controladas en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia / Caracterización de la comunidad de arañas (arachnida: aranae presente en bosque alto andino y en frailejonal del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia / Transporte