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  1. How Doubt Built the Foundation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

    OpenAIRE

    Hortin, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Gregory A. Prince at this year’s annual Arrington Lecture gave an intriguing biography of Leonard J. Arrington, focusing particularly on Arrington’s own interplay between faith and doubt. Arrington’s intellectual journey was sparked as he entered the world of academia and had his beliefs on evolution directly challenged. Having been raised as a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-­‐ day Saints (LDS or Mormon), he struggled with reconciling a Creationist viewpoint to that taught...

  2. Marital fertility and income: moderating effects of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints religion in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Joseph B; Smith, Ken R

    2013-03-01

    Utah has the highest total fertility of any state in the United States and also the highest proportion of population affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church). Data were used from the 1996 Utah Health Status Survey to investigate how annual household income, education and affiliation with the LDS Church affect fertility (children ever born) for married women in Utah. Younger age and higher education were negatively correlated with fertility in the sample as a whole and among non-LDS respondents. Income was negatively associated with fertility among non-LDS respondents. However, income was positively correlated with fertility among LDS respondents. This association persisted when instrumental variables were used to address the potential simultaneous equations bias arising from the potential endogeneity of income and fertility. The LDS religion's pronatalist stance probably encourages childbearing among those with higher income.

  3. ‘Dance Your Sorrow Away!’ : Spirituality, Community and Wellbeing in Christ Apostolic Church, Dublin 1

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    Rebecca Uberoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Christ Apostolic Church (CAC is a Pentecostal and African Initiated Church that emerged from the Yoruba Aládǔrà movement of early twentieth-century Nigeria. In this article I unpack the concept of ‘dancing away sorrow’, one of the distinctive rituals that members of CAC Dublin have brought with them from Nigeria. I explore members’ beliefs about wellbeing and its links with spirituality and community, and examine how music and dance help to facilitate connections with God and fellow worshipers. While the practice offers positive benefits to first generation migrants, it highlights the dissonance perceived by the second generation between Yoruba and Irish culture.

  4. Theology and practice of Christ Apostolic Church on Bible inspiration and its authority in the context of Evangelical theology

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    George O. Folarin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study originated from a review of literature which led the current researcher to the realisation that not much critical study has been performed on the theology and practice of Bible inspiration and its authority in Christ Apostolic Church (CAC. This article set out to identify the tenet of faith of the church on inspiration and authority of the Scriptures, locate this tenet in the context of Evangelical theology and compare the initial understanding of the concept of Bible inspiration in CAC with the way it is perceived by the church members today. Primary sources of data for the work comprised the Bible, editions of CAC constitution and structured interviews. Secondary sources of data comprised Bible commentaries, books, journal articles and the Internet. Data collected were analysed using Conservative Evangelical theological framework. The study discovered that CAC held to word-for-word inerrancy of the Scriptures, even of its vernacular translations, and its binding authority on Christians in all areas of their lives. The study revealed that the belief of CAC on Bible inspiration and its authority located CAC at the centre of Evangelical theology which researchers have identified as inerrancy. Finally, the study discovered that the initial position of CAC on the inspiration and authority of the Bible remained the same as held by contemporary members of the church. The work provides theological relevance for the study of one of the doctrines of Pentecostalism in Nigeria.

  5. Health Impacts of Religious Practices and Beliefs Associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego Cordero, Rocío; Badanta Romero, Bárbara

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the relationship between lifestyle marked by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and health. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WOS y Scopus were the databases used for this literature review, with these descriptors: "Mormons", "mormons religion", "health". Inclusion criteria were articles with full text available, published between 2005 and 2016, in English or Spanish language. Results show that following the restrictive Mormon doctrine generates beneficial effects for the health. Habits related to toxics and food, as well as social support, from family and Mormon community are an important basis for good health. On the other hand, not following the prescriptions or leaving the group, opposed sexual identities or not fulfilling the roles associated with women are associated with worse mental and physical health.

  6. The Romanesque Bronze Doors at Gniezno Cathedral Church: Some New Remarks

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    Tomasz Węcławowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among many Romanesque bronze doors in Europe the old entrance doors of the metropolitan cathedral in Gniezno, in the North Poland, are exceptional. For over a century many historians and historians of art have been trying to understand and explain its iconographic phenomenon. The Polish, Czech and German scholars have so far been unable to identify with any conviction, either the iconographic models or artistic provenance of the workshop. There were suggested some connections of the alleged bishop patrons to France and there were emphasizes technological possibilities of foundry workshops at the Meuse Valley. This “Meuse hypothesis” based mainly on historical suggestions became established as a certainty. However, it is important to emphasize the significant difference between the creator of the composition and of the craftsman who cast the bronze door. Years ago only Lech Kalinowski pointed out some general formal similarities to the North Italian sculpture. The purpose of this paper is to develop Kalinowski’s suggestions and to emphasise the puzzling similarities between details of Gniezno doors and some Emilian works executed by Master Wiligelmo da Modena and Master Nicolò. The concept of Italian relationship from Emilia province seems to be better for the comparative analysis than relationship with Meuse Valley based mostly on historical context. Crucial here is the additional, parallel analysis of the portal decoration in Czerwinsk Abbey.

  7. The layout of icosakaidígono in the Jupiter-Ammon Clypeus of Tarragona (Ist century and the face of Christ of the Rosette in the Cathedral of Orvieto (14th century

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    J. Lluis i Ginovart

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of massive data capture, as the Terrestrial Laser Scanner and the digital photogrammetry, allow to accurately analyze close objects and others that are not accessible, by statistical methods. Its application has allowed assessing, from the geometric point of view, the sculptures of the figure Clypeus of Tarragona, Jupiter-Ammon (1st century and the one of the Orvieto’s Cathedral rosette, with the face of Christ (14th century. The Clypeus of Tarragona and Orvieto’s rosette are divided in 22 parts, forming a polygonal shape known as icosakaidígono. This polygon does not appear in the Elementa of Euclides, neither in the Almagesto of Ptolomeo, nor in the rare Practica Geometriae of the time. These polygons can be built by means of angular division inherited from astrolabe and quadrant builders. This polygon can be defined also through the rotation of the square, since the repeated support of the catheti on the hypotenuse allows the rotation of the tool, or other indirect methods. The conclusion of the analysis of these figures is that, statistically, both sculptures have a geometric construction equal to the Reliquiario del Corporale del Miracolo di Bolsena (1337-1338 of Orvieto’s Cathedral.

  8. Aliens in the promised land? Keynote address for the 1986 National Gathering of the United Church of Christ's Coalition for Lesbian/Gay Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, G D

    The following article is a condensed version of the keynote address given at the 1986 National Gathering of the Lesbian/Gay Coalition of the United Church of Christ (UCC). Problems encountered by lesbians and gay men in organized religion, especially within the liberal tradition, are identified by a method of inquiry developed by Christian educator John Westerhoff for assessing egalitarianism within institutions. The story of Queen Vashti from the Book of Esther in Hebrew scripture, and the emerging tradition of coming-out experiences by lesbians and gay men; provide the norm and model for declaring independence from denominations that neglect the concerns of lesbians and gay men and for constructing religious alternatives.

  9. The depiction of the Virgin with the Christ in a niche on the western façade of the Church of the Transfiguration in Novgorod and the question of the painter's origin

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    Starodubcev Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a presentation of the Virgin with the Christ Child, in the niche above the archivolt of the western portal of the Church of the Transfiguration, in Novgorod. The fresco is assumed to have belonged to the painted ensemble in the church narthex, none of which has survived. It is also believed that like Theophanes the Greek, who headed the group painting the naos in the church, the zographos who worked on the decoration of the narthex, had arrived from Constantinople.

  10. A GEOMETRICAL SIMILARITY PATTERN AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR SHAPES IN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE: A CASE STUDY OF THE BASE OF THE PILLARS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE AND THE CHURCH OF SANTIAGO IN JEREZ, SPAIN

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    J. J. Moyano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for the search of a geometrical similarity pattern in architectural heritage by means of calculating probability indexes to support hypotheses initially endorsed by documentary sources. The buildings analysed are the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago, in Jerez, Spain. The 3D models of their selected pillars are obtained by means of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS, Optical Scanning (OS and photogrammetry through image-based modelling software (SFM-IBM. To this end, a procedure for the comparison of shapes is established. It is based on similarity statistics, the determination of homologous points and the agreement of characteristic sections. Here, two key aspects are considered: on the one hand, the metric standpoint; on the other hand, historical-graphical features of the 3D models: composition, techniques, styles, and historical-graphical documentary sources. Thus, putting aside the mere dimensional analysis, the sections are compared with graphical patterns and models of which the same authorship – stonemasons working in that age – is accurately known. As a result, the outcomes of this research reveal the geometrical similarity between the elements of the pillars of the Cathedral of Seville and the Church of Santiago.

  11. Belonging to Christ and Belonging to the Church: The Story of Every Christian. An Ecclesiological Reflection on the Sacrament of Baptism

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    Prokop Brož

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the sacrament of baptism in three perspectives. First it shows how baptism is incorporated in the historical existence of a Christian and constitutes the foundational event not only of the history of the human person in general, but of the history of salvation of every human person. The second perspective develops the soteriological character of baptism. In light of Christ’s salutary work seen within the so called “soteriological arch” (H. U. von Balthasar the scope of transformation of the human subject is shown. The third part perceives the human subject incorporated by the Holy Spirit in the whole of the Church which is sacramentally ordered. The conclusion summarizes the basic theses of the paper. Patřit Kristu a patřit do církve: příběh každého křesťana. Ekleziologická reflexe nad svátostí křtu Článek pojednává o svátosti křtu ve trojí perspektivě. Nejprve ukazuje, jak se křest začleňuje do dějinné existence křesťana a vytváří základní událost nejen obecně dějin lidské osoby, ale dějin spásy každé lidské osoby. Druhá perspektiva rozvádí soteriologický rys křtu. Ve světle Kristova spásného díla, nahlédnutého v rámci tzv. soteriologického oblouku (H. U. von Balthasar je ukázán dosah proměny lidského subjektu. Třetí část nahlíží lidský subjekt Duchem svatým začleněný do celku církve, jež je uspořádána jako svátostný řád. Závěr shrnuje základní teze článku.

  12. Connecticut church passes genetics resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, B J

    1984-11-09

    The Connecticut Conference of the United Church of Christ, which represents the largest Protestant denomination in the state, has passed a resolution affirming an ethical duty to do research on human gene therapy and is planning to form local church groups to study the scientific and ethical issues involved. The resolution is intended to counter an earlier one proposed by Jeremy Rifkin to ban all efforts at engineering specific traits into the human germline. The Rifkin proposal had been endorsed by a large number of religious leaders, including the head of the U.S. United Church of Christ, but was subsequently characterized by many of the church leaders as overly restrictive.

  13. The Ministry of Christ Embassy, Lagos. Nigeria

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    T.A. Falaye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ministry of Christ Embassy is one of the fastest growing indigenous churches in Nigeria. The Church is quite attractive to the youths and has grown in bounds all over the country, especially in the Southern part of Nigeria. On the strength of its wide spread coverage, and the age group that the church attracts, the writer is of the opinion that highlighting her activities would be of benefit to church historians and others in church ministry. The writer employed both historical and sociological methodology in his article. It is recommended that the founder of the church should make attempt to translate his sermons and other materials to main languages in Nigeria. The advantage is that the church would be able to reach out to several others. In addition, there is the need for openness especially in the area of financial management in the church. The financial aspect is said to be locked-in between the leadership. It is noted by the writer that such transparency would build greater confidence in others who may desire to join the church in future.

  14. A doxology to Christ (Rev. 1:5e-6

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    J. C. de Smidt

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Revelation 1:5e-6 is a doxology, an eulogy on the characteristics (attributes of Christ. Christ’s churches celebrate the enduring love of Christ, who by a once-and-for-all historical act redeemed them from enslavement to sin. Through this redemptive achievement Christ obtained royal and priestly prerogatives for believers in the present. The meaning of this doxology is investigated from a “heilgeschichtlich” and covenantal context. The acts of Christ are framed by the acts of God; God thus is the “Principium Essendi”. The point of departure in this article is that an ontological relationship exists between the theologia naturalis and the theologia supra- naturalis in the final phase of God’s kingdom.

  15. Amiens and Its Cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Peter; Scott, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a place of mathematics using a town called Amiens and its Cathedral whose overall floor plan was based on the Greek cross using proportions matching that of the ideal human body, the figures in the shape of an octagram or star octagon, and the symbols in the design. (ASK)

  16. Spiritual gifts for biblical church growth

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    Brian A. DeVries

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the body of Christ, advocates of biblical church growth should seek to employ his means to motivate spiritual giftedness in the church.

  17. Theological and Dogmatic Definition of the God-Man Jesus Christ Person

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    Bugiulescu Marian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the Theological and Dogmatic definition of the Person of the God-man Jesus Christ, as it has been formulated by the Orthodox Church in the course of time. In the Ecumenical and local synods, the Church proclaimed against the heresies various definitions of faith or dogmas. Dogma, in its essence, is a truth of faith revealed by God, unchangeable, formulated and transmitted by the Church, for man’s salvation. The central dogma of Christianity is the Trinitarian one. Regarding the Person and the Work of Christ, against the heresies promoted by Arius, Nestorius, Eutychius and Macedonius, at the Ecumenical Synods III (Ephesus 431, IV (Chalcedon 451, VI (Constantinople 680-681, the Church officially stated that Jesus Christ is truly God and truly Man, and His Person includes the divine nature, from eternity, yet united in time with the human nature, each nature having its own will, and the human will follows the divine will. This union of the divinity with the humanity in Christ is actually the basis of man’s salvation realized objectively in Christ and actualized personally by all the Christians in the Church, by means of which evil and death are defeated by the resurrection leading to eternal life.

  18. One Body in Christ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on gender issues, this article emphasizes that a true ecclesial unity can only take place from below and in a real dialogue with others. Only once the communion of Lutheran church is fully inclusive - accepting women and men in the ministry - will it be true to the imago Dei...

  19. Holiness as friendship with Christ: Teresa of Avila

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    Tara K. Soughers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa of Avila, writing in the 16th century when ideas of holiness often excluded women and lay people, developed a radically inclusive understanding of holiness as friendship with Christ. Her idea also allowed for degrees of holiness, from those who completed only the necessary church requirements of confession and absolution all the way up to those who had a friendship that was modelled upon the relationship in the Song of Songs. It was a definition of holiness applicable to men and women, clergy, members of religious orders, and lay people. In addition, her understanding of holiness did not distinguish the holiness of ordinary lay people from that of the great saints of previous generations, for friendship with Christ was open to all.

  20. Canterbury cathedral: structural analysis of the South Aisle

    OpenAIRE

    Karanikoloudis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Advanced Masters in Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions The Canterbury Cathedral at Canterbury Kent, in the UK, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, head of the Anglican Church, stands as a monument of English Gothic architecture of immense importance, and is part of the UNESCO World Heritage site. Its central nave and lateral aisles, secluded by the twin bell towers of the west front and the west transept, with a 72 m tower a...

  1. "Christ is the Mountain"

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    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  2. Unknown Angels by Giuseppe Groppelli in Zadar and the Former Altar of St Anastasia in the Cathedral

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    Damir Tulić

    2016-01-01

    . Giuseppe and his younger brother, Paolo Groppelli, led the family workshop from 1708, producing and signing sculptures together. Therefore, the newly discovered statues produced by Giuseppe are a significant contribution to his personal 174 Damir Tulić: Nepoznati anđeli Giuseppea Groppellija u Zadru... Ars Adriatica 6/2016. (155-174 oeuvre. It is difficult to distinguish between his statues and those by his brother, but it is generally believed that Paolo was a better artist. It is therefore important to compare the two sculptures, as they are believed to have been made independently. Paolo’s statue of Our Lady of the Rosary (1708 was originally located in the former Benedictine church of Santa Croce at Giudecca in Venice, and acquired early in the 19th century for the parish church of Veli Lošinj. If one compares the phisiognomy of the Christ Child by Paolo to that of Giuseppe’s signed sculpture of angel-putto in Zadar, one can observe considerable similarities (Figs. 5 and 6. However, Paolo’s sculptures are somewhat subtler and softer than Giuseppe’s. The workshop of Giuseppe and Paolo Gropelli has also been credited with two large marble angels on the main altar of the parish church in Concadirame near Treviso, as they show great similarity in style to the angels in Ljubljana’s cathedral, made around 1710 (Figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10. The oeuvre of Giuseppe and Paolo Gropelli can also be extended to two kneeling marble angels at the altar of the Holy Sacrament in the Venetian church of Santa Maria Formosa, with their marble surface somewhat damaged (Figs. 11 and 12. Coming back to the former main altar in Zadar’s church of St Donatus, it should be emphasized that it was erected following the last will of Archbishop Vettore Priuli (1688-1712, that contains a clearly expressed desire that the altar should be decorated as lavishly as possible. As the construction contract has been lost and the appearance of the altar remains unknown, it can only be supposed what

  3. Christ - the Teacher of Salvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian

    Christ, his nature, and his works are the most central elements of Christian theology. Origen of Alexandria (185-254) plays an important role in the history of Christology and soteriology. He wrote his many biblical commentaries, theological treatises, and homilies before the Councils of Nicaea...... (325) and Chalcedon (451) issued their Christological doctrines, which were to set the agenda for Christological thinking for many centuries. In many respects Origen’s work paved the way for the decisions made in Nicaea and Chalcedon, yet Origen’s Christology is much more multifaceted than these creeds...

  4. ON THE VISUAL ORIGINS OF ONE FOLKLORE MOTIF. THE TOMB IN THE CHURCH

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    Liudmila V. Fadeyeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of Christian iconography on poetic images of Rus- The article examines the influence of Christian iconography on poetic images of Rus sian, Ukrainian, and Belorussian spiritual verses. It claims that the icons that symbolize the Passion of Jesus Christ, both in the Western and Eastern European traditions, are possible sources of images and plots for a spiritual verse “Walking of the Virgin” (“Three Tombs”. The essay specifically focuses on the image of the Holy Sepulcher in Russian spiritual verse and its iconographic sources. It discusses a number of cases from the history of its iconography, from the images of the Holy Sepulcher in the Medieval Catho lic churches to the ones in the Orthodox cathedrals and churches of the second half of thth 17 — the beginning of the 18 century. In spiritual verse, the notion of the “tomb in the church” as part of liturgical practice was related not only to death symbolism. In the verse “Walking of the Virgin,” the image of three tombs, and primarily the tomb of the Virgin, bears on the Western-European poetic tradition and includes images that func tion to deny the idea of the finitude of human existence and reaffirm the idea of eternal life. Flowers and birds over the tomb of the Virgin are emblematic: it is a verbal icon of a kind that corresponds with the final episode of the poem, its climax. This emblem refers to conventional images of the Christian iconography that convey Christian dogmas via a combination of contradictory elements that we see, for example, in the traditional image of the Flourishing Cross.

  5. Les roues du ciel de Sucevița. Brève investigation multidisciplinaire sur un élément plastique décoratif de la fresque intérieure de l’église « La Résurrection de Jésus Christ » du monastère de Sucevița / The Wheels of the Sky of Suceviţa. Brief Multidisciplinary Investigation over a Decorative Artistic Element of the Interior Fresco of the Church The Resurrection of Jesus Christ of the Monastery of Suceviţa

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    Emilian Adrian Gavrilean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Wheels of the Sky of Suceviţa. Brief Multidisciplinary Investigation over a Decorative Artistic Element of the Interior Fresco of the Church The Resurrection of Jesus Christ of the Monastery of Suceviţa. In the study Suceviţa’s wheels of the sky I have undertaken a multidisciplinary investigation of some ornamental elements like the stars painted on the inside wall painting of “Învierea Domnului” Church of Suceviţa Monastery and which are quite common elements at first sight in the sacred art of the Romanian Middle Ages. These stars are spectacular due to their size, spontaneity and quantity of design in the „sky” and maybe, especially due to the structure and the painting manner chosen by painters. Suceviţa’s sky is unique among all the important churches and monasteries built by voivodes between the 15th and 17th century in the North of Moldova: the painters Ioan and Sofronie painted symmetrically lots of big stars with angles formed of six rays as thin from center to the end. By using a nail and a wire or a compass they sketched equally spaced circles on which they traced the angles of the stars. After the recent restoration we do not know for sure if the circles were also golden circles as the stars but with the lapse of time they have become noticeable and now we have the so-called wheels of the sky. “Suceviţa’s sky” uniqueness lies not only in the technical innovation regarding star representation but also in its ability to raise some questions: are the stars inscribed in the circle pure ornamental elements taken from somewhere or are they symbols within the context of the monumental assembly? Is their source of inspiration only technical or also ideological? Why take pains to sketch some circles which would become invisible? Could this have been sketched only to exercise a new technique ? If they sketched the circles only as a guide mark in order to paint the stars symmetrically, why did they leave the circles

  6. Funny Bone finds a home: A musical featuring the Body of Christ

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    Robin Gallaher Branch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This play is a teaching tool and examines the concepts of unity and disunity in the Body of Christ. Based on 1 Corinthians 12:12–27, the play contains as characters the body parts mentioned by Paul in his instruction on the need for honouring different ministries and functions in the church. Combining humour and song, the play follows in the steps of ancient medieval allegories and illustrates a biblical teaching in a contemporary way.

  7. Glass Cathedral: Gay Novel or Liberation Theology? An Interview with Andrew Koh

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    Angus Whitehead

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Singaporean Andrew Koh was a founding member of the groundbreaking Necessary Stage theatre company in 1987. In Singapore he is best remembered as the author of Glass Cathedral (1995, Singapore's second gay novel[la], which won the 1994 Singapore Literature Prize Commendation Award and was subsequently shortlisted for the 1996 Commonwealth Writers Prize for the Best First Novel Regional Awards. A collection of poetry, Hybrid from the East, was published in the UK in 1997. A second novel awaits publication. After initially leaving Singapore for London in the mid-1990s he now lives in Sydney as a healthcare worker and qualified Chinese medicine practitioner. Sixteen years after its initial publication, Glass Cathedral the novel is finally receiving attention and reappraisal in the wake of its Glass Cathedral's republication by Epigram Books as a Singapore Classic, alongside works such as Goh Poh Seng's The Immolation, Robert Yeo's The Adventures of Holden Heng and Lloyd Fernando's Scorpion Orchid. The interview took place on 8 November 2011 at a restaurant on the site of Koh's alma mater St Joseph's Institution, Bras Basah Road, Singapore, just days after Koh returned to the city-state and gave a spirited reading from and talk about Glass Cathedral at the Singapore Writers Festival. In this interview Koh discusses his Catholic upbringing, and his employment as a policeman during Singapore's policy of entrapment of homosexual men during the 1990s. Koh goes on to discuss how he came to write Glass Cathedral, his leaving Singapore in response to the nation-state's repressive climate and unsympathetic response to queer writing. In the second half of the interview Koh discusses homophobia in Singapore, the Catholic Church, and elsewhere and its roots in misogyny. Koh also draws attention to other issues explored in Glass Cathedral: the marginalisation of minorities in a supposedly multicultural nation state and the impact of Singapore's secret history

  8. CONFORMITY IN CHRIST 1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a compre- hensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  9. Conformity in Christ | Waaijman | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a comprehensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  10. Cracking pattern and seismic performance assessment of the Orvieto cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Canio, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are described the in situ cracking pattern measurement and ambient vibration monitoring for the seismic performance evaluation of the Orvieto Cathedral Italy, according the deplacement based safety assessment. This requires, as a first step, the direct measurement of the cracking pattern and dynamic response of the structural macro elements of the cathedral due to weak vibrations induced by traffic and seismic micro tremors. Seismic assessment for this type of structure require also the proper limit states definitions. In fact, in the case historic monuments like churches, due to the presence of specific typology of macro elements: rigid blocks, complex vault systems, slenderness of the walls, presence of wide halls, domes and drums with particular geometry, is necessary to define the proper assessment procedures which are slightly different with respect those required for conventional civil industrial buildings. Regarding the Ambient vibration monitoring, a new approach to estimate the participating masses associated to the macro element kinematics is defined: it is based on the frequency contribution to the Root Main Square Acceleration, obtained by numerical integration of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. This information, when associated to the analysis of the Real and Imaginary part of the Cross Spectral Density (CSD) function between the acceleration time histories at different points, allow to identify the principal (at least first and second) mode shapes of the structure.

  11. Democracy in understanding of the Orthodox church.

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    Grigorios M. Liantas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is the notion of “democracy” in understanding and practice of the Ortho-dox Church. Beginning with genesis of the term and its application in ancient Greece author of the paper presents similarities and differences between concepts of “democracy” and “conciliarity”. “Democracy” is a form of government in which people are the source of political authority which is executed by elected representatives and rules on behalf of a nation. However, organization of the Orthodox Church is not “democratic” in common understanding of the term. Every member of the Church has the same duties and carries on the same mission, but everything is based on equality of the Apostles to whom Christ has entrusted spreading of the Gospel and establishment of the Church. “Democracy” in life of the Orthodox Church bears a name of “conciliarity” (greek „συνοδικότης” and it is lived in an unceasing community of all the Church members among themselves and their Divine Head mainly in the Mystery of Eucharist, the core of unity of the Church in Christ. Institution of conciliarity is not just a matter of Church administration or canon law but constitutes fundamental principle of ecclesiology. The fact of presence of the Holy Spirit and the Holy Trinity at each Council provides conciliarity with charismatic character. Organization of the Orthodox Church as ob-served in monastic community of Mount Athos, the world most ancient existing democracy, is set as an example for all social-political systems aiming to improve organization of society.

  12. Unusual Rebuilding Method of Historic St Mary's Cathedral in the Capital of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    St Mary's Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists. Reconstruction of St Mary's Cathedral in Perth can be a good example increasing the wider functionality of such facilities while keeping their antique and historical qualities. In this paper the above-mentioned issues will be more widely developed by the author.

  13. A framework for crafting and implementing a congregational strategy in the local congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Aldeon B.; van der Walt, J. Louw; de Klerk, Barend J.

    2012-01-01

    The church is not like any other institution or organisation in society. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual, it is a visible organisation in the world, and it spans across borders of nations, languages and countries. John Calvin strongly rejected the notion that the church is only a spiritual organisation of which the visible administrative side is downplayed. The fellowship of the church must not only be seen as a mystical relation with Jesus Christ. During 2010, an emp...

  14. The south oculus at Canterbury cathedral

    OpenAIRE

    Filippoupolitis, Marios

    2011-01-01

    Master’s Thesis Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions The South Oculus at Canterbury Cathedral is a wrought iron space frame, consisting of two layers (Ferramenta and Grille) connected by tie bars (Pins). It is in very good condition despite its almost 850 years of history. The in situ survey of the Cathedral confirmed that the Ferramenta and the external grille are in general in relative good condition with the exception of some local failures. On th...

  15. Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ of Bomba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... discovered the Harlem Renaissance Movement or New Negro Movement ... Beti picks up as a subject for his satire in The Poor Christ of Bomba. ..... slave driver, and the indigenous man into an instrument of production” (6).

  16. Love and Truth in Social Involvement of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Szmulewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study begins with a brief outline of the essence of the whole encyclical Caritas in veritate . Benedict XVI expresses the desire for „the dialogue with the world”. He understands this dialogue as a special kind of the service of the Church towards eternal love and truth, fully revealed in Christ. The dialogue of the Church with the world, in the spirit of love and truth, is accomplished every day at the level of so-called official relations. There are numerous opinions that in the past the Church repeatedly neglected the dialogue with the world. Indeed, the Church historians point out the existence of examples of the fall of the authority of the Holy See in particular countries and circumstances. Similarly, the Church is the sign of objection in the contemporary world. Instructed by past experiences the Church is aware that what is necessary for the renewal of culture and society, is evangelical love and truth.

  17. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Eternal High Priest: new feast for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Ostrowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the feast of Jesus Christ the Eternal High Priest was introduced into the liturgical calendar of the Church in Poland. In studying the history and liturgical texts for the new feast, the authors undertook the first attempt of a comprehensive liturgical analysis of its liturgy, presenting its historical background and theology. Starting from describing the circumstances of its introduction, and ending on the presentation of its summary in the „Martyrologium”, the authors paid a special attention to the form of the Mass and, also, tried to take the theological lecture of Mass readings. Then, also the theological conclusions of analytical reading of texts of the Liturgy of the Hours have been presented. The study is the first Polish comprehensive presentation of euchology for the new feast, sometimes it only opens threads for further discussion. However, it clearly shows the fundamental traces of the new feast’s theology. Its central theme is the priesthood of Christ as superior to the priesthood of the Old Testament. The only true priesthood of Christ involves especially, in sacramental way, the ordained ministers. The ministerial priesthood, in fact, becomes the second subject of the feast, as the prayer for priests was the main motivation for introduction of this feast into liturgical calendars of local Churches.

  18. Uniting geology and craftsmanship to find the optimal soapstone for restoration of the Nidaros soapstone Cathedral in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaksen Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli Birgitte; Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Langås, Rune; Lund, Vegard

    2017-04-01

    The Nidaros Cathedral situated in Trondheim, Norway is a restored cathedral resting on the remnants of an original medieval church sanctified St Olav. The cathedral became one of the most important sanctuary for pilgrimage during the Middle Ages and still is today. In a European context the cathedral, along with a certain group of other churches and monasteries in Norway, is unique by being build from soapstone (steatite). This talc and chlorite dominated metamorphic rock is relatively soft, heat resistant and dense making the material ideal for cooking pots, stoves and all kinds of utensils. Soapstone has therefore been appreciated, used and quarried since the Stone Age in Norway. At the onset of Christianity the choice of soapstone from harder rock types was not difficult for the building owners combining the vision of stone churches in Norway with the skills of wood carving traditions of local handicraftsmen. The best example is the Nidaros Cathedral built in the 11th to 14th century. In 1869, the Nidaros Cathedral Restoration Workshop (NDR) was founded with the purpose of restoring the cathedral using original craftsman's techniques and authentic materials. The restoration was originally completed in 1969, but is still ongoing due to weathering of certain used soapstone types. A major challenge remains to find soapstone resources of the right quality. Core issues relate to avoid rocks with cracks and cleavage, a demand for homogeneity, maintaining esthetic authenticity, resistance to weathering (disintegration) and last but not least the ultimatum of workability. Thus locating new soapstone resources depends strongly on geological understanding, quarry experience and stone carver's knowledge. The present work is based on close cooperation between stone carvers and geologists in a common goal of uniting knowledge and experience in defining qualities of soapstone for various purposes of restoration. Cooperate observations of geology and carving properties in the

  19. A framework for crafting and implementing a congregational strategy in the local congregations of the reformed churches of South Africa / by A.B. Grobler

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Aldeon Barend

    2010-01-01

    The church is not like any other institution or organisation in society. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual, it is a visible organisation in the world, and it spans across borders of nations, languages and countries. John Calvin strongly rejected the notion that the church is only a spiritual organisation of which the visible administrative side is downplayed. The fellowship of the church must not only be seen as a mystical relation with Jesus Christ. At t...

  20. Churching Alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie

    bridging forms of social capital. Methodologically, I combined the use of surveys with interviews and fieldwork, including document sources and statistical data. In the course of my study, I worked in different modes – distanciation and participation – using both quantitative and qualitative research...... methods. My research approach resembles the approaches used in the research field of empirically informed practical theology. Though using a diverse research strategy, I do not claim to present a universal knowledge of the context of the church through this study; my goals are “particularity......The aim of my dissertation is to study changes in the use of the Danish folk church. Through my studies, I am establishing a new research concept: churching alone. I work as a practical theologian using methods from the sociology of religion. My theoretical perspectives are drawn from the research...

  1. Cosmic Christ in a Quantum Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Mary Ann

    This study examines the figure of the second American Adam--the cosmic Christ archetype--in terms of a possible shift in the focus of Western consciousness. As science moves closer to religion and as Newtonian dualism gives way to a more holistic theory (in which observer, observed, and process of observation are all intricately interlinked), the cosmic Christ emerges as a symbol in contemporary American fiction of a potentially unified awareness which could reconnect post-Christian man to God, to the world, and to the self. Such a rebirth of unity would be contingent upon the death of a consciousness reliant upon the rational, linear, masculine, left-brained thinking associated with the old Newtonian paradigm. The resurrected consciousness would consolidate Eastern and Western religion by acknowledging the God within man through the Western symbology of the Christ prototype. It would also balance the intuitional with the rational, the cyclical with the linear, the feminine with the masculine, and the right brain with the left. In other words, the repressed elements of the collective Western psyche would be allowed to come to awareness and be integrated into the mind at large. This integrating process is implicit in the cosmic Christ imagery. The novels which are considered are all concerned with the role of consciousness in the postmodern world and the part that science and religion play in determining the nature of that role. In such varied works as Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow, John Updike's Roger's Version, Saul Bellow's Herzog, Joan Didion's A Book of Common Prayer, and William Vollmann's The Ice-Shirt, a cosmic Christ figure invariably appears. The success of this figure, however, is ambiguous and uncertain. At best, the transition of consciousness that is achieved is individual rather than communal. Nevertheless, as chaos theory has demonstrated, small changes can bring about major effects. Consequently, both the science of today and the rapid growth

  2. The portrait miniature of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki on a letter of indulgence issued in 1449 for the Church of All Saints in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A particularly interesting example of illuminated document is the indulgence granted to all who would visit the parish church of All Saints in Cracow on the major feasts of the liturgical year, issued by the Cracow Bishop, Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki (1423–1450 in 1449. A piece of parchment is decorated with the miniature composed of two juxtaposed fields, of which the upper one shows Christ with St Peter on His right, surrounded by the community of saints; the bottom field depicts the Pope seated between St Jerome and Cardinal Oleśnicki. This hierarch had been raised to the purple no fewer than three times. For the first time, Pope Eugene IV granted him this dignity with the accompanying title of St Prisca, but Oleśnicki did not accept it. Then Antipope Felix V, elected by the Council of Basle, elevated Oleśnicki to the cardinalate (with the title of St Anastasia, but the Cracow prelate likely did not accept the cardinal’s hat again and did not use the title, abiding by the orders of King Ladislaus the Jagiellon who was reluctant towards the Council. It was only in 1447 that Oleśnicki had relinquished the camp of the Council’s supporters, regarded by Rome as schismatics, and endorsed the rightful pope, Nicholas V. Oleśnicki received the cardinal’s hat sent from Rome in Cracow Cathedral, on 1 October 1449. The portrait composition on the Cracow miniature is complex and combining a few iconographic solutions popular in the late Middle Ages. Of particular significance seem to be the representation of the pope enthroned, the Traditio legis and Traditio clavium, as well as the juxtaposition of ecclesiastical hierarchy with the heavenly one. The Cracow miniature fitted perfectly in the then current problems of Church discussed anew in the mid-fifteenth century. Commissioned shortly after Oleśnicki had pledged obedience to Nicholas V and had received his cardinal’s hat, it is a public declaration by the former conciliarist of his new

  3. Relational leadership and the missional church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Breedt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The global realities regarding cultural shifts and the transition between traditional, modern and postmodern world perspectives have particular implications for leadership in general. In several institutions, including those in commercial, educational, medical and religious circles, leaders face the challenges of constant change in lifestyle, relational intelligence and responsibility. The combined impact of these changes in thought and culture, information technology, globalisation and racial, ethnic and religious pluralism has displaced the historic role the church has traditionally played. In this article it was argued that the church would have to take a hard look at relationships, in order to be the successful missional church which was demonstrated by Jesus Christ. The church needs to change, evolve and advance in relational intelligence and leadership � and leaders should set the pace. This implies that a paradigm shift is necessary; it is believed that this can be achieved through the proposed relational leadership style, as clearly demonstrated in the Trinitarian discussion. The Trinity, especially a relational Trinity, revealed the core understanding of missional ecclesiology and leadership and showed that as a result of the total �oneness� of God, there is no hierarchical order in the Godhead and as such the church should function and operate with the Trinity as its model and example.

  4. Specifics of nursing care for members of the Seventh Day Adventist Church

    OpenAIRE

    VOTRUBOVÁ, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Seventh Day Adventist Church was established in the United States in the 19th century and belongs among the Protestant churches. Adventists are characterized by the fact that they expect the second coming of Jesus Christ and hold Saturday holy for celebration of God. The theoretical part deals with the definition of multicultural nursing, nursing and describes the nursing process. It is focused on nursing models Leininger and Giger with Davidhizar. Another part of the theoretical work deals w...

  5. Church, mission and reconstruction: Being a church with integrity in reconstruction discourse in post-colonial Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canon B. Shambare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The church in Africa, like its counterparts elsewhere in the world, is called to fulfil the mission of God as expressed in the call ‘Missio Dei’ and influentially remains with the integrity of the mission of Christ (Missio Christos, which is liberative and practical. For Christ was not only concerned with the spiritual needs of the people, but also with their material well-being. The following question therefore arises: how can the church in Africa, in general, and in Zimbabwe, in particular, actively do God’s mission and remain with integrity in the midst of the reality of suffering. Furthermore, how can the church for mission and reconstruction be understood in a post-colonial Zimbabwe given the contextual realities of political crises, corruption, poverty, moral decadence, defined or censored truth, leadership crises and no freedom of expression? This article argues that, although the church is faced with these arduous realities, it remains called by God to do God’s mission. While in post-colonial Zimbabwe the socio-political, socio-economic and socio-religious situation might seem hopeless, the church has remained vibrant and alive for reconstruction theology. The transformation of society is possible given the authority and mission mandate of the church. This article argues that the church is a key player in reconstruction theology and in the transformation of society. For transformation to be possible, the church should witness to the gospel of Christ without fear of being labelled, castrated and persecuted. The article asserts that the spirit of the Bible should be revived in a time of reconstruction in Zimbabwe. The assumption in this article is that Zimbabwe is ready for reconstruction discourse. For this to happen, the researchers argue that the church as a critical relevant player in reconstruction needs to ‘be church’ in its missional mandates. Integrity is essential if a church wants to be relevantly missional and

  6. Integration of constrained electrical and seismic tomographies to study the landslide affecting the cathedral of Agrigento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capizzi, P; Martorana, R

    2014-01-01

    The Cathedral of Saint Gerland, located on the top of the hill of Agrigento, is an important historical church, which dates back to the Arab–Norman period (XI century). Unfortunately throughout its history the Cathedral and the adjacent famous Archaeological Park of the ‘Valley of the Temples’ have been affected by landslides. In this area the interleaving of calcarenites, silt, sand and clay is complicated by the presence of dislocated rock blocks and cavities and by a system of fractures partly filled with clay or water. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out on the north side of the hill, on which the Cathedral of Agrigento is founded, to define lithological structures involved in the failure process. Because of the landslide, the cathedral has been affected by fractures, which resulted in the overall instability of the structure. Along each of four footpaths a combination of 2D electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) and 2D seismic refraction tomographies (SRT) was performed. Moreover, along two of these footpaths microtremor (HVSR) and surface wave soundings (MASW) were carried out to reconstruct 2D sections of shear waves velocity. Furthermore a 3D electrical resistivity tomography was carried out in a limited area characterized by gentle slopes. After a preliminary phase, in which the data were processed independently, a subsequent inversion of seismic and electrical data was constrained with stratigraphic information obtained from geognostic continuous core boreholes located along the geophysical lines. This process allowed us to significantly increase the robustness of the geophysical models. The acquired data were interpolated to construct 3D geophysical models of the electrical resistivity and of the P-wave velocity. The interpolation algorithm took into account the average direction and immersion of geological strata. Results led to a better understanding of the complexity of the subsoil in the investigated area. The use of integrated

  7. ‘By Force of Participation and Conjunction in Him’: John Jewel and Richard Hooker on Union with Christ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazal André A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of a Christian Letter cited a passage from John Jewel’s A Reply to Harding’s Answer in which the first major apologist of the Elizabethan Settlement spoke of the role of faith and the sacraments in union with Christ. Andrew Willet, the likely author of this work, quoted it against Richard Hooker in order to show how the latter contravened the sacramental theology of the national Church as interpreted by Jewel as one of the foremost expositors of its doctrine. Jewel, however, in his Reply to Harding’s Answer, enumerates four means of the Christian’s union with Christ: the Incarnation, faith, baptism, and the Eucharist-a fact overlooked in A Christian Letter by its author in his endeavor to impeach Hooker’s orthodoxy. Proceeding from the observation that both Jewel and Hooker believed that the locus of Christian salvation is union with Christ, this essay compares the two divines’ respective views of this union by examining the manner in which they understand the role of each of these means forming and maintaining this union. On the basis of this comparison, the essay argues that A Christian Letter misrepresented Jewel’s position and that Hooker’s view of union with Christ was essentially the same as the late bishop of Salisbury’s, notwithstanding some differences in detail and emphases. The article concludes with the opinion that Hooker represents continuity of a particular soteriological emphasis in the Elizabethan Church that can possibly be traced back to Jewel as a representative of the Reformed tradition stressing this doctrine.

  8. Pentecostal mission spirituality: a study of the classical Pentecostal Churches in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mission is not just about proclaiming the gospel - it encompasses spiritual preparation of those involved in both mission activity and in converted souls. This approach is what is termed as mission spirituality in this article. Mission spirituality is the means by which churches and individual believers participate in the mission of God, through the way they live in and by the Holy Spirit, in order to know the will of God regarding what He is doing in their context and to follow His example. In view of the importance of mission spirituality in missionary activities of the church, this article explores the mission spirituality of the classical Pentecostal churches in Ghana (The church of Pentecost, Christ Apostolic Church International, The Apostolic Church Ghana and the Assemblies of God.

  9. THE THEOLOGY AND PRACTICE OF CHRIST APOSTOLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The motivation for this study emanated from review of literature which led this ... Scholars have done some critical works on different aspects of CAC. For ... doctrines accepted by the Church to guide the religious practices of its members. ... doctors were agents of Satan.24 Synan comments on Dowie‟s ministry thus,.

  10. Who is Jesus Christ for the Ruthenian and Russian Saints? A Theological Exploration of St Dimitry Rostovsky’s The Lives of the Saints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Leśniewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian hagiography reveals not only the facts of life of individual saints, but first of all, it is a description of theexperience of God loving mankind. From the beginning of Christianity, of great importance in building faith, hope andlove had had stories about those believers who responded with a particular radicalism for the prevenient love of God inthe Trinity of Persons. These stories have been written in various forms of literature.Author in the introductory part of the article introduces into the lives of the saints and their role in the Ruthenian andRussian Orthodoxy. Essentially he focuses on presenting The Menaia edited by St Dimitry Rostovski. This book waspublished in the years 1711 to 1718 in Old Church Slavonic. At the beginning of the twentieth century, it has been rewrittenand translated into Russian. This monumental work appeared in the years 1903-1911 under the title The Lives of theSaints. It has been a rich source of information for researchers from many disciplines.From a theological point of view, the author studied The Lives of the Saints in order to find direct references to theperson and teaching of Jesus Christ. For this purpose, he analyzed quotations from the New Testament, especially fromthe Gospel, referring directly to the Person and teaching of Jesus Christ, as well as the prayers addressed to Him. In hisanalysis, he searched for answers to the questions: Who is Jesus Christ for the Ruthenian and Russian saints, and whatkind of His images predominate in The Lives of the Saints.The first part of the article, on the basis of source texts, indicates personal qualities of Jesus Christ. The Savior hasbeen experienced by the Ruthenian and Russian saints as God who is close to man, the blessed King, the best Lord, theComforter of the crying, the Light, the merciful God, and the Foundation of all good. The image of Christ as sinless,innocent suffering and merciful shines especially in the devotion of Saints Passion

  11. Christ also ours in Africa: A consideration of Torrance's incarnational, Christological model as nexus for Christ's identification with African Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The perceived foreignness of Christ in African Christianity is an ongoing challenge that is captured in various pieces of African theological literature. This problem partly arises from some early Western missionaries� presentation of the gospel to Africans from a predominantly Western perspective, which caused many Africans to perceive Christ as a Western Saviour with a Western identity. The problem of the foreignness of Christ in African Christianity is further intensified by the traditional African ancestral world view that requires a blood-related ancestor to address the African contextual needs. Therefore, many African Christians do not like to view Christ as identifying with them. This has resulted in the unchanging ethical lives of some African Christians as Christ and the consequent Christian ethics have not taken deep roots. To inform the identity and ethical lives of African Christians as true followers of Christ, many African theologians have responded to the foreignness of Christ in African Christianity by proposing various African Christological approaches that identify Christ with African Christians. However, these Christological approaches are limited in various ways. Thus, in the quest for an alternative Christological model that identifies Christ with African Christians, this article critically analyses and evaluates Torrance�s incarnational Christological model in order to determine how his (Torrance�s incarnational Christological conceptualisation can open up aspects of Christ�s incarnation that fully identify Christ with African Christians. The article highlights that Torrance�s incarnational Christological concepts, namely, anypostasis and enhypostasis, the close association between the doctrine of creation and redemption, and the interpretation of the redemptive history of Israel from an incarnational perspective configures that in the incarnation, God in Christ completely identifies with all humankind and saves

  12. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  13. "Dies Domini" – Sunday in the early centuries of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Józef Janicki

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Sunday begins with Christ's resurrection, which gave unique shape and significance to the day. All evangelists agree that Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples on "the first day of the week", or "the first day after Shabbat". The article discusses the significance and meaning of the Sunday feast in the early centuries of the Church.

  14. the unified body of christ as biblical metaphor for being church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narrative research is the study of how human beings experience the world, and ... literacy (education services) and income (standards of living). ... poorest of the poor become younger, with growing child-run households. ... Healthy (with life expectancy of 80 years ... Page 5 .... fuller maturity, as well as the downtown person.

  15. “who is christ for us today?” bonhoeffer's question for the church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem inherent in all cognitive “methods” is that “I bear within me the ..... In short, Bonhoeffer's interpretation of the pro-me structure takes seriously the ..... theological dialogue by means of a meditation 'in', rather than merely 'upon' the method ... “speak of the world as if it were lost, as if it were separated from God”.

  16. Defender of the Faith – hagiography’s topos in the Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dżega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author wanted to show the specific for Orthodoxy – topos Her defender. As demonstratedby this topos is universal for any kind of holiness. Starting from the Martyrs ending the Hierarchs and Ascetics, inthe Orthodox Church, there is a never-ending battle for Purity of the Faith in Christ. In this paper author have shown thethree main determinants for the Fight of Faith: 1 Holy Zeal, 2 Holy Pride and 3 Holy Insubordination. To confirm histhesis the author gives some examples from the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church. At the same time author usingthe patristic and liturgical texts.

  17. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  18. THE COMPLEX OF ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL OF THE ASTRAKHAN KREMLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkova Aleksandra Igorevna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to an architectural and historical analysis of the constructions forming a complex of Assumption Cathedral of the Astrakhan Kremlin, which earlier hasn’t been considered as a subject of special research. Basing on the archival sources, photographic materials, publications and on-site investigations of monuments, the creation history of the complete architectural complex sustained in one style of the Muscovite baroque, unique in its composite construction, is considered. Its interpretation in the all-Russian architectural context is offered. Typological features of single constructions come to light. The typology of the Prechistinsky bell tower has an untypical architectural solution - “hexagonal structure on octagonal and quadrangular structures”. The way of connecting the building of the Cathedral and the chambers by the passage was characteristic of monastic constructions and was exclusively seldom in kremlins, farmsteads and ensembles of city cathedrals. The composite scheme of the Assumption Cathedral includes the Lobnoye Mesto (“the Place of Execution” located on an axis from the West, it is connected with the main building by a quarter-turn with landing. The only prototype of the structure is a Lobnoye Mesto on the Red Square in Moscow. In the article the version about the emergence of the Place of Execution on the basis of earlier existing construction - a tower “the Peal” which is repeatedly mentioned in written sources in connection with S. Razin’s revolt is considered. The metropolitan Sampson, trying to keep the value of the Astrakhan metropolitanate, builds the Assumption Cathedral and the Place of Execution directly appealing to a capital prototype to emphasize the continuity and close connection with Moscow.

  19. Similar Fracture Patterns in Human Nose and Gothic Cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu Jin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes that the bony anatomy of the human nose and masonry structure of the Gothic cathedral are geometrically similar, and have common fracture patterns. We also aim to correlate the fracture patterns observed in patients' midface structures with those seen in the Gothic cathedral using computational approach. CT scans of 33 patients with facial fractures were examined and compared with computer simulations of both the Gothic cathedral and human nose. Three similar patterns were found: (1) Cracks of the nasal arch with crumpling of the vertical buttresses akin to the damage seen during minor earthquakes; (2) lateral deviation of the central nasal arch and collapse of the vertical buttresses akin to those due to lateral forces from wind and in major earthquakes; and (3) Central arch collapse seen as a result of collapse under excessive dead weight. Interestingly, the finding of occult nasal and septal fractures in the mandible fractures with absence of direct nasal trauma highlights the possibility of transmission of forces from the foundation to the arch leading to structural failure. It was also found that the structural buttresses of the Gothic cathedral delineate the vertical buttresses in the human midface structure. These morphologic similarities between the human nose and Gothic cathedral will serve as a basis to study the biomechanics of nasal fractures. Identification of structural buttresses in a skeletal structure has important implications for reconstruction as reestablishment of structural continuity restores normal anatomy and architectural stability of the human midface structure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch was extracted from seeds of Christ Thorn by hot water extraction method. The composition and physicochemical properties of the extracted starch were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the analyses revealed that the % yield of starch was 43.2%, while moisture content, ash content, ...

  1. the uniqueness of jesus christ and pluralism from the perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Collins English Dictionary (1999:1192; cf. Gensichen 1991) ... to mediate the grace of God, until the gospel of Christ is preached to their followers. ... philosopher of religion, John Hick (1922-), gave new impetus to this ... In his book No other name (1985) Paul Knitter takes religious plu- ..... MCGRATH, ALISTER E. 1994.

  2. the postfigurative christ in morley callaghan's such is my beloved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolic Christ figures, i.e. characters whose lives to greatly varying extents mir- ror those of Jesus of Nazareth without being fully fledged allegories thereof, were frequently employed as fictional devices in nineteenth- and twentieth-century lite- rature as means of expressing diverse qualities, lessons, mores, and values in ...

  3. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with cleft palate, absent nipples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 6 year old child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with typical characteristics of Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome. The patient had sparse light hair over the scalp, scanty eyebrows and eyelashes, a high arched cleft palate, decayed oligodontic teeth, hyperpigmentation all over ...

  4. The postfigurative Christ in "Morley Callaghan's" such is my beloved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lessons, mores, and values in the modern world. One esteemed literary artist who made use of this technique was the Canadian liberal Roman Catholic layman Morley Callaghan (1903-1990). In his novel of 1934, Such Is My Beloved, the protagonist, a gifted young priest in a major city, is a latter-day reflection of Christ.

  5. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Comite, Valeria; La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  6. An analysis of the black crusts from the Seville Cathedral: A challenge to deepen the understanding of the relationships among microstructure, microchemical features and pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, Silvestro A., E-mail: silvestro.ruffolo@unical.it [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Comite, Valeria [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); La Russa, Mauro F. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Barca, Donatella [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Bonazza, Alessandra [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Crisci, Gino M. [Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Via Pietro Bucci 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy); Pezzino, Antonino [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali–Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Cathedral of Seville is one of the most important buildings in the whole of southern Spain. It suffers, like most of the historical buildings located in urban environments, from several degradation phenomena related to the high pollution level. Undoubtedly, the formation of black crusts plays a crucial role in the decay of the stone materials belonging to the church. Their formation occurs mainly on carbonate building materials, whose interaction with a sulfur oxide-enriched atmosphere leads to the transformation of calcium carbonate (calcite) into calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) which, together with embedded carbonaceous particles, forms the black crusts on the stone surface. To better understand the composition and the formation dynamics of this degradation product and to identify the pollutant sources and evaluate their impact on the stone material, an analytical study was carried out on the black crust samples collected from different areas of the building. For a complete characterization of the black crusts, several techniques were used, including laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. This battery of tests provided information about the nature and distribution of the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and the crust-substrate interface, contributing to the identification of the major pollution sources responsible for the deterioration of the monument over time. In addition, the results revealed a relation among the height of sampling, the surface exposure and the concentration of heavy metals. Finally, information has been provided about the origin of the concentration gradients of some metals. - Highlights: • Black crusts from the Cathedral of Seville have been studied. • The impact of the pollution on the Cathedral of Seville has been assessed. • A geochemical study has been performed on black

  7. The Russian Orthodox and Catholic Church in 1980 – the 1990th Years: to History of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In article relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and Catholic in 1980 – the 1990th years is considered. Dialogue development between them had not only internal political, but also foreign policy value. One of the most painful questions in relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and the question of the uniatsky church earlier existing in the territory of Ukraine and Belarus and restored in the second half of the 1980th years was Catholic. Divergences in a number of theological questions remained. In particular, it belonged to the doctrine confirmed with the Second Vatican Cathedral about Papal infallibility and a primacy of the Roman High priest. Peacekeeping activity was that sphere where the Russian Orthodox and Catholic churches most successfully cooperated though rivalry was present and here.

  8. Church of St. Peter and Paul in the village under Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the border of the municipality towards Kosovo, Kuršumlija preserved the St. Cemetery's church of Peter and Paul in village Lukovo near the famous rehabilitation center Lukovo's spa. Church is one nave with a semicircular apse at the east vaults with semicircular arch reinforced with cross sec­tion curve, which relies on a few strong pilasters placed inside long walls. According to folk tradition the church was built in the middle ages and served to diggers and foundries of lead ores of King Milutin. Upon termination of exploitation ore the church neglected and in the 19th century it suffered its first renewal 1871st and another 1895th year. Saved epigraphic inscription with carved year of renewal (1895th, icons and wall decor of the church provide information about reliably judging its recent history and artistic value. Soon after the bricklaying work 1895th Church has received from the altar wall of icons, and after that, and mural painting small artistic value. The crown of the vault is painted Pantocrator, about whose performances are painted scenes of the Transfiguration, Ascension of Christ, Vavedenje and Entry into Jerusalem. On the western wall are shown the Dormition of the Mother of God and in the first zone are shown standing figures of Sts. Constantine and Helena, St. Simon Mir refills and St. Prince Lazar - kefaloforos. On the triumphal arch are Old. Testament scenes of hospitality and sacrifice of Abraham and in the apse bust of God Savaot. In the zone of standing figures are shown Sts. Druid, St. Czar Uroš and St. King Stephen, St. Sunday, St. Petka, St. Procopius, and St. George. From the figures standing at the altar of bishops are shown St. John Chrysostom, St. Sava Serbian, St. Basil the Great and St. Athanasius. There was saved the altar compartments with icons. At the czar's gate are shown Blagovesti and in the order of main icons: Christ Almighty, Mother of God with Christ, St. John the Forerunner, icons of patron St

  9. Women and Popular Church

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Brendalí Costa; EST

    2013-01-01

    From the early 1960s, the Popular Church organized and influenced the actions, ideas and objectives of the Brazilian civil society. From the Feminist Theology, the article reflects on the different ways which this praxis influenced, through principles, worldviews and methodologies, the actions performed by women in the 1980s who engaged in the Urban Popular Church in suburbs of cities which belonged to the diocese of Caxias do Sul. The study is bibliographic, documental and is analyzed throug...

  10. Healthcare and Catholic identity in the universal Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, C D

    1987-10-01

    Two topics that are closely related to the daily work and the primordial concern of Catholic healthcare givers are the meaning and sense of Catholic healthcare institutions, and the relationship between a particular Church and the universal Church, especially since the Second Vatican Council. Some question whether it is worthwhile to maintain independent Catholic institutions, rather than working with others in nondenominational healthcare institutions. Christian institutions are indispensable as a defense against the well-organized forces of evil in the world, and because togetherness is needed in the struggle for good and for faith. Without this togetherness, the danger exists that the power of faith will be taken over by the power of money and financial interest groups. The elements of the Catholic identity of institutions and organizations are a service to the world, the Gospel message, a balance between technology and humanism, a permanent solicitude for the whole person, and a respect for human liberty. This Catholic identity must be fostered in our institutions, especially among the laypeople working there. The relationship between the universal Church and local Churches has come under stress since the Second Vatican Council, and a balance must be found. The problem has two aspects: the theological, and the cultural and psychological. A sound communion theology must be established to provide a good perspective on the relationship. In addition, a dialogue must be established between Rome and the particular Churches to prevent the universal message of Christ in his Gospel from conflicting more and more with local styling of the message.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Grammatical norm problem in diachronies (on the material of the manuscript of the XVII century “Jesus Christ passions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryakova Elina Valerievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the study in terms of the implementation of the grammatical rules of the text of the apocryphal writings of «Jesus Christ Passion», forming the bulk of convolutes of the XVII century, which is stored in the Mordovian regional museum and has not been introduced in the scientific sphere. It is given the definition of the grammatical norm, summarized the point of view of well-known scientists who study the evolution of the norms of book-Slavic language at different stages of its development and in the establishment and description of the main characteristics of the «strict» and reduced norm of the Church Slavonic language. It is use/disuse of a complicated system of past tenses of verbs, the dual number, principles in the use of participle forms, formation of imperative, causal, conditional and temporary relations and other features. An analysis of the graphic-orthographic and grammatical features of the manuscript concluded that the language of the monument is in the center of the Church Slavonic language of the reduced standard of the XVII century with the appearance of dialectal features inherent to the southern Russian dialects.

  12. "Friends" of Anglican Cathedrals: Norms and Values. Befriending, Friending or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…

  13. Construction of St. Michael’s the Archangel Cathedral in Sochi (1874–1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on archive data, describes the hard process of the construction of St. Michael’s the Archangel Cathedral in Sochi in 1874–1891. Special attention is attached to the role of architect A.S. Kaminsky in the construction of the cathedral.

  14. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  15. Church, mission and ethics. Being church with integrity | Dreyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is an exercise in Practical Ecclesiology. The author reflects on church, mission and ethics from historical, hermeneutical and strategic perspectives. Using the ecclesiology of Karl Barth as a point of departure, the author argues that the church needs to be church if it wants to be a credible witness to the Gospel of ...

  16. The cathedrals of science CERN, 1954-2004

    CERN Document Server

    Aymar, Robert; De Rújula, Alvaro; Lamont, Mike; Baldy, Jean Luc; Della Negra, Michel; Schükraft, Jürgen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Gianotti, F; Landua, Rolf; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Cailliau, Robert; Grey, François; Giacoletto, Sergio; CERN. Geneva; New Atlantis. Bloomington

    2004-01-01

    Since 1954 CERN, the most prestigious particle physics laboratory, have been building gigantic devices to discover the intimate nature of matter. These huge technological cathedrals are the new LHC accelerator and the particle decetors. These inmense machines capable of revealing the secrets of the microcosmos. This is a journey back through millions of years to the very origin of the univers: the Big Bang. This documentary will reveal all answers on the scientific nature of matter and provide a comprehensive account of one of the greatest experiments ever made.

  17. TRAVERTINE THE RESTORATION STONE FOR THE ZAGREB CATHEDRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Roman travertine San Pietro Classico, from a deposit in the Acque Albule basin near Rome, will be used for the restoration of the cathedral in Zagreb instead of the previosly used lithotamnian limestone. The genesis and properties of travertine are described. Also the differences in genesis and characteristics of travertine and calc-tufa are presented. Travertine and calc-tufa are created by different genetic processes and thus cannot be considered equivalent. Travertine is a dimensional stone that has world-wide significance, while calc-tufa, has only local or at the most some minor regional importance.

  18. Patronal'nye izobraženija v programme rospisej Spasskoj cerkvi Evfrosin'eva monastyrja v Polocke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarab'janov Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The murals of Christ`s Transfiguration cathedral in Polotsk (ca. 1161, which were revealed during restoration in the last several years, include several thematic strata. Among them especially notable is a group of images, related to the patron saints. Distinguished among them are the figures of the patron saints of the Polotsk ducal family, to which St. Euphrosynia of Polotsk, the founder of the monastery and the builder of the Christ`s Church, belonged. The composition “Exaltation of the Cross” is set in one row with the patron saints, thus revealing semantic correlation with the ktitors` portrait in Kiev Saint Sophia and some other Kiev churches of tenth and eleventh centuries, where the idea of Russia becoming a member of Christian community is developed. At the same time, the patron theme is deeply intertwined with the purpose of the Christ`s Church to serve as a family burial for St. Euphrosynia.

  19. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  20. Conceptions of Church Slavonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Keipert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In our time Church Slavonic is a “language without native speakers,” but it is not in all respects a “dead” one. It is for this reason that the Slavs have given it a great variety of names, the different use of which in philological publications heavily depends on the respective linguists’ connotative purposes (e.g., national and ideological interests and so forth. As a rule, the description of the language is based on the analysis of written or printed texts. Only recently have a few additional corpora been introduced in addition to the well-known group of “classical” Old Church Slavonic manuscripts, which, for all their merits in the history of Slavistics, can give only a vague idea of the rich language tradition of Church Slavonic as a whole, since, as a means of actual (oral communication, it can nowadays be observed only in the liturgy. The article discusses the main linguistic conceptions applied to Church Slavonic in the past and present (root language, i.e., proto-language, common language, literary language [Schriftsprache], Ausbau language, etc.; singles out binaristic approaches in opposition to vernaculars; gives an overview of the numerous varieties to be differentiated within the language (connected to regions, chronology, functions, individuals, and groups; recalls the role of reconstruction in modern textbooks and the widely neglected construction devices used in early grammars and dictionaries; and, at the end, refers to the possibility of including Church Slavonic as a model for comparative judgments on degrees of diversity in the structural development of Slavonic languages.

  1. Natural cement and stone restoration of Bourges Cathedral (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gosselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cement, also called "Roman cement", was invented at the end of the 18th Century and played an important role in the development of civil engineering works until the 1860s. More surprisingly, it was also used to restore historic buildings, such as gothic cathedrals. This paper deals with the mineralogy and the durability of natural cement, in the particular case of the Bourges Cathedral in France. This study illustrates the interest of this material particularly adapted in stone repair or substitution. Contrary to traditional mortars, the present samples are made of neat cement paste, revealed by the absence of mineral additions as quartz or carbonate sand. Several combined techniques (SEM-EDS, TGA, XRD were carried out to determine the composition of the hydraulic binder rich in calcium aluminate hydrates. The raw marl at the origin of the cement production contains oxidized pyrites which consist in a potential source of sulphate pollution of the surrounding limestone. The exposition of the cement in urban environment leads to some weathering features as atmospheric sulphation. Finally a petrophysical approach, based on water porosity, capillary sorption and compressive strength, has been performed to demonstrate the durability and the compatibility of roman cement applied as a restoration mortar of historical building.

  2. The Church as Christ’s broken body responding to the emerging global challenges in a divided world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick R. Hewitt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Public debate about the role of the church within society has gained momentum especially because the contemporary changing global political and economic landscape has resulted in deeply a divided world. People are asking questions about the missional identity and vocation of the church. If the church is the broken body of Christ in the world, what are the ways in which it is expressing that brokenness in practical ways? This vulnerable status necessitates modelling the politics of Jesus that risks putting up resistance against all threats that prevent people from experiencing fullness of life. The contemporary era of global governance is characterised by ‘moral lowlifes’ in political leadership that uses judicial and executive overreach to weaken democracy and empower the wealthy elites. Furthermore, the impact of technology and computation on shaping human relations has produced a consequential decline in human trust and relationships. Therefore, the missional agenda of the church as the broken body of Christ serving a divided world, calls for building life-affirming relationships that overcome dehumanising barriers.

  3. Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: Two case reports and felicitous approaches to prosthetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navanith Renahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.

  4. Church as heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya van Wyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on an ecclesiastical institution as a spatial panoptic structure which domesticates representational space as a hierarchy of power devoid of a sensitivity for the ‘human Other’ (Autrui. The notion of heterotopia is promoted to deconstruct spatiality and linearity (time as theological binary concepts. Being church as heterotopia does not deny the desire for the utopian dimension in religious thinking but holds on to utopian thinking amidst adversity and diversity. Therefore the concept of heterotopia is used to describe reconciliatory diversity, which is characteristic of an inclusive postmodern church which is a space where unity is not threatened by diversity, where the one is not afraid of the Other.

  5. Towards a poetics of decolonization: Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sixa, a church establishment aimed at grooming young female converts in preparation for Christian marriage, is Father Drumont's signature project during his twenty-year tenure at the Bomba Mission. In practice, however, the sixa is a complete mockery of Catholicism and a subversion of African traditional marriages.

  6. The central tower of the cathedral of Schleswig - New investigations to understand the alcali-silica reaction of historical mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.

  7. Transformed in Christ, the Master of Uncommon Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Obrovac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both definitive and enigmatic, the figure of Christ, the Master-Teacher emerges from the pages of the Gospel. What does he reveal? How does he reveal it? In an age that markets transformation as a commodity, what promise of rebirth does he offer us as persons and societies? What key implication does this hold for the unification of the sciences, as well as of art and science? The unique insight of Blessed James Alberione, SSP, sheds light on what has lain hidden in plain sight: what Jesus’ personal profile, ‘Way, Truth, and Life,’ can mean for our cynical yet searching times and particularly for us, who now find ourselves immersed in the Church’s new evangelization.

  8. Christ siemens touraine syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Retnakumari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation.

  9. THE THEME OF THE CRUCIFIXION OF CHRIST IN VISUAL ARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOLERIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Crucifixion of Christ is one of the major Biblical events in the context of the four Gospels, also marking one of the most frequently met themes in the iconography of Christian art. The focus of the paper is to underline the main aspects of the visual representation of this tense moment in the history of Christianity, referring to representative works of the artistic heritage inspired by the event of Christ’s death on the cross. Thus, a number of famous works of art history are analyzed in relation to the described composition, the represented characters and their importance. They belong both to traditional artistic fields, such as painting, to modern ones, thus taking into account some of the most popular film representations on this topic.

  10. Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakumari, N; Varghese, Manuja; Kannan, V P

    2016-01-01

    Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST) is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation.

  11. A motive of the Bull’s Head as a Decoration of the Medieval Churches in Southern Caucasus

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    Ekaterina Endoltseva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examples of a syncretism of the traditional believes and Christianity in the Middle Ages. There is a representation of the bull’s head in the architectural decoration of some of the medieval churches (f. i. Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, XI c., Georgia; the Holy Cross Cathedral on the Island of Akdamar, X c., Turkey; monasteries of Geghard, XIII c. and Sanain, XII c., Armenia; it is obviously connected with an ancient cult of the bull wide-spread in the Mediterranean world from the Neolithic period until modern time.

  12. Adoration of Virgin Mary Attended by Two St. Johns in Wawel Cathedral Collection

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    Magdalena Piwocka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a canvas (98,5 x 222,5cm in the Wawel Cathedral that is not connected with any existing or historically documented altars inside the church (il. 1-3. Owing to its shape it has so far been considered to have been a predella, which - taking into account its size and proportions - seems rather unlikely. It may have been the top of the middle part of a retable, possibly in an altar dedicated to the two St. Johns. The painting presents the Virgin Mary with the Child seated under a canopy, attended by the two Saints, adored by kneeling angels with censers in their hands. A graphic model of the scene has been found; it is an engraving by Jan Sadeler (1550-1600 based on a design by Hans von Aachen (1552-1615, released in Munich in 1589 (il. 4. In Albertina, in Vienna, a working copy of the graphic made by Hans von Aachen has been preserved (il. 5 as well as a composition sketch by the same artist at the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum in Braunschweig. An inscription on the drawing from 1589 reads: POENA ET PROEMIVM; there are also quotations from psalms and a dedication to Phillip Wilhelm (1576-1598, bishop of Regenzburg in 1589, later cardinal (1596, son of a Bavarian ruler Wilhelm V Wittelsbach (1548-1626. The young hierarch got it in the year of his consecration as a bishop. A pendant to it is the plate by Jan Sadeler of 1590, after Peter Candid (1548-1628, which was dedicated to Phillip Wilhelm’s younger brother - Ferdinand (1577-1650, later bishop of Cologne. The engraving also shows St. Mary with the Child in the company of St. Stephen and St. Laurence. Both works coincide with the artistic activity of Jan Sadeler and Hans von Achen in Munich, where they were summoned by Wilhelm V, and represent strictly planned art created for his court. Another painted version of Sadeler’s engraving was found in a Polish private collection. This is a small, good painting on panel, faithfully reproducing physiognomy and inscriptions known from the

  13. Social topos of church architecture

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    Zarochintseva Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the idea that descendants are reminded about the history and culture of their country through the architectural forms of Church architecture. Church architecture expresses the power and greatness of folk feats, patriotism and love of freedom. Each church has its own history, includes the architectural style of its epoch, and occupies a certain position among the other religious buildings. Churches have city-forming significance and represent the sacred center of the city; as well they possess a sign, marking function in the area, which can be “read” as a common landmark in the social topes

  14. Pneumatology and discipleship: Trinity and church in the theology of Stanley Grenz

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    Roland Spjuth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ecclesiology, the notion of the Spirit and the church has been heavily influenced by a recent and broad retrieval of Trinitarian theology. In this article, I discuss this in relationship to baptist and evangelical traditions as it is represented by Stanley Grenz. His “theology for the community of God” demonstrates the fruitfulness of the Trinitarian retrieval for such traditions. However, the main argument in the article is that it also implies certain risks. According to the Baptist tradition, the central message of the New Testament is the invitation to be a disciple of Jesus Christ. As Kathryn Tanner and Karen Kilby have argued elsewhere, when the biblical challenge to be like Jesus Christ is turned into a more general exhortation to become an image of the Trinity, it often results in abstract ethics and an ecclesiology that focuses mainly on general exhortations to love and to live in community. In contrast, this article claims that the biblical notion of discipleship has greater possibilities to allow for a more substantial and more holistic account of the Church, one that reunites ecclesiology, ethics and the Spirit’s transformative work within liturgy, charismatic service and mission.

  15. A hermeneutical reflection on the resurrection of Jesus Christ in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism

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    Kobus Labuschagne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to elaborate hermeneutically on the different historical contexts, related the one to the other and to the centre point of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism. The aim is not only to find the true meaning that the Heidelberg Catechism intends to convey in the mentioned question and answer, but also to explain the underlying hermeneutical thinking as well as to bring to the surface and explain alternative assumptions that ordinary church-going Christians experience as the unusual outcome of an unknown and different kind of approach. Different hermeneutical processes lead to different outcomes of understanding − sometimes worlds apart. Vanuit die sentrale punt van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in vraag en antwoord 45 van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, wil hierdie artikel in ’n hermeneutiese besinning oor die verskillende verbandhoudende historiese kontekste uitbrei. Die doel is nie slegs om die ware betekenis te vind van wat die Heidelbergse Kategismus in genoemde vraag en antwoord poog om weer te gee nie, maar ook om die onderliggende hermeneutiese denke te verduidelik en alternatiewe aannames, wat gewone Christen-kerkgangers as ’n vreemde en verskillende benaderings ervaar, na die oppervlakte te bring en te verduidelik. Verskillende hermeneutiese prosesse lei tot verskillende uitkomste van verstaan – soms wêrelde van mekaar verwyderd.

  16. Unshackling the Church

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    Vuyani Vellem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In whose ‘order’, ‘newness’ and ‘foundation’ is ecclesiology based in South Africa? The colonial legacy of pigmentocracy, the cultural domination and annihilation of the indigenous dispensation of black Africans, is not devoid of institutional structures of faith and their historical performance in South Africa. The church is one institution in South Africa that played a crucial role in perpetrating perversities of racial, economic and cultural exclusion with a fetish of its institutional character that is still pervasive and dangerously residual in post-1994 South Africa. By presenting a brief outline of the basics on ecclesiology, the article argues that things remain the same the more things seem to change if the methodological approach to ecclesiology circumvents the edifice and foundations on which the history of ecclesiology in South Africa is built. To unshackle the church, a Black Theology of liberation must begin from and debunk the foundations of models of ecclesiology that are conceived on perverse theological and ideologised forms of faith that have become residually hazardous in South Africa post-1994.

  17. Church mediation - een vak apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annelies Klinefelter; dr Hans A.J. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Welke rol kan mediation in de kerk spelen in de diverse geledingen en specifieke activiteiten? In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op kerkelijke conflicten, gelaagdheid in church mediation, en specifieke dilemma's van church mediation. Daarnaast komen enkele benaderingen aan bod zoals: helende

  18. A Church History of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century......A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century...

  19. Deterioration of ancient metallic elements taken from Toledo cathedral

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    Castaño González, Juan Guillermo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of Toledo Cathedral spanned a period of more than 200 years and was influenced by many different trends and criteria, reflected in the wide range of styles it accommodates (basically Mudéjar and Gothic, with Flemish, baroque and renaissance elements. Over the centuries it has undergone numerous restorations, also according to different criteria. The cathedral is situated in an environment of low aggressivity, in terms of atmospheric contamination, but the passage of time has taken its toll on many structural, architectural and artistic elements. During recent restoration work several metallic elements, which have been exposed for many years or even centuries to the inclemencies of the Toledo climate, were taken in order to analyse their composition and deterioration. The techniques used have been Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray Microprobe (SEM/EDAX, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The elements considered are a piece of roofing lead, a lead slate clamp, a piece of stained glass window leading, and an iron nail.

    La Catedral de Toledo se edificó en un período de más de 200 años, bajo numerosos criterios de construcción que se reflejan en la multiplicidad de estilos que alberga (entre mudéjar y gótico, con aportaciones flamencas, barrocas y renacentistas. A través de los siglos, ha sido objeto de numerosas restauraciones, también bajo distintos criterios. La catedral está ubicada en un ambiente poco agresivo, en cuanto a corrosión atmosférica se refiere. Sin embargo, el discurrir de tantos años no deja de hacer mella en los diversos elementos estructurales, arquitectónicos y artísticos que la componen. En recientes restauraciones se obtuvieron algunos elementos metálicos que han estado expuestos, por muchos años, siglos inclusive, a las inclemencias del clima toledano, con el propósito de analizar su composición y deterioro, empleando las técnicas de Microscopio

  20. FOOLISHNESS FOR CHRIST, LOVE AND MATERNITY IN LUDMILA ULITSKAYA'S PLAY "THE SEVEN SAINTS"

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    Moteyunaite I. V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new understanding of such a complex cultural phenomenon as foolishness for Christ through the example of Ludmila Ulitskaya's historical play "The Seven Saints". The author shows that the hero of the 1990's became a blessed woman (a God's fool, who neither sets an optimistic example nor gives faith in the triumph of spirit, but who can only die with dignity, following Christ's way and His final sacrifice.

  1. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

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    Sing d'Arcy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

  2. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    OpenAIRE

    d'Arcy, Sing

    2014-01-01

    When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray L...

  3. The Second Christ, Saint Francis of Assisi and ecological consciousness

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    Hendrik Viviers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the life stories of Jesus and the so-called second Christ, Francis of Assisi, incline to the fantastical, their value for a modern ecological consciousness is defendable. Behind Francis� personification of nature and his mystical experiences of nature lie an intuitive sense of interconnectedness and interdependence, of being fully part of the natural web of life (confirmed by empirical science. The same is true of the immanence of Jesus. Religious figures like Francis and Jesus can provide a sound moral attitude towards caring for the natural world, but attitudes need to be informed by scientific knowledge to act ecologically correct. A partnership between attitudes and knowledge hopefully contains good news for a sustainable �green� planet.Intradisciplinary and/or�interdisciplinary�implications: Ecological hermeneutics (part of liberation theology or hermeneutics challenges traditional theologies� often anthropocentric bias in the intra-disciplinary arena. It respects the interconnectedness or interdependence of human and non-human life, including the non-organic, empirically substantiated by natural science. This shared realisation allows for a fruitful inter-disciplinary discourse with science to address the global ecological crisis.

  4. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

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    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  6. Communities: Development of church-based counselling teams

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    Stella D. Potgieter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care is a biblical mandate to the Church to be involved in the lives of God’s people. A key metaphor used by Jesus to describe his pastoral role was that of a shepherd. Thus, to be God’s shepherds and instruments of healing and transformation in God’s world is an imperative to all people, clergy and laity alike. The brokenness in South African society is strikingly apparent, exacerbated by the effects of exceptionally high criminal behaviour as statistics show. The demand for pastoral care and assistance with various personal problems is on the increase, with many non-church goers turning to churches for help. Also apparent in South Africa is the acute shortage of trained individuals to offer care and counselling. The task of offering care is not the sole responsibility of clergy, as all are called to be shepherds and caregivers. The importance and urgency in training church-based counselling teams cannot be overstated. More so in that we are becoming increasingly aware that not only are individuals in need of care, but whole communities are struggling with trauma and life’s challenges, and often do not know whom to turn to. In pursuance of the realisation that pastoral care is the function and duty of all Christians, this article will delineate in particular an explanation of lay counselling, reasons for its importance including biblical foundations, where and how ordinary South Africans can get involved, and will propose certain models and approaches for getting started. These models will not be discussed in depth, but present an opportunity for the next. Teams for these models consist of professional counsellors, but ought not to be restricted to a select few, as all are called to this special ministry and can be trained for the task, which will include on-going supervision and mentoring. The overall purpose of this article is to highlight the urgency of training lay counsellors and some recommendations will be made how to

  7. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

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    Oliver C Redfern

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  8. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

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    Johann Fourie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity. Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  9. Cosmological Symbolism in the Decorative Cycles of Mid-Byzantine Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental links between theology and astronomy are widely reflected in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. From Genesis to Revelation, the great mysteries of the beginning and end of the universe, and the cycles of birth and death of individuals, are explained in terms of cosmological concepts. These are in turn reflected in art and architecture and nowhere more broadly, perhaps, than in Byzantine architecture and decoration. Following the Iconoclast prohibition of images in the Orthodox church (726-843), the mid-Byzantine period (843-1204) witnessed the primacy of the representation of the heavens in art and architecture. Reinforced by such writers as Cosmas Indicopleustes and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, not only were individual images reflective of the heavens (nativity and rebirth at the winter solstice, and rebirth/resurrection at the spring equinox) but entire cycles of church decoration were devised so as to reflect the ordering of God's universe. The architecture and decoration of the quintessential mid-Byzantine cross-in-square church was symbolic itself of the universe, as at Hosios Loukas and Daphni (eleventh century). From the location of the Pantocrator in the central celestial dome, to the descending zones of squinches and pendentives and the lowest earthly zones, decorative schemes are used to reflect the view of the sky/heavens above earth. Hierarchical systems depicting the life of Christ and ascending/descending ranks of saints and angels were rigorously adhered to, with Mary in the apse as bridge between heaven and earth.

  10. The Constabulus manuscript in Durham Cathedral Library: A Forgotten Treasure?

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    Robinson, Maureen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Hispalensis (John of Seville, working from Limia in Portugal and then Toledo in twelfth century Spain, translated mostly mathematical treatises from Arabic into Latin. His early work began in Limia with three medical translations c. 1118. One, the De differentia spiritus et animae originally bore the signature 'Johannes Hispalensis et Limiensis'. Not all scholars agree that this translator was Johannes Hispalensis. However, evidence supporting the theory that there was only one translator is provided by the De differentia, which resurfaced years later in a revised version dedicated to Raymond, Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152. It bore the shortened name: Johannes Hispalensis. An unknown copy of this revised version has been discovered in Durham Cathedral where it has lain dormant for 800 years. It contains a plethora of scribal mistakes, helping to prove that many of the inconsistencies between different copies of the same Latin manuscripts are due to human error rather than multiple identities working on the same translation.

    Johannes Hispalensis (Juan de Sevilla, que trabajó en Limia (Portugal y más tarde en Toledo, en la España del siglo XII, tradujo sobre todo tratados matemáticos del árabe al latín. Sus primeras obras comenzaron en Limia con tres traducciones sobre medicina alrededor del año 1118. Una de ellas, De differentia spiritus et animae, llevó originalmente la firma 'Johannes Hispalensis et Limiensis'. No todos los especialistas en esta época están de acuerdo en que este traductor fuera Johannes Hispalensis, Sin embargo, la obra De differentia aporta pruebas que apoyan la teoría de que hubo un único traductor. Dicha obra reapareció unos años más tarde en una versión revisada y dedicada a Raimundo, el Arzobispo de Toledo, entre 1125 y 1152. Llevaba el nombre abreviado: Johannes Hispalensis. Una copia desconocida de esta versión revisada fue hallada en la catedral de

  11. The human genome project and the Catholic Church (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraczewski, Albert S

    1991-12-01

    The Cathlic Church has not made any formal statements about the Human Genome Project as such. But the present Pope, John Paul II, has commented, albeit very briefly, on various aspects of genetic manipulation. Genetic interventions which are therapeutic (e.g. gene therapy), namely, directed to the correction or amelioration of a disorder are acceptable, in principle, provided they promote the personal well being of the individual being so treated. Genetic interventions which are not therapeutic for the specific individual involved but are experimental and directed primarily to improving humans as biological entities are of dubious moral probity, but are not necessarily to be totally rejected out of hand. To be morally acceptable such genetic intervention should meet certain conditions which include due respect for the given psychological nature of each individual human being. In addition, no harm should be inflicted on the process of human generation, and its fundamental design should not be altered. Any genetic manipulation which results in, or tends to, the creation of groups with different qualities such that there would result a fresh marginalization of these people must be avoided. It has been also suggested by a few that because the Son of God took on a human nature in Jesus Christ, one may not so alter the human genome that a new distinct species would be created....

  12. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

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    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  13. Fromleik i Black Supper, Piss Christ og Crucifixion, tre fotografi av Andres Serrano

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Lilly

    2006-01-01

    Oppgåva skal omhandla tre utvalgte foto av fotografen Andres Serrano, ein amerikanar født i 1950. Enkeltbileta det er snakk om er Black Supper (1990), Piss Christ og Crucifixion (begge 1987). Dei er laga ved at kitschfigurar er nedsenka i gjennomsiktige behaldarar fyllte av kroppsvæsker og vatn; vatn i Black Supper, urin i Piss Christ og blod i Crucifixion. Henholdsvis framstiller dei Nattverden, Jesus på krossen og Krossfestinga (tre figurar). Serrano befinn seg med desse innanfor religiøs k...

  14. Epiphanic Awakenings in Raymond Carver's "Cathedral" and Alice Walker's "Everyday Use"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Ala Eddin; Al-Badawi, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how two short stories from very different backgrounds conclude in a significant epiphany for the characters. Raymond Carver's short story "Cathedral" and Alice Walker's "Everyday Use" are studied to see how the husband in Carver's work is blinder than his visually-impaired overnight guest, and the…

  15. Liturgy and Music in Hereford Cathedral in the Time of Queen Victoria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Victorian Gothic Revival and its focus on liturgical neo-medievalism inspired the 1860s restoration of the medieval Hereford Cathedral. In this restoration, the new screen played a central part. Designed by George Gilbert Scott and manufactured by the firm of Francis Skidmore in Coventry, the screen was commissioned in order to re-unite the choir with the nave. The symbolism and colours decorating the screen harmonized with the medieval and later features of the cathedral, including the high altar reredos, organ pipes, and floor tiles. Hereford Cathedral Library preserves historical accounts of the interior and original music manuscripts by Edward Elgar and Frederick Ouseley that illustrate, with the musical inserts provided, the rich tradition of choral music and liturgy which continues to this day with key liturgies and the annual Three Choirs Festival linking Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. Memorials and stained-glass windows dedicated to successive precentors embellish the musical vocabulary of the interior. In focusing on the musical culture connected with Hereford Cathedral, this essay seeks to enrich the interpretation of the restored Hereford Screen in its secular setting at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

  16. Why I Left the Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie Sø

    2014-01-01

    both drivers and triggers. The drivers are the motifs and reasons building up the possibility of leaving the church. The trigger is the straw the breaks the camel's back, and is therefore just a trigger, and not as important as the drivers. The study argues that economy as a reason for leaving...... to better explain the multifaceted reasons why members decide to leave the National Church. The aspects explored are the motifs, thoughts and reflections of the former members. Methods applied will be qualitative life-historical semi-structured interviews. The study produces data comparable with a similar...... the church is more of a trigger than actually a driver, why we should be more aware of the other reasons for resigning membership....

  17. The church and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1978-03-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: foreword (explaining that report is a synopsis of the Hearing on Nuclear Energy arranged by the World Council of Churches, held in Sigtune, Sweden, June 24 to 29, 1975); humanity's energy needs); alternative sources of energy (nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, non-nuclear processes; some generalisations (concerning the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy to various sections of the world); what risks are acceptable (radiation hazards, reactor safety, radioactive wastes, misuse of Pu, safeguarding); nuclear weapons; nuclear energy - a challenge to the Churches; social and ethical issues; certain conclusions; postscript -the American move. (U.K.)

  18. Church, mission and ethics. Being church with integrity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    documentaries and books proved this point. A quick ... Triune God's new creation and involvement in this world. It is quite clear .... reformation history into modern times, the church struggled with issues ..... Augustine and his Manichaean audience: ... Randi, J., 1987, The faith healers, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY. Reuver ...

  19. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church transitions. ... a substantive grounded theory of organisational change and leadership, particularly focusing on the manifestation and management of organisation inertia in churches ...

  20. Jeremy Bentham and Church of England Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian

    1979-01-01

    The author traces Jeremy Bentham's attacks, in 1815 and 1816, on the Church of England's role in the provision of schooling in Britain, particularly his objections to Church policies excluding non-adherents from instruction. (SJL)

  1. How much do we really know about the lives of early Christ followers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We know very little about the everyday life of Christ believers in the first years. What can be extrapolated from other ancient sources must be combined with the minimal evidence from Christian sources. The two major rituals, baptism and Eucharist, may have been celebrated quite differently than we imagine. The lives of ...

  2. Text and Context: "The Passion of the Christ" and Other Jesus Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article approaches the immense popularity of Mel Gibson's 2004 film, "The Passion of the Christ" as a significant artifact in the contemporary public, cultural curriculum, and a unique opportunity for religious educators to build on its notoriety. Five interrelated contexts are identified and explored to assist religious educators more deeply…

  3. The Death of a Rhetorical Vision: Disciples of Christ and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    The Disciples of Christ, an indigenous American religious movement born on the frontier, grew rapidly until early in the twentieth century. Its growth was based on a rhetorical vision that offered a plausible interpretation of the data of the senses and accounted for developments in human activity and conditions. That rhetorical vision was linked…

  4. Students Serving Christ: Understanding the Role of Student Subcultures on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolda, Peter; Ebben, Kelsey

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the Students Serving Christ student organization to examine the role of student subcultures in higher education. Using subculture theories, this article examines the origins of student subcultures, explores how subcultures are formed and sustained, reveals what counts as normal within and among student subcultures, investigates…

  5. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  6. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  7. Calvin on church and government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Dreyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Calvin’s understanding of civil govern- ment as well as the relationship between church and govern- ment against the background of radical political change during the sixteenth century. It becomes clear that Calvin had an organic understanding of church, government and people. These three entities are interwoven and interact on the basis of the covenant and civil contract. Calvin’s approach, however, is not limited to the covenant, but has a surprising richness and diversity. He integrated theological, juristic and philosophical concepts in his understanding of the state. It is further shown that Calvin’s high regard for civil government, entrenched the corpus christianum, even though he clearly distinguished between ecclesiastical and civil governance. It is also shown that Calvin had a fundamental influence on many of the political concepts which are generally accepted within modern democra- cies.

  8. Tapestry paintings in the main church in Breda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Leeflang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is an adaptation of some reports made between 2005 and 2007 for the art-historical preliminary research into the restorations of the wall paintings in the main church in Breda. In addition, a proposal for restoration is given for the paintings dealt with, emphasizing the preservation of the representations. The first priority in all the paintings is consolidating loose paint and removing dirt from the surface. Subsequently, old putty is removed so as to expose the original painting as much as possible. During the restoration large voids will have to be filled up in a neutral shade – in a lighter shade than the original – so that the distinction between original and restoration remains visible. On the south choir wall in the second bay of the ambulatory at the top three pairs of yellow cloth scissors are painted on a green field (illustration 1. As scissors were an important element in the textile industry, it is plausible that this chapel was painted on the instructions of the cloth guild (illustration 2. The various stages in the production process of the cloth were strictly inspected. These inspections were accompanied by affixing lead seals (illustration 3, which could be considered a full guarantee for the client. Around the scissors in the cloth- scissors chapel in Breda small circles are painted, which were not mentioned in the literature. Although the exact meaning is unknown, these circles could represent lead seals and could thus be a reference to the high quality of the products of the cloth guild in Breda. Both on the second choir pillar at the southside and on the freestanding clustered pillar in the south ambulatory angels with a red cloth of honour are painted (illustration 7, 9 and 10. The former painting dates from approximately 1510-1520 and the latter from the second half of the sixteenth century. It is very likely that the red painted cloth of honour functioned as a background for a sculpture. In miniature art

  9. The keys of the kingdom as paradigm for building up the church in reformed church government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. le R. du Plooy

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an ecclesiological approach and concentrates on the prominent concepts the keys of the kingdom and building up the church. The article attempts to determine the significance those concepts may have for the government of the church and emphasises the close relationship between the keys of the kingdom and the building up of the church. According to Reformational viewpoints the administering of the keys serves the edification of the church. It becomes clear that the notae ecclesiae and the keys of the kingdom function as the basic elements of the church order and must be regarded as the basis or pillars upon which the church is built.

  10. The Sicilian Architect Tommaso Maria Napoli and the Baroque Cathedral of Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat-Levaj, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of the Dubrovnik Cathedral (1671-1713 – a monumental three-nave basilica with a dome over the crossing – was commissioned, thanks to Abbot Stjepan Gradić, from the Roman architect Andrea Bufalini. Among the leaders of construction, which lasted for over four decades, the Sicilian architect Tommaso Maria Napoli stands out. During his nine-year stay in Dubrovnik (1689-98 he was the only one who engaged in radical changes in the design. Through his changes to the vaulting and lighting of the main nave and sanctuary, as well as the introduction of terraces above the side chapels, he gave the building better proportions, and moreover he balanced its volume by enriching the Cathedral with the plastic expressiveness characteristic of Sicilian architecture at that time. Napoli was the only architect involved in the construction of the Dubrovnik Cathedral who had an international reputation, from his native Sicily, to Naples, Rome, and the Habsburg Monarchy. This makes his inventive corrections to Bufalini's design even more significant.

  11. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  12. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  13. A postmodern Christology with Christ but without the Son of God?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the revisioned christology developed by the American theologian Mark Kline Taylor in the chapter ‘Christ as rough Beast’ in his book ‘Remembering Esperanza’ (1990 is discussed critically. The cultural- political theology developed by Taylor, in which he ‘moves’ from autobiographical elements to theological reflection in addressing the postmodern trilemma in North America, is explained. It is shown how Taylor, through his cultural-political hermeneutics of tradition, unfolds his christology as a fourfold christology in which Christ designates an intersubjective, socio-historical force for reconciliatory emancipation. Finally, his christological interpretation is critically compared by means of formal similarities with that of the German New Testament scholar Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976.

  14. Anthropology of the Church Fathers from the IV–VIII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ks. Henryk Paprocki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the history of European thought a special place is reserved for the work of St. Gregory of Nyssa „On the Creation of Man”, which was a foundation of the study of man. The IV century is crucial for the understanding of European civilization, because it was then that the term “person”, an essential category in anthropology, emerged. It is characteristic that the study of man was shaped in the Trinitarian and Christological disputes that related to the definition of God and the divine-human reality of Jesus Christ. Thus, anthropology of the Church Fathers considers man in relation to God, believing at the same time that humans are a mystery that cannot be fully explained, since man is created „in the image and likeness of God”. The mystery of a „hidden God” (Isaiah 15:15 has its continuation in the mystery of the „man of a hidden heart” (1 P 3:4. Thus, according to the Fathers of the Church,it is an anthropology of an encounter between man and God.

  15. Life-style and death patterns of the Missouri RLDS church members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, L; Land, G

    1981-12-01

    Members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (RLDS) are dissuaded from the use of tobacco, alcohol, and hot drinks. A well-balanced diet is also stressed. This study compares the 1972-78 mortality experience of the Missouri RLDS with three other population groups. The findings show Missouri RLDS experiencing age-adjusted death rates which are 22.6 percent lower than rates for Missouri non-RLDs whites; 19.6 per cent lower than the non-RLDS of Independence, Missouri; and 14.4 per cent lower than Utah residents. The RLDS display lower death rates than the two Missouri comparison groups for each of seven selected causes-particularly lung cancer, pneumonia/influenza, and violent deaths. Comparisons between the Missouri RLDS and Utah residents show an inconsistent pattern, with Utah residents having non-significantly lower death rates for lung cancer and ischemic heart disease, but with the Missouri RLDS having significantly lower rates for pneumonia/influenza and violent deaths. These inconsistencies are of interest because 72 per cent of Utah's population belong to the Mormon Church which advocates life-styles similar to the RLDS. If these disparate mortality patterns persist under a more direct comparison between the Missouri RLDS and Utah Mormons, they could provide the opportunity to assess the impact of similar life-styles in separate settings.

  16. The Orthodox Church and the Young Generation – Today’s Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucă Nicuşor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the Orthodox Church has been very concerned by the issue of the youngster's migration into a multicultural and pluri-religious area. Migration is an objective reality that we can notice but we are not able to stop. We emphasize the fact that the young generation needs to be seen in the light of hope and of the future, as resources and not as problems. Under these circumstances, the Church needs to find a new way of working and adequate pastoral means for people to be able to live a normal life from a spiritual and religious perspective as well. We need to find means of awakening and of shaping the youngstersř moral conscience, of guiding them towards Christian holiness and perfection. It is only by having such a perspective, the perspective of those who want to give the young generation the chance to discover Christ our Redeemer, that a correct spiritual guidance for the young can be realized, able to save them from the mirage of the contemporary temptations.

  17. Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010

  18. The Institution of the Family in Pauline theology and Byzantium in Despotat Epirus’s Church Court Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available St Paul teaches that family life is founded on the union of a man and woman, which symbolises the relation between Christ and His Church. A second guideline to family life is the education and upbringing of children “in Christ.” The Apostle Paul, in his letters provides parents with advice on how they should raise their children, and children on how they should behave in relation to their parents. In this advice, although limited in number and extend, one can distinguish the basic elements of Christian education for children. For the Apostle Paul, the cultivation of healthy relations is indispensable, not only in the relations between husbands and wives, but also in the relationship between parents and children. Parents have the main responsibility for the creation of pedagogic relation with their children and they can contribute to their education, by providing them social stimuli. The institution of the family has long attracted the interest of Byzantine scholars. Influenced by, among other things, the social sciences, the focus has expanded in recent years to include the function of the family as a social and economic unit in Byzantine society. Since marriage is the basis for the formation of a family, the field of study embraces the rules governing the contracting of a marriage (age, criteria for the selection of a spouse, betrothal, impediments to marriage, the institution of marriage portions and bridal gifts, the status of the wife and children, divorce and so on. Under the Romans, marriage was a civil act. As Christianity spread, the Church gradually came to intervene and acquire a role in the institution. The purpose of marriage is procreation and the perpetuation of the human race, and in this sense, it is of interest to both church and state. A turning-point was reached with the promulgation by Leo VI the Wise (886-912 of Novella 89, which laid down that only marriages blessed by the Church were legal. Later statues, beginning

  19. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  20. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11 of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun. This possibility has been ruled out for four churches. As for the other churches, the matching of the mentioned dates with the patron’s days wasn’t established. The churches in monasteries Ljubostinja and Kalenic are oriented with astronomical precision towards equinox East, an admirable fact considering the tools available to the builders. Rade Borovic, the only chief architect who put his signature on his work, was the chief architect of Ljubostinja.

  1. Ecumenical church renewal: the example of the United Reformed Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Camroux, Martin Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Background to the Research.\\ud In his enthronement sermon as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1942 William Temple famously declared the ecumenical movement to be ‘the great new fact of our era’. For much of the twentieth century it was the major metanarrative of Church renewal. By the end of the century however the enthusiasm had largely dissipated, the organizations which represented it were in decline, and the hoped for organic unity looked further away than ever. Surprisingly little has been wr...

  2. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić Milutin; Gavrić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11) of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun....

  3. An Attempt to Interpret the Concept of «Mystery» in Relation to the Divine Liturgy and Church Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Aleksiejuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to look at the most important events in the history of salvation from a liturgical perspective. This reflection begins with an etymological and theological interpretation of the concept of «anamnesis» (ανάμνησις and «mystery» (μυστήρὶα, which have fundamental significance in the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church. This reflection also serves as an occasion to emphasise the necessity of a continual search for answers to questions which have always had crucial importance for the life and experience of the Church as a human-divine community of the faithful: for Christians, what is the liturgical commemoration of the life and death of the Saviour Jesus Christ, from His Incarnation to Ascension into Heaven to be seated at the Right Hand of the Father? Although the liturgical gift of commemoration is a mystery, it takes place in the Temple Church. This is therefore a visible sign of the invisible, deifying and saving grace of the Triune God, which loves mankind and the world which He created and longs to be “all in all”.

  4. The Church of the Deans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Albrile

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways through which peculiar representations of the late Ancient World passed to the Middle Ages. Among them, the astrological discipline is one of the favorite vehicles. The sculptures and other decorations of the Romanesque churches, have rewritten this archaic knowledge in the context of the Christian faith. Another constant presence in the imaginary of Western Christianity are the fabulous creatures related to what in astrology are the Decans. These odd Egyptian deities had at some time before the sixth century of our era made the long voyage to India and back they had travelled to Islamic lands, and so finally returned to Byzantium and the West.

  5. The transmission of masticatory forces and nasal septum: structural comparison of the human skull and Gothic cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi

    2007-07-01

    This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

  6. FROM VIRTUAL TO MATERIAL RESTORATION. A PROPOSAL FOR THE REASSEMBLY OF THE ALTAR OF THE HOLY HEART OF MARY IN THE CATHEDRAL OF SANTA MARIA ASSUNTA IN GERACE (REGGIO CALABRIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prampolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between the new frontiers of architectural survey and architectural restoration. The result is a project for the reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Gerace, in the province of Reggio Calabria. It was dismantled in the last century with the purpose to restore the “solemn and sober aspect” of the church during the medieval age. The idea was born in the sphere of a multidisciplinary didactic experience, which involved history, conservation, digital modelling, design and enhancement of cultural heritage. The process, from analyses to project, followed four steps: realization of a systematic photogrammetrical survey of each architectural element of the 18th century altars of the cathedral, which were dismantled in the last century, with high precision photomodelling techniques; early identification of the single objects, positioning structured QR-CODE with metadata and short description directly in the shooting phase; pre-cataloguing phase, implemented by the compilation of single cards regarding each piece, using a redrafted version of the ICCD OA card (artwork 3.00 version; a proposal for the reassembly of the altar of the Holy Heart of Mary. The reassembly is conceived as an alternative to the reconstruction of the altar “as it was”, using a steel structure that is partially visible, which was studied to support and “exhibit” the marble pieces. The availability of numerical models for each piece facilitated, on one side, weight distribution analysis and, consequently, correct dimensioning of the support structure and, on the other side, interactive simulation processes for design optimisation and aesthetic evaluation.

  7. From Virtual to Material Restoration. a Proposal for the Reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta in Gerace (reggio Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prampolini, F.; Oteri, A. M.; Caporale, S.; Mazzeo, S.; Muscherà, F.

    2017-05-01

    The present study explores the relationship between the new frontiers of architectural survey and architectural restoration. The result is a project for the reassembly of the Altar of the Holy Heart of Mary in the Cathedral of Gerace, in the province of Reggio Calabria. It was dismantled in the last century with the purpose to restore the "solemn and sober aspect" of the church during the medieval age. The idea was born in the sphere of a multidisciplinary didactic experience, which involved history, conservation, digital modelling, design and enhancement of cultural heritage. The process, from analyses to project, followed four steps: realization of a systematic photogrammetrical survey of each architectural element of the 18th century altars of the cathedral, which were dismantled in the last century, with high precision photomodelling techniques; early identification of the single objects, positioning structured QR-CODE with metadata and short description directly in the shooting phase; pre-cataloguing phase, implemented by the compilation of single cards regarding each piece, using a redrafted version of the ICCD OA card (artwork 3.00 version); a proposal for the reassembly of the altar of the Holy Heart of Mary. The reassembly is conceived as an alternative to the reconstruction of the altar "as it was", using a steel structure that is partially visible, which was studied to support and "exhibit" the marble pieces. The availability of numerical models for each piece facilitated, on one side, weight distribution analysis and, consequently, correct dimensioning of the support structure and, on the other side, interactive simulation processes for design optimisation and aesthetic evaluation.

  8. Conversion growth of Protestant churches in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M

    2008-01-01

    This study set out to answer the question what factors are conducive for church growth through conversion in Protestant Thai churches. After 180 years of unhindered Protestant missionary activity only 0.3% of ethnic Thai, about 185,000 people, have become Protestants. Though small, ethnic Thai

  9. Personality traits of Church Planters in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, S.; van Saane, J.W.; Foppen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a Big Five personality test among 59 religious entrepreneurs (church planters) in Europe, and we compare these results with (a) a general database, and (b) existing research among secular entrepreneurs. Our study concludes that church planters are

  10. Relational Principles for Effective Church Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Willis M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, effective church leaders need to be prepared to emphasize and demonstrate ethical leadership, personal responsibility, and community service. The foundation for success in all those areas lies in the ability of church leaders to initiate, develop, and maintain positive functioning relationships. Based on over 40 year's…

  11. Cathedral outreach: student-led workshops for school curriculum enhancement in non-traditional environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Matthew T.; Jantzen, Alexander; van Putten, Lieke D.; Ravagli, Andrea; Donko, Andrei L.; Soper, Nathan; Wong, Nicholas H. L.; John, Pearl V.

    2017-08-01

    Universities in the United Kingdom have been driven to work with a larger pool of potential students than just the more traditional student (middle-class white male), in order to tackle the widely-accepted skills-shortage in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), whilst honoring their commitment to fair access to higher education. Student-led outreach programs have contributed significantly to this drive. Two such programs run by postgraduate students at the University of Southampton are the Lightwave Roadshow and Southampton Accelerate!, which focus on photonics and particle physics, respectively. The program ambassadors have developed activities to enhance areas of the national curriculum through presenting fundamental physical sciences and their applications to optics and photonics research. The activities have benefitted significantly from investment from international organizations, such as SPIE, OSA and the IEEE Photonics Society, and UK research councils, in conjunction with university recruitment and outreach strategies. New partnerships have been formed to expand outreach programs to work in non-traditional environments to challenge stereotypes of scientists. This paper presents two case studies of collaboration with education learning centers at Salisbury Cathedral and Winchester Cathedral. The paper outlines workshops and shows developed for pupils aged 6-14 years (UK key stages 2-4) on the electromagnetic spectrum, particle physics, telecommunications and the human eye using a combination of readily obtainable items, hand-built kits and elements from the EYEST Photonics Explorer kit. The activities are interactive to stimulate learning through active participation, complement the UK national curriculum and link the themes of science with the non-traditional setting of a cathedral. We present methods to evaluate the impact of the activity and tools to obtain qualitative feedback for continual program improvement. We also

  12. The Toledo Cartulary, Capitulary Library of Toledo, 42-20 (1190 and its Contribution to the History of Toledo Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Miguel Franco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Toledo cartulary, Capitulary Library of Toledo, 42-40 (1190, is the oldest cartulary produced in Toledo Cathedral. It may also be considered an example of a cartulary-chronicle, as this volume not only includes royal, ecclesiastical and private documents relative to the institution (?, but it also includes some pieces of writing that contextualize the copied documents by relating them either to historical events, or to the Cathedral itself and to other assets or documents. The aim of this article is to analyze the construction of this cartulary and the mechanisms that it uses to transform individual documents into an account of the institutional history of Toledo Cathedral, focusing on the privileges of the mensa capitularis.

  13. CATHEDRAL BASIC EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AS A BASIS FOR FORMING TECHNOLOGY TEACHER COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Жураковская

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a review of the activities of the cathedral basic educational institutions (KBOU - Lyceum Istra, Moscow region, which implements one of the scientific and methodological areas of activity - the introduction of new educational technologies and principles of the organization of the educational process to ensure effective implementation of key provisions of the federal state educational standards basic general education. The paper proposed a structure of didactic games and one of its examples, focused on becoming a high school student individuality.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  14. Ho eschatos: The eschatological Christ and the future of reformed theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie F.C. Coetzee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine on Christ brings us to the heart of our Christian faith and also that of dogmatics and theology in general. It is therefore not strange that theological research throughout history, and even more so today, focuses to a great extent on Christology. The problem statement of this article is that the traditional reformed doctrine on Christ, and in close connection to that the traditional doctrine on eschatology, is threatened. The aim of the article is to investigate a certain aspect of the current debate from a South African point of view in order to determine what the road ahead should be for reformed theology. This is done from within the paradigm of the Calvinistic-reformed tradition. Apart from a short historical overview, the article deals with the viewpoint of four South African theologians, namely Spangenberg, Van Aarde, Müller and Bosch, whose viewpoints clearly illustrate the difference between a more confessional, Scriptural approach and a more critical approach, especially with regard to the divine nature and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. One’s view on the resurrection of Christ has implications for one’s view on eschatology. It is the task of the reformed theology, in the interim period between the ascension and the second coming of Christ, to proclaim and glorify the risen, eschatological Christ. Die leer aangaande Christus bring ons by die hart van ons Christelike geloof en so ook by die hart van dogmatiek en teologie in die algemeen. Dit is daarom nie vreemd dat teologiese navorsing dwarsdeur die geskiedenis, en ook vandag, op die Christologie fokus nie. Die probleemstelling van hierdie artikel is dat die tradisionele reformatoriese leer aangaande Christus, en in noue verband daarmee ook die tradisionele leer oor die eskatologie, bedreig word. Die doel van die artikel is om ’n bepaalde aspek van die huidige debat te ondersoek vanuit die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks ten einde te bepaal wat die toekomstaak van

  15. The museum setup in the Benedictine dormitory of Monreale: the artworks of Santa Maria del Bosco and the textile artefacts of the Cathedral, Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta di Natale

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision to convert the Benedictine Dormitory in Monreale into an exhibition site offers the opportunity to enjoy the whole monumental complex where the wonderful cloister is the core attraction. It is on this site that the Norman Cathedral stands, brightly decorated with golden mosaics. The new exhibition has gathered together the artworks from the ruined abbey of Santa Maria del Bosco in Calatamauro and added them to the artefacts already exhibited at the Diocesan Museum. They include marble gravestones from the 16th-17th century church and those dating to the 18th century; one stone is in polychrome marble of the family of the canons, Candes and Donato; another was used for the burial of the monks from the period of the Olivetan refoundation, characterized by the Order’s coat of arms and attributed to Girolamo Musca. There are also majolica tiles from the chapels in cornu evangelij (left side of the altar adorned with large vegetal-shaped decorations, provided by Palermitan manufacturers in the mid-eighteenth century. They are found next to the remnants of the majolica tiles still in situ, executed in 1762 by the potters from Burgio, in Sicily. Rosario Rosso (also Russo and Giuseppe Virgadamo. Also commissioned after the refoundation of the holy temple are the four artworks by the painter Ippolito Ferrante, three of which, Sacrificio di Isacco, Melchisedec and Giale e Sisar, are on exhibition in the prestigious museum. Alongside these artworks are noteworthy textile artefacts made between the second half of the 16th and second half of the 18th centuries some of which are linked to the munificent figures of archbishops such as Ludovico II Torres and Francesco Testa.

  16. GPR Prospecting and Endoscopic Investigation in a Renaissance Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    GPR prospecting in areas of cultural interest can reveal interesting secrets of the past history of the probed monument. In particular, tombs and crypts under the floor of the churches can be revealed [1-2], but also tracks of past restorations and architectural changes occurred in the centuries, or features internal to the walls and the columns as cracks, metallic hinges, walled ciboria and hidden gaps [1, 3-5]. In this contribution, the case history of the church of the Humility in Parabita (Lecce, Italy) is proposed. The church of the Humility is a small and indeed not much well preserved church, deconsecrated many years ago and reused in other ways that have changed its original structure. Nowadays, it is undergoing a further transformation. However, before starting the works, a GPR prospecting has been committed to the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage IBAM-CNR. The prospecting has been performed with a pulsed Ris Hi-mode system equipped with a double antenna with central frequencies at 200 and 600 MHz, respectively. A first set of measures has been taken along two sets of B-scan, directed after the axis of the (unique) nave and along the orthogonal direction to this. The distance between the lines has been of the order of 40 cm, but some unmovable obstacles have not allowed a constant transect between any two adjacent lines. A second set of measures has been gathered in the area of the altar (not any longer present), here, due to the shape of the area to be prospected, the data have been gathered along a unique direction, but the interline spacing has been chosen equal to 30 cm. Please note that there is a step between the area of the altar and that of the nave, as usual in ancient churches, and this prevented from executing a unique C-scan including the entire floor of the church. The data have been processed according to a standard procedure based on zero timing, background removal, gain variable vs. the depth, one dimensional filtering

  17. Christ-Siemens-Touraine Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mokhtari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disorder with defects in two or more of the following structures: the teeth and the skin and its appendages including hair, nails, eccrine, and sebaceous glands. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type of disease. This rare disorder, also known as Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, manifests as a triad of hypotrichosis, asteatosis, and anhidrosis. In view of the rarity of this entity, a classical case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is reported. We have also provided a review of recent investigations in the area of dental abnormalities in this syndrome.

  18. Interpretation of the Revealed Word by the Tradition of the Church – the Issue of Subordination of Woman to Man in the Saint Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians (Eph 5 : 21–33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vojtko

    2015-09-01

    • to the ingenious doctrine of St. Pope John Paul II. in his theology of the body: the relationship between man and woman in marriage is a relationship of mutual subordination in love, reflecting God’s love and symbolizing the relation between Christ and the Church. This relationship is inherently “communio personarum” (communion of persons in which the dissimilarity of women and men is mutually complemented and creates harmony. In this article we wanted to highlight the fact that a return to the inspired biblical texts explained by the Magisterium is a reliable means of obtaining true knowledge even of the thorny issue of conjugal and family life.

  19. Canonization of the new-martyrs of the Ottoman period in the Orthodox Church and their importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Charkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the issue of the canonization of the so-called new-martyrs of the Balkans in the Orthodox Church, the issue that has not been in the Polish language studied yet. It concerns the saints who died for Christ after the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. The considerations on the subject is preceded by a short introduction on the role of the martyrs in the Church. Article also refers to the issue of nomenclature, i.e. the definition of the term “new-martyr”, and its appearance in Christianity.Nearly 300 of the new-martyrs of the period of Ottoman slavery are known by the name. This group includes people of different social groups: the hierarchy, the rulers, the monks, married priests and lay people. It is probably only a small part of people who have suffered the death during this period in defense of Orthodoxy. The researchers divided them into four groups, which, the author presents. Their cult for centuries was limited because of the fear of consequences from the Turkish authorities. Only part of them was canonized after 1821, when as a result of uprising the independence of the Greece was proclaimed.The article also contains a part in which the importance of the new-martyrs of the Ottoman period for the Orthodox Church and its faithful is explained. Their importance was emphasized already by their contemporaries. This importance is multi-faceted and refers to the role of the Church plays from its beginning by the martyrs.

  20. Terrestrial laser scanning for heritage conservation: the Cologne Cathedral documentation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D.; Sperner, J.; Hoepner, S.; Tenschert, R.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary terrestrial laser scanners and photogrammetric imaging systems are an invaluable tool in providing objectively precise, as-built records of existing architectural, engineering and industrial sites. The comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) recording of culturally important sites such as heritage buildings, monuments, and sites can serve a variety of invaluable purposes; the data can assist in the conservation, management, and repair of a structure, as well as provide a visually engaging educational resource for both the public and scholars. The acquired data acts as a form of digital preservation, a timeless virtual representation of the as-built structure. The technical capability of these systems is particularly suited for the documentation of a richly articulated and detailed building such as the high Gothic Cologne Cathedral. The 3D documentation of the Cologne Cathedral UNESCO World Heritage Site is a multiphase project developed by Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh in partnership with the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, and the Metropolitankapitel der Hohen Domkirche Köln Dombauhütte. The project has also received generous support from Zoller + Fröhlich (Z+F) and the City of Cologne.

  1. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geometric Survey and Structural Modelling of the Dome of Pisa Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, D.; Barsotti, R.; Bennati, S.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the preliminary results of a research project on the dome of Pisa Cathedral (Italy). The final objective of the present research is to achieve a deep understanding of the structural behaviour of the dome, through a detailed knowledge of its geometry and constituent materials, and by taking into account historical and architectural aspects as well. A reliable survey of the dome is the essential starting point for any further investigation and adequate structural modelling. Examination of the status quo on the surveys of the Cathedral dome shows that a detailed survey suitable for structural analysis is in fact lacking. For this reason, high-density and high-precision surveys have been planned, by considering that a different survey output is needed, according both to the type of structural model chosen and purposes to be achieved. Thus, both range-based (laser scanning) and image-based (3D Photogrammetry) survey methodologies have been used. This contribution introduces the first results concerning the shape of the dome derived from surveys. Furthermore, a comparison is made between such survey outputs and those available in the literature.

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, I.; Bajnoczy, G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  3. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  4. One in the Spirit: Multiculturalism in Church Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilton, Donna L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the importance of creating church libraries that include multicultural materials, examining preliminary points to consider (how multiculturalism varies from church to church, factors to consider in building a diverse collection, ethnic group characteristics, and the multicultural church collection). Discusses finding and ordering…

  5. Sex and the Church : a study of the Catholic Church and reproductive health in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Longenecker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the modern day discourse on sexuality in Chile with particular attention given to the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive health policy. The Catholic Church has historically been involved in popular social reform efforts in the 19th and 20th centuries, and was also heavily involved as the protectorate of human rights during the Pinochet dictatorship. Due to this popular reputation of the Church after the dictatorship and during the transition to democracy, the ...

  6. The decorative program of the domes and area under the domes in the church of the monastery Resava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prolović Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    quotations from the works of the prophets written on their scrolls summarize the most important themes of Christian philosophy and Christian belief. These quotations had, for the large part, also been incorporated into the liturgy. This fact is to be coupled with not only the depiction of the Heavenly Liturgy on the zenith of the dome but also with the Liturgy of the Holy Fathers in the apse of the church, as well as with the liturgy performed daily in the church, which itself is in turn modelled on the Heavenly Liturgy. Most of the quotations were dedicated to holy days on which the appearance of God and of the Holy Trinity are expressed. One of these is Pentecost, which the church at Resava especially celebrated. The quotations further emphasize the suffering of Christ on the cross and particularly the Anastasis. The prophets depicted suggest not only the Messiah; they also emphasize the importance of the Mother of God, of John the Baptist, and furtherly of the apostles and priests as successors of Jesus. John Prodromos is shown by his presence and by the quotation in the hand of his father, Zacharias. With their symbols, the Old Testament priests point out the role of the Mother of God in the mystery of the Incarnation and the Salvation of Man. They are not only as préfigurations of Christ present, but also as the Old Testament predecessors of the apostles and their priestly followers, who continued the work of Christ through which the church survives. The depictions of the prophets and the quotations in their hands contribute with certainty to the painted themes that are illustrated in the lower zone of the church. It is important to note, that they do not always stand directly above their corresponding scene. The central dome of Resava was too complicated for this kind of arrangement that is often found in Byzantine chuches. All other symbolic relationships are however presented in superior style in the central dome of Resava. The surfaces beneath the four side domes

  7. The Cathedral and the Bazaar of E-Repository Development: Encouraging Community Engagement with Moving Pictures and Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Denis; Shephard, Kerry L.; Phillips, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an insight into the development, use and governance of e-repositories for learning and teaching, illustrated by Eric Raymond's bazaar and cathedral analogies and by a comparison of collection strategies that focus on content coverage or on the needs of users. It addresses in particular the processes that encourage and achieve…

  8. An extravaganza of old church music

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Simon

    2005-01-01

    To celebrate the completion of its first course in Diploma in Music (Sacred Music), the Mediterranean Institute has invited the Choir of the University of Palermo to Malta to give three public performances in local Churches.

  9. The first coronation churches of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The medieval ceremony of coronation as a rule took place in the most important church of a realm. The sites of the coronation of Serbian rulers before the establishment of the Žiča monastery church as the coronation church of Serbian kings in the first half of the thirteenth century have not been reliably identified so far. Based on the surviving medieval sources and the archaeological record, this paper provides background information about the titles of Serbian rulers prior to the creation of the Nemanjić state, and proposes that Stefan, son of the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, was crowned king (1217 in the church of St Peter in Ras.

  10. NIGERIAN PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES AND THEIR PROSPERITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UWUJA ALEX

    prosperity messages are a safe guard against poverty in Nigeria. .... As the leader of the Pentecostal movement, Seymour (in 1906) received an invitation ... CAC led to the formation of prayer groups and Churches to cushion the effect of the.

  11. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  12. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Received: 10 Nov. 2010. Accepted: ... as strategic leadership) or 'inner growth engines' of an organisation that account for its success. (Hoskisson ... a cell church design, the central characteristic being affected was the sense ...

  13. Alexios I Komnenos and his Church Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakovos MENELAOU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexios I Komnenos has been characterized as a gifted military leader. Nevertheless, apart from his military career and after he took the throne, Alexios proceeded to certain measures in order to revive an empire in condition of decline. Alexios established himself as a defender of Orthodoxy, since he helped monasticism, fought heresies and supported the building or renewal of foundations, such as monasteries and churches. In this paper, I deal with Alexios’ church policy and how he defended Orthodoxy.

  14. Gnosticism, church unity and the Nicene Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.C. Coetzee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gnosticism (derived from the Greek word “gnosis; knowledge” is the well-known phenomenon or movement which dates from the first centuries of church history. The teaching of Gnosticism questioned and/or contradicted the teaching of the church on some of the fundamental truths of Scripture. Apart from Gnosticism, the Early Church also had to deal with the heresy of Arianism. In the Nicene Creed, formulated by the councils of Nicea (325 AD and Constantinople (381 AD the universal or catholic church responded officially to the heresies of both Gnosticism and Arianism. In the final edition of the Nicene Creed we also find an article on the unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity of the church. Both Gnosticism and Arianism posed a serious threat to the unity of the church.   In our times we experience a revival of ancient Gnosticism, both pagan and “Christian”. This revival is also called the New Age or the Age of Aquarius. Within the framework of this new worldview, we are witnessing a rediscovery of gnosis. The discovery and publication of certain ancient gnostic texts like the Nag Hammadi Codices, play a significant role in this revival. Consequently the canon of Scripture is questioned or openly rejected and also the creeds based on that Scripture.   The Nicene Creed played a major and decisive role in preserving and maintaining the unity of the church on the basis of the truth of Scripture. This age-old creed is today just as relevant and important in proclaiming and confessing the true faith and preserving the true unity of the church.

  15. Christ's thorn formation (Paliureta spina-christi in the Tbilisi environs (East Georgia, South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Lachashvili

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Christ's thorn formation (Paliureta spina-christi of Tbilisi environs is studied. This formation is one of the typical representatives of hemixerophilous shrubberies of shibliak type in the Caucasus region and one of the characteristic for vegetation cover of Tbilisi surroundings. Plant communities of Christ's thorn formation with different plots area are fragmentary spread almost all over the territory of Tbilisi environs from 400 to 800 (900 m above s.l.. Plant communities are developed on slopes and plane place with various exposure and inclination, mainly on the grey-cinnamonic and cinnamonic soils. The most xerophilous variants are developed on the erosive bare mother rocks as well. In Tbilisi environs the Christ-thorn's plant communities are either primary or secondary origin. Formation is characterized by rich typological and floristic composition. We identified 6 plant communities: (1 Paliureto-mixtofruticetum gramino-mixtoherbosum, (2 Paliureto-Rhmanetum gramino-mixtoherbosum, (3 Paliureto gramino-mixtoherbosum, (4 Paliureto bothriochlooso gramino-mixtoherbosum, (5 Paliuretum festuceto-bothriochloosum, (6 Paliureto-Astragaleto-Rhamnetum. For each separated plant communities the basic structural characteristics (general projective coverage, projective coverage, distribution and height of layers, sodding degree, dominant-edificator plants, characteristic species, number of species, moss cover, litter, species richness, spectrum of life forms, distribution area in the Tbilisi environs and main physical-geographical conditions (topography, altitude, exposure, inclination, soil type are given. 190 species of vascular plants, which belong to 40 families and 132 genera, were recorded. In the floristic spectrum leading families are: 1. Poaceae – 27 species (14,2%, 2. Asteraceae – 25 species (13,2%, 3. Fabaceae – 17 species (8,9%, 4-5. Lamiaceae and Rosaceae – 15-15 species (7,9-7,9%, 6-8. Apiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Rubiaceae – 8

  16. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC AND LIDAR DOCUMENTATION OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL (CATHEDRAL-MOSQUE OF CORDOBA, SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cardenal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, cultural heritage documentation projects use a variety of spatial data acquisition techniques such as conventional surveying, photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning. This paper deals with a full documentation project based on all those techniques in the Royal Chapel located in the Cathedral-Mosque of Cordoba in Spain, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO. At present, the Royal Chapel is under study for a detailed diagnostic analysis in order to evaluate the actual state of the chapel, pathologies, construction phases, previous restoration works, material analysis, etc. So in order to assist the evaluation, a documentation project with photogrammetric and laser scanner techniques (TLS has been carried out. With this purpose, accurate cartographic and 3D products, by means of the integration of both image and laser based techniques, were needed to register all data collected during the diagnostic analysis.

  17. Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Principi, Pamela; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Toniolo, Lucia; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance. This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that calcite was always present in each sample and one sample was also characterised by the chemical form of alteration gypsum. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), it was possible to prove that the samples were consolidated with the synthetic acrylics and epoxy resins. The green-black biological patinas of the specimens were studied using cultivation, microscope observations and a method for single-cell detection. Sampling for fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH), with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes, was also performed using adhesive tapes. The bulk of the prokaryotes were Bacteria but some Archaea were also found. The bacterial cells were further characterised using specific probes for Cyanobacteria, and α-, β-and γ-Proteobacteria. In addition, black fungi isolated from the stone and the fungi of the standard ASTM G21-96(2002) method were employed to test if the detected synthetic resins could be used as the sole source of carbon and energy. One isolated Cladosporium sp. attacked the freshly dried acrylic resin. Results show that the detected bacteria and fungi can cause severe damage both to the stone monument and its synthetic consolidants

  18. Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Principi, Pamela; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Toniolo, Lucia; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-10-15

    Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance. This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that calcite was always present in each sample and one sample was also characterised by the chemical form of alteration gypsum. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), it was possible to prove that the samples were consolidated with the synthetic acrylics and epoxy resins. The green-black biological patinas of the specimens were studied using cultivation, microscope observations and a method for single-cell detection. Sampling for fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH), with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes, was also performed using adhesive tapes. The bulk of the prokaryotes were Bacteria but some Archaea were also found. The bacterial cells were further characterised using specific probes for Cyanobacteria, and alpha-, beta-and gamma-Proteobacteria. In addition, black fungi isolated from the stone and the fungi of the standard ASTM G21-96(2002) method were employed to test if the detected synthetic resins could be used as the sole source of carbon and energy. One isolated Cladosporium sp. attacked the freshly dried acrylic resin. Results show that the detected bacteria and fungi can cause severe damage both to the stone monument and its synthetic consolidants.

  19. Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappitelli, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.cappitelli@unimi.it; Principi, Pamela [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Toniolo, Lucia [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' Giulio Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20133 Milan (Italy); Sorlini, Claudia [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Surfaces are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation. Among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance. This work is part of a research programme for the characterisation of the alterations of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). Four stone samples of the Milan Cathedral were chemically analysed and the microbiological growth assessed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that calcite was always present in each sample and one sample was also characterised by the chemical form of alteration gypsum. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), it was possible to prove that the samples were consolidated with the synthetic acrylics and epoxy resins. The green-black biological patinas of the specimens were studied using cultivation, microscope observations and a method for single-cell detection. Sampling for fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH), with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes, was also performed using adhesive tapes. The bulk of the prokaryotes were Bacteria but some Archaea were also found. The bacterial cells were further characterised using specific probes for Cyanobacteria, and {alpha}-, {beta}-and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. In addition, black fungi isolated from the stone and the fungi of the standard ASTM G21-96(2002) method were employed to test if the detected synthetic resins could be used as the sole source of carbon and energy. One isolated Cladosporium sp. attacked the freshly dried acrylic resin. Results show that the detected bacteria and fungi can cause severe damage both to the stone monument and its synthetic consolidants.

  20. "Jesus Christ the Apple Tree": Preparing for Good Friday in a Literature and Environment Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on a visit by Christian poet John Terpstra to the final class session (on a Maundy Thursday) of my Literature and Environment course, to read his poetry suite on making a cross for his church out of a fruit-tree in an orchard being ploughed under for construction. Terpstra plays on the Stations of the Cross by interweaving the…

  1. Saxa loquuntur? Elasticity and capacity of age-old city churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke C. Kuipers

    2011-10-01

    than in the French Period. The whole complex emanates a functional serenity which also does justice to the eventful history of the church. Kruisherenklooster and Kruisherenkerk (monastery and church in Maastricht also went through many new functions. In 2004 the transformation into design hotel and restaurant was completed. Here architect's office Satijnplus entered into a creative competition with the monument. The result is spectacular, but not undisputed aesthetically. After the restoration of 1994, the tower of Eusebiuskerk in Arnhem, which was severely damaged during Operation Market Garden, was redesignated for hotel- and catering and tourist functions. A panoramic elevator was installed for this purpose (AGS architecten/Otis contrasting in function and use of material with the historical substructure and running right across vaults and church bells. After the restoration (Van Hoogevest, 1979-1988 the Utrecht cathedral, Domkerk, was refurbished as 'Open Dom', inviting people to meet one another and be surprised. The tearoom was added in the side wing of the choir, projecting - as a compromise between present and past - into the cloister garth as a versatile bay window of metal and glass. After some discussion on the choice of material, this intervention was approved at the time because of the social objective and contemporary semi-transparent architecture. After a long period in which the maxims 'conservation takes precedence over renovation' and 'form follows function' dominated in the domain of preservation of monuments and historic buildings and of architecture, the current design assignment for architects in interventions is to create suitable links between old and new.

  2. A critical assessment of Bediako’s incarnational Christological model as a response to the foreignness of Christ in African Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Some African Christians continue to rely on traditional spiritual powers as a means of addressing their spiritual insecurity. In their perception Christ is regarded as being foreign to African spirituality and treated accordingly with the gospel seen as a predominantly western phenomenon. This raises the question regarding their understanding of Christ’s incarnation. This article critically analyses the ancestral incarnational Christological model of Bediako as a response to the foreignness of Christ in African Christianity. Bediako’s ancestral incarnational Christological model is his enterprise of deforeignising Christ in African Christianity by treating Christ under the African traditional ancestral category. This article demonstrates various theological aspects (i.e. the uncompounded divine-human nature of Christ in the one eternal person of the Son of God that Bediako brings together in order to configure his ancestral incarnational Christological framework in deforeignising Christ. In breaking away from Bediako’s ancestral incarnational Christological perspective, the article concludes by identifying the weaknesses associated with the proposed concept of Bediako, and then suggests that there is a need for an alternative biblical-theological model that best describes Christ’s complete identification with African Christians. This is done without diminishing the actuality of Christ as God incarnate, or encouraging syncretism in African Christianity, or reducing the validity of African contextual needs.

  3. Orientation of English Medieval Parish Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Peter G.

    Our understanding of the alignment of English medieval parish churches, after more than three centuries of research, is far from complete. The arrangement of relatively few structures has been explained beyond reasonable doubt, and tests of the overwhelmingly popular festival orientation theory are often insufficiently rigorous to provide convincing answers. Much work remains to be done, including verifying and analyzing some of the existing raw data, determining whether the present church was dedicated at the time of construction, examining wills for evidence of early dedications, measuring the effect of eastern horizons on sunrise azimuths, and consulting excavation reports to assess whether earlier buildings may have influenced the arrangement of those churches that replaced them.

  4. Church Vestries as Part of Church Administration in North Tobol Region During 1810-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsys’ Olga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines main characteristics, structure and functions of church vestries in North Tobol region during the period of 1810–1860. It is concluded that the church vestry as a governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church during the Synodal period acted as an information mediator between the diocese and parish. As a rule, the church vestry exercised the authority over a particular district or part of it. Responsibilities of vestries were mainly limited to gathering and interpreting various pieces of information, overseeing the accounting and documentation of the parish clergy, fining the clergy and laymen for minor misconduct, and distributing the consistory’s decrees. The paper also demonstrates that vestries were collegial units, where decrees of the diocese, as well as reports and presentations of its members were discussed. It should be noted that boundaries of the district under the vestry’s jurisdiction were vague and not clearly marked. The common drawback of the vestries, as part of church administration, was the ambiguity in definition and description of roles and responsibilities. It was discovered that the remoteness of church administration from the majority of its parishes was specific to North Tobol region. It is concluded that church vestries were set up as administrative and organisational centres, and played a significant role in the administration of the Russian Orthodox Church. However, in the course of time the vestries started to lose their original role, becoming a redundant mediator in diocese and parish relations, which, in turn, led to the full abandonment of church vestries.

  5. Christian Church: A Catalyst for Economic Development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    The issue of economic development is of national concern. The. Nigerian economy ..... The Christian church has provided both moral and economic impetus ... posits that the church needs to concentrate on the business of creating economic ...

  6. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-04

    Apr 4, 2013 ... In a business context, marketing is used to recruit new customers. Similarly, the .... church can be used as a basis for young adults to experience the church .... the spatial relationships (distances) between the items, whereas ...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF ACID RAINS ON THE LITHOTHAMNIAN LIMESTONE ON THE GALLERY OF THE MARY'S ASCENSION CATHEDRAL, ZAGREB, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Crnković

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban, environmental pollution, caused by acid rains and damages of stone elements on Cathedral of Zagreb are described. On the surfaces of limestone elements that are in the »shade«, the black scabs have developed. The outher crusts, and inner powdery matter of the black scabs have been investigated by microscopy, and analyzed by means of x-ray. thermal and chemical analyses. They contain gypsum, calcite, soot, and sporadic fly ash.

  8. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Cádiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Two factors have determined the actual deterioration state of the Cathedral of Cádiz, one is natural and the other is anthropogenic. On one hand, the presence of salts conditioned by atmospherical environment and saline solutions of the rising damp; on the other hand, the vicissitudes suffered by the temple during its construction, having been unprotected for long periods of time both internally and externally the bad use of the building and the little maintenance carried out on it. The crystallization and dissolution, and salt hydratation and dehydratation mechanisms have provoked serious deteriorations in the foreign lithotypes: spalling in compact limestones, chipping and pulverizations in marbles; the autochthonous “ostionera", well-balanced in the medium, presents a good state of conservation. The interior of the Cathedral, contrary to the normal, is much more degraded than the exterior.

    Dos son los factores de alteración que han determinado el estado actual de alteración de la Catedral de Cádiz, uno natural y otro antropogénico. Por una parte la presencia de sales, condicionada tanto por el ambiente atmosférico como por la ascensión capilar desde el subsuelo de soluciones salinas; por otra, las vicisitudes sufridas por el templo durante su construcción, desprotegido del medio largos períodos de tiempo tanto interior como exteriormente, el mal uso del mismo y las escasas actuaciones de mantenimiento. Los mecanismos de aumento de volumen en capilares e intersticios ligados a la cristalización y disolución, e hidratación y deshidratación de sales, han provocado graves alteraciones en los litotipos foráneos, siendo los indicadores de alteración más típicos en esta Catedral las fragmentaciones en las calizas compactas, disyunciones y pulverizaciones en los mármoles, y eflorescencias de forma general; la autóctona ostionera, en buen equilibrio con el medio, presenta un buen estado de conservación. El interior de la

  9. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Darvish Rohani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of “Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran” dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  10. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-08-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  11. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  12. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates

  13. Skrif en Kerkorder/Scripture and church order | Celliers | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enables the congregation to adhere to its calling for obedience, love, and witness, so that the church can continue to exist. The outlines of the nature and order of the church should be addressed in all church orders to avoid pragmatism and arbitrariness on the one hand, and to create space for the various demands of ...

  14. Community and Christianity in the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joseph R.; Robinson, Dianne T.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the experience of Christianity for many African Americans and how such experience provides a foundation for social activism. Discusses Black church burnings with respect to the more traditional Christian African American view of religion. Explores implications for incorporating the religious traditions of Christian African Americans into…

  15. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer

    1986-01-01

    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  16. Confessing the Catholicity of the Church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from a recent discussion in the Netherlands about the application of the Pontifical Council for Social Communication for the internet extension ‘.catholic,’ the author inquires into the meaning of confessing the catholicity of the church. He shows that ‘catholic’ is a title phrase, a

  17. The Pauluskerk: an unorthodox church in Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tale of the rebuilding of the Pauluskerk (St. Paul’s Church in the Dutch city of Rotterdam is a multilayered story that blurs the lines between architecture, societal issues, policymaking and urban redevelopment.The original Pauluskerk was built in the late 1950s in a city centre that was still recovering from the damage it suffered during the Second World War. The church may never have received the attention it has were it not for Reverend Visser, who developed the church into a refuge for the outcasts of Dutch society: asylum seekers, homeless people and drug addicts. Visser’s activism eventually evolved into the Perron Nul (Platform Zero initiative, through which he organized support for the addicted and indigent on a scale not seen before in the city.The close proximity of the Pauluskerk to Rotterdam Central Station and the controversy surrounding its mission brought it slowly but steadily onto a collision course with the renewal and redevelopment of the station area, which would eventually lead to the demolition of the original Pauluskerk in 2007 and the construction of a new church building as part of the CalypSO project, designed by British architect William Alsop.This article brings these story lines together to showcase the complex process involved in an inner-city urban development founded in the well-established practice of local democracy, where consensus-seeking is the norm, even when this crosses societal borders.

  18. THE HEIDELBERG CATECHISM AND THE CHURCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the CMa 125 the ministry of the gospel as human contribution is added. We conclude with the .... the main manual for instruction of the Christian faith, also on the church. It is remarkable that leading .... De Jong, r. 2013. Trouw. [Online.] ...

  19. Leadership for the church: The shepherd model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-30

    May 30, 2014 ... also monarchical leaders (2 Sm 5:2) and God himself (Is 40:11; Ps 23:1). The prophetic ... referred to are Abraham (Gn 12:16); Rachel (Gn 29:9); Jacob ... these functions are contrary to the shepherds of Ezekiel's era, ..... Volf, M., 1998, After our likeness: The church as the image of the trinity, Wm. B.

  20. The real crisis of the church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... various religious communities, in courses of theology and religious studies and in the field of ... is used a great deal in North Atlantic Reformed circles these ... (e.g. China and Korea) and in Africa the church is growing.

  1. The birth of an Empire of Two Churches : church property, theologians, and the League of Schmalkalden

    OpenAIRE

    Ocker, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Did the creation of Protestant churches in Germany during Luther's generation follow someone's intentions? Heiko Oberman, appealing to a medieval Luther, portrays the reformer as herald of a dawning apocalypse, a monk at war with the devil, who expected God to judge the world and rescue Christians with no help from human institutions, abilities, and processes. This Luther could not have intended the creation of a new church. Dorothea Wendebourg and Hans-Jürgen Goertz stress the diversity of e...

  2. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim

    2011-01-01

    A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...

  3. Theologian in the service of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Metallinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The word about God anticipates some knowledge of God, and the knowledge of God can never be a fruit of the rational, intellectual, metaphysical research, but only of the holy-spiritual experience. Consequently, a theologian of the Church is not the rational man, however great his achievements may be, but the spirtual man, who has the experience of the Saints, namely who has tasted and is living the states of purification, illumination and deification. Disconnected from the reality of the spiritual life, a theologian becomes a false prophet. On the other hand, the Church cannot be divided into two parts, one that ministers to the believers in the place of worship, and another one that speaks from the teacher’s desk, through the theologians’ voice, but is one and the same Church. Actually, there is no existence more tragic than the one of a theologian, on any education level, teaching things to which he is not connected on the inside, by the heart, and which he does not accept or believe. If such a thing means failure for any science, however, for the area of Theology it is directly suicidal. In fact, the lack of the Orthodox and ecclesial way of thinking and living makes the person theologizing in the area of the Orthodoxy dangerous, because as an officially recognized teacher of Orthodox Theology, he functions as a representative of the Church tradition, while he is nothing but a false prophet. And, while, probably, the science of philology is not endangered by an unlearned philologist or the science of law by an unjust legist, the science of theology is logically denied in the person of its servant who is an unbelieving or atheist theologian and creates very great obstacles in the way of the accomplishment of the redeeming mission of the Church in the world.

  4. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  5. Spatial and Temporal Growth Variation of Pinus heldreichii Christ. Growing along a Latitudinal Gradient in Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. Th...

  6. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ.) at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core sa...

  7. Church Colleges Today. Perspectives of a Church Agency on Their Problems and Possibilities. Studies in Christian Higher Education, No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geler, Woodrow A., Ed.

    Six articles giving the perspective of the United Methodist Church on the problems and possibilities in higher education are presented. The topics include: Why is the Church in Higher Education?, Church-College Relationships and Challenges, Higher Education for Blacks, The Crisis in Enrollment, New Generations for New Days, and Trends and…

  8. Seismic risk assessment of Trani's Cathedral bell tower in Apulia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferio, Mariella; Foti, Dora

    2017-09-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of slender historical buildings; these structures, in fact, may manifest a high risk with respect to seismic actions as usually they have been designed to resist to gravitational loads only, and are characterized by a high flexibility. To evaluate this behavior, the bell tower of the Trani's Cathedral is investigated. The tower is 57 m tall and is characterized by an unusual building typology, i.e., the walls are composed of a concrete core coupled with external masonry stones. The dynamic parameters and the mechanical properties of the tower have been evaluated on the basis of an extensive experimental campaign that made use of ambient vibration tests and ground penetrating radar tests. Such data have been utilized to calibrate a numerical model of the examined tower. A linear static analysis, a dynamic analysis and a nonlinear static analysis have been carried out on such model to evaluate the displacement capacity of the tower and the seismic risk assessment in accordance with the Italian guidelines.

  9. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Monocentric and Polycentric River Basin Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

  10. a Restoration Oriented Hbim System for Cultural Heritage Documentation: the Case Study of Parma Cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N.; Roncella, R.

    2018-05-01

    The need to safeguard and preserve Cultural Heritage (CH) is increasing and especially in Italy, where the amount of historical buildings is considerable, having efficient and standardized processes of CH management and conservation becomes strategic. At the time being, there are no tools capable of fulfilling all the specific functions required by Cultural Heritage documentation and, due to the complexity of historical assets, there are no solution as flexible and customizable as CH specific needs require. Nevertheless, BIM methodology can represent the most effective solution, on condition that proper methodologies, tools and functions are made available. The paper describes an ongoing research on the implementation of a Historical BIM system for the Parma cathedral, aimed at the maintenance, conservation and restoration. Its main goal was to give a concrete answer to the lack of specific tools required by Cultural Heritage documentation: organized and coordinated storage and management of historical data, easy analysis and query, time management, 3D modelling of irregular shapes, flexibility, user-friendliness, etc. The paper will describe the project and the implemented methodology, focusing mainly on survey and modelling phases. In describing the methodology, critical issues about the creation of a HBIM will be highlighted, trying to outline a workflow applicable also in other similar contexts.

  11. Open Source Paradigm: A Synopsis of The Cathedral and the Bazaar for Health and Social Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tim

    2016-07-04

    Open source software (OSS) is becoming more fashionable in health and social care, although the ideas are not new. However progress has been slower than many had expected. The purpose is to summarise the Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) paradigm in terms of what it is, how it impacts users and software engineers and how it can work as a business model in health and social care sectors. Much of this paper is a synopsis of Eric Raymond's seminal book The Cathedral and the Bazaar, which was the first comprehensive description of the open source ecosystem, set out in three long essays. Direct quotes from the book are used liberally, without reference to specific passages. The first part contrasts open and closed source approaches to software development and support. The second part describes the culture and practices of the open source movement. The third part considers business models. A key benefit of open source is that users can access and collaborate on improving the software if they wish. Closed source code may be regarded as a strategic business risk that that may be unacceptable if there is an open source alternative. The sharing culture of the open source movement fits well with that of health and social care.

  12. Characterization and conservation of the stone used in the Cathedral of Granada, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas, R.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study carried out on the Granada Cathedral which includes studies of indicators, factors and mechanisms of deterioration. A complete chemical and physical characterization of altered and unaltered material from the quarries and the building has been made. Eight commercial treatment products have been tested on the main stone-type used in the monument, including two accelerated weathering tests (salt crystallization and SO2 chemical attack. Some conservation proposals have been made.

    Este artículo recoge un estudio llevado a cabo sobre la Catedral de Granada que incluye la determinación de los indicadores, factores y mecanismos de deterioro. Asimismo se ha realizado una completa caracterización física y química del material alterado del edificio e inalterado de cantera. Se han probado ocho productos comerciales aplicados al principal tipo de piedra existente en el monumento, incluyendo la realización de dos ensayos de alteración acelerada (cristalización de sales y ataque químico con atmósfera de SO2. Como punto final se recogen algunas recomendaciones de cara a una posible intervención.

  13. Study of water-repellent treatments applied on limestone from Andalusian Cathedrals

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    Villegas, R.

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals have been treated with different water-repellent treatments, to evaluate the effects of this products. The stones studied are limestone, calcarenite and dolomite; the products applied are organosilicones and acrylics. In this work properties related with water access and movement through the stone have been measured and compared their values before and after the application of the treatments.

    Se han tratado varios tipos de piedra utilizados en Catedrales Andaluzas con diversos productos hidrófugos, con el fin de evaluar las características conferidas por los mismos. Los tipos de piedra son de naturaleza caliza, calcarenitas y dolomías; los productos son organosilícicos y acrílicos. En este trabajo se han medido las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra, comparándose sus valores antes y después de la aplicación del tratamiento.

  14. Sacred Space: A Beginning Framework for Off-Planet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. K.

    As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.

  15. Computing Beyond the Church-Turing Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Dershowitz and Gurevich claim to have proven the Church-Turing theorem starting from a set of 4 reasonable postulates. (Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, vol. 14, num. 3, Sept. 2008, pg. 299) But their postulate II assumes fixed vocabulary. Humans, however, change their vocabulary words (and concepts) over time. My Asa H artificial intelligence also changes its vocabulary. (Trans. of the Kansas Acad. of Sci., vol. 109, no. 3/4, pg 159, 2006, www.bioone.org/archive/0022- 8443/109/3/pdf/i0022-8443-109-3-159.pdf) Their postulate I excludes nondeterministic transitions between states. I don't know how often humans flip a coin but my Asa H does employ random transitions under certain circumstances. Perhaps humans and Asa H go beyond the Church-Turing limit. (Trans. Kansas Acad. of Sci., 108, 3/4, pg. 169, 2005)

  16. Les sources des Citations peintes sur les phylactères des Saints de la rangée inférieure de la façade de l’Eglise de La Résurrection de Dieu du Monastère de Suceviţa / The Sources of the Quotations Painted on the Phylacteries of the Saints of the Lower Row of the Façade of the Church of the Resurrection of God of the Monastery of Suceviţa

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    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sources of the Quotations Painted on the Phylacteries of the Saints of the Lower Row of the Façade of the Church of the Resurrection of God of the Monastery of Suceviţa. This study aims to discover the literary sources of the quotations painted on the phylacteries of the saints on the bottom row of the regarding the façade of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ of Suceviţa Monastery. This study is part of a series regarding the sayings of the fathers from the desert, the confessors, the anchorites and the stylites painted on the southern façade of the Church of The Annunciation of the Virgin from Moldoviţa . The author of the study shows that the quotes from Suceviţa are largely drawn from the Alphabetical Collection of the Sentences of the Fathers of the Desert.

  17. Acoustic simulations of Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied.

  18. Overcoming violence - a basic task of Christian churches

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    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article � based on the second of two keynote lectures at a conference on violence � the view is developed that the task of the church with respect to violence consists mainly in overcoming violence. In the first part of the article dealing with the basic tasks of the church it is argued that the task to overcome violence is close to the essence of the church. The point of departure is taken in Article 7 of the Augsburg Confession, which understands the church as the �communion of saints� and names the pure proclamation of the gospel and the right administration of the sacraments as the two characteristics of the church. The Christian message that the church has to proclaim the gospel entails a preferential option for nonviolence that includes the responsibility to put an end to existing violence. In the second part of the article attention is given to the implications the basic task of the church in overcoming violence holds for the practice of the church. It is argued that the starting point is that the church has to proclaim the gospel of peace and as a community of faith become a community of peace herself. Some of the most important practical consequences the proclamation of the gospel of peace has for the church as a community of action, for her work in education, for her promotion of justice and for her solidarity with those in need, are discussed.

  19. Corrupting Capitalism: Michael Ende’s Momo and “Cathedral Station”

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    Heike Polster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ende, the well-known author of The Neverending Story , foresaw dramatic changes in the fabric of society resulting from a turn toward neoliberal policies. One such far-reaching and dangerous change has to do with a diminishing of temporal autonomy, the ability to freely determine the use and meaning of our time. This article explores how neoliberalism is shaping our concept of time and our experience of it. In an effort to demonstrate the process and the line of reasoning behind the monetization of time, and to connect time to more qualitative considerations of the human condition, I shall demonstrate how Ende conceptualizes time as an integral part of the accumulation process of capitalism. I also discuss a fairly cryptic short story, “Cathedral Station,” that envisions “the mystery of money.” Utilizing Walter Benjamin’s critique issued in his 1921 fragment “Capitalism as Religion,” I outline Ende’s dystopian vision of the uncontested, unquestioned reign of capitalism as a religious cult. Read together, the novel and the short story offer a way of contrasting two extreme byproducts of capitalism’s colonization of time, namely what I would call an “ideology of work” and an “ideology of growth.” The first of these is a result of capitalism’s commodification of time according to liberal ideals such as choice, freedom, and self-interest. The second is a decidedly neoliberal phenomenon in that the “financialization of everything,” to use David Harvey’s phrase, results in the ever-present expectation of unlimited, exponential growth. By drawing out these two interconnected ideologies through close readings, the subtle processes of capitalism’s colonization of time are revealed.

  20. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the cathedral of Guadíx/Spain

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    Alcalde, M.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral of Guadíx are of a natural origin, basically thermic and hydraulic, due to its great oscillations in temperature in Summer, the frequency of frosts in Winter and the rains. The lithotypes employed are mainly calcarenite of mean porosite and slightly more compact limestones from the quarries in the area, and marbles. The corresponding deterioration mechanisms are those of differential thermic dilatations caused by thermic jumps, especially in the more compact stones, those of increase in volume in capillaries and interstices, especially by freezing, and those of dissolution. The most serious deterioration indicators are fissures and spalling that affect the most carved elements and which have taken the greater part of the most aerated elements such as the pinnacles to a state to ruin.

    Los principales factores de alteración que afectan a la catedral de Guadix son de origen natural, fundamentalmente térmico e hidráulico, por sus grandes oscilaciones de temperatura en verano y por la frecuencia de heladas en invierno, y por la lluvias. Los litotipos empleados son principalmente calcarenitas de porosidad media y calizas algo más compactas, procedentes de canteras de la zona, y mármoles. Los mecanismos de alteración correspondientes son los de dilatación térmica diferencial originados por los saltos térmicos, en especial en las piedras más compactas, los de incremento de volumen en capilares e intersticios, sobre todo por heladicidad, y los de disolución. Los indicadores de alteración más graves son las fisuras y fragmentaciones que afectan a los elementos más labrados y que han llevado al estado de ruina a la mayor parte de los elementos más aireados como los pináculos.

  1. A prosopographical perspective of the musical trades of the Cathedral of Valencia in the time of Guillem de Podio, 1480-1505

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    Francesc Villanueva Serrano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The musical activity in the cathedral of Valencia before the XVIth century is quite unknown. This study seeks to advance the knowledge of this subject focusing on the groups of people carrying out the different trades with responsibility in the organization and the musical practice between 1480-1505. This period comprises treatise writer Guillem de Podio’s chant schools mastery in the above mentioned cathedral. The perspective offered here is provided by the prosopography, using data from this institution, other cathedrals and documental sources with different features like notarial, diocesan and those preserved in civil and royal archives. On the other hand, this work has also allowed enough evidence to be presented to dismiss the current identification hypothesis between the composer Juan Rodríguez de Sanabria and the singer of Isabella I of Castile, Juan Rodríguez de la Torre. A prosopographical catalogue of all of the studied individuals is included in an appendix.

  2. The fresco at the entrance to Danilo II church of the Mother of God at Peć

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    Milanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    one to feel that there is a common Eucharistic-ecclesiological context that conceptualizes their appearance and unification in a given, largely unconventional assembly. The meanings that are equivalent to the correlative, common context gives one reason to conclude that in the observed Peć fresco, the Mother of God's image is depicted as the symbol of the Church, that is, the holy mystery that fundamentally defines the Church, first and foremost in keeping with the well-known, dogmatically firm, vivid liturgical allusions of the Holy Fathers to the Church as "the body through which the blood of Christ flows" and which "is sanctified by the Holy Spirit ". The arguments for identifying the "mystery" of the person of the Mother of God (clearly defined by the dogma of the Incarnation of the Word with the mystery of the Eucharist and the Church, in any case, is possible to find in theological literature, as well as in hymnographic-liturgical texts. The observed Eucharistic-ecclesiological implications of the iconographic contents in the center of the composition, and the observations referring to the particularly accentuated visual formulation which, as we also established alludes to the mystery of Holy Communion, are rounded off and indeed reaffirmed by the figures of the two archpriests - depicted in the lateral parts of the lower half of the painting, in liturgical vestments and in the characteristic posture of praying. The place of the composition, at the entrance into the church building, and the way in which the accompanying hierarchical images of St. Nicholas and Archbishop Danilo himself are connected to the dominant image of the Mother of God, reveal the dual function of the fully recorded content - the celebration of the patroness and guiding the prayer-related thoughts of those who enter the church to the "true" significance of their entry, connected with the experience of the holy mystery of the Church. The exaltation of a patron, as the basic and most

  3. The Cathedral Chapter and the episcopate of Córdoba, from Old to New Regime (1789-1883

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    José García-Cuevas Ventura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, dealing with the cathedral chapters was the more difficult question for the bishops during Old and New Regime. In the following pages, the contacts between the occupants of Oslo's see and its senate are studied, from 1789, year of preconization of Antonio Caballero, to 1883, the pontificate's end of Ceferino González. From the middle of the past century, the binomy bishopchapter was solved in the benefit of the first, and the unity of action reached its climax.

  4. The crucifixion of consumerism and power and the resurrection of a community glimpsed through Meylahn’s wounded Christ in conversation with Rowling’s Christ discourse in the Harry Potter series

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    Anastasia Apostolides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like some fantasies (including Lord of the rings and the Chronicles of Narnia, the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling makes a social comment on a particular dominant discourse within a particular sociocultural context. One of Rowling’s social comments is the dehumanising and fragmenting effect of the power and consumerist discourse in Western society – where great value is placed on what a person owns. An example of this theme in the series is the characters of the Dursleys, as prime examples of ‘Muggles’. Although it is not power that Muggles seek, but rather to fit in by having what the Jones’ have, which fits in well with the capitalist discourse as developed by Lacan – as discussed by Meylahn. Rowling juxtaposes this discourse with the alternative sacred story of the Christ discourse (community and fellowship are more important than material possessions, that she has subtly woven into her narrative. This alternative discourse challenges adolescents’ identity and spirituality by offering the Christ discourse as an alternative discourse to the dominant discourse of consumerism and power they live in. In his article, ‘Holistic redemptive pastoral ministry in the fragmented transit hall of existence’, Meylahn (2010 speaks of a ‘wounded Christ’ healing a ‘wounded community’ and this ties in well with the Christ discourse presented by Rowling. Meylahn gives us a useful hermeneutical tool to interpret the actions of some of Rowling’s characters. Hence, Meylahn’s ‘wounded Christ’, will be brought into conversation with the actions of some of Rowling’s characters. By bringing Rowling into conversation with Meylahn, pastors and youth workers are presented with an ideal tool to help guide adolescents towards a more spiritual life that is not bound to the dehumanising discourse of consumerism and power.

  5. A Korean perspective on megachurches as missional churches

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    Cornelius J.P. Niemandt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the megachurch and the missional church are on-going global phenomena. Working from the premise that the church has to be missional, this article operates from a Korean perspective and researches whether a megachurch can be missional. The megachurch is not simply a very large church in terms of membership or the physical size of its building(s � because of the influence of the interaction between socio-cultural, historical, and theological backgrounds, the megachurch has its own missiological and ecclesiological perspectives. The megachurch understands that the growth of an individual church implies the expansion of the kingdom of God, which means that the individual church has a responsibility to be both functionally and structurally sound, in order to ensure the efficient growth of the kingdom. This is an influential tendency that is found not only in larger size churches, but in all churches who are trying to achieve the quantitative growth of the church by way of evangelisation. The Korean megachurches, represented by the Poongsunghan Church, display these characteristics. The missional church is not simply a mission-driven church, sending many missionaries to other countries; the missional church believes that all churches are sent to the world by God, who wants to reconcile the whole universe with himself. The implication of this is that the church has to restore its missional essence in order to be able to participate in the mission of God. Thus, the missional church is a reforming movement that witnesses to God�s rule by recovering its apostolic nature. The characteristics of this movement are clearly visible in one of the case studies � the Bundang Woori Church. The importance of the missional movement for Korean churches is emphasised.Interdisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is a case study of Korean megachurches from a missional perspective. The research represents a critique of practises in

  6. The consummation of the kingdom of God. Reflections on the final victory of Christ as portrayed in Paul’s first Epistle to the Corinthians

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    P. Potgieter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on 1 Corinthians 15:24-28 raise the question whether eschatology should be focused on Christ, or should rather be viewed theocentrically. A study of the mediatory reign of Christ clearly favours the notion of an intermediate kingdom, during which He will subjugate and destroy the “powers” and the enemies of the kingdom. Having achieved the final victory over death itself, the need for an intermediate rule of Christ no longer exists. However, the office of Mediator is unquestionably linked to Christ’s humanity. This again brings to the fore the question whether Christ will retain his human nature after the consummation of his kingdom. Although it remains an open question in Reformed theology whether Christ will relinquish his human nature at the end of this dispensation, it is argued that in the next dispensation He will no longer serve in the office of Mediator, but that He will reign as the Lamb of God in the stature of the eternal Son of God.

  7. Insight into the Fulnek Church and Parish Medieval Building Chronology

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    Augustinková Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The church of the Holy Trinity and parish in Fulnek was for nearly four centuries an Augustinian canonry and collegiate church (1293-1389. The medieval church and parish building chronology, however, have not been thus far established. From research between 2015 and 2016 we have been able to identify medieval portions of the buildings, clarify the site medieval construction phases and date the parish buildings (formerly the canonry from dendrochronological analysis of embedded wooden scaffolding.

  8. Ways of understanding of religious delusions associated with a change of identity on the example of identification with Jesus Christ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyga, Krzysztof; Stupak, Radosław

    2018-02-28

    Identification with Christ among psychiatric patients is an example of a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. As a delusion it includes a misidentification (change of identity) in the layer of content and, usually, grandiosity and/or paranoid traits in the formal aspect. What is more, it fits in the category of religious delusions, which are perhaps the most controversial type of delusions and as such require special sensitivity as well as knowledge beyond psychology or psychiatry. The aim of the articleis to show the phenomenon of identification with Christ among psychiatric patients, taking into account different ways of its explaining and understanding. Papers relating to the topic, both theoretical considerations and case studies, found in the EBSCO database were analyzed. Searching for the articles the following key words were used: identity, identification, delusion, Jesus/Christ/Messiah, psychosis, schizophrenia. The analysis included all (actually not numerous) articles except for the one linked to cognitive approach which did not significantly contribute to the issue. Given the multiplicity of ways of explaining and understanding the experience of identification with the figure of the Messiah, it seems to be a mistake to hold both objectivist and one-sided, based on one theory, attitude towards it. Such an experience should be recognized in the context of the history of patient's life and the all possible mechanisms leading to its occurrence, as well as the meanings hidden beneath the symptom, should be take into account. It is also important to be well-oriented in the system of religious beliefs and spiritual needs of the patient.

  9. Herbert Aldersmith (1847-1918): Christ's Hospital medical officer and co-founder of the Medical Officers of Schools Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Trevor

    2008-02-01

    Herbert Aldersmith spent his entire working life, from the age of 23 years until his retirement at 65 years, as Resident Medical Officer to Christ's Hospital School. It was a crucial period in the school's history, from the overdue reforms of the late Victorian era to its historic move from the City of London to Sussex in 1902. He became an acknowledged authority on ringworm and also published extensively on the other great interest of his life, the British-Israel Society. He was the prime mover in founding the first-ever professional association of school doctors in 1884.

  10. The facilitation by church leaders in overcoming resistance to change.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Little has been done to address the issue of how to overcome resistance to change in a change effort in the church world. “How to overcome resistance to change?” is a question that requires serious consideration among church leaders. Church leaders continue to act in ways that produce resistance to change and ultimately failed change efforts. These actions on the part of church leaders often strengthen and reinforce the sources of resistance to change, making it very difficult for change to b...

  11. Indicators of Commitment to the Church: A Longitudinal Study of Church-Affiliated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    Examined late adolescents who drop out of church and others who remain committed to it. Survey of Seventh-day Adventist youth found commitment related to cognitive, experiential, and activity dimensions of religion. Ethical considerations, perception of one's importance to local congregation, and peer influence also played part in stepwise…

  12. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1993-01-01

    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  13. Deterioration of the granitic stones of main front of the Vila Real Cathedral (N of Portugal

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    Gomes, M. E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cathedral of Vila Real (North of Portugal is located in the city centre and at least four regional two-mica granites were used in its construction. A petrographic study of these granites concluded that the stones had different degrees of alterations. The identification of some physical properties of the granites –open porosity, real and apparent density, free water absorption, porometry and capillary transmission– confirms their susceptibility to degrees of weathering. A recent cleaning intervention was made and several types of deterioration were visible in the monument‚s stones, namely: granular disintegration, some thin black layers, plates, flakes and black crusts, especially in the main front exposed to SW. Granular disintegration is the most important deterioration process and is responsible for the loss of material in the most-affected stones; it is also related to the presence of small amounts of highly soluble salts such as halite and nitrates and to solar exposure.La Catedral de Vila Real (Norte de Portugal se encuentra en el centro de la ciudad y se han utilizado, al menos, cuatro granitos de dos micas para su construcción extraídos de sus alrededores. El estudio petrográfico de estos granitos pone de manifiesto que poseen un diferente grado de alteración. La determinación de algunas propiedades físicas de los granitos –porosidad abierta, densidad aparente y real, absorción libre de agua, porometría y capilaridad– confirman los distintos grados de alteración. La catedral ha sufrido una reciente limpieza y sobre las piedras de la Catedral se observan distintas formas de alteración, sobre todo desagregación granular (arenización, escasas pátinas finas negras, desplacaciones, escamas y costras negras, especialmente en la fachada principal, expuesta al SW. El fenómeno de la desagregación granular es el más importante y es el responsable de de la pérdida de material en las piedras más afectadas. Su g

  14. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain

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    Alcalde, M.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The lithotype mainly used in the construction of the Cathedral of Seville is the calcarenite from Puerto de Santa f/laria followed by the limestone from Espera. The primordial extrinsecal factor of deterioration is the atmospherical contamination, mainly sulphur oxides and smoke, within a humid environment. From both factors, the porose stone of a carbonated nature and the acid environment, we can deduce that the principal mechanism of deterioration is the chemical attack; the most important indicators of deterioration that have been found are the deposits and arenizations. In a "grosso modo" valoration we can say that the stone of structural employment is well conserved in its majority while the ornamental stone is degraded at 80%. Half the cresting is in a state of ruin and 20% of the tips have been removed or will have to be in the near future.

    El litotipo mayoritariamente empleado en la construcción de la Catedral de Sevilla es la calcarenita del Puerto de Santa María seguida de la caliza de Espera. El factor extrínseco de alteración primordial es la contaminación atmosférica, principalmente óxidos de azufre y humos, en ambiente húmedo. De ambos factores, piedra porosa de naturaleza carbonatada y medio ambiente ácido, puede deducirse que el principal mecanismo de alteración es el ataque químico y se ha encontrado que los indicadores de alteración más importantes son los depósitos y las arenizaciones. En una valoración a grosso modo puede decirse que la piedra de uso estructural se encuentra bien conservada en su mayor parte, y la ornamental degradada en un 80%. La mitad de las cresterías se encuentran en estado de ruina y un 20% de los remates han sido retirados o habrán de serlo próximamente.

  15. Selective sandstone deterioration in the cathedrals of Salamanca, Textural anisotropy as a cause

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    Martín Patino, María Teresa

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Textural sandstone anisotropy is related to the selective deterioration of such stone in buildings. The samples studied come from the Cathedrals of Salamanca. Stone fragments, cut in different directions with regard to the base supporting the ashlars in the wall, are studied by means of a binocular magnifying glass and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. This shows that the sandstone microfabric has a granular and a laminar microtexture, which correspond to different directions in the plane in question as regards the position of the ashlar. Either of these circumstances coincides with the stone surface on the outside of the building and affect its surface deterioration in a different way. The SEM images of deteriorated stone were compared with those of unaffected stone, with both types coming from differently orientated cuts as regards the position of the ashlar. In conclusion, the position given to the block of stone in the building is of importance for the preservation of the stone. The speed of ultrasound transmission measured in samples from commercial quarries confirms the textural sandstone anisotropy to a greater or lesser extent.

    La anisotropía textural de las areniscas se relaciona con la selectividad de su deterioro en los edificios. Las muestras estudiadas pertenecen a las Catedrales de Salamanca. Fragmentos de piedra, cortados en direcciones diferentes respecto a la base sobre la que se asientan los sillares en el muro, son estudiados por medio de la lupa binocular y del microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM. De éstos se deduce que la microfábrica de las areniscas tiene una microtextura granular y otra laminar, que corresponden a direcciones diferentes del plano respecto al asiento del sillar. Una u otra de estas situaciones coincide con la superficie de la piedra expuesta al exterior en el edificio, y afectan a su deterioro superficial de forma diferente. Las capas externas en las que predomina la arcilla

  16. Entre l’Orient et l’Occident. Une église unique, avec un destin unique / Between the East and the West. A Unique Church, with a Unique Destiny

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    Tereza Sinigalia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1909, the 19th of December, the Roman-Catholic Archbishop of Bucharest, Raymund Netzhammer, a Benedictine monk from the German abbey Einsiedeln, consecrated the Greek-Catholic church in Bucharest dedicated to St Basil the Great. As he wanted to have a church in the Romanian architectural style, he asked the architect Nicolae Ghika-Budeşti to design the project. It was inspired by the medieval Moldavian churches, with a lantern-tower above the nave, apparent brick façades and an outside decoration with enameled ceramic discs. The archbishop intention was to realize a synthesis between Romanian art and the Occidental one. So he decided to invite painters from the well-known in the Benedictine media Beuron School of Art, initiated by Petrus (Desiderius, as monk and Gabriel/Jakob Wüger from the abbey with the same name. The project for the inside murals was done by father Andreas Göser, who worked in the great Monte-Cassino abbey (Italy, the mother monastery of the Benedictine Order, too, and achieved by two painters from Ravensburg, Schiller and Ostermaier, who signed the cartoons, whose originals are kept in negatives on glass in the Einsiedeln abbey. Paintings were done in the pure Beuron style. The Christ Pantocrator (The Almighty was painted on the cupola of the tower, surrounded by Angels. The Virgin with Jesus Infant venerated by Angels occupied the semi-cupola of the chancel, as usually in the Oriental churches, and great archangels stood on the intrados of the triumphal arch. Four episodes from Saint Basil’s Life (Baptism, Ordination as a priest, St Basil is giving alms to the poor; St Basil is healing the emperor’s son were painted on the great surfaces below the arches of the nave. Christ as High Priest was to be found on the Western cupola. On the Western wall, in the Votive picture, the founder, archbishop Raymund Netzhammer, kneeled, dressed in simple Benedictine cassock, and offered the model of the church to St. Basil. As

  17. A pastoral examination of the Christian Church's response to fears of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... churches), the second is the African Independent Churches and the third is ..... Spiritual warfare is a lifestyle, not just an occasional event of .... and are mutually exclusive', The church leader in Africa: A training publication of.

  18. Psychobiography of Jesus Christ in view of Władysław Witwicki’s theory of cratism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlak Amadeusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt at a critical evaluation of applying one of the most original theories of Polish psychology, i.e. W. Witwicki’s theory of cratism, to the interpretation of the activities and personality of Jesus Christ. The theory of cratism, though it provides substantial explanation possibilities, has been largely forgotten. W. Witwicki used it to try to interpret many aspects of human activity such as art, social relations, as well as the life of ancient figures, among others, Socrates and Jesus Christ. Thanks to this, he created the first ever in Polish psychology (and also one of the first in world psychology psychobiography. The proposal to decipher the activity of Jesus of Nazareth through Witwicki, however, raises large concerns, which discouraged many psychologists, and especially religious environments. I would like to indicate the most controversial moments of his work, while drawing attention to the great value of the theory itself also today, at the beginning of the 21st century, particularly in the area of historical psychology.

  19. Gene therapy, human nature and the churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, G R

    1991-12-01

    Moral analysis must begin with respect for the empirical features, the "facts of the case". Major advances in genetic knowledge and technology -- as in other sciences -- inevitably change mental attitudes. But they could not change human nature, a product of the distinctively human cerebral cortex. Human capacities like compassion and justice are our own and for us to guard. To ask (as some do) about a "right" to inherit a non-manipulated genome is to ask an unanswerable question: the language of rights is inappropriate in this context. Parents have a duty to safeguard and to serve the interests of their potential child. The medical duty is to help in that task in ways which they have limited freedom to choose. The role of churches is to be faithful to their deposit of faith and their theological principles, including that of freedom of conscience. Churches are too easily led in practice to over-rule conscience on grounds of authority, ecclesiastical or biblical, not sustained by convincing reason. This is most evident in some declarations concerning human reproduction. Better were it for them to help their faithful in moral reasoning, the ethics of choice; to keep consciences tender.

  20. Decay mechanism of indoor porous opuka stone: a case study from the main altar located in the St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague (Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, R.; Přikrylová, J.; Racek, M.; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Kreislová, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 290. ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : opuka stone * Prague * St.Vitus Cathedral * main altar * damage mechanisms * environmental monitoring Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2016

  1. The Dutch Reformed Church as a prominent established South African church: In transition towards the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Kruger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk is in transition because of the influences of the more recent South African epochs of democratisation, Africanisation and globalisation. The histories of these epochs extend over more than 20 years and have had a significant influence on the church. The Dutch Reformed (DR Church changed institutionally because its place and influence within society changed considerably as a result of political and social transformation since 1994. The ongoing process of Africanisation that accompanies these transformations brings certain reactions to the bosom of the church via the experiences of its members. Most are Afrikaners being more inclined to westernised social frames of reference. Ironically, these people are more susceptible to the effects of globalisation, especially secularisation, which transposes the religious set-up of the DR Church into an open and individuated system. These developments pose major challenges to the DR Church in the sense that it has to reconsider how it approaches society, what it can contribute to the ecumenical church, why it is necessary to reflect on its denominational identity and what its academic, theological endeavours in these regards entail.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has an interdisciplinary scope because the multiplicity of the present-day calls for interdisciplinary academic reflection. For the purpose of this article, Church Historiography helps to systemise recent ecclesiastical developments within the DR Church. To clarify the influences of these developments on the DR Church, sociological premises are incorporated to describe them within a broader social context. References to the conducted empirical study serve to explain respondents� (members of the DR Church social and religious constructs regarding these ecclesiastical and sociological phenomena.

  2. Constantine and Christianity: The formation of church/state relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the effects of the events and legislation of that period on both church and state. It will attempt to explain how as a result of Constantine's policies, the Christian Church and the Roman State each gained control of, and influence over the other. This in turn resulted in a mutual dependency which allowed ...

  3. Remarks on the church in the consumer society: similarities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pastors should make it clear that the gospel message is not a product for sale; however the gospel message should be directed at the needs of people. This article outlines the influence of the consumer society on the church. The article also outlines the similarities and dissimilarities between the church and the consumer ...

  4. The Potential Role of Business Intelligence in Church Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Charmaine

    2012-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) involves transforming data into actionable information to make better business decisions that may help improve operations. Although businesses have experienced success with BI, how leaders of church organizations might be able to exploit the advantages of BI in church organizations remains largely unexplored. The purpose…

  5. A Model Program for Churches and Ex-Offender Reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas; Ryan, Patricia; Parikh, Crystal

    1998-01-01

    Prison Fellowship Ministries' church and community based Transition of Prisoners (TOP) program in Detroit is examined. TOP mobilizes, trains, and equips primarily African-American churches and volunteers to assist ex-offenders to successfully reintegrate into their community. Preliminary outcome data suggest that participation in TOP reduces need…

  6. REMARKS ON THE CHURCH IN THE CONSUMER SOCIETY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.1 Product and services are inseparable. In business the concept of the customer is of paramount importance. The customer is so powerful that .... the early history of the church, it has always been evident that the church makes a difference in ...

  7. Church attendance and self-esteem among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2007-01-01

    A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.

  8. The political economy of churches in Denmark over 700 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Ella; Paldam, Martin

    This paper reports new macro time-series for the number and size of churches in Denmark from year 1300 to 2000. Church densities are defined as the series per capita. The densities are interpreted as a proxy for religiosity. It is falling throughout all 700 years, but two events gave an extra fall...

  9. The political economy of churches in Denmark, 1300-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Paldam, Ella

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports new time-series for the numbers and sizes of churches in Denmark over a 715-year period. Per capita, the new series are termed church densities. A pattern emerges in the series that corresponds to the main development in the economy: Until 1750, the economy was in the traditional...

  10. Oral Sources and Missionary Historiography in Igbo Church History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a look at the problems of oral sources and missionary historiography in Igbo church history, 1940-2012. Findings show that the problems of missionary and African Christian oral informants and historiographers had significant effect on Igbo church history. Primary and secondary means in the collection of ...

  11. Assessment of Participation of Churches in Social Forestry in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These reasons, individually had significant (p<0.05) influence on respondents' unwillingness to plant trees on vacant lands. There is need for enlightenment campaigns in churches in Uyo LGA of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, to deflate wrong beliefs that trees host evil spirits. Keywords: Participation, churches, social forestry, Uyo ...

  12. ''Your Big Wedding Day''. Temporal Goal in Church Marriage Rituals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, R.; Hermans, C.A.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Schilderman, J.B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the authors explore notions about the origin and destiny of bridal couples’ relationships from participants’ views of church marriage rituals. A church wedding can be a pivotal moment in a bridal couple’s life, and on these occasions people tend to contemplate the past and the

  13. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  14. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...

  15. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  16. The racial discourse and the Dutch Reformed Church: Looking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to give a descriptive-empirical description of the relationship between the DRC and race by using the Church Mirror surveys. An altered social distance scale is used to measure church acceptance. In the discourse on race, acceptance and unity in the DRC with regard to racial prejudice and attitudes ...

  17. 21st Century Notae Ecclesiae specifically necessary for churches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... the true church from the false as arcane disciplines. However, these marks ... gospel is by the spread of gossip. ... are the four conditions of the true church. ..... to share the good news of the kingdom' (WCC, NMC 2005:11,. §41). .... February 2010, from http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=505.

  18. the racial discourse and the dutch reformed church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) distanced itself from racism in the middle eighties, and in ... “card” is part of the current debate, and the church is part of the discussion ...... Race an inequality in Brazil, South Africa and the United. States.

  19. MEANS OF ESTABLISHING CHURCH PROPERTY AND FUNDING SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cricovean Mircea

    2013-07-01

    Regarding the administration of goods, the Church finds guidance in the laws of the State to which it belongs (Stan, 1952 but taking into consideration the fact that the Church cannot “have its special principles and rules contradicted”(Floca, 1990: 448. However, the church, in fulfilling its purpose - the salvation of believers, needs wealth or heritage. This is not to understand that the Church can “lose its essential character, supernatural character, because, for the Church the earthly possessions and temporal happiness are not an immediate end” (Floca, 1990: 451-452. To understand the Church’s sources of financing it is necessary to take account of its properties. Along the time the church was holder of ownership rights. Its property had to be maintained, at least, so it needed funding. The Church’s canonical and statutory provisions are those governing the Church’s source of funding. They cannot conclusively be understood without observing the principles and rules specific for the ecclesiastical wealth management. Noted should be that previously there were no generally accepted rules on the management of financial resources of the church. The canonical, legal and statutory establishments have become customary in time, making it possible this way, by the dioceses supervisors, that sources of funding should be directed towards the maintenance of the Church, of the worship and of social activities.

  20. The orange-brown patina of Salisbury Cathedral (West Porch) surfaces: evidence of its man-made origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gil, Jesus; Martín-Gil, Francisco Javier; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, Maria; Martín-Ramos, Pablo

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we attempt to elucidate the composition and origin of the orange patina on the surfaces of the West-Porch of Salisbury Cathedral by comparison to other known patinas: (i) the orange-brown patina on the marble surfaces of the Acropolis in Athens and the Arch of Titus in Rome whose analyses have shown very high amounts of phosphates, and generally amino acids from animal-skin glue or other protein binders; (ii) the phosphated patinas which also contain oxalates, found in 1996 on Catalonian calcareous sandstones and in the calcareous dolomites of the Monastery of Silos, Spain, whose origin is either the application of calcium caseinate, or egg yolk and animal glue; and (iii) the patinas with only oxalates found in some of Verona's monuments (St. Zeno) and Spanish sites as in the Monastery of Guadalupe and Cuenca cathedral, formed either by the mineralization of algal filaments or by biological reactions yielding oxalate from yolk egg (added to stone as part of preservative empirical treatments). In the winter of 2003, the West-Porch of Salisbury Cathedral received conservation works, but the old patina was not entirely removed. This fact has allowed us to collect the samples for its study. The IR spectra were registered with a Golden Gate ATR Mk II system using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FTIR) spectrometry. Mineral composition was determined by XRD (Philips PW 1710 spectrometer with Cu tube), whereas major and trace elements analyses were performed by XRF (Philips PW1480 PW). Microscopy examination was performed on a Leica M655 microscope. Phosphate, oxalate, calcium and sulphate contents were analysed by usual chemical methods. ATD-FTIR spectra of the Salisbury's patina exhibit peaks at 2361, 2341 and 671 cm(-1) (assigned to phosphates); 3410, 1680, 1620, 1122 and 602 cm(-1) (assigned to sulphates); and 1447/1437 and 876 cm(-1) (attributed to carbonates). The little peaks at 1620 and 798 cm(-1) could be assigned to

  1. Self-secularisation as challenge to the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-secularisation has been identified by Wolfgang Huber, bishop of the German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD, when he reflected on the context of the church in Germany. Self-secularisation however, is a worldwide phenomenon with effects in South Africa as well. After discussing the origin of the concept and its interpretations, the author tries to identify instances of self-secularisation within especially the Afrikaansspeaking churches, although not limited to them, in South Africa. The theological jargon comes under scrutiny, civil religion, the pluralistic society within which the church exists, the effect of emotionalism, the commercialisation of the church, the role of mass media and the phenomenon of infotainment, rationalisation and a lack of ethics are some of the elements identified and discussed. Finally the author attempts a correction by indicating what the church ought to do in order to counter the effects of self-secularisation.

  2. INCREASING ECONOMIC WELFARE OF CHURCH CONGREGATION : A CONCEPT OF EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONGAM SIHOL NABABAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our community, many structural problems unresolved well, especially in social and economic life. Seeing this reality, the Church needs to have a sensitivity and a strong commitment to encourage cooperation of some parties to empower people, especially its congregation. Congregation of the Church, especially the poor need to be raised and empowered to pursue their own welfare through economic business. One manifestation of the Church's task is to empower the community-based and to revitalize its role more focused on optimizing the institution of community economy. For that, it is important to use the Model of Empowerment of Congregation-Based Community Economic in form of business partnership. The success of congregation economic empowerment lies in the motivation and orientation of the actors themselves, where the Church is expected to seriously fight. Keywords: Church, Congregation, Community-Based Economic, Business Partnership,  Empowerment.

  3. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.

  4. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, Raf; Ortveld, Koev van; November, Eva

    2016-01-01

    communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified...... in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α......-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species...

  5. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  6. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cennamo, Paola; Montuori, Naomi; Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo; Moretti, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  7. Church ladies, good girls, and locas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Pamela Y; von Unger, Hella; Armbrister, Adria

    2008-01-01

    Inner city women with severe mental illness may carry multiple stigmatized statuses. In some contexts these include having a mental illness, being a member of an ethnic minority group, being an immigrant, being poor, and being a woman who does not live up to gendered expectations. These potentially stigmatizing identities influence both the way women’s sexuality is viewed and their risk for HIV infection. This qualitative study applies the concept of intersectionality to facilitate understanding of how these multiple identities intersect to influence women’s sexuality and HIV risk. We report the firsthand accounts of 24 Latina women living with severe mental illness in New York City. In examining the interlocking domains of these women’s sexual lives, we find that the women seek identities that define them in opposition to the stigmatizing label of “loca” (Spanish for crazy) and bestow respect and dignity. These identities have unfolded through the additional themes of “good girls” and “church ladies”. Therefore, inspite of their association with the “loca”, the women also identify with faith and religion (“church ladies”) and uphold more traditional gender norms (“good girls”) that are often undermined by the realities of life with a severe mental illness and the stigma attached to it. However, the participants fall short of their gender ideals and engage in sexual relationships that they experience as disempowering and unsatisfying. The effects of their multiple identities as poor Latina women living with severe mental illness in an urban ethnic minority community are not always additive, but the interlocking effects can facilitate increased HIV risks. Interventions should acknowledge women’s multiple layers of vulnerability, both individual and structural, and stress women’s empowerment in and beyond the sexual realm. PMID:18423828

  8. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cennamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.cennamo@unisob.na.it [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Naomi [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy); Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Moretti, Aldo [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  9. I Passiuna tu Christù - Rito e teatro di una cantica popolare della Grecìa Salentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Questo articolo si basa sugli esiti di una ricerca di campo condotta nei paesi della Grecìa Salentina,una zona del basso Salento, dove si riscontra una peculiare modalità di esecuzione della cantica popolare grìca conosciuta come I Passiuna tu Christù (La Passione di Cristo. Attorno alla metà degli anni ´90 del ´900 la tradizione della cantica è stata oggetto di un prezioso recupero, fondato sulla memoria e disponibilità di alcuni anziani cantori, che l’ha riportata in vita dopo anni di silenzio. Lo studio si è quindi focalizzato sull'esecuzione di Zollino, uno dei comuni grecanico-salentini, dove opera l'associazione culturale "Bottega del Teatro" che per prima ha promosso il recupero di cui si è detto. Protagonista e interprete raffinato della versione zollinese è l'anziano cantore Antimo Pellegrino, la cui voce si fa teatro attraverso un uso sapiente del corpo fatto di gesti stilizzati, regolati da codici che consentono di comprendere il divenire performativo, ossia il testo in grìco, anche a chi non intende tale idioma. Abstract – EN This article is based on the results of a field research conducted in the countries of the Grecìa Salentina, an area of Salento, where there is a particular execution method of the folksong known as I Passiuna tu Christù (The Passion of the Christ. Around the mid-90s of the 20th century the tradition of this folksong has been the subject of a careful recovery, based on memory and availability of some older singers, who brought it back to life after years of silence. The study then focused on the Zollino’s execution, one of the grecanico-salentino’s common, in which works the cultural association "Bottega del Teatro", the first promoter of this recovery. The old singer Antimo Pellegrino is the player and interpreter of the Zollino’s refined version, whose voice becomes theater through a wise use of body made of stylized gestures, regulated by codes that allow you to

  10. Canon and archive in messages from Oslo Cathedral Square in the aftermath of July 22nd 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel Lied

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we ask if central values which people were in dialogue with in the memorial messages from Oslo Cathedral Square in the aftermath of July 22nd 2011, may be seen as a part of Norwegian cultural memory, and if so, how. We answer this question in the affirmative, by elaborating on presentations of the Norwegian flag as a symbol of the values unity and solidarity, and on presentations of love and roses as weapons promoting the values love, humanity and calmness. In our discussion we have drawn on theory of cultural memory and suggested that the use of the Norwegian flag in the messages may be understood in the frame of Assmann’s term “canon”, representing the active part of cultural remembrance, and that the message from the use of roses and hearts may be understood in the frame of the term “archive”, representing the passive part of remembrance

  11. Church parties in the Arian controversy: problems of typologization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Zakharov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of typologization of the church parties of the 4th century. This historical phenomenon arises within the framework of a long church conflict, called the Arian crisis. The designations of the church parties used by contemporaries are polemical concepts and do not correspond to the self-consciousness of their supporters. In the early Christian heresiological tradition and in the modern historiography, the basis of church parties’ classification is their theological position. However, it is necessary to take into account other consolidating factors, such as Eucharistic communion and church-political activity. The formation of church parties, as a rule, was directly related to the development of the synodal institution. Analysis of sources in the 4th century allows us to distinguish, in addition to the extensive currents - macro-parties - claiming a universal or regional consensus based on the heritage of one of the representative and authoritative councils, some small consolidated groups - micro-parties, which gather for little councils and constantly coordinate their actions within the ecclesiastical confrontation. Micro-parties could exist both within the limits of macro-party, in many respects determining the trends of it’s development, and beyond it’s boundaries. In the latter case, it is actually a marginal church group rallied around one or more extraordinary theologian, sometimes even without the episcopal rank.

  12. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

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    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  13. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  14. PROMOTING TRADITIONAL FAMILY BY THE CHURCH – RELIGIOUS MARKETING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GAVRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We live in a postmodern period where the old values or imperatives have lost the force as they were replaced by new values. Amidst this chaos, the Church opens its road by promoting values such as family and marriage based upon responsibility, understanding, compromise, etc. If the current trends move towards the personal satisfaction with everything this aspect involves, the Church is trying to preserve the traditionalism, the union between a man and a woman, the marriage. In our work we aim to analyze the methods by which the Orthodox Church promotes the heterosexual marriage.

  15. Spolia from the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac

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    Pejić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two, so far unknown, spolia with carved interlace ornaments, built into the wall of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac are analyzed. These spolia are a part of the collection of fragments discovered earlier in the Church of St. Peter in Bijelo Polje. A comparative analysis was performed on a multitude of pre-Romanic material, in order to determine the time when they were made and whether they originated from any specific circle of stonemasons, and also to identify the initial position of the fragments in the liturgical church furniture for which they had been carved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036

  16. A framework for crafting and implementing a congregational strategy in the local congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa

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    Aldeon B. Grobler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The church is not like any other institution or organisation in society. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual, it is a visible organisation in the world, and it spans across borders of nations, languages and countries. John Calvin strongly rejected the notion that the church is only a spiritual organisation of which the visible administrative side is downplayed. The fellowship of the church must not only be seen as a mystical relation with Jesus Christ. During 2010, an empirical study was done on the extent to which congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa (RCSA adhere to the request to have a well-designed congregational strategy. The knowledge gained from a literature study on the science of Strategic Management and the results of the empirical study was combined into a framework for crafting and executing a congregational strategy. This framework can be used by congregational leaders to guide them through their own process of crafting and executing their unique congregational strategy.  The research was concluded with a recommendation that the Theological School of the RCSA should consider including a course on Strategic Management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Considering that Strategic Management is a specialised management science, and external Strategic Management consultants tend to be expensive, the research also recommended that the Administrative Bureau of the RCSA consider employing their own Strategic Management consultant for the RCSA with the specific assignment of assisting and guiding all congregations with their congregational strategy. ’n Raamwerk vir die ontwerp en implementering van ’n gemeentestrategie in die plaaslike gemeentes van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika. ’n Kerk is ’n unieke organisasie. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van  aard. Tog  funksioneer dit as ’n instituut in die wêreld en moet dit doelmatig en doeltreffend bestuur word

  17. The Russian Orthodox Church and atheism

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    Teuvo Laitila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the religious tide in Russia has been quick to rise. During the Soviet era, religion – particularly Orthodox Christianity and Islam – was considered to be one of the ‘enemies of the people’. Since the late 1990s however, Russian politicians at all levels of the power structure have associated themselves either with the Orthodox, or on some occasions with the Muslim, clergy. The present state of affairs in the relations between religion and the state are well illustrated by the cordial liaison of the late Patriarch Aleksii II with President Vladimir Putin and the equally warm involvement of President Dmitry Medvedev, and his wife Svetlana Medvedeva, with the new Patriarch Kirill, who was elected in January 2009. Some have even argued that ‘today’ (in 2004 the Church and state are so extensively intertwined that one can no longer consider Russia to be a secular state. Polls seem to support the claim. While in 1990 only 24 per cent of Russians identified themselves as Orthodox, in the sense that they felt themselves to be Russians as well, in 2008 the number was 73 per cent. However, less than 10 per cent, and in Moscow perhaps only 2 per cent do actually live out their religiosity.Why did Russia turn towards religion? Is religion chosen in an attempt to legitimise power, or in order to consolidate political rule after atheist-communist failure? My guess is that the answer to both is affirmative. Moreover, whatever the personal convictions of individual Russians, including politicians, religious, mainly Orthodox Christian, rhetoric and rituals are used to make a definitive break with the communist past and to create, or re-create, a Greater Russia (see Simons 2009. In such an ideological climate, atheism has little chance of thriving, whereas there is a sort of ‘social demand’ for its critique.I therefore focus on what the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC has had to say about atheism and

  18. Macroscopical morphology of deterioration of the stone used in the cathedral whole of Granada/Spain

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    Alcalde, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral Whole of Granada are one of natural thermic origin due to the low temperatures during the winters and the higher thermic oscillations and those of anthropogenical origin: fundamentally the oxidation of metallic elements and atmospheric pollution due to burnt products. For this reason, the more important deterioration mechanisms are the freezing ones due to the expansion produced in the water retained inside the pores and microcracks, fundamentally in the architectonic elements with high expositional surface and in their shady orientation; the main indicators produced are fissuring and spalling. In this way, a lot of elements of Santa Pudia stone located in the Royal Chapel crenellations have disappeared and the rest are very deteriorated. The more compact Sierra Elvira stone used on the upper zone of the cornices has also been affected by the freezing mechanism, which starts with the microcracks produced by differential dilatations due to the thermic oscillations which made the water access easy. The iron corrosion and later expansion of the oxidation products has provoked the cracking and fissuring of many ornamental elements like balls, pinnacles, etc, and this situation has obliged their dismantling on the upper zones due to the danger to the public. The mechanisms of dissolution, crystallization cycles and Chemical action have led to abundant material loosening in the form of grain disgregations overcoats on the higher humidity zones, and formation of hollows (pitting, alveolar erosion, striations in the zones more exposed to the winds. This situation is generalized in the lower zones of the monument, except on the main facade, and in the parapets and lower zones of the cornices. The grain disgregations are more important when biological crusts or unburned deposits exist, the latter being of major abundance on the surfaces near the Gran Vía and in its orientation. It is necessary

  19. Culture, pouvoir et eglise (Culture, Power, and Church)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, Pierre

    1973-01-01

    Examines the historical evolution of the terms "culture" and "civilization" in Europe beginning with the medieval concept of the "studium," and focuses on the influence of the church in shaping these concepts. (RL)

  20. A missional study of Ghanaian Pentecostal churches' leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-11

    Jun 11, 2015 ... Leadership is an organisational challenge, and the nature of the church ..... word; a priestly people, offering the sacrifice of a life lived ..... Dessler, G., 2012, Supervision and leadership in a changing world, Pearson Education,.

  1. Theological poverty of churches in the developing world: Its causes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... also undeniable that the Korean Protestant churches, having more than 10 million adherents, have not yet .... new sense of sin, do away with his practice of religion, as base .... Recently, a leader of a North American mission.

  2. The early Korean Protestant Churches' impact on Korea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... general and the Korean Presbyterian Church in particular on the early phases of .... The missionary first asks for religious liberty, and then proclaims ..... which was historically founded in 1907, in Pyongyang, North Korea.

  3. Radio and the Church – a Historical Glance

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    Carl-Mario Sultana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio is a very powerful mass communication medium. In radio broadcasting, one can hear the echo of Christ’s words to his apostles in the missionary discourse: “You received without charge, give without charge...What you hear in whispers, proclaim from the house tops” (Mt 10,8b.27. Although the Church uses radio as a means to transmit the Good News of salvation, and we as human beings receive radio transmissions as a part of our daily life, we barely stop to think and reflect upon the underlying aspects of radio as a means of communication. In this paper, the Author endeavours to give a historical overview of what makes radio an important medium for evangelisation according to four key documents of the Church, while also studying the underlying theological positions found in these documents. These documents enable us to study radio as a broadcasting medium, highlighting the possible reactions of the Church to radio and how the Church changed its stance on radio over the years. The reason for focussing specifically on radio is for two particular reasons: from the very beginning, the Church has considered radio as a means for evangelising the masses. Notwithstanding this, what is going to be discussing in the paper can be equally applied to Television as a mass communication medium. Secondly, the Church took an active role in radio broadcasting by asking Guglielmo Marconi himself to construct the Vatican Radio in 1931. The documents of the Church also offer us a theology of radio as a mass communication medium, with unity, progress and evangelisation being the fundamental aspects. Church documents posit that not everything should be broadcasted over radio but only messages which bring about peace and unity.

  4. Synthetic Consolidants Attacked by Melanin-Producing Fungi: Case Study of the Biodeterioration of Milan (Italy) Cathedral Marble Treated with Acrylics▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Casadevall, Arturo; Toniolo, Lucia; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Florio, Sofia; Principi, Pamela; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Monuments and artistic stone surfaces are often consolidated and protected with synthetic polymers, in particular, acrylics. Although it is generally thought that acrylic polymers are resistant to biodeterioration, we report for the first time the systematic occurrence of dematiaceous meristematic fungi on many marble samples of the cathedral in Milan (Italy) previously treated with this material. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to the Milan cathedral stone samples revealed characteristic features of biodeteriorated synthetic resins that differentiated them from the aged but nonbiodeteriorated samples. Samples showing biological colonization were analyzed for the presence of fungi. Cultivation and morphological characterization and methods independent from cultivation, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis coupled with partial 18S rRNA gene sequencing and immunofluorescence staining with melanin-binding antibodies, showed that melanin-producing species are heavily present on stone surfaces protected with acrylic resins. This observation raises the question of the effectiveness of acrylics in protecting stone artworks. PMID:17071788

  5. Synthetic consolidants attacked by melanin-producing fungi: case study of the biodeterioration of Milan (Italy) cathedral marble treated with acrylics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Toniolo, Lucia; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Florio, Sofia; Principi, Pamela; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Monuments and artistic stone surfaces are often consolidated and protected with synthetic polymers, in particular, acrylics. Although it is generally thought that acrylic polymers are resistant to biodeterioration, we report for the first time the systematic occurrence of dematiaceous meristematic fungi on many marble samples of the cathedral in Milan (Italy) previously treated with this material. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to the Milan cathedral stone samples revealed characteristic features of biodeteriorated synthetic resins that differentiated them from the aged but nonbiodeteriorated samples. Samples showing biological colonization were analyzed for the presence of fungi. Cultivation and morphological characterization and methods independent from cultivation, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis coupled with partial 18S rRNA gene sequencing and immunofluorescence staining with melanin-binding antibodies, showed that melanin-producing species are heavily present on stone surfaces protected with acrylic resins. This observation raises the question of the effectiveness of acrylics in protecting stone artworks.

  6. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  7. Modern Church Construction in Urals. Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, D. N.; Tereshina, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the modern Orthodox church architecture in Russia, special attention is paid to the problems of the Ural region. It justifies the importance of addressing to this issue connected with the Orthodox traditions revival in Russia over the last decades and the need to compensate for tens of thousands of the churches destroyed in the Soviet period. The works on the theory and history of the Russian architecture and art, studies of the architectural heritage and the art of building of the Ural craftsmen are used as a scientific and methodological base for the church architecture development. The article discloses the historically formed architectural features of the Russian Orthodox churches the artistic image of which is designed to create a certain religious and aesthetic experience. It is stated that the restoration of the Russian church construction tradition is possible on the background of architectural heritage. It sets the tendencies and vital tasks in church construction and outlines a complex of measures to solve these tasks at the public and regional levels.

  8. The Christian Churches, the State, and Genocide in Rwanda

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    Court, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The churches in Rwanda have exercised considerable political influence during both the colonial and post-colonial periods. Although formally autonomous institutions subordinate to the state, in actuality they have cultivated political influence through their religious teachings and secular role as the loci of material and social resources. However, there is at least one key factor, which has contributed to their fluctuating political influence within Rwanda. During the colonial period, the dominant Catholic Church functioned within a colonial regime of indirect rule, predicated on sustaining the political authority of a Tutsi-dominated Central Court presiding over the territories roughly contiguous with the present-day republic. This threefold division of power and authority acted as a brake upon the hegemonic ambitions of the Church, the royal house and the colonial administrators. Following the abolition of the monarchy in 1961, the structure of political power and authority of the state was fundamentally transformed, clearing the way for the emergence of a state church whose political role in the two Hutu dominated post-colonial republics would have significant historical implications. In this essay, I argue that it was this structural transformation of the Rwandan polity - marking the shift from a trilateral to a dual relationship between state and Church -, which contributes to our understanding of how the Church became embroiled in the mass violence and genocide in the twentieth century Rwandan polity.

  9. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

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    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  10. The Calendar of the Greek Orthodox Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Theodossiou, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the Orthodox Church Council in 1923 in Constantinople a proposal concerning the reform of the calendar, elaborated by the Serbian astronomer Milutin Milankovic´ together with professor Maksim Trpkovic´, was submitted, providing for a more exact calendar than the Gregorian one. Instead of three days in 4 centuries one should omit 7 days in 9 centuries or 0.0077 days per year. This means that only 2 years out of 9 ending the centuries would be leap years. The rule is that those years whose ordinal number ends with two zeros are leap years only provided that the number of centuries they belong to, divided by 9, yields the remainder 2 or 6. For instance the year 2000, ending the 20th century, is a leap year since 20 divided by 9 equals to 2 plus the remainder 2. Milankovic´'s proposal implies a much smaller difference, with respect to the true tropical year, than the Gregorian calendar. Further improvements concerning the approach to the duration of the tropical year are not necessary since that duration itself undergoes changes over longer periods.

  11. Non-invasive Geophysical Surveys in Search of the Roman Temple of Augustus Under the Cathedral of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain): A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Albert; Cosentino, Pietro L.; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Himi, Mahjoub; Macias, Josep M.; Martorana, Raffaele; Muñoz, Andreu; Rivero, Lluís; Sala, Roger; Teixell, Imma

    2018-04-01

    An integrated geophysical survey has been conducted at the Tarragona's Cathedral (Catalonia, NE Spain) with the aim to confirm the potential occurrence of archaeological remains of the Roman Temple dedicated to the Emperor Augustus. Many hypotheses have been proposed about its possible location, the last ones regarding the inner part of the Cathedral, which is one of the most renowned temples of Spain (twelfth century) evolving from Romanesque to Gothic styles. A geophysical project including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground probing radar (GPR) was planned over 1 year considering the administrative and logistic difficulties of such a project inside a cathedral of religious veneration. Finally, both ERT and GPR have been conducted during a week of intensive overnight surveys that provided detailed information on subsurface existing structures. The ERT method has been applied using different techniques and arrays, ranging from standard Wenner-Schlumberger 2D sections to full 3D electrical imaging with the advanced Maximum Yield Grid array. Electrical resistivity data were recorded extensively, making available many thousands of apparent resistivity data to obtain a complete 3D image after a full inversion. In conclusion, some significant buried structures have been revealed providing conclusive information for archaeologists. GPR results provided additional information about shallowest structures. The geophysical results were clear enough to persuade religious authorities and archaeologists to conduct selected excavations in the most promising areas that confirmed the interpretation of geophysical data. In conclusion, the significant buried structures revealed by geophysical methods under the cathedral were confirmed by archaeological digging as the basement of the impressive Roman Temple that headed the Provincial Forum of Tarraco, seat of the Concilium of Hispania Citerior Province.

  12. Un Saltiri de Guillem II per a Monreale? sobre els orígens del Saltiri Anglocatalà de París

    OpenAIRE

    Pagès i Paretas, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The questions that this essay trays to answer are two: at the end af 12th century who could have commissioned this Psalter from the scriptorium of the Christ Church of Canterbury, a codex so luxurios and so influenced by the art of Sicily of Sicily? and why was it left unfinished? It might have been commissioned by King William II of Sicily for his cathedral of Monreale. His non-completion would by explained by his death and because of the events that followed his demise: the imprisoning of h...

  13. GC/MS in the study of deterioration process of historical monuments: characterization of the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz J, C.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we present an interesting application of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique which permitted to differentiate successfully between natural and anthropogenic compounds present in the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville. This building, considered as one of the most important historic and cultural European monuments suffers from intense blackening of its outside walls and sculptures due to the interaction with the urban environment. Fragment of black crusts were removed from the Cathedral walls and extraction process with organic solvents was carried out. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were separated and analyzed using GC/MS. A complex organic composition of the black crusts indicated the accumulative character of the deposition process of atmospheric particles as a function of the time. The presence of high molecular weight n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and natural molecular markers identified during the study were indicative of current biogenic contributions. It was also found an important group of petrogenic molecular markers related with diesel soot emissions from motor engines. The diesel soot and molecular markers were entrapped within the black crust mineral matrix and contribute to the observed blackening of the Seville Cathedral. (Author)

  14. Maringá and its historical heritage: a case study on the cathedral of the Assumption - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.11063

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cassimiro Barbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most tangible register of a civilization’s evolution is the heritage it preserves over the years. It is a vehicle for the transmission of peoples’ memory and culture. Although the city of Maringa in the state of Paraná, Brazil, is just 66 years old, it has several important buildings within its urban context whose preservation is not guaranteed by law. In fact, they are in danger of disappearing amid the city’s fast growth. Current research, surveying the preservation state of historical buildings in the municipality, is based on published studies, research at the City Hall, reports by the Historical Heritage Commission and in loco visits, with special emphasis on the Cathedral of the Assumption, the city’s symbol, whose preservation is still not legally guaranteed. The history of the building of the Cathedral, its most relevant external and internal architectonic features and its furniture for future inventories are focused. Current study raised the historic deployment of the Cathedral, its most relevant architectural features, both exterior and interior, including some of its details, to serve as a basis for inventories for future legal registrations and interventions.  

  15. Experiencing Churches as Spiritual and Religious Places: A Study on Children's Emotions in Church Buildings during Scholastic Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Katharina; Riegel, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Going on a field trip to the church, pupils can experience lived religion. But how do they feel during such a church visit? In this paper, we analyse statements of 516 German third graders (about 8 years old) made after they had visited their local church on a field trip. Using affective schema theory, we develop a conceptual model of emotions in…

  16. Gendered representations of fatherhood in contemporary South African church imagery from three Afrikaans corporate churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra H. Koenig-Visagie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The South African secular media do not frequently portray men in parental roles; on the other hand, it seems that media and visual culture created by the Christian sector is more likely to engage with issues of fatherhood. Accordingly, it is relevant to explore representations of fatherhood in the Christian context, as these constitute some of the few examples of men�s parental roles in the South African visual culture landscape. Through a Barthean visual semiotic analysis, this article describes and problematises the representation (and non-representation of certain aspects of fatherhood in the recent visual culture of three Afrikaans corporate churches in the Pretoria-Centurion area. It further establishes that strong connections between breadwinning, male headship and fatherhood exist in images created by these churches. Fathers are mainly shown as patriarchs, heads of households and as active outdoor adventurers. We argue that although men are depicted as involved parents, there are certain limitations and exclusions to this involvement.

  17. Places of Faith: A Reflection on Landscape of Manila Cathedral Plaza de Roma and Istiqlal Mosque Sacred Grounds of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujalte, MM; Navarra, N.

    2017-10-01

    Crossing boundaries of faith from Manila to Jakarta, this study is to classify the open spaces in their sacred grounds according to its characteristics, elements, use of space and hierarchy of importance in landscape design approach. The reflection of their religious landscape in preserving the traditional, and exploring the non-traditional aspect of their landscape design in global setting is carried out thru a spatial analysis for Plaza de Roma of Manila Cathedral and the sacred grounds of Istiqlal Mosque. The design framework would tackle: concepts, planning approach, functional symbolic values, and aesthetics used. The data and information are all examined based on observation, historical background, analyses, and literature content in determining spatial functions. Finally, when results are completed, this will give a better understanding on the importance of open areas in Manila and Jakarta’s sacred spaces; paving way for a better sense of comfort in spiritual contemplation. This will also help reveal the commonalities in spiritual practices between Islam and Christianity, and the role of landscape in their religion and faith.

  18. Proximal interphalangeal joint ankylosis in an early medieval horse from Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Maciej; Chrószcz, Aleksander; Onar, Vedat; Henklewski, Radomir; Skalec, Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Animal remains that are unearthed during archaeological excavations often provide useful information about socio-cultural context, including human habits, beliefs, and ancestral relationships. In this report, we present pathologically altered equine first and second phalanges from an 11th century specimen that was excavated at Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland. The results of gross examination, radiography, and computed tomography, indicate osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, with partial ankylosis. Based on comparison with living modern horses undergoing lameness examination, as well as with recent literature, we conclude that the horse likely was lame for at least several months prior to death. The ability of this horse to work probably was reduced, but the degree of compromise during life cannot be stated precisely. Present day medical knowledge indicates that there was little likelihood of successful treatment for this condition during the middle ages. However, modern horses with similar pathology can function reasonably well with appropriate treatment and management, particularly following joint ankylosis. Thus, we approach the cultural question of why such an individual would have been maintained with limitations, for a probably-significant period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the size of sandstone particles from the Cathedrals of Salamanca. Independence between granulometry and deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, M. T.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available 11 sandstone samples from the cathedrals of Salamanca were analysed granulometrically. The study was to establish whether there is a direct connection between the particle size of such stone and the surface deterioration of some of the ashlars in the facades. This was carried out with the help of diffraction spectrometry by laser beams. The results show that there is no connection between the nature of the stone texture and their degree of surface deterioration.

    Se analizan granulométricamente 11 muestras de arenisca de las Catedrales de Salamanca. El objetivo del estudio es establecer si existe relación directa entre el tamaño de las partículas de tales piedras y el deterioro superficial de alguno de los sillares de las fachadas. Esto se lleva a cabo con la ayuda de la espectrometría de difracción por rayos láser. Los resultados muestran que no hay conexión entre la finura textural de las piedras estudiadas y el grado de deterioro superficial que éstas presentan.

  20. The cathedral and the bazaar of e-repository development: encouraging community engagement with moving pictures and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight into the development, use and governance of e-repositories for learning and teaching, illustrated by Eric Raymond's bazaar and cathedral analogies and by a comparison of collection strategies that focus on content coverage or on the needs of users. It addresses in particular the processes that encourage and achieve community engagement. This insight is illustrated by one particular e-repository, the Education Media On-Line (EMOL service. This paper draws analogies between the bazaar approach for open source software development and its possibilities for developing e-repositories for learning and teaching. It suggests in particular that the development, use and evaluation of online moving pictures and sound objects for learning and teaching can benefit greatly from the community engagement lessons provided by the development, use and evaluation of open source software. Such lessons can be underpinned by experience in the area of learning resource collections, where repositories have been classified as ‘collections-based' or ‘user-based'. Lessons from the open source movement may inform the development of e-repositories such as EMOL in the future.

  1. Evaluation of hydrophobic treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. III.-Accelerated weathering test with polluted atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In this work we study the weathering resistance of samples of five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals, treated with six water repellent products, by subjecting the samples to a SO2 polluted atmosphere. To evaluate the alteration of the samples, besides visual observation of macroscopic aspect, changes in weight and the quantity of sulfate that remains on the surface have been measured. Also properties related with water have been measured after the test to determine if there have been any changes in the hydrophobic characteristics.

    En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de muestras de cinco tipos de piedra utilizados en catedrales andaluzas, tratadas con seis productos hidrófugos, sometiéndolas a un ensayo acelerado de alteración en atmósfera contaminada con SO2 . Para evaluar la alteración, además de la observación visual de las manifestaciones macroscópicas, se ha medido la variación de peso de las muestras expuestas y la cantidad de sulfato que permanece en la superficie tras el ensayo. Así mismo, se han detectado los cambios experimentados en las propiedades hidrófugas conferidas por los tratamientos, mediante la medida de propiedades relacionadas con el movimiento del agua.

  2. The glasses of the transept’s rosette of the cathedral of Tarragona: characterisation, classification and decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Vallès, M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The glasses of the rosette forming the main window of the transept of the Gothic Cathedral of Tarragona have been characterised by means of SEM/EDS, XRD, FTIR and electronic microprobe. The multivariate statistical treatment of these data allow to establish a classification of the samples forming groups having an historical significance and reflecting ancient restorations. Furthermore, the decay patterns and mechanisms have been determined and the weathering by-products characterised. It has been demonstrated a clear influence of the bioactivity in the decay of these glasses, which activity is partially controlled by the chemical composition of the glasses.

    Se han caracterizado numerosas muestras de los vidrios que forman el rosetón del transepto de la catedral de Tarragona mediante SEM/EDS, XRD, FTIR y microsonda electrónica. La aplicación de análisis estadístico multivariante permite establecer una clasificación de las muestras que refleja anteriores intervenciones de restauración. Además, se han estudiado los mecanismos y procesos de degradación, y se han determinado los productos de alteración. Ha quedado demostrada una clara ifluencia biológica en la alteración de estos vidrios, cuya actividad es parcialmente controlada por su composición química.

  3. Elaborating on ubuntu in a Johannesburg inner-city church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Hankela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article was originally delivered as the speech of the winner of the 2014 Donner Institute Prize for Outstanding Research into Religion, and deals with some core findings of the research that won the prize, namely, the doctoral thesis Challenging Ubuntu: Open Doors and Exclusionary Boundaries at the Central Methodist Mission in Johannesburg. The author approaches the meanings of ubuntu (Nguni: humanity/humanness in the context of a Methodist church that sheltered thousands of African migrants in its premises in the inner city of Johannesburg. Using ethnographic research methods, she analyses both the inclusionary message of humanity preached at the church and the exclusionary boundaries between the people who lived in the church and the local congregation that worshipped there. Based on the social dynamics of the church community, the author suggests the rules of reciprocity and survival as some of the socio-moral patterns that set the boundaries to the actualisation of the moral ideal of ubuntu in this context. Overall, the case of this particular church speaks to a broader discussion of the meaning of and limits to being human in one world.

  4. HEALS Hypertension Control Program: Training Church Members as Program Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; Beayler, Irmatine; Lewis, Jennifer; Sowders, Lindsey A

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including stroke have remained higher in the African-Americans (AAs) than in other populations. HEALS is a faith-based hypertension (HTN) control program modified according to AA community needs, and delivered by the church-lay members called church health advisors (CHAs). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of training CHAs as HEALS program leaders. Four CHAs completed a 10-hour HEALS program training workshop at the Church, conducted by the nutrition experts. Workshop was evaluated by CHAs on their level of satisfaction, clarity of contents covered and comfort in delivery the program to the church congregation. The overall six main HEALS curriculum components were completed. Workshop was highly evaluated by CHAs on length of training, balance between content and skills development, and level of satisfaction with program delivery. Church-based culturally modified health promotion interventions conducted by the community lay members may be a way to reduce health disparities in ethnic minorities.

  5. Acoustic energy relations in Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara; Galindo, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Extensive objective energy-based parameters have been measured in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the south of Spain. Measurements took place in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. Monoaural objective measures in the 125-4000 Hz frequency range and in their spatial distributions were obtained. Acoustic parameters: clarity C80, definition D50, sound strength G and center time Ts have been deduced using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. These parameters spectrally averaged according to the most extended criteria in auditoria in order to consider acoustic quality were studied as a function of source-receiver distance. The experimental results were compared with predictions given by classical and other existing theoretical models proposed for concert halls and churches. An analytical semi-empirical model based on the measured values of the C80 parameter is proposed in this work for these spaces. The good agreement between predicted values and experimental data for definition, sound strength, and center time in the churches analyzed shows that the model can be used for design predictions and other purposes with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  7. Is Hopkins’ “The Windhover” about Christ? A Negative Response, with a Whimsical Postscript Le poème de Hopkins « The Windhover » évoque-t-il le Christ ? Une réponse négative, avec un post-scriptum capricieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Feeney

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On pense souvent que le célèbre sonnet de Hopkins « The Windhover » (1877, avec sa dédicace « Au Christ notre Seigneur », évoque autant le Christ que le faucon. Mais ce n’est qu’en 1884 que fut ajoutée la dédicace et le texte ne mentionne jamais le Christ. En outre, le poème peut parfaitement être compris comme une description du vol de l’oiseau comme un ravissement – d’abord sans heurts puis luttant contre le vent. Le spectateur admire l’oiseau et le trouve particulièrement glorieux dans sa lutte, le comparant à une charrue qui brille d’un vif éclat alors aux prises avec la terre et à de gris charbons ardents qui rougeoient quand ils se brisent en tombant dans l’âtre. Cette métaphore faite de trois éléments dans le sonnet célèbre donc la gloire de la lutte douloureuse et du triomphe sur l’adversité. Certains lecteurs ajoutent un quatrième élément à la métaphore – le Christ, mais le poème fait pleinement sens sans cet ajout, ce qui montre que le poème n’évoque finalement pas le Christ. Une dernière surprise : ce poème très grave est léger et enjoué dans l’incongruité comique des trois (ou quatre éléments de la métaphore.

  8. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  9. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel J. Pearse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of their responsibilities of leading the organisation, strategic leaders are responsible for leading change. This article investigated the application of the strategic leadership of change within the church context. A Straussian approach to the grounded theory method was used to generate a substantive grounded theory of organisational change and leadership, particularly focusing on the manifestation and management of organisation inertia in churches within South Africa that were transitioning from a programme based to a cell based church design. This article reported on one aspect of this study and focused on the patterns of leadership roles. It further distinguished between effective and ineffective leadership patterns that either enhanced or compromised the credibility of the leader and by implication, affected the success of the change intervention. The results of the study were discussed from the perspective of social capital theory, thereby contributing to understanding the role of strategic leaders in building social capital within the context of organisation change.

  10. Impossible Subjects: LGBTIQ Experiences in Australian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. C. Jennings

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the product of in-depth interviews with 20 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer (LGBTIQ people who identify, or formerly identified, as members of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christian (PCC churches. Interviewees typically found themselves confronted with a number of choices (not necessarily mutually exclusive: remain closeted, come out but commit to remaining celibate, undergo “SOCE” (Sexual Orientation Conversion Efforts therapy, or leave. Most left their churches, often after agonising attempts to reconcile their faith and their sexuality. Several of the practices adopted by Australian PCC churches exclude LGBTIQ people from full participation in their own congregations, rendering them “impossible subjects.” Australian Pentecostalism’s surprisingly egalitarian history, wherein the spiritually authorised ministry of women was both recognised and celebrated, suggests another, more inclusive way forward in regard to this vexed issue.

  11. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  12. Epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, in the treasury of the Hilandar monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, was created between 1346 and 1348. It is unique for its beauty and iconographic program and, at the same time, it is the oldest of the epitaphia preserved in our country. The epitaphios was worn in the course of Holy Liturgy, during the Great Entrance in the cathedral churches and the major monasteries. Metropolitan Jovan presented the epitaphios as a gift to Christ 'my life-giver.' Depicted on its central field is the Epitaphios Threnos (Lamentation at the Tomb. Added around it, at a later time it seems, are bands representing the fourteen scenes of Great Feasts and the officiating Church Fathers, in embroidery. Holy Liturgy is served by the greatest fathers and teachers of the Church and Metropolitan Jovan.

  13. Christianization of folk customs: An example of Ox'Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the process of transformation of a pre-Christian custom in Zuce, a village near by Belgrade. The custom is called 'provlaka', held all until the WW II on August 29. This custom was established after the cattle pest in the village. Since WW II, however, this day is celebrated as the village St. patrons/slava day. After the village church has been built and blessed in 2002, the day became also celebrated as one of the church's slava days. Transformation of holidays assumes vanishing of some and appearance of some other segments of the given custom: 1. Until WW II the most important segment of the custom 'provlaka' was extracting wild fire and passage of people and cattle. This custom was maintained with an aim of preventive protection against epidemics. 2. A significant feature of annual celebration of calendar holidays included collective gatherings. On this day people visit relatives from other villages, attend lunch together, and gather at a particular village spot in the afternoon. 3. The beginning of the church building has allowed introduction of religious elements in celebration. In the morning, it is a time usually to attend a liturgy, while what follows represent some inherited customs like reception and eating together with relatives and friends. 4. After the village church has been built and blessed in 2002, the day became also celebrated as one of the church's slava days. This assumes presentation of the village cake maker and cake cutting in the church, accompanied by a local priest.

  14. Was the Pyx of Mělník (with the Image of Christ on the Mount of Olives) Utraquist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetečková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, Spec.iss.3 (2011), s. 315-331 ISSN 0015-1831. [Symposium on the Bohemian Reformation and Religious Practice /8./. Praha, 17.06.2008-20.06.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Bohemia * about 1500 * goldsmith * pyx with Mount of Olives * Church of Sts. Peter and Paul in Mělník or Augustian Monastery in Mělník-Pšovka Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.brrp.org/proceedings/brrp8/vseteckova.pdf

  15. The State-Church Relationship in Post-Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA GORGAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Romanian edition of Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu’swork Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Romania, we argue in favour of thenecessity to study the relationship between the State and the Romanian OrthodoxChurch using an approach which takes into account the details and the possibleexistent perspectives, bringing a plus of objectivity, which is so needed in a fieldperceived as a sensible one. The arguments put forward will be justified by thehistorical tradition of the State-Church relationship in the Byzantine Empire, but alsoin Romania, as well as by the predominantly Orthodox structure of our country.

  16. Historical and artistic aspects of St Nicholas's Church in Czulice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Rotter

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Czulice is a village in the Małopolskie voivodeship; the village which belongs to the Kocmyrzów/Luborzyca municipality. The parish church is the place which offers the faithful an opportunity­ to deepen their religious life; it also becomes a reflection of their care and involvement. Understandably, priests, landowners and parishioners strove to adorn the temple in the most distinguished manner. The church in Czulice is a treasure trove of priceless heritage dating back from medieval to contemporary times.

  17. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach. ... A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Against all odds: Alphaeus Zulu and racism in church and society

    OpenAIRE

    Simangaliso Kumalo, R; Mbaya, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the response of Bishop Alphaeus Hamilton Zulu to the racism that was prevalent in both the church and society when he was elected as the first African Bishop of the Anglican Church in South Africa. Clergy, especially bishops, are by virtue of their ecclesial positions expected to transcend racial prejudices, to embrace all members of their churches and to transform their churches to multi-racial ones. This means that they have to deal with racial stereotypes both within ...

  19. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  20. Laser-Scanner Survey of Structural Disorders: AN Instrument to Inspect the History of Parma Cathedral's Central Nave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N.; Coïsson, E.; Cotti, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the use of laser scanner derived data for the study of the structural disorders in the central nave of the Parma Cathedral. An accurate three-dimensional model of the entire nave was realized to investigate deformations, in order to reconstruct the original conformation and the subsequent evolutions, also in comparison with previous surveys. Specifically, for the analysis presented in the paper, seven scans were performed, one for each bay: the results allowed to compare the deformations on the seven vaults, on the transverse and diagonal arches, giving first hints on the possible differences in the behaviour between the different elements. The measures on the levels of floor and pillars bases were analysed in a historical monitoring approach, in order to retrace the evolution of the differential settlements in time, since the construction of the building. Moreover, a structural analysis has been carried out on one transverse arch with distinct element analysis, with two different approaches. In one case, the structure was inserted exactly as surveyed, and then subjected to the actions. In the second case, the original geometry, before the deformation, was retraced through a parametric approach and the structural analysis basically started at the beginning of the building's life, thus trying to model not only the present structural situation, but also the path which led to the current deformation. The results were particularly meaningful as they showed that in the first case, disregarding the footsteps of history, the stress pattern inside the masonry was very different from the one obtained in the second case, which is more likely to represent the present conditions.

  1. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  2. An investigation of multi-rate sound decay under strongly non-diffuse conditions: The crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco; Álvarez-Morales, Lidia; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2018-05-01

    Multi-rate sound decays are often found and studied in complex systems of coupled volumes where diffuse field conditions generally apply, although the openings connecting different sub-spaces are by themselves potential causes of non-diffuse behaviour. However, in presence of spaces in which curved surfaces clearly prevent diffuse field behaviour from being established, things become more complex and require more sophisticated tools (or, better, combinations of them) to be fully understood. As an example of such complexity, the crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz is a relatively small space characterised by a central vaulted rotunda, with five radial galleries with flat and low ceiling. In addition, the crypt is connected to the main cathedral volume by means of several small openings. Acoustic measurements carried out in the crypt pointed out the existence of at least two decay processes combined, in some points, with flutter echoes. Application of conventional methods of analysis pointed out the existence of significant differences between early decay time and reverberation time, but was inconclusive in explaining the origin of the observed phenomena. The use of more robust Bayesian analysis permitted the conclusion that the late decay appearing in the crypt had a different rate than that observed in the cathedral, thus excluding the explanation based on acoustic coupling of different volumes. Finally, processing impulse responses collected by means of a B-format microphone to obtain directional intensity maps demonstrated that the late decay was originated from the rotunda where a repetitive reflection pattern appeared between the floor and the dome causing both flutter echoes and a longer reverberation time.

  3. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  4. The Training of Semiliterate Rural Pastors in the Northwest Region Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Timothy Steven

    2014-01-01

    A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…

  5. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... smart phone or mobile ... political discourse and application of new policies did not lead to the delivery of the initial promise of a .... Moltmann (1965:22) did not use this terminology, but .... The relation of kingdom and church is essential to an ..... application of this hypothesis is problematic because modern.

  6. Improved HVAC operation to preserve a church organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.; Wit, de M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The common operation of heating systems installed in churches in the Netherlands has led to typical building physics problems directly related with heating. One of the main problems is the drying related shrinkage and damage to (monumental) wooden organs under cold winter conditions. The paper

  7. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate control of a church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The report presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  8. Diversity and ecology of lichens on churches in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Aptroot, A.; van Herk, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of an inventory of lichen species on the walls of 344 medieval and renaissance churches in the Netherlands. In total, 194 species were recorded, of which several are more or less confined to this habitat in the country. We found several regional differences in species

  9. The Financial Relationship between Church and State in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bijsterveld, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Webpublication: The Financial Relationship between Church and State in the Netherlands, Law and Religion in Transitional Societies.. Holmenkollen Park Hotel Rica, Oslo, Norway 2-3 December 2006. Co-sponsors: Council on Faith & International Affairs, Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief,

  10. Explanations of changes in church attendance between 1970 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, Erik; Moor, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We deduce hypotheses from theories on religious change to explain changes in church attendance rates. Using a new dataset with 51 countries across a long period we apply panel regression models, which enable us to test well-known theories in a more strict and dynamic fashion than do cross-sectional

  11. Adapting Nigerian Church Leadership Style for the North American Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a usually autocratic to generally participative style of leadership has been a process full of frustration, anxiety, and concerns for Nigerian immigrant pastors in The Apostolic Church (TAC) North America. These pastors have brought the values, concepts, practices, and behavior which they learned in Nigeria to lead the American…

  12. The church: asset and agent in achieving sustainable water supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... argues that the church as both asset and agent is most useful in conscientizing and transforming people to adopt a new mindset- a behavioral attitude required to halt the progression of environmental degradation in general and specifically improve urban water supply in Nigeria.

  13. Grief Counselling In African Indigenous Churches: A Case Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collective participation, social isolation of the bereaved and then culminates in reincorporation of the bereaved into the community. The aim of this article is to explicate the meaning and value of grief counselling in AICs with special reference to the Zion Apostolic Church in Venda. Keywords: Grief counselling, african ...

  14. Roman Catholic Church and media in information age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyyak Maksym Tarasovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman Catholic Church in the modern information age extensively exploits opportunities of traditional and new media. It has always been trying to be a dynamic and successive participant in the global information space. However, the media has become not only the most important attribute of the information society but also one of the most valuable instruments of religious authority.

  15. HONEST TO GOD AND THE SOUTH AFRICAN CHURCHES IN 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the rise of a liberal, secular and science-informed culture in Britain was undermining ..... up to God. Once again, Robinson argues for an ethically oriented view that ... How sound was Robinson's view of the future of his own Church of England.

  16. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  17. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  18. Seismic performance assessment of three masonry churches through FE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents some seismic analyses on three masonry churches located in Emilia-Romagna (Italy), recently stricken by a devastating earthquake sequence from 20th to 29th May 2012. These churches have a similar geometrical configuration, consisting of three naves, a central colonnade and a simple apse. Limit analyses are conducted on the most important macro-elements of the structure and a full investigation of the churches is carried out by means of the commercial FE Code SAP2000, in both linear and non-linear ranges. Two accelerograms are considered: one is defined in accordance with Italian code response spectrum and the other is based on a natural record of the 29th May earthquake. For both scenarios, the seismic behaviour of the churches is analysed in detail and some vulnerability considerations are drawn. A remarkable consistency is found between limit analyses of macro-elements and response spectrum analyses, whilst some discrepancies can be noted for non-linear dynamic analyses. The results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apses for shear actions, the columns of the naves for bending moments, the façade for overturning and the triumphal arch for the formation of an in-plane four hinges mechanism.

  19. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three ...

  20. Reasons for the migration of church members from one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of secularisation and the Enlightenment, and their consequences at various levels, as well as the theories of McDonaldisation and Consumerism were taken into consideration to explain the migration of church members between congregations. The answer is not simple in the sense that two tendencies can be ...

  1. Silence or condemnation: The Orthodox Church on homosexuality in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Jovanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the representation of the gay population in the discourse of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The declarations of Church bodies and officials, as well as unofficial public statements of prominent believers regarding gay persons are analysed. There is an ambivalent attitude towards gay people that is usually expressed in the ‘hate the sin, love the sinner’ formula. There is also a different kind of ambivalence: the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as its faithful either stick to the ‘policy of silence’ regarding LGBT(Q issues, or they resort to a very strong moralistic judgment and condemnation. This was particularly noticeable around the time of the gay parade taking place in Belgrade in 2010, as well as during the public discussion before the passing of the anti-discrimination law in the national assembly in 2009. The inclusion of philosophical and medical concepts in theological discourse can also be ascertained. As a result, besides the expected ‘sin’, the categories of ‘unnatural/contrary to nature’ and ‘(mental illness’ are often mentioned in the Church discourse, which is usually saturated with accentuated anti-Westernism.

  2. Christian Church: A Catalyst for Economic Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian Church: A Catalyst for Economic Development in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The Nigerian economy had a truncated history from independence to present times and the economy has suffered series of economic instability because of a long period of unsustained growth in the per capital real income of ...

  3. Refusing to be Co-opted? Church Organizations and Reconciliation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe, throughout its history, has had a culture of violence and impunity which has resulted in massive displacements of people, murder, physical and traumatic memories of the past. In all the epochs of violence, it is worth noting that some church organizations were vocal and castigated the politicians whilst others ...

  4. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  5. Pentecostalism & schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia 1996

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the documentary evidence from church records and media coverage of the events ... The motivation to do this research emerged from ... Economic, political and social influences of globalization had ..... investment, tourism and natural calamities, to name a few. ... daily experiences of life define the shift in Zambian culture.

  6. The Muted Voice of the Catholic Church in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    laboring for the Church in the spacious lands of Africa.” 87 Harkening back to the centuries of colonialism, this document anachronistically celebrates ...112 The peace conference, which was endorsed by Pope John Paul II, featured a 107Comerford, “The

  7. reasons for the migration of church members from one congregation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 'church-free' and thus churchless members is also familiar. Less well ... to join. This choice is being made increasingly less on the basis of the ..... McDonaldisation, by Erre (2009:21-42), and in that of Consumer Culture, by. Conradie ...

  8. THE BELHAR CONFESSION AND CHURCH AND SOCIETY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naudé 77-89, and for a more academic account, Naudé 1997. ... perspectives: The priestly task of the church requires it to proclaim in word and deed .... In the broader field of hermeneutics and Biblical Studies, the ... by feminist scholars, materialist exegetes, black and African theologians, .... But for the first years after 1982,.

  9. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  10. Liquidation of the Belarusian Renovationist Church in 1934–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranenko Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process of liquidation in 1934-1938 of the Belarusian Renovationist Church as a religious community having its hierarchical and organisational structure. The study is based on a complex of legal archival documents. The aim of the paper is to describe the activity of renovationist institutions in the territory of the BSSR in the absence of a collective form of government of the Russian Orthodox (Renovationist Church during the period of “independent clerical government”. The paper also gives statistics on the clergy and Orthodox ecclesiastical institutions of the BSSR in the 2nd half of the 1930s. It also discusses forms of adaptation of Orthodox clergy to prohibitions and limitations imposed by the state during the period of the “Great Purge”. The main conclusion of the paper is that the reason for the disappearance of Church Renovationism in the BSSR was the oppressive politics of the Soviet government against the Belarusian Renovationist Church fi gures.

  11. Leadership succession patterns in the apostolic church as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... return to the biblical and early Christians sources (following the Renaissance clarion call .... church (based on Peter's speech in Acts 1) thus, 'These. Twelve have a ... patterned after the synagogue model (Boer 1976:28). This is ..... ministry is determinative of the approach to leadership style and the pattern ...

  12. Honour and Shame in a Church of England Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…

  13. Development and Testing of the Church Environment Audit Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Peters, Nathan A; Dunn, Caroline G; Wilcox, Sara; Forthofer, Melinda

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe development and reliability testing of a novel tool to evaluate the physical environment of faith-based settings pertaining to opportunities for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Tool development was a multistage process including a review of similar tools, stakeholder review, expert feedback, and pilot testing. Final tool sections included indoor opportunities for PA, outdoor opportunities for PA, food preparation equipment, kitchen type, food for purchase, beverages for purchase, and media. Two independent audits were completed at 54 churches. Interrater reliability (IRR) was determined with Kappa and percent agreement. Of 218 items, 102 were assessed for IRR and 116 could not be assessed because they were not present at enough churches. Percent agreement for all 102 items was over 80%. For 42 items, the sample was too homogeneous to assess Kappa. Forty-six of the remaining items had Kappas greater than 0.60 (25 items 0.80-1.00; 21 items 0.60-0.79), indicating substantial to almost perfect agreement. The tool proved reliable and efficient for assessing church environments and identifying potential intervention points. Future work can focus on applications within faith-based partnerships to understand how church environments influence diverse health outcomes.

  14. Missional church and local constraints: A Dutch perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Brouwer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The missional church concept promises to guide local churches in the direction of a new identity and mission. It is a response to a sense of ecclesiological and congregational urgency that is felt all over the world. In Africa, North America and Europe, churches and local faith communities have been challenged by the changes in the religious state of affairs since the 1960s. Whether we still call it �secularisation� or rephrase it as �differentiated transformation�, the face of religion is changing globally. In many parts of the world, this raises a feeling of crisis that gives way to the redef nition of the mission and purpose of the church. �Missional church�, however, is a precarious concept. Nobody disagrees with the intention but can it be more than an inspiring vision? In order to realise this vision, a multi-layered and multi-dimensional analysis of �culture� is essential. We should move the analysis beyond the philosophical interpretation of relatively abstract and evasive macro-level processes, such as �modernity� and �post-modernity�. The future of the missional church depends on a differentiated and empirical, informed perspective on culture. For this purpose, this article proposes the concept of ecology: A system of diverse populations, including populations of congregations and faith communities, that interacts with these populations and with their specific environments. Preparing a missional congregation for the future should be accompanied with a thorough empirical investigation into the ecology of the congregation. We should be thinking intensively about and looking for vital ecologies.

  15. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  16. 360° Film Brings Bombed Church to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K.

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site) from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video). Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  17. Christ-centred ethical behaviour and ecological crisis: What resources do the concepts of order in creation and eschatological hope offer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus P. de Wit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecological crisis, as well as a limited ethical response, forces a reflection on the transformative potential of Christian ethics on an idolatrous society largely shaped by a dominant economic culture. The aim of the article was to explore how the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope may be helpful in the understanding and formulation of a Christ-centred ethical response to the ecological crisis. A review of the relevant literature was presented, limited to insights from Reformational philosophy and eco-theology into the concepts of creation order and eschatology. The main internal tensions of using the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope as resources in Christ-centred eco-ethics were highlighted and discussed. Some implications for the further explanation and development of Christ-centred eco-ethics are outlined.Christosentriese etiese gedrag en ekologiese krisis: Watter hulpbronne bied die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop? Die ekologiese krisis, asook ’n beperkte etiese antwoord hierop, dwing ’n besinning oor die vernuwende potensiaal van Christelike etiek vir ’n afgodiese samelewing wat grootliks gevorm is deur ’n dominante ekonomiese kultuur. Die doel van hierdie artikel was om te ondersoek hoe die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop nuttig kan wees in die verstaan en die formulering van ’n Christus- gesentreerde etiese antwoord op die ekologiese krisis. ’n Oorsig van die relevante literatuur, beperk tot insigte uit die Reformatoriese filosofie en ekoteologie oor die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologie, is aangebied. Die belangrikste interne spanningsvelde in die gebruik van die konsepte skeppingsorde en eskatologiese hoop in ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is uitgelig en bespreek. Sekere implikasies vir die verdere verduideliking en die ontwikkeling van ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is beskryf.

  18. The “Master of the Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio of Budapest”. A member of Greco’s circle identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Barkóczi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At f irst sight, the Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio in the Szépművészeti  Museum in Budapest shocks and almost repels one due to the hardness of the canvas surface and of the forms, at least in so far as the hard sky is concerned. The style seems in entire opposition to that of El Greco. This paper analyses this style, and argues that it was deliberately chosen and realized by an artist belonging to El Greco’s “circle”.

  19. Responses to migration: Tensions and ambiguities of churches in Pretoria Central and Mamelodi East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Renkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of research being conducted to explore how churches in two regions of the City of Tshwane – Pretoria Central and Mamelodi East – respond to urban change and vulnerability. Both regions are deeply affected by urban migration patterns. Firstly, I will explore various forms of migration – transnational, rural-urban, urban–suburban and generational – and the causes of migration – social-economic and political – as experienced and described by the churches themselves. Secondly, I will seek to reflect on some of the tensions or ambiguities of how churches respond to migration, how the identity, self-understanding or locatedness of churches inform their responses to migration, and/or how churches and their identity are shaped by migration – commuter or local church, home or temporary church.

  20. Black churches and HIV/AIDS: factors influencing congregations’ responsiveness to social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brad R

    2011-01-01

    The ambivalent response of many black churches to current social issues has caused some scholars to question the centrality of black churches within African-American communities. Using a nationally representative sample of black congregations, this study engages the debate about the institutional centrality of black churches by focusing on their response to HIV/AIDS. Although many congregational studies treat black churches as a monolithic whole, this analysis identifies heterogeneity among black churches that shapes their responsiveness to social issues. Contrary to prior claims, a congregation's liberal-conservative ideological orientation does not significantly affect its likelihood of having an HIV/AIDS program. Beyond assessing churches’ internal characteristics, this study uses institutional theory to analyze churches as open systems that can be influenced by their surrounding environment. It demonstrates that externally engaged congregations are significantly more likely to have a program. These results indicate that black churches maintain institutional centrality by engaging their external environment.

  1. The layout of urban construction in Bolghar in the late Golden Horde period (preliminary results of studies on materials of excavations Southwest of the Cathedral Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badeev Denis Yu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the archaeological studies on a monumental building, identified in the central part of the Bolghar fortified settlement site, 150 meters southwest of the Cathedral Mosque, during the 1989-1993, 2000 and 2011-2013 works are presented. Adobe brick masonry and remains of wooden flooring have been recorded. Findings in the form of numerous a large number of commercial stock-in-trade items and coins allow interpreting this building as the city market. The authors of the excavations of the building date it back to the 50-70s of the 14th century. The structural elements of the construction and its internal layout suggest the existence of the city market at the intersection of two streets. The presence of street system in this part of the city is also indicated by the remains of two brickworks of mud bricks, which had served as a street fence (duval and referred to layers of the 30-40s of the 14th century. In the mid-14th century, the building of the city market had been being erected in place of the street fence and the adjoining estates. Thus, the development dynamics of Bolghar urban planning in the Late Golden Horde period on the site southwest of the Cathedral Mosque could be traced.

  2. The early medieval tesserae from the St Servatius Church excavations in Maastricht - The Netherlands (1981-1989)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuysen, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the eighties of the last century a massive excavation was carried out in the Church of St Servatius in Maastricht in the context of an overall restoration of the church building which dates from the 11th to 15th century. The Servatius Church was originally a grave church that was founded in the

  3. Geological and geotechnical properties of the medieval rock hewn churches of Lalibela, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrat, Asfawossen; Ayallew, Yodit

    2011-01-01

    Lalibela is a medieval settlement in Northern Ethiopia famous for its 11 beautifully carved rock hewn churches, registered as World Heritage Site in 1978. The rock hewn churches are grouped into three based on their proximity: the Bete Medhane Alem (Church of the Holy Saviour), Bete Gabriel-Rufael (Church of St. Gabriel-Rafael) and Bete Giorgis (Church of St. George) groups. The churches are carved out of a single, massive scoriaceous basalt hill which was deposited along an East-West extending palaeovalley in the Oligo-Miocene Trap basalt of the northwestern Ethiopian plateau. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification scheme was used to classify the rock mass (assuming each church as a separate rock mass) based on their uniaxial compressive strength and the spacing and conditions of discontinuities. Though most of the churches are hewn from medium to high strength rock mass, discontinuities make them vulnerable to other deteriorating agents mainly weathering, and water infiltration. Most of the rock hewn churches are affected by pre-carving cooling joints and bedding plane discontinuities, and by mostly but not necessarily post-carving tectonic and seismic induced cracks and fractures. Material loss due to deep weathering triggered by rain water infiltration and uncontrolled groundwater seepage affects most of the churches, particularly the Bete Merqorios (Church of St. Mark) and Bete Aba Libanos (Church of Father Libanos) churches. The scoriaceous basalt which is porous and permeable allows easy passage of water while the underlying basalt is impermeable, increasing the residence time of water in the porous material, causing deep weathering and subsequent loss of material in some of the churches and adjoining courtyards.

  4. Mechanisms of the multi-secular atmospheric corrosion of ferrous alloys: The case of the Metz cathedral reinforcements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchar, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The study of the mechanisms of the multi-secular atmospheric corrosion of ferrous alloys has various applications, from the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage metals, to the evaluation of their long term behaviour, specifically when they are used for the storage containers surrounding nuclear wastes. The study of the corrosion product layers (CPL) developed during 5 centuries on the Metz cathedral reinforcements brings new results for a better understanding of the complex processes involved in the formation of the atmospheric CPL. The phases and chemical elements constituting the CPL of these reinforcements were characterized at the micrometric scale (μDRX, Raman μ-spectroscopy (μRS), SEM-EDS). Results specifically showed that these CPL differ from other multi-secular systems previously studied by their very high content in ferri-hydrite (5Fe 2 O 3 , 9H 2 O). This very reactive phase is distributed in the whole CPL and mixed at the microscopic scale with goethite (a-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (g-FeOOH). Diffusion experiments of bromide ions followed by in situ X-ray μ-fluorescence allowed a better understanding of the transport of dissolved species in the porous network of the CPL. Furthermore, a test of the corrosion system behavior in conditions simulating the wetting stage of the RH cycle of atmospheric corrosion, also followed in situ by μRS, highlighted the reduction of ferri-hydrite at the metal/CPL interface. These results allowed to verify for the first time a fundamental hypothesis about the mechanisms of very long term atmospheric corrosion. Finally, re-corrosion experiments of the corrosion system were monitored in a climatic chamber simulating accelerated atmospheric cycles in an 18 O-labelled environment. Then the detection of the 18 O isotope linked to the precipitated phases, by nuclear reaction analysis using a nuclear microprobe, allowed to localise the formation sites of the new corrosion products. All these results improve the

  5. New insights into the origin of ladder dikes: Implications for punctuated growth and crystal accumulation in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Jellinek, A. M.; Hodge, K. F.

    2017-04-01

    Ladder dikes are steep tabular bodies, typically a meter or less thick, composed of moderately dipping, concave upward, alternating dark (i.e. schlieren) and light bands oriented roughly perpendicular to the ladder dike margins. These structures occur widely but sparsely in granitic rocks and are found prominently in the Cathedral Peak granodiorite (CPG) of the Tuolumne Intrusive suite. Previous studies have interpreted that ladder dikes form as a result of processes including the downward flow of crystal mush in cracks within strong crystal mush or by upward flow in steep tubes that migrate within a strong crystal mush. Our new observations indicate that ladder dikes formed by downward flow of crystal mush in troughs or valleys, in a manner potentially comparable to trough bands in mafic layered intrusions. Extensions of the schlieren outward and upward away from the ladder dike margins into the host granite demonstrate that the host granite was deposited as mounds on both sides at the same time as the ladder dikes. Ladder dikes, therefore, record lateral flows of crystal mush on a magma chamber floor. Vertical exposures suggest these flows are on the order of ten meters thick. Some steep exposures on granite domes indicate multiple ladder dikes (and flows) over a stratigraphic height of 80-100 m. Later (stratigraphically higher) flows commonly deform and erode the top of an earlier flow, and granitic material rich in K-feldspar megacrysts has locally engulfed large blocks of ladder dikes, demonstrating that the megacrysts were also transported in flows. Flows in the CPG are directed away from the center of the pluton toward the western and eastern margins and apparently spread along a strong crystal mush floor and into a rheologically complex CPG magma. Whereas established dynamical models for spreading (single phase) gravity currents with simple and complex rheologies explain the elongate geometry, spacing and orientation of the tabular bodies, the origin and

  6. The influence of the masonry mechanical properties in the structural behaviour of the Leon`s cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and physical properties of the masonry have a considerable bearing on the structural behaviour. Ancient buildings, like Leon’s cathedral, show uncertainty about real condition of the material and even structural compounds. These uncertainties make it difficult to assessment the bearing capacity of the structure and the affect of the restorations. This paper shows a study to select the most influential material’s parameters on the structural behaviour. The study is based on a sensitiveness analysis.The study starts with a structural analysis to select the most responsible areas of the transversal structural section. Then, the structural calculation is done by modifying the value of the material’s parameters in the expected scatter band. The statistical study provides the most influential parameters on the structural masonry behaviour. Finally the conclusions are proponed.Las propiedades de un material como la fábrica influyen de forma determinante en el comportamiento de la estructura. En una estructura histórica, como la catedral de León, se añade la incertidumbre del estado real del material y la composición de sus elementos estructurales. Estos aspectos dificultan la evaluación de la capacidad resistente de la estructura y la incidencia de actuaciones de reparación o remodelación. Este trabajo presenta el estudio realizado para seleccionar, mediante un análisis de sensibilidad del comportamiento de la estructura, cuáles son las variables del material que más afectan al comportamiento estructural de la catedral.El estudio se inicia con el análisis estructural de la sección tipo para identificar las zonas de mayor responsabilidad. A continuación se hace el estudio estructural con la combinación de todas las variables, especialmente las dependientes de los materiales, modificando su valor. Mediante un tratamiento estadístico de los resultados, se determina qué parámetros de los adoptados afectan más al

  7. Spatial and Temporal Growth Variation of Pinus heldreichii Christ. Growing along a Latitudinal Gradient in Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. The cores were mounted and sanded, and after a rigorous cross-dating, the ring widths were measured to a resolution of 0.01 mm using the LINTAB 6 measuring device. The ARSTAN program was used for tree-ring series detrending and site chronologies’ development. The relationship between radial growth and climate, as well as between temporal patterns of P. heldreichii growth were investigated using simple correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA over the common period 1951-2013. Results: Radial growth variability of Bosnian pine increased with latitude and elevation. Significant correlations among our chronologies and others from neighbouring countries indicated that our chronologies possess a good regional climatic signal. P. heldreichii growth at all sampling sites was significantly influenced by seasonal and mean annual temperatures, as well as by the July drought. Thus, temperature was the main driving force of species growth, showing a larger control at spatial scale than precipitation. The difference in species growth patterns along the latitudinal gradient is implicated by the common action of climatic and non-climatic factors (age and human activity. With continued warming and precipitation decrease during the second half of the 20th century, P. heldreichii growth from these high elevation sites resulted in being more sensitive to drought. This climatic signal is assumed to be stronger in the future due to climate change. Conclusions: P

  8. Healing in Herero culture and Namibian African independent churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaelo T. Kgatla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current phenomenon of Namibian African Independent Churches (NAICs draws attention from various people in civil society in Namibia. Although the ministries of NAICs are engaged with activities which are unusual for Christian churches, such as healing the people, fighting against evil spirits and power, performing certain rituals, prophesying and leading the worship services with African Traditional Religion (ATR as a frame of reference in 21st century, they do have a very big influence on various aspects of society in Namibia, which cannot be ignored. This is because those activities are familiar to the everyday lives of Africans and in touch with their culture. With regards to this, this article focuses on the causes of integration or harmony between the Herero culture and the NAICs.

  9. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  10. A call to the Church: Embrace children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ann Flickner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Disabilities are one of the groups of children most in need globally. The author uses her personal story of growing up as a child with mild cerebral palsy to express her solidarity and highlight the multiple needs of children with disabilities around the world. These children should no longer be stigmatized by the world wide church but instead be embraced and ministered to in the name of Jesus.

  11. Church and state in South Africa and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Strauss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, there was a universal rise and greater acknowledgement of human rights, which entered churches and ecumenical organisations’ way of thinking. Human rights influenced the church’s understanding of justice and human dignity both internally and externally. The concept of human dignity came from the biblical believe that man is created in the image of God. In South Africa human rights were also increasingly recognised and respected. A charter of human rights was included as chapter 2 of the 1996 Constitution and churches regard human dignity as a central tenet of their approach to members and non-members. Differences between church and state on the issue have arisen as the result of differences on the freedom of religion. Church and state in South Africa can complement each other in the promotion of human dignity. Opsomming: Kerk en staat in Suid-Afrika en menseregte. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is menseregte wêreldwyd erken en aanvaar. Dit was ook die geval in kerke en ekumeniese organisasies. Menseregte het kerke se siening van geregtigheid en menswaardigheid in hulle interne sowel as eksterne optrede beïnvloed. Die begrip menswaardigheid het ontstaan uit die bybelse oortuiging dat die mens na die beeld van God geskape is. In Suid-Afrika is menseregte ook toenemend erken en aanvaar. ’n Verklaring van menseregte is as hoofstuk 2 in die 1996-grondwet ingesluit en kerke beskou menswaardigheid as toonaangewend in hulle benadering van mense binne en buite die kerk. Verskille tussen die kerk en die staat in Suid-Afrika oor menseregte het ontstaan as gevolg van verskille oor die inhoud van die vryheid van godsdiens. Teen hierdie agtergrond kan kerk en staat mekaar egter aanvul in die bevordering van menseregte.

  12. The Catholic church and politics in Colombia: a shifting foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Estrem, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Recent research reveals a precipitous decrease in Catholic adherents across Latin America. Since 1970, numerous Latin Americans have professed a shift to Protestantism. Scholars have analyzed this trend within certain countries and as a regional tendency, but have not comprehensively addressed the Colombian case. Colombia is often considered the most Catholic of Latin American countries, with the Church historically much enmeshed in na...

  13. Visual rhetoric: images of Saracens in Florentine churches

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Aryeh Debby, Nirit

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the encounter between the Christian and the Islamic worlds as it appears in Florentine churches. It explores images of Muslims connected to the ideas of mission, conversion and crusade as they appear in the oral and visual traditions. Crusading sympathy in Tuscany, particularly in Florence, had a long history, going back to the twelfth century. The role of the mendicant orders, established in the great convents of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella, was crucial in winni...

  14. Letter to my children about sex and the catholic church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, R J

    1994-09-01

    This essay is directed to a younger generation. It summarizes the conflicting traditions in the Catholic community today: official Church teaching (represented by "Humanae Vitae" and "Veritatis Splendor"), liberal theologians like Charles Curran (who occasioned this letter), and ordinary Catholics struggling in an imperfect world. The paper attempts to integrate values from three traditions, those associated with respect for new life, a loving relationship, and playfulness. The resulting synthesis offers a spiritually and psychologically viable option worth considering, the author believes.

  15. The Catholic Church and Politics In Colombia: A Shifting Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Colombian environment in general, which was urbanizing, modernizing, and demanding greater social inclusion .28 That adaptation proved challenging...America: With Particular Reference to Colombia and Chile (New York: Praeger, 1971); Roux, Estado de Alerta; Levine, “Institutional Church.” 10... programs are the prime correlate.36 Frances Hagopian proposes a new framework to explain the decisions of religious power-holders that can be applied in

  16. The church's missionary efforts among domestic workers with special reference to Johannesburg West / by Malatsi Samuel Mofokeng

    OpenAIRE

    Mofokeng, Malatsi Samuel

    2007-01-01

    This research deals with the role of the church in its efforts to bring the gospel to domestic workers with reference to five church denominations in Johannesburg-West namely, the Methodist, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Anglican and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. Church leaders of the above mentioned church denominations used the integrated ministry by introducing programmes, projects and skills training along side the preaching of the gospel to empower domestic workers spiritua...

  17. The Presbyterian Churches in New South Wales, 1823-1865 : with particular reference to their Scottish relations

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Barry John

    1987-01-01

    This study covers the period from arrival of the first minister to union of most congregations in a Church unconnected with the Scottish parent Churches. My thesis is that reliance on the Scottish Churches was a necessary condition for establishment of the Presbyterian Church in the Colony but also the principal cause of failure to attempt to become a major religious force. Equality with the Church of England was conceded gradually and, initially, reluctantly and from the first State aid and ...

  18. Luminescence (IRSL) dating of Yeni Rabat church in Artvin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Uygun, Selda

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence dating is a chronological method that has been used extensively in terrestrial materials. In this study, we present Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dating results obtained for sediment and pottery samples taken from Yeni Rabat Church, Ardanuç, Artvin, Turkey. For this purpose, equivalent dose (ED) and annual dose rate (AD) of samples were measured. For annual dose rate, concentrations of radioactive isotopes (U, Th, K) were determined by using a high-purity germanium detector. For the equivalent dose, polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used. The optimal preheat temperature was determined for sediment and pottery samples. Ages were calculated by Aitken's luminescence age calculation method, which found 710±190 years for the pottery sample and 1450±370 years, 1390±420 years, 1430±310 years, 2210±520 years and 1640±390 years for different sediment samples, respectively. These estimated age ranges support the theory that Yeni Rabat Church could have been constructed in medieval times. - Highlights: ► The luminescence (IRSL) ages of the samples, taken from in Yeni Rabat church in Artvin-Turkey were found. ► Equivalent doses and annual doses were determined. ► Polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used

  19. Leadership mentoring and succession in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Ngomane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leadership mentoring and succession programmes are critical in the development and preparation of emerging leaders for leadership transitions. By virtue of their one-founder-leaders whose special leadership talents are usually celebrated by their followers, Charismatic church leaders may fail to identify and develop young emerging leaders who may be equally gifted to prepare them for leadership succession. This quantitative study investigated the state of leadership mentoring and succession programmes in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa (Bushbuckridge is one of five local municipalities in the Ehlazeni District Municipality situated in the north-east of the Mpumalanga province in South Africa. It borders private game ranches and the Kruger National Park. A population of 287 respondents drawn from 48 churches from rural and urban locations was assessed. Many of them (85% were reported to have leadership mentoring programmes in their congregations and 72% of them reported that they had leadership succession programmes in place. Location was found to have no statistically significant effect on leadership mentoring. Gender and education levels were reported to have a statistically significant effect in describing leadership mentoring. Charismatic groupings in Bushbuckridge believe and take the Bible seriously as authoritative for faith, life and ministry. We therefore think it is appropriate to include in this article a relevant illustrative text – 2 Timothy 2:1–3.

  20. The Irish Church Disestablishment Act (1869) and the General Synod of the Church of Ireland (1871): The Art and Structure of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Christopher F.

    2018-01-01

    Historians have observed that the period 1860-1890 was educationally progressive. This paper identifies the renaissance with the creation of the General Synod of the Church of Ireland in the aftermath of Church Disestablishment. Disestablishment legislation facilitated the inclusion of the laity in Synod. The paper argues that the lay-clerical…

  1. Iceland as a western country. How to classify medieval church law in the vernacular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lára Magnúsardóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s subjection to the king of Norway in 1262-64 was followed by a legislation in which a law book for Church and spiritual matters was composed in the vernacular for each country. Such law was implemented in Iceland in 1275 along with a separate secular law book in 1281. Both books remained in force until the middle of the 16th century. A church law that was separate, both from the secular law and that of Roman Church appears to set Iceland apart from other Western European countries where spiritual matters were governed according to the Latin law of the Roman Church. This has been viewed as an indication of constant rivalry between the religious and secular authorities, usually presenting the Church as an overreaching and even oppressive institution against which laity struggled. But a comparison of Icelandic Church law with the Latin Canon law shows that the Church in Iceland submitted entirely to the authority of the Roman Church and thus shows that the Icelandic Church law was, despite its obscure language, a specific representation of the law of the Roman Church. A Norwegian concordat from 1277 shows the king’s recognition of separate spiritual and temporal jurisdictions. This cooperation is readily apparent in later court cases.

  2. The use of the term ‘DNA’ as a missiological metaphor in contemporary Church narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Andrews

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Missiologists propose that the Church and mission are inseparable as the Church has its very being because there is mission, and it is the Missio Dei which constitutes the Church. In recent history the Anglican Church has interpreted this as the essential ‘DNA’ of the local church which is to be a missional community. The church’s mission therefore is presented as the gift of participating through the Holy Spirit in the Son’s mission from the Father to the world. In other words, it is proposed that the Church is both the fruit of God’s mission and the agent of His mission. But, in order to communicate this relationship between Church and mission in a postmodern context, the use of new metaphors and new terminologies, which are derived from our contemporary context, is shaping new ways of thinking. An exploration of the development of missional churches considers the significance of developing and embedding what has become referred to as missional DNA or mDNA at every level of the organisation of the Church. This mDNA is the outward model of missional behaviour that compels the whole church to reach a lost world. It can be seen from evidence-based, case study research amongst large churches in the UK that there is consistency in the adoption and use of the term DNA by its leadership in reference to the local church’s values and its attitude towards mission. This article explores the hypothesis that the term DNA is commonly accepted amongst local churches as a contributor to a contemporary language that forms the narrative of the Church and explores its feasibility and shortcomings as an adopted missiological metaphor.

  3. Separation of Church and State: Has the Military Gone too Far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    a way to commemorate fallen Marines in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. The Regimental Commander said, “At the base of the cross is a marble plaque bearing...crosses that traced back to the Stone Age. Celtic coins minted many centuries before the Christian era had nothing to do with Christ, so broad brushing

  4. Variations iconographiques : Constantin le Grand dans les peintures des églises de Pătrăuţi et d’Arbore / Iconographic Variations: Constantine the Great in the Paintings of the Churches of Pătrăuţi and Arbore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Sinigalia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iconographic Variations: Constantine the Great in the Paintings of the Churches of Pătrăuţi and Arbore. The article, written in 2013, the Constantinian Year, takes back and develops some ideas which can be found in my previous articles concerning the murals in both of churches in discussion. „The Exaltation of the Holy Cross” of the former nun’s monastery Pătrăuţi and the church dedicated to „The Beheading of St John the Baptist” in the village Arbore. The first is the foundation of the Moldavian prince Ştefan the Great (!487 and the second was built by Luca Arbore, chef of the army of the same Ştefan and of his hairs, Bogdan III and Stephen the Young, in 1503. The last was under the guardianship of Arbore during his nonage time, but was beheaded by him for high treason in 1523. As a reflex of the political situation of the Moldavia, see the military actions of the Ottomans in their endeavor to conquer Stephen’s country, the prince took the Emperor Constantine as a model in his struggle against the enemies of the Cross. The great „Cavalcade of the Emperor Constantine the Great/The Vision of the Emperor”, painted on the western wall of the narthex of the church in Pătrăuţi and the presence of the same Emperor as intercessor in front of Christ in the Votive painting of Stephens’s family and in the company of his mother, Helen, in some other images, so as in the scenes illustrating the History of the Holly Cross, found by Helen in Jerusalem, proves the special spiritual and political interest of the founder in this issue. The great chef of the army, Luca Arbore, demonstrates a similar idea when he asked the painters of his church to introduce in the narthex, on the western wall „The vision of the Emperor Constantine”, „The Discovery of the Cross” and „The Exaltation of the Holy Cross”. The datation of the painting rests an open discussion. I offered some supplementary arguments supporting the painting of the

  5. Analytical study of the main door of Santiago church, Guadix, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Gaitán, Jesús

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical study described on this paper has been made due to the request formulated by the priest of Santiago church, D. José Mª Ballesteros, through the Provincial Delegation of Culture of Granada. In view of the degradation of the main door front, the Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico has been asked for technical advice on the possible treatment to be carried out to resolve the problems of this front. As a part of the technical study we have carried out the analysis required to determine the characteristics of the stone used, the possible causes of weathering and to evaluate the most adequate treatment products, in case that it is convenient to apply any one as a part of the conservation restoration works. As a first step we have carried out a visual inspection of the door front and the inside of the church, and then samples have been taken. These samples have been analyzed by means of: chemical analysis of main components, X Ray diffraction, mineralogic petrographic study and SEM observation. From all these determinations it has been deduced the possible causes and mechanisms of alteration. As previous phase to the evaluation of treatments, due to the high quantity of stone needed to make all the tests, we have proceeded to identify and find the quarry of origin of this stone; it is located in Bácor, a little village on the municipal term of Guadix, at 40 Km from it. Once the identification has been made with certainty, enough material has been extracted to prepare the samples used. It is very interesting to study this stone because it has been employed also on the Cathedral of Guadix and it will be able to extend the results obtained on the tests to this building.

    El estudio analítico recogido en el presente artículo se realiza como respuesta a la petición formulada por el párroco de la iglesia de Santiago, D. José Mª Ballesteros, a través de la Delegación Provincial de Cultura de Granada. Ante el estado de

  6. A cathedral for Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    2004-01-01

    A containment shell will protect the Chernobyl reactor. The candidate enterprises for this containment shell construction, proposed gigantic buildings, which will be a great technical challenge. The author presents the project and wonders on the cost and the financing. (A.L.B.)

  7. Historicity of The Resurrection: A Theological Approach of Evidence of The Resurrection of Christ In The New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Astika

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Jesus is the resurrection and the life. He'll never wear grave clothesagain. When he appeared to his disciples after the resurrection, heappeared not in a shroud of death, but walking in endless life.The Lord Jesus is the Son of God who became man. He is very Godand very man. He was crucified, he died and was buried, and he wasraised from the dead on the third day according to the Scriptures.The proofs of resurrection can be found both in the Scripture andalso in the history. Historically, the empty tomb and Jesus appearancesto His disciples and many of His followers are clear proving that theresurrection of Chris is real. Biblically, it was the main preaching andteaching of the apostles. Beside that Jesus Himself prophesied andteaches about His resurrection.These three great facts--the resurrection appearances, the emptytomb, and the origin of the Christian faith--all point unavoidably to oneconclusion: The resurrection of Jesus. Today the rational man can hardlybe blamed if he believes that on that first Easter morning a divine miracleoccurred. Further fact is, if no resurrection, there will no church, therewill no Christianity. Because of Jesus resurrection, the believers haveassurance future life. Because He lives, there is hope for the future; thereis certain hope for the salvation of the believers.

  8. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ. at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core samples were collected from 98 healthy dominant and co-dominant trees at breast height using increment borer. They were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods, while tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the TSAP software. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring widths and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The growth-climate relationship was investigated using bootstrapped correlation function analysing the residual chronologies of each sampled site as a dependent variable and the climatic data from May of the (n-1 year up to the October of the n year for the common period 1951-2013 as an independent variable. Results: The length of Bosnian pine chronologies ranged from 175 to 541 years. All chronologies had high values of first-order autocorrelation indicating that radial growth of P. heldreichii is affected by the climate conditions of the previous growing year. Koritnik chronology had the highest values of the mean sensitivity due to the influence of drought stress. This conclusion is also supported by the result of growth-climate relationship where radial growth is negatively correlated with June temperatures and positively associated with July and August precipitation. We found that radial growth of young trees from Koritnik site is limited by the combined effect of temperatures and summer drought stress. In high elevation sites, temperature is expected to control the

  9. Calvin’s view on church discipline and unity: a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Strauss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reformer John Calvin, born in 1509, considers discipline and unity as two essential aspects of the Christian church. According to him, the bond of church discipline is a way to unite church members in the truth of the Word and the Christian faith based thereupon. If discipline is exercised with exaggerated strictness and without compassion, tolerance and love, it can break the unity. Because church unity is essentially a unity of faith, or a unity in the truth of the Word, discipline can sever adulterated elements that threaten the unity from the church. Discipline, if correctly ap- plied, builds the unity of the church as a unity in religious truths.

  10. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  11. Church-Based Recruitment to Reach Korean Immigrants: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Jang, Myoungock; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Although the Korean church has been frequently used to recruit Korean immigrants in research, little is known about the specific strategies and process. The purpose of this integrative review was to describe recruitment strategies in studies of Korean immigrants and to identify the process of Korean church-based recruitment. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Four stages of church-based recruitment were identified: initiation, endorsement, advertisement, and implementation. This review identified aspects of the church-based recruitment process in Korean immigrants, which are different from the Black and Hispanic literature, due to their hierarchical culture and language barriers. Getting permission from pastors and announcing the study by pastors at Sunday services were identified as the key components of the process. Using the church newsletter to advertise the study was the most effective strategy for the advertisement stage. Despite several limitations, church-based recruitment is a very feasible and effective way to recruit Korean immigrants.

  12. Euridice by Giulio Caccini: Two (? Copies of the Original Score Held in the Cathedral of Ljubljana around 1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metoda Kokole

    2012-07-01

    tragic loss of Eurydice and on Orpheus’ despair: on his ‘magic’ song that makes the underworld deities return his beloved to life. Omitting Eurydice’s second death, the opera has her and her Orpheus return to the meadow, where it ends with a happy chorus of nymphs and shepherds. Caccini’s Euridice did not have a wide dissemination in the early 17th century, but somehow the score (published in a single volume, as a score for a single voice and instrumental bass with some four- and five-part choruses found its way into the music collection of the Cathedral of Ljubljana, where it was first recorded in 1620 as »Euridice Giulii Cazini in folio«. Another hand added »desunt«, meaning that the second review had found it missing. At the next review, however, a third hand added new information, »L’euridice composta Julii Caccini liber solus«, probably referring to the same copy – now found – rather than to a second copy. Unfortunately neither of the music items listed in the above-mentioned inventory survives, so these two short notes are the only testimony to an early presence of Giulio Caccini’s Euridice in Ljubljana. The article discusses some possible theories on why and how the score might have entered the Ljubljana inventory.

  13. Macroscópical morphology of deterioration of the stone in the Cathedral of Almería/Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing winds in the area, associated with an important rising damp are the main natural factors of deterioration that affect the Cathedral of Almería. Certain unfortunate maintenance Jobs carried out as well as the bombardments and machine-gunning on the building during the Civil War can be indicated as anthropogenical factors of deterioration. The only lithotype used in the construction is a dolomitic limestone of high porosity from quarries near the city. The increase in volume in capillaries and interstices, related whith the presence of salts, and the dissolution, due to the great solubility of the natural magnesium salts which can produce dedolomitization of the stone, are the main deterioration mechanisms. This leads to indicators of deterioration with a typical morphology consisting of openings in all its manifestations (pitting, alveolar erosions and craters especially on the high and low parts of the building where the wind and humidity, respectively, are more intense. The anthropogenical deterioration also has the shape of openings, such as the impact of bullets and obuses on the Southern facade and the grooves made for electric cables throughout the building. Diverse restorations have introduced tensions in the materials which have led to decohesions at different degrees (disaggregations, disintegrations and grain disgregations in the interior of the temple and cloister. The building is in a state of deterioration of a certain significance which essentially affects its esthetics. The speed in the degrading process observed in some areas calls for action for its maintenance.

    Los vientos reinantes en la zona, asociados a una importante humedad ascendente, son los principales factores naturales de alteración que afectan a la Catedral de Almería. Pueden señalarse como factores antropogénicos de alteración ciertas desafortunadas labores de mantenimiento llevadas a cabo, así como, aunque con carácter episódico, los

  14. Atomic energy - challenge to the church. Atomenergie - Herausforderung an die Kirchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altner, G [comp.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear debate, the church has astonishingly soon and clearly stated its point of view and supported the social-ethic commitment of many of its members, of preachers, bishops, and church councils. This volume, in its first part, presents and comments on the church's statements concerning the nuclear problem, with special interest in the focal points of the nuclear debate, i.e. Wyhl, Brokdorf, Biblis, Grafenrheinfeld, and Borken. The second part deals with the challenge of nuclear power.

  15. Pilgrimage to Wellness: An Exploratory Report of Rural African American Clergy Perceptions of Church Health Promotion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A.; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl LeMay; Ellison, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Churches serve a vital role in African American communities and may be effective vehicles for health promotion in rural areas where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited than other communities. Endorsement by church leadership is often necessary for the approval of programs and activities within churches; however, little is known about how church leaders perceive their respective churches as health promotion organizations. The purpose of this exploratory pilot was to report perceptions of church capacity to promote health among African American clergy leaders of predominantly African American rural churches. The analysis sample included 27 pastors of churches in Eastern NC who completed a survey on church health promotion capacity and perceived impact on their own health. Capacities assessed included perceived need and impact of health promotion activities, church preparedness to promote health, health promotion actions to take, and the existence and importance of health ministry attributes. The results from this pilot study indicated a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Conducting health programs, displaying health information, collaborations within the church (i.e., kitchen committee working with the health ministry), partnerships outside of the church, and funding were most commonly reported needed capacities. Findings from this exploratory work lay the foundation for the development of future, larger observational studies that can specify some of the key factors associated with organizational change and ultimately health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157

  16. Digital models applied to the intervention of the architectural heritage: Restoration Southeast closing of the door of San Cristobal Cathedral of Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pinto Puerto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interventions in historical heritage present an opportunity to gain a deeper knowledge of the element in question. The use of an appropriate methodology and the rational application of the technologies now available allow researchers from different disciplines to obtain valuable information that must be recorded and placed at the disposal of society in general. The recent consolidation works carried out on the finial of the spiral staircase of the San Cristóbal Door of Seville Cathedral is a case in point. In addition to creating an elevation of this architectural element, a virtual model was generated, incorporating all the data obtained during the course of the works. The theoretical bases were explored prior to creating the model, highlighting the importance of a profound preliminary analysis as well as the dissemination possibilities.

  17. Moors, Christians and Jews under the bark of a sonnet by Góngora to the Cathedral-Mosque of Córdoba

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    Daniel Waissbein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Si ya la vista de llorar cansada” is not an amorous sonnet, and does not invoke the country mansion of an earthly beauty, from which the poet has been banished. It refers instead, to the Cathedral of Córdoba, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Close in form and in subject-matter to the more famous “Oh excelso muro, oh torres coronadas”, it hides a veiled sadness for the fate of those who built the Mosque, and for the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. This is present in the allusion, both in the first and the last line, to their Babylonian exile. These aspects point to the author’s circumspect sympathy for the contemporary destiny of both communities, Jewish and Moslem.

  18. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment

  19. Trust Building Recruitment Strategies for Researchers Conducting Studies in African American (AA) Churches: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Gloria; Williams, Sharon; Wilkie, Diana; Hart, Alysha; Burnett, Glenda; Peacock, Geraldine

    2017-12-01

    An initial and vital important step in recruiting participants for church-based hospice and palliative care research is the establishment of trust and credibility within the church community. Mistrust of medical research is an extremely important barrier hindering recruitment in African American (AA) communities. A church-based EOL dementia education project is currently being conducted at four large urban AA churches. Church leaders voiced mistrust concerns of previous researchers who conducted investigations in their faith-based institutions. We explored strategies to ameliorate the mistrust concerns. Specific aim: To identify trust-rebuilding elements for researchers following others who violated trust of AA church leaders. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted from a convenient sample of four established AA church leaders. Interviews were held in the informants' churches to promote candor and comfort in revealing sensitive information about trust /mistrust. Content analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Elements identified from the analysis were then used to create themes. Multidimensional overarching themes emerged from the analysis included: Experience with researchers (positive and extremely negative), violation of trust and trust building strategies. Findings suggest that researchers who wish to conduct successful studies in the AA religious institutions must implement trust rebuilding strategies that include mutual respect, collaboration and partnership building. If general moral practices continue to be violated, threat to future hospice and palliative care research within the institutions may prevail. Thus, potential benefits are thwarted for the church members, AA community, and advancement of EOL care scholarship.

  20. The Church as a Bridge to Deliver Health Resources Via Telehealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Obesity; Diet, Food, and Nutrition; Church; Healthcare Disparities; Minority Health; Mobile Health; Telehealth; Community-based Participatory Research; Primary Health Care; Weight Loss Programs; Health Behavior

  1. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  2. The Dutch Reformed Church Mission in Swaziland - A dream come true

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau van Wyngaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the time from 1652 onwards when employees of the Dutch East India Company – most of whom were members of the Reformed Church in the Netherlands – arrived at the Cape of Good Hope in present South Africa. With time, a new church, the Dutch Reformed Church, was established in the Cape. In 1836, a number of pioneers moved from the Cape to the east of South Africa and some of them eventually made Swaziland their new home. Although most members of the white Dutch Reformed Church opposed any integration with Christians from other races, there was nevertheless a desire that they should join a Reformed Church. In 1922, the first Dutch Reformed congregation in Swaziland was established in Goedgegun in the southern region of the country, intended for the exclusive use of white, Afrikaans-speaking church members. In 1944, the first Reformed congregation for Swazi members was formed, which later became known as the Swaziland Reformed Church. This article documents the history of this church and concludes with a description of the Swaziland Reformed Church in 1985, with four missionaries from South Africa ministering in the four regions of Swaziland.

  3. New Insights about St Michael’s Church in Ston

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    Ivana Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available St Michael’s church in Ston is an important monument of medieval architectural heritage within a wider area of Dubrovnik and the only positively attested monument of the so-called southern Dalmatian single-nave dome type in the area of historical Zahumlje. The church stands on the top of the Gradac hill or St Michael’s Mount (107 m.a.s.l., at the location of an earlier fortification. Based on an analysis of St Michael’s architecture, as well as its stone furnishing, the author has argued that the church is pre-Romaneseque in origin. It has also been suggested that the belfry (the structure to the west was built together with the church, since the concept of the ground plan (the width-length ratio, the slightly protruding apse, its small dimensions, as well as its vertical stratigraphy (the belfry and the dome indicate that it was constructed as a ruler’s chapel. It is most probable that the church was dedicated to Archangel Michael from the very beginning, as the cult of the heavenly host-leader as the patron saint of rulers and their military campaigns was widespread among the upper classes in the early Middle Ages. The time of construction should most probably be connected with the first historically attested and significant ruler of Ston – Duke Mihajlo Višević (before 910 – after 928, who raised Ston to an administrative and ecclesiastical centre of this Sclavinia. An analysis of the younger layer of sculpture in St Michael’s (the monumental window frames and a fragment with human face, as well as its murals, has suggested that the ruler’s chapel was furnished more richly around the mid-11th century. Considering the historical sources on Ston in this period, it has been suggested that its renovation took place at the initiative of Stefan Vojislav (before 1018 – 1043/1050, founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that Vojislav, having defeated Byzantium and its allies (among them the

  4. Hierarchy of the Russian Church and Relations between the Horde and the Russian Church during the Tatar-Mongol Invasion of 1237–1240 according to Contemporary Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Galimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The author analyzes activities of the Russian church and its supreme hierarchs during the most active period of the Russian-Horde conflict (1237–1240. Materials: Old Russian chronicles and tales remain the main source of information on the activities of the church hierarchy during the military-political confrontation between Russian principalities and the Horde. As it has been shown by studies of recent years, complex of scenes depicting the struggle against the invaders is not so clear, as it was considered to be in the national historiography for many decades. This observation allows a new reading of the reports on church life in Rus’ during the most acute phase of Russian-Horde war. Results and novelty of the research: Events of 1237–1240 led to a fundamental change in the existing situation in Rus’. This concerned not only the power but also religious institutions. The results of this study suggest that behavior of church hierarchs became the main cause of changes in the socio-political and economic spheres of ancient Russian ecclesiastical organization. The church accepted the rule of the Horde over Rus’ and the Horde benefits and awards reinforced the higher clergy’s loyalty to the khans’ power. This circumstance required the church to declare its stance in respect to the new power. As a result, the need for accepting existing relations between the church and the Horde found its justification in the concept of “Plagues of God”. Such an ideological justification removed conquerors’ responsibility for the ills that befell Rus’ and justified contacts between the church and the Horde. Old Russian sources do not provide direct estimates of the prelates’ behavior. But reading of the chronicle reports leave the impression that contemporaries assessed the behavior of the church quite ambiguously and probably reprehensibly.

  5. Sociological aspects of sexual medicine: contraception, culture and the church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1977-02-01

    Throughout the world, women who do not wish to be pregnant try to take action, at whatever cost, to prevent pregnancy from occurring. In Manila, the busiest and most loved church (Quiapo Church) is the scene where every Sunday morning, several hundred women buy local abortifacients from vendors stationed around the church. This scene in Manila 1976, however, could just as well be Bogota; Calcutta; Addis Ababa; or Bangkok. It could also have been Birmingham in the 1960's; Boston, Massachusettes, or; Wigan, Lancashire, in 1900. In 1937, the Birkett Committee which was then looking into the problem of abortion in England commented on the wide availability and use of traditional abortifacients. Prior to the 1967 Abortion Act, volunteers from the Abortion Law Reform Association visiting a number of shops and pharmacies in the Midlands on the pretext that their, or their girl friend's, periods were late were immediately offered a variety of drugs at inflated prices. They were also assured that the remedies were effective, working in 80% of the cases ("they should do, we sell a lot of them"). Pharmacological analysis revealed both harmless (eg, ferrous carbonate) and potentially dangerous compounds (eg, quinine sulphate). From 1870 to 1976, from the Philippines to Birmingham to New York State, desperate women have resorted to dangerous or ineffective remedies to bring on late periods; if these fail, surgical remedies (eg, injection of H20 into the cavity of the womb) were resorted to. Early abortion, or menstrual regulation can be justified on clinical; emotional and ethical grounds. A 1974 trial at 3 London teaching hospitals showed that such method was popular among women and usually took 3 to 5 minutes. The only problem is whether to offer the operation to women who suspect but cannot be proved to be pregnant. With the rapid development of various pregnancy tests however, such problem can be solved.

  6. A Viennese Project in Valpovo (Croatia. Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Valpovo and Baroque Churches with Two-Bay Naves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat-Levaj, Katarina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary in Valpovo (1733–1736, exceptional both in its spatial organization and the design of its exterior, was constructed in specific circumstances in the aftermath of the liberation of Slavonia from the Ottoman occupation. The old lands of Valpovo, with the medieval fort of Morović, were, in accordance with the Habsburg politics, given as a feud to Baron Hilleprand by Charles VI. The baron initiated the construction of a monumental parish church on his estate by commissioning its design in Vienna, as evidenced by the rich archival material on Hilleprand's property housed at the State Archive in Osijek. In keeping with the provenance of its design, the church was built as a monumental structure consisting of a two-bay nave covered with domical vaults and flanked by a narrower semicircular groin-vaulted sanctuary and a facade belfry. The type represented by the church in Valpovo – single-aisled structure with two bays – was a sort of innovation by Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt, inspired by the famous church of San Fedele in Milan (1569 and often used by Hildebrandt in his own church projects built under the patronage of high Austrian nobility, such as the parish church in Seelowitz in Moravia (1722–27 with an integrated facade belfry, or the parish churches in Aspersdorf (1730, Stranzendorf (1733 and Großstelzendorf (1735–37. This architectural type was adopted and further developed by Hildebrandt's contemporaries, especially his immediate follower Franz Anton Pilgram, a Viennese architect whose design for the parish church in Münchendorf (1740 shows great similarity with the Valpovo church, both in its proportions and in the treatment of details. All this is hardly surprising if one keeps in mind the Viennese origin and the courtly status of the commissioner and donor of the parish church in Valpovo. It took more than two decades for the spatial features of this church to

  7. Unification and matching in Church's Original Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Hustadt, U.

    1992-01-01

    In current implementations of higher-order logics higher-orderunification is used to lift the resolution principle from the first-order case to the higher-order case. Higher-order matching is the core of implementations of higher-order rewriting systems and some systems for program transformation. In this paper I argue that Church's original lambda calculus, called non-forgetful lambda calculus, is an appropriate basis for higher-order matching. I provide two correct and complete algorithms f...

  8. The Church, Gender and AIDS: What's Wrong with Patriarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay, Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many women and children suffer in silence in cultures where patriarchy is condoned and defended as the natural order of things. The inferior status ascribed women and children where patriarchy is imbued as hypernormative, render them vulnerable to contracting the HI-virus as the case study cited here reveals. While government and civil society, including the church, sometimes react when violence against women and/or children end in the victim of violence being killed, the argument made here is that a pro-active response may go a long way such as addressing the patriarchy of our (Christian faith.

  9. Church and art: from the second Vatican Council to today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mantovani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the relationship between the Catholic Church and art from the Second Vatican Council to today. For this reason it considers some of the most important interventions about art by recent popes (Montini - Paul VI; Wojtyła - John Paul II; Ratzinger - Benedict XVI, Bergoglio - Francis also mentioning some activities that the Holy See is currently promoting. These pages are intended to offer a contribution, mainly theoretical, for those who are working in the field of the planning and promotion of artistic and cultural events, especially if these events are related to religious heritage.

  10. A refreshing alternative to the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre: the monumental burials of Christ in France (XVth-XVIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Karsallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1420’s in France some groups of sculptures appeared representing the life-size burial of Christ. These monumental “Entombments” experienced a strong expansion from the mid-15th century until approximately 1520, in France as well in bordering regions such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. From the end of the 19th century they were studied in a primarily stylistic perspective while the problem of their functions and uses have been addressed only very recently. The intent here is to appraise the hypothesis according to which they would have served as substitutes in a spiritual pilgrimage. First the study considers the situation of the pilgrimage in the Holy Land during the 15th century, then it analyzes the relationships between images and indulgences. Finally it ends with the examination of a number of burials accompanied by indulgences, that could be utilised as supports of a spiritual pilgrimage.

  11. Data from investigation on seismic Sea-waves events in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of Christ to 500 A.D.

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    J. ANTONOPOULOS

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean has a long history of damaging seismic sea
    waves (Tsunamis but a great number of them which are locally generated are small. They have caused no serious damage to the coasts because their
    energy is confined by many islands of the Greek Archipelagos. However,
    some of them have been rather severe and destructive to property and
    human life.
    This paper is comprised of data from an investigation into the activity
    of seismic sea waves in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Birth of
    Christ to 500 A.D. It contains a great amount of information concerning
    earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and seismic sea waves.
    All the available information has been compiled from historical accounts,
    archives, press reports, magazines and related works.

  12. 1 Corinthians 14:33b�36 in light of women and church leadership in Nigeria

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    Solomon O. Ademiluka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Corinthians 14:33b�36 contains the injunction by Paul that women should not speak in the church. In Nigeria, many of the mainline denominations exclude women from church leadership, basing the doctrine on this passage. This research examines the text with a view to assessing its relevance for women�s participation in church leadership with a focus on contemporary Nigeria. An examination of the history of the Jews reveals that women had a very small role in religious leadership. However, Jesus in his woman-friendly ministry marked a change in the male-dominated social structure. Paul built upon this, having many women as co-preachers; which would contradict a literal interpretation of 1 Corinthians 14:33b�36. However, the text is best understood from the perspective of the Greek term ekklesia. In its popular context, it refers to the assembly of a Greek city-state in which women were not permitted to speak. In similar Christian assemblies, they were permitted on the basis of the Christian brotherhood. Apparently, in the Corinthian church, women were abusing this privilege by disrupting church services, which warranted Paul�s order. This being the case, the crucial issue is the disorderliness being caused by the women, and not their participation. Therefore, in this text it was not the intention of Paul to establish a doctrine disallowing women from participating in church leadership. Hence, for the Nigerian context, the text does not provide a basis for excluding women from church leadership.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This research involves the disciplines of New Testament theology and church history. It examines 1 Corinthians 14:33b�36 with a view to assessing its relevance for women participation in church leadership and anticipates a situation in which all the mainline churches in Nigeria would involve women in church leadership.

  13. Ottaviano Mascarino in Tivoli: the Church of San Nicola

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    Marco Pistolesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to include the church of St. Nicholas in Tivoli, built between 1588 and 1596 for the Roman hospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, between Ottaviano Mascarino’s works: in that period he was official architect of that religious hospital order. The allocation relies mainly on documents kept in the State Archive of Rome, but is also supported by a detailed analysis of the type and elements of the architectural language. The chapel is compared with some drawings of Mascarino: one of them reproduces the plan of the church of S. Maria del Piano in Capranica, designed by Vignola, from which our building unquestionably derives. The comparison with the drawings quoted in the text emphasizes a real research conducted by Mascarino, who used to repeat some shapes and stylistic elements in his projects of sacred and civil architecture. The essay finally enters the chapel in the context of the Roman architectural production of the end of the sixteenth century, but also notes how some aspects seem to anticipate compositional schemes that will emerge permanently in the early decades of the next century. Keywords: Aedicule-shaped facade, banded architectural order,  biaxial plan, two-apsed hall, Ottaviano Mascarino.

  14. Luminescence (IRSL) dating of Yeni Rabat church in Artvin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahiner, Eren; Meriç, Niyazi; Uygun, Selda

    2013-05-01

    Luminescence dating is a chronological method that has been used extensively in terrestrial materials. In this study, we present Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dating results obtained for sediment and pottery samples taken from Yeni Rabat Church, Ardanuç, Artvin, Turkey. For this purpose, equivalent dose (ED) and annual dose rate (AD) of samples were measured. For annual dose rate, concentrations of radioactive isotopes (U, Th, K) were determined by using a high-purity germanium detector. For the equivalent dose, polymineral fine grain SAR (Single Aliquot Regenerative Dose) and MAAD (Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose) procedures were used. The optimal preheat temperature was determined for sediment and pottery samples. Ages were calculated by Aitken's luminescence age calculation method, which found 710±190 years for the pottery sample and 1450±370 years, 1390±420 years, 1430±310 years, 2210±520 years and 1640±390 years for different sediment samples, respectively. These estimated age ranges support the theory that Yeni Rabat Church could have been constructed in medieval times.

  15. Godoy and the Church | Godoy y la Iglesia

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    Gérard Dufour

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available «Column of faith», according to Popes Pius VI and Pius VII and their Secretaries of State, or declared enemy of the Church, according to the majority of Spanish clerics, Godoy had an ambivalent attitude towards the Church. He showed the greatest respect towards the Holy See and offered it all his diplomatic support in return for its approval of the reforms he deemed essential in Spain: to put an end to the clergy's privileged status, and instead, to place it – and its riches – at the service of the monarchy, in line with the system envisaged by Calonne and introduced by Napoleon in France. | «Columna de la fe», según los papas Pío VI y Pío VII y sus secretarios de Estado, o enemigo declarado de la Iglesia, según la mayoría de los eclesiásticos españoles, Godoy tuvo una doble actitud con la Iglesia. Éste mostró el mayor respeto y prestó el mayor apoyo diplomático a la Santa Sede con el propósito de que aprobara las reformas que juzgaba imprescindibles en España: dejar de considerar al clero como un estado privilegiado, para ponerlo, con sus riquezas, al servicio de la monarquía según un sistema ya imaginado en Francia por Calonne y aplicado por Napoleón.

  16. Re-Building Coal Country: A Church/University Partnership

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    Carl Milofsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a developing partnership between a church-based service learning center and a university initiative to build a field station in a low-income community in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania. It is a case study of how secular and religious institutions have been collaborating to achieve the shared goal of improving social conditions in specific communities. The theoretical focus of the paper is on how a change from a “glass is half empty” to a “glass is half full” perception of the community opens new possibilities for change. This paper concentrates on the story of one partnership as a case study demonstrating current trends in service learning both within universities and within the Catholic Church in America. Analysis centers on the basic question of why the project had symbolic power for both partners and on the institutional processes within both organizations that helped the partnership grow. We use the framework of Assets-Based Community Development (ABCD, also known as the “strengths perspective”, to conceptualize the contrast.

  17. HEALS: A Faith-Based Hypertension Control and Prevention Program for African American Churches: Training of Church Leaders as Program Interventionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; Sullivan, Debra; Pankey, Sydney; Champagne, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background. A 12-session church-based HEALS program (healthy eating and living spiritually) was developed for hypertension control and prevention program in African Americans (AAs). This study presents specifics of training lay health educators to effectively deliver HEALS to high-risk AAs. Methods. A one-day workshop was conducted by the research experts in an AA church. Five church members were recruited to be program interventionists called church health counselors (CHCs). Results. Using principles of adult education, a training protocol was developed with the intention of recognizing and supporting CHCs skills. CHCs received training on delivering HEALS program. The process of training emphasized action methods including role playing and hands-on experience with diet portion measurements. Conclusion. With adequate training, the community lay health educator can be an essential partner in a community-based hypertension control programs. This may motivate program participants more and encourages the individual to make the behavior modifications on a permanent basis.

  18. The Church Bridge Project: An Academic-Community Perspective of a Church-Based Weight Management Pilot Intervention among Young Adult African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemacks, Jennifer L; James, Robert E; Abbott, Laurie; Choi, Hwanseok; Parker, Ashley; Bryant, Ashley; Ralston, Penny A; Rigsby, Annither Gilner; Gilner, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Churches are effective community partners and settings to address weight management among African Americans. There is limited information on the use of churches to reach young adult populations and church collaborations with primary care clinics. The Church Bridge Project represents a community-academic partnership that presents the recruitment process of a church-based weight management intervention and describes baseline data of participants recruited from churches and primary care providers. We also discuss research contributions, challenges and limitations, study applicability, and practice implications from an academic and community perspective. Church leaders were involved in the entire research process. The theory-driven intervention included 12 diabetes prevention program-adapted education and motivational interviewing (MI)-guided sessions. Participants were recruited through primary care providers and church leaders. Demographics, medical and weight history, stage of change for weight loss, social support, and self-efficacy for diet and physical activity, weight, and girth circumferences were measured. Baseline descriptive data were analyzed. Of 64 potential participants, 42 (65.6%) were enrolled in the study and 16 (25.0%) completed baseline data collection. No participants were recruited through primary care providers. Recruited participants were similar to the target population except for being all obese and mostly female. The mean ± SD age of participants was 34.31 ± 8.86 years with most reporting having more than a high school education (n = 14 [87.5%]), individual yearly income of less than $59,000 (n = 12 [75.0%]), and been married or living with a partner (n = 9 [56.3%]). Most reported a history of hypertension and an immediate family history of diabetes and hypertension. Most participants were classified as class III obesity. Young adults and primary care providers are difficult to engage in church-based interventions. Church leaders were

  19. Optimal setpoint operation to reduce peak drying of a church organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental church organ. The set point operation

  20. The black church as the womb of black liberation theology?: Why the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Southern Africa (URCSA) is not a genuine black church? This article ..... peculiar constituency of black slaves and freed men[sic] what no one else was .... church in the USA, which started during the early 20th century when ...

  1. Contamination of a church ceiling due to the burning of candles in combination with floor heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, H.L.; Deelman, J.; Aarle, van M.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    An air heating system originally heated St. Martinus’ church in Weert. Together with a large restoration in 1984 a floor heating system replaced this heating system. After this major renovation a number of problems arose: due to the floor heating system and massive granite floor the church could

  2. Contamination of a church ceiling due to the burning of candles in combination with floor heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, H.L.; Aarle, van M.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    An air heating system originally heated St. Martin's church in Weert. Together with an extensive restoration in 1984 a floor heating system replaced this heating system. After this major renovation a number of problems arose: due to the floor heating System and massive granite floor the church could

  3. Jeremy Bentham, the Church of England, and the Fraudulent Activities of the National Schools Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian W.

    1978-01-01

    The article examines charges which Jeremy Bentham levelled at the National Schools Society and establishes reasons for his hostility toward the Church of England. The argument centered around Bentham's interest in the education of the poor and the Church's belief that the poor needed religion more than education. (KC)

  4. A Church with the Poor – Lessons From Scripture and From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The church has an essential role to play in communities riddled with poverty, disease, and despair. Communities in informal-settlement areas suffer a great deal. Churches in these communities are often small and have few means for alleviating poverty. In the Bible, the community of God is a community of love. Although ...

  5. "Give Us the Words": Protestant Faith Leaders and Sexuality Education in Their Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, Alexa; Roberts-Dobie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A small sample of faith leaders from the USA's three largest Mainline Protestant denominations (American Baptist, Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and Methodist) were interviewed as part of a case study regarding sexuality education in their churches. The interview schedule, based on a previous Alan Guttmacher Institute designed…

  6. The unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa: Reflections and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mookgo S. Kgatle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects and makes recommendations on the recent unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa. Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa refer to churches that have crossed denominational boundaries. These churches idolise the miraculous, healing, deliverance and enactment of bizarre church performances often performed by charismatic and highly influential spiritual leaders. There have been unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches that include, among others, the eating of grass, eating of snakes, drinking of petrol, spraying of Doom on the congregants and other experiences. There are many possible theological, psychological and socio-economic explanations for these unusual practices. Given the facts that many South Africans experience various socio-economic challenges, it is argued here that the socio-economic factor is the main explanation for the support of these unusual practices. The unusual practices within some Neo-Pentecostal churches in South Africa are critically unpacked by looking at various churches where the incidents happened. The possible theological, psychological and socio-economic explanations for such practices are outlined in detail. Recommendations are made based on the scientific findings on the unusual practices.

  7. The Filling Station as a Fresh Expression of church for consideration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... whether it meets the values of authentic missional churches. In examining whether The Filling Station ought to be considered for import into appropriate local congregational contexts, it enquires whether it satisfactorily addresses prevailing social trends affecting churches, including consumerism and the need for identity.

  8. The Catholic Church & Social Justice Issues: An Expose of Vatican Power in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Stephen D.

    1983-01-01

    Three popular modern movements--ERA, family planning, and legal abortion--all undermine church authority and power by having as their ends the promotion of acts that completely counter the tenets with which the church leadership has indoctrinated its congregants. Actions the Vatican has taken to counter these threats are discussed. (RM)

  9. Church-State Relations in Cameroon's Postcolony: The Case of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-political role of mainline Christian churches in the African postcolony tends to be more complex than a number of pessimistic and optimistic scholars originally assumed. There is growing evidence that the relations between church leaders and the authoritarian and corrupt elites, who seek to exercise hegemony in ...

  10. "Holy Rus": The Geopolitical Imagination in the Contemporary Russian Orthodox Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suslov, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.......The author analyzes the geographical and geopolitical ideas inherent in the concept of "Holy Rus" as used by Patriarch Kirill and other hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church....

  11. Karl Barth's role in church and politics from 1930 to 1935

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    have severe consequences for the Protestant Church in the years to come, were the following: .... In an attempt to deal with Barth's insights from 1930 to1935, I will examine his ...... 17 “It is neither the same perception, conviction or deliberate learning that brings people to the church and ..... LESSONS TO BE LEARNED.

  12. Affected by Ritual : Predictors of Agreement with Church Marriage Rites in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Remco; Hermans, Chris; Scheepers, Peer; Schilderman, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Why do couples opt for a church wedding ritual living in a modern secularized society. Based on the ritual form hypothesis of Lawson and McCauley, the authors identify the specific church wedding rites as special agent rituals and the rites that form the ritual framework of every eucharist or prayer

  13. Forging a Collaborative Relationship between the Black Church and the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adksion-Bradley, Carla; Johnson, Darrell; Sanders, JoAnn Lipford; Duncan, Lonnie; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    In the field of counseling, there has been a growing awareness of the important role the Black church plays in African American communities. Although counseling professionals have begun recognizing the influence the Black church has in the lives of African Americans, there seems to be little information on how counselors can collaborate with…

  14. SOME CHURCH MANAGEMENT IN THE PRINCIPALITY SOUTHEAST RUSSIA IN XI-XII CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Вячеславовна Логачёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the joint cooperation of church and state in the principalities of South-Eastern XI-XII centuries. Emphasizes that the problem is not only scientific but also of practical interest for the modern Russian society. This experience is for national history an invaluable contribution to the field, both secular and ecclesiastical administration in feudal principalities and Old Russian state as a whole. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the process of establishing the relationship between church and state, which were formed, changed and improved over the centuries. In particular, the article says that the medieval relations between church and state were more active and expressed that the church served a number of public functions and is thus, a special part of government agencies and their authorities. At the same time, the author notes that the church was in this historical financial content of the state apparatus. In view of this church-state relations in ancient Russia, primarily in the South-East of Russia, wore a special character - the church was interested in the state, and the state - in the church.

  15. Karl Barth's definition of church in politics and culture: Growth points ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes briefly Karl Barth's views on church, its role in politics and how it relates to culture. This is done by identifying the way in which the church participates in the social realm through its relationship with the State. The historic religious question asks whether there is a natural mutual-determining relationship ...

  16. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. The Brand's PREACH Model: Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dorine J; Alston, Reginald J

    2017-09-01

    Despite many attempts to reduce health disparities, health professionals face obstacles in improving poor health outcomes within the African American (AA) community. To promote change for improved health measures, it is important to implement culturally tailored programming through a trusted institution, such as the AA church. While churches have the potential to play an important role in positively impacting health among AAs, it is unclear what attributes are necessary to predict success or failure for health promotion within these institutions. The purpose of this study was to create a model, the Brand's PREACH ( Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health) Model, to predict the readiness of AA churches to engage in health promotion programming. Thirty-six semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 pastors, 12 health leaders, and 12 congregants to gain information on the relationship between church infrastructure (physical structure, personnel, funding, and social/cultural support), readiness, and health promotion programming. The findings revealed that church infrastructure has an association with and will predict the readiness of a church to engage in health promotion programming. The ability to identify readiness early on will be useful for developing, implementing, and evaluating faith-based interventions, in partnership with churches, which is a key factor for sustainable and effective programs.

  18. Action and Church : Pastoral Work as the Focal Point of a Liberating Ecclesiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Först, Johannes; Dillen, Annemie; Wolfteich, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Pastoral work is the church in action. That is perhaps the most concise definition of pastoral work. Despite its briefness, however, it offers an ingenious point of departure for reflecting on key issues concerning the church and its task in the world. Based on this short definition, the current

  19. Instituting dispute resolution procedures in the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Chivasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to institute dispute resolution procedures in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM in Zimbabwe church informs this study. Remarkably, one of the most critical problems facing the AFM in Zimbabwe church is intrachurch disputes, which manifest in diverse forms such as pastors’ transfers disputes, election disputes and pastors’ performance disputes. Such disputes have produced undesirable consequences not only for pastors but also for the wellbeing of the church in general. Intrachurch disputes require internal mechanisms to manage them so that constructive rather than destructive results are achieved. To do this, internal dispute resolution procedures become critical as they provide a framework for the constructive resolution of disputes. The lived experience of disputes in the AFM in Zimbabwe church confirms the appropriateness of systems theory, which states that social institutions are vulnerable to disharmony owing to differing interacting elements. To mitigate the negative impact associated with disputes, this study proposes the need to institute dispute resolution procedures in the AFM in Zimbabwe, because the church currently relies only on disciplinary procedures to address disputes. The study further emphasises that instituting dispute resolution procedures will help the church handle disputes from within its ranks without necessarily involving local courts, which may have negative financial and relationship implications. Finally, the study develops a model for dispute resolution procedures as an instrument that can assist local churches in AFM in Zimbabwe church to handle disputes as and when they arise.

  20. The history of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark (1741-2016 seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Carsten Sander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark – and here seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective, especially, in the last 300 years. The relations between the Danes and the Orthodox Church began, however, around 900 years before, in the Eastern European state of Kievan Rus. The article shows that the history of the church is closely linked to the political development in Russia. In this article, the history of the church and the changing Russian congregations will be illuminated in a historical perspective so that both the church and church buildings will throw a new light on the role of the Russian Church in both Danish and Russian history. In addition, it will be analysed to what extent trade policy, strategy and power policy and family relations have influenced the role and position of the Russian Church in Danish history.

  1. The data collection/data distribution center: building a sustainable African-American church-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmon, Moses; Roberson, James T; Carey, Tim; Godley, Paul; Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton; Ammerman, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Carolina-Shaw Partnership for the Elimination of Health Disparities efforts to engage a diverse group of Black churches in a sustainable network. We sought to develop a diverse network of 25 churches to work with the Carolina-Shaw Partnership to develop sustainable health disparities research, education, and intervention initiatives. Churches were selected based on location, pastoral buy-in, and capacity to engage. A purposive sampling technique was applied. (1) Collecting information on the location and characteristics of churches helps to identify and recruit churches that possess the desired qualities and characteristics. (2) The process used to identify, recruit, and select churches is time intensive. (3) The time, energy, and effort required managing an inter-institutional partnership and engage churches in health disparities research and interventions lends itself to sustainability. The development of a sustainable network of churches could lead to successful health disparities initiatives.

  2. The role of church youth in the transformation agenda of South African cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Baron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The churches in City of Tshwane have incredible youth capital. There is so much energy and passion that fill the concrete walls of the mushrooming churches. This article emerges from a research that was conducted to explore religious innovation and competition amidst demographic and social change among churches in the City of Tshwane. The data of the study suggest that the impetus behind most of the innovation and development in the churches is borne from the hearts and minds of the young people. The striking involvement of the youth in the congregations, their participation and also the reflection in the data in terms of youth agency highlight the concern on their involvement in urban, social change, with specific reference to the City of Tshwane. The article assesses the participation of the church youth in the transformation of the city.

  3. Concept And Its Implementation During The Reconstruction Of The Church Of Blessed Virgin Mary In Chojna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotkowiak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    St. Mary's parish church in Chojna was erected at the turn of XIV and XVc. in a shape of three aisles, hall church without transept, completed from the west with a single tower and from the east with polygonal presbytery with an ambulatory attached. The convergence of characteristic structural and decorative features with employed ones in medieval churches being attributed to Hinrich Brunsberg's fabric resulted in such a way, that also authorship of St. Mary in Chojna was assigned to this legendary architect and master builder of late Middle Ages period. The church was destroyed by fire during WWII in February 1945 and since then had remained as an open ruin. In 1997 reconstruction procedure of the church was begun under the leadership of the author and it still continues. This text consists of the sum of experiences connected with confronting design ideas and solutions with their executions on the site during construction works.

  4. Galileo's Religion Versus the Church's Science? Rethinking the History of Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. B.

    Galileo's conflict with the Catholic Church is well recognized as a key episode in the history of physics and in the history of science and religion. This paper applies a new, historiographical approach to that specific episode. It advocates eliminating the science and religion. The Church concluded that the plainest facts of human experience agreed perfectly with an omniscient God's revealed word to proclaim the earth at rest. Supported by the Bible, Galileo, God-like, linked the elegance of mathematics to truths about nature. The Church, in effect, resisted Galileo's claim to be able to think like God, instead listening to God himself - and paying close attention to what man himself observed. We can thus see that the phrase ``Galileo's religion versus the Church's science'' is as meaningful (or meaningless) as the usual designation ``Galileo's science versus the Church's religion.''

  5. Financing of the National Churches in the Nordic Countries, England and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Sidsel; Bille, Trine

    This article analyses the financing of seven national churches in a large comparative study. The national churches in the Nordic countries and in England and Scotland are compared. They have many similarities in terms of history, intertwinement with the state, type and level of religiosity...... of the population, public role and public responsibilities, but the level of financing differs greatly. The purpose of the article is to discuss possible explanations for the differences in the level of financing. Adjusting for cost of public service tasks and for GDP leaves a large difference in financing among...... the seven national churches. We suggest that the source of finance is a determinant factor for the level of finance of national churches. Comparing the sources and level of financing of seven national churches in the Nordic countries, England and Scotland shows that financing by a taxation right yields...

  6. The urban explosion of black majority churches : their origin, growth, distinctives and contribution to British Christianity / by Babatunde Aderemi Adedibu

    OpenAIRE

    Adedibu, Babatunde Aderemi

    2010-01-01

    British church history in the last sixty years is best described as a “coat of many colours”. This image is appropriate because of the growth and proliferation of Black Majority Churches in urban areas of the British Isles. The advent of these churches has contributed to the prevailing pluralistic theological landscape. This thesis aims to evaluate the current status of Black Majority Churches with respect to their origin, growth, distinctives and contributions to British Ch...

  7. A Qualitative Phenomenological Analysis Exploring Digital Immigrants' Use of Church-Based Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Kealey, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Individuals and societies have traditionally sought answers to important questions in life through religion. In the 21st century, physical churches with clergy are no longer the sole source of spiritual answers or knowledge. Since the late 1960s, church attendance has been declining. Church leaders have begun to implement new methods such as using…

  8. Challenging the Black Church Narrative: Race, Class, and Homosexual Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Yasmiyn A; Perry, Ravi K

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the Black church as the driving force behind Blacks' more conservative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) attitudes. Although evidence suggests a robust association between religiosity and LGBT attitudes, contemporary scholarship has not examined the role of class or the extent to which religiosity actually explains these trends. Using the 2004-2014 waves of the General Social Survey, we find that class moderates in the effect of race on negative LGBT attitudes, resulting in a noticeably larger gap between middle-class Blacks and Whites than in the top or the bottom of the class distribution. Although religiosity and moralization explain a portion of racial differences in homosexual attitudes across class groups, we find that neither fully accounts for the more conservative attitudes of the Black middle class. We conclude by discussing the shortcomings of these narratives for understanding Blacks' more conservative LGBT attitudes.

  9. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-04-02

    Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of 'traditional values' both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox 'norm protagonism' in the international arena.

  10. Pope John Paul II apologizes for church's oppression of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In a 16-page letter which is widely viewed by women's groups as an effort to win support for the Vatican's position at the upcoming UN Conference on Women in Beijing, Pope John Paul II apologizes to women throughout the world for the church's historic complicity in their oppression. Although phrased in general terms, the letter contains language and ideas of a far more feminist tone than any previous statements or declarations made by the Pontiff. Calling for increased respect for women and sensitivity to their needs, the letter also claims that "there is an urgent need to achieve real equality in every area: equal pay for equal work, protection for working mothers, fairness in career advancements, equality of spouses with regard to family rights and recognition of everything that is part of the rights and duties of citizens in a democratic state." Recognizing women's significant achievements and sacrifices inside and outside of the home, the Pope expressed admiration for "those women of good will who have devoted their lives to defending the dignity of womanhood by fighting for their basic social, economic and political rights, demonstrating courageous initiative at a time when this was considered extremely inappropriate, the sign of a lack of femininity, a manifestation of exhibitionism, and even a sin." Although the letter heralds a new awareness in the Vatican of women's views, concerns and grievances, the Pope has not signaled any dramatic changes in official church policy: women's ordination, divorce, abortion and birth control are still considered beyond the pale of acceptability. full text

  11. Liturgical language of the Eastern Slavonic Orthodox Churches. The Position of The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church’s Faithful Concerning Liturgical Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stempa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of collected materials from the life of the Slavic Orthodox Churches indicates, that in some cases Church Slavonic language is no longer a current or justifiable liturgical language. Bilingualism was introduced or Church Slavonic language was replaced by national languages. A closer investigation into the liturgical language situation in Orthodox Churches reveals that the topicality and the validity of using Church Slavonic language as a liturgical language depends on a few factors. As in the case of the non-canonical Orthodox Churches in Macedonia and Ukraine, the Church Slavonic language has been replaced by national languages for nationalistic reasons. In the case of Bulgaria and Serbia, the main factor that has influenced this change is treating Orthodox Church as a national church. In Eastern Slavonic Orthodox Churches (Belarus, Poland and Russia, changing the liturgical language has occurred at a slow pace. The history of churches in XIX and XXI century, the temper and character of Eastern Slavs have had an influence on this. In this case, the biggest opponent of the Church Slavonic language is democracy in a broad sense. Orthodox Christians in Poland still want to pray in the Church Slavonic language. It is worth mentioning, that in churches, where the national language is used, Church Slavonic language has not been completely removed from liturgical life. Bilingualism of liturgical languages is common and in some cases, when the place is considered as backbone for the Orthodox Church, reversion to Church Slavonic language has been noted (Serbia, Bulgaria.

  12. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework.

  13. House Church: Investigating Chinese Urban Christians’ Choice of Religious Practicing Site in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the reasons why urban Christians choose certain sites for religious activities and explain the rapid development of house churches in urban areas in China from the perspective of individual Christians, through survey data obtained by the Chinese Urban Research Center for Ethnic and Religious Affairs Management in the city of Wuhan. We found that Christians who attend religious activities in urban house churches are generally younger in age, higher in education level, and more likely to be working in independent, private, or foreign-invested enterprises. Further investigation reveals that “Three-Self churches” are few in number and poorly planned geographically, resulting in very limited service abilities, thus being far from satisfactory for all believers. Moreover, the activities of such churches are unvaried and lack attractiveness. On the other hand, in house churches, Christians are able to build tight-knit social networks and house churches are more competitively aware in the “religious market”, leading some urban Christians to choose house churches, thereby inciting the fast development of house churches in Chinese urban areas.

  14. The place and role of youth in the liturgical life of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbasoiu Iulian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Church takes good care of each single person, from the beginning of their lives, giving them all the support so that they achieve the final goal of human creation: their salvation. From birth, man is involved in the liturgical life of the Church, which initiates them as members, transforming them progressively into active members, who participate on their own free will in the divine worship and in the social and cultural events held by it. Acknowledging the role that the young have in the activity of the Church we will discuss in our study an overall view of their involvement in liturgical life. We will emphasize the role of the Church in completing the religious information received within the family, as well as methods to help the Church get the young involved in the liturgical, social and cultural activities held by it. In addition, we will highlight the decisive role the priest has in motivating the young by using the power of the word (preach and catechesis and above all by personal example. Applying the most suitable methods in order to get the young people closer to the Church and involving them in the life of the Christian community offers the Church the certitude of fulfilling its role within the contemporary society.

  15. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Awoniyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  16. The wall painting in the church of the assumption of the virgin in village Donje Korminjane

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana S.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of religious revival in the 19th century church of the Assumption of the Virgin in the village Done Korminjane, was renewed. Painter Avram Dičov was engaged to paint the church interior in the 1870, along with his companions Zafir, Todor and Spiro. The decorative program of wall painting was common for the parish churches in the Diocese of Raska and Prizren in the 19th century. The program was organized in two horizontal zones on the walls, and vault was painted as well. The altar a...

  17. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  18. City’s lost jewel. History of Cracow’a All Saints church till the end of XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest churches in Krakow, dedicated to All Saints, was situated between Grodzka and Franciszkańska Street. It was build in the XIII century, could had been replacement church for first Cracow’s parish, which was transferred from Saint Trinity church. The name of All Saints church was mentioned for the first time in Vita S. Stanislai. The second time in 1278 his rector Arnold was noted. Most interesting fact is that in the Tables of Pence from 1325–1327 you can find two rectors, who had separate salary and were called rectors of wooden and brick churches. In 1490 church got a collegiate title. Than double rectory was liquidated and positions of provost and dean were established. Church was a place where Brotherhood of the Poor created by Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki used to work. Our knowledge of churches looks comes from iconography which was made when the building was already a ruin. According to those sources church had two naves, was oriented and had simply completed presbytery. The building had adhered tower, sacristy, treasure and chapel, called capella antiqua. Description of the interior of the church comes from 1599, when Jerzy Radziwiłł, Bishop of Cracow had visited it. According to the decision of the City Beautification Committee, the church was demolished in 1835, and church’s equipment was sold on auction. The tower survived till 1840, when it shared the fate of the rest of the building.

  19. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, J. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Roy, A.; Bovenkamp, G.L. [Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Simon, K. [University of Goettingen, Geochemistry, Centre for Geosciences, Goettingen (Germany); Kim, C.Y. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Boerste, N. [Faculty for Theology Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany); Gai, S. [LWL - Archaeologie fuer Westfalen, Muenster (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile - the most stable form of TiO{sub 2} - but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds. (orig.)

  20. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain) Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999). PMID:22164100

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fernández-Navajas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999.

  2. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  3. A Review of The Architecture of the Scottish Medieval Church 1100–1560

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    If ever a book could be described as a ‘magnum opus’ it is this: indeed it is a summa. Richard Fawcett has been publishing on Scottish medieval architecture, mainly ecclesiastical, for three decades, ranging from articles on minute changes in Gothic mouldings (the subject of his doctoral research at the University of East Anglia) such as ‘Dunblane Cathedral: evidence for a change in the design of the nave’ (1982) to a survey of architecture between 370 and 1560, Scottish Architecture from the...

  4. Hristos Euharistic în colecţia de icoane a Muzeului Naţional de Istorie a Moldovei / Eucharistic icons of Jesus Christ in the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Chiroşca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many icons from the collection of the Museum are devoted to the theme of the Eucharist - the iconographic types of "The Last Supper" and "Jesus Christ "The Vine". This article presents an iconographic type less well-known in our area - "Jesus Christ "The Vine", which is reflected on the three icons from the museum. Eucharist is one of the great sacraments in which Jesus Christ, presaging the sacrifice of the Cross, gives his disciples bread and wine in the chalice referring to the bread as "my body" and the wine as "my blood". Icons from the Museum's collection represent the general scheme of this type of icons: the Savior is depicted sitting on the altar table, behind Him - the Cross, vines with grapes grows from His rib and He presses the grapes with both hands into the chalice, supported by an angel. On the left side another angel holds a large rolled scroll. On the two icons, in the upper part of the composition, two angels hold scrolls with inscriptions, on one of the icons in the Romanian language, on the other in the Old Slavonic: "one who eats My Body", "one who drinks My Blood".

  5. The painting of the Veluća's church

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    Andrejić Živojin R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogorodičina Church in Veluća was built by the Czar Despot Dejan and his wife Teodora before 1368 and they had it painted form 1368 to 1371, as a family memory and the mausoleum in the inheritance territory of his parent, Despot Ivaniš. In the beginning of the painting works, while painting the dome space, the renowned founders found a very good painter, but he, for some reason ended his work never finishing the job. Around 1370 the founders did not have an opportunity to find a good painter, so they hired a group of painters from the Seacoast that had no qualities. Their drawings were much more simplified and painting procedure quite poor. The flat portraits and bodies without volume with thin arms are weightless. And in combination with poor colouring they clearly stand aside compared to the total medieval Serbian painting. By style, but spatially very far away, the similarities can only be found in the paintings of Georgia. On the other hand, the total ideological and theological creation of the painting program is on a very high level and undoubtedly expresses the spirituality of the founder and the local episcope. The symbolical connection had been set and between cycles where all the saints of the church year were presented together with the composition of the The Doom. The organic connection has been established with the whole content of Christian dogma and the earthly history of the founder and his family. The program narration has strong messages on multiple family and legal belonging to the ruling house of Nemanjić. The Doom is in symbolical function with the ruler's iconography and setting of the divine rights of the earthly rule of the founders their parents as suzerains and their descendants. The symbolism of The Doom in Veluća is not only symbolical but it contains some historical reality. As a mausoleum building Veluća has an overall painting program of funerary character that fits into all traditions that were set in the

  6. Les « Sentences » des saints de la rangée inférrieure de la façade méridionale de l’église de l’Annonciation de la Vierge du monastère de Moldoviţa / The “Sentences” of the Saints in the Lower Row of the Façade of the Church of the Annunciation of the Virgin of the Monastery of Moldoviţa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ciobanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The holy monks (Desert Fathers, confessors, hermits, founders of institutions or monastic status etc. occupy the lower row of the immense vision of the Triumphant Church which covers the eastern parts – including side apses – of the Moldavian’s churches facades with exterior painting. At the Annunciation of the Virgin’s church of Moldoviţa Monastery were preserved (in Slavonic language “sentences” written on the scrolls of following holy monks: Theodore the Sanctified, Theodotus, Gelasius, Georges of Mt. Maléon, Domentian, John the Fool-for-Christ, Hilarion, Joasaph, Bessarion, Abraham, Paul of Thebes, Nikon, John of the Lavra of St. Sabbas, Gerasimos, Theophanes, Anthony, the Angel seen by Pachomius the Great, Luke the stylite and David Thessaloniki the hermit. The purpose of our research is to find the literary sources of these “sentences”. As we'll see below, most of them are borrow from the Scripture or from the collections gathering the “quotes” of the Holy Fathers. The collection called Palestinian Paterikon (translated from Greek into Russian by Theophan the Recluse includes about 80% of “sayings” of the Holy Fathers painted at Moldoviţa. The presence in the paintings of monasteries Humor and Moldoviţa a number of “sayings” – which exists only in Russian translation in the text of this Paterikon – proves that in the 16th century in Moldavia existed some Slavonic-Bulgarian translations from Greek “collections of sayings” of the Holy Fathers – today lost or forgotten – many of which have been similar or identical to collections inspected and copied by Theophan the Recluse during his mission (from 1847 to 1853 at the Lavra of St. Sabbas in the Holy Land.

  7. From Alexander von Humboldt to Frederic Edwin Church: Voyages of Scientific Exploration and Artistic Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Baron

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish, German and English.Stephen Jay Gould wrote recently that “when Church began to paint his great canvases, Alexander von Humboldt may well have been the world’s most famous and influential intellectual.” Humboldt’s influence in the case of the landscape artist Church is especially interesting. If we examine the precise relationship between the German explorer and his American admirer, we gain an insight into how Humboldt transformed Church’s life and signaled a new phase in the career of the artist. Church retraced Humboldt’s travels in Ecuador and in Mexico. If we compare the texts available to Church and the comparison of Church’s paintings and the texts and images of Humboldt’s works we can arrive at new perspectives on Humboldt’s extraordinary influence on American landscape painting in the nineteenth century.

  8. The founder of the church of Saint George at Pološko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to establish who was the founder of the church of Saint George at Pološko and revise the conclusions of previous researchers regarding this issue. According to the opinion commonly adopted in the scholarly literature, Jovan Dragušin, a cousin of King Dušan, had merely undertaken the construction of church at Pološko, whereas his mother was responsible for the completion of construction and painting of frescoes in the church. Through an analysis of written and visual sources the conclusion is reached that the sole person responsible for the construction and painting of the church at Pološko was the nun Maria, the mother of Jovan Dragušin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036: Srpska srednjovekovna umetnost i njen evropski kontekst

  9. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by a local newspaper advertisement regarding a church-owned business. However, the Internal Revenue... determining whether a stay is necessary, a court must consider the good faith effort of the Internal Revenue...

  10. The influence of pastors’ ideologies of homosexuality on HIV prevention in the Black Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-01-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV and Black churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors’ involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches. PMID:27099095

  11. Acta Theologica 2015: 2 207 M. Nel Identity-driven churches: Who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and systematic study that produces a wealth of contextual biblical ideas concerning ... debates and empirical data that have emerged and are still emerging concerning ... conversation lies a challenge: to recover and deepen the church's.

  12. The Revival of democratic values and the governance of the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Vignon, Jerome; Discern

    2013-01-01

    A lecture organised by Discern entitled: The revival of democratic values and the governance of the Catholic Church. This talk is being delivered by Mr Jerome Vignon, President of the Semaines Sociales in France.

  13. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzer, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Following eleven years’ work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified. PMID:27011787

  14. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church.

  15. Exploring the role of the church as a 'reformation agency' in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practice aimed at leading by example to achieve a common goal. To accomplish this, church ministers are required to spearhead the challenge as a prerequisite to creating 'lived experienced' opportunities for members as an inward-outward spiritual ...

  16. "In my house": laying the foundation for youth HIV prevention in the Black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Alexandra F; Woods, Briana A; Jackson, Melvin; Riggins, Linda; Krieger, Kathleen; Brodie, Kimberly; Gray, Phyllis; Howard, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process our community-academic partnership used to lay the groundwork for successful implementation of an adolescent-focused, evidence-based HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum in two Black churches. We highlight the challenges encountered and lessons learned in building a relationship with two churches, garnering the pastor's support, and implementing the curriculum within church youth groups. We engaged a Community Advisory Board (CAB) made up of youth, parents, and diverse faith leaders to ensure community relevance and guide project development, implementation, and evaluation. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach helped us to (1) engage diverse, intergenerational community members, (2) initiate a "culturally humble" process to build relationships with faith leaders, (3) remain responsive to stakeholder concerns, and (4) open the door to HIV prevention in the Black church. Finding effective and responsive ways to implement HIV/AIDS prevention in faith settings is facilitated by engaging diverse partners throughout the research process.

  17. The law and financial transparency in churches: reconsidering the form 990 exemption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Montague

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo - già apparso su Cardozo Law Review, vol. 35, october 2013, n. 1, pp. 213-265 - è ora pubblicato per la cortesia dell’EditoreTABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - I. Legislative History A. Early Legislative History of the Information Return Requirement - The Revenue Act of 1943 - 2. The Imposition of the Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1950 - 3. Expanding the Information Return and Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1969 - B. Televangelist Scandals During the 1980s - C. Recent Legislative History of the Information Return - 1. The William Aramony Scandal and Aftermath - 2. Recent Revisions to Form -II. Increased public access to and use of FORM 990 Information Returns - III. Churches should not be exempt from filing form - A. Churches Are Especially Susceptible to Financial Abuses /- 1. Many Churches Lack Basic Forms of Oversight and Accountability, Revealing Too Much Trust in the Honesty of Religious People - 2. Churches Where Power is Concentrated in the Hands of One Leader Provide the Ideal Structure for Financial Abuse - 3. Even at Churches with More Independent Boards, Leaders Still Maintain Undue Influence - 4. The Nature of Spiritual Leadership Gives Church Pastors Extraordinary Power - 5. Hierarchical Churches also Lack Proper Financial Oversight, and Lay Members Have Little Say in Accountability - B. Churches Themselves Would Benefit from Increased Transparency and Accountability - 1. Greater Transparency May Increase Donations - 2. Requiring Transparency Would Mitigate the Inevitable Fall in Donations from Scandals at Similar Institutions -3. Financial and Other Scandals, Caused or Exacerbated by Lack of Transparency, Have the Potential to Damage the Spiritual Lives of Churchgoers - C. Many Churchgoers Would Likely Welcome More Financial Transparency - D. Financial Transparency is Consistent with the Teachings of Many Churches - E. Self-Regulation Is Insufficient to Prevent Financial Abuse

  18. The Byzantine wall-paintings in the church of Saint Theodore at Platanos, Kynouria (Arcadia

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    Agrevi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The church of St Theodore (also known as "Sts Theodoroi" at Platanos, Kynouria, is a single-nave building of small dimensions. The interior surfaces of its walls preserve their Byzantine paintings, which are partially visible under the coat of plaster that covers most of them. The paintings exhibit affinity with wall-paintings of churches in the Peloponnese (neighbouring Laconia included, and can be dated to the last quarter of the thirteenth century.

  19. The Spanish Church and the American Social Help (1954-1968

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    José Luis Mínguez Goyanes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The historical research about the contemporaneous Spanish Church has most of all pay attention to the política dimension in the Church-State relationships, disregarding dates about welfare work and social help. Cardenal Quiroga Palacios, President from the episcopal Committee for Charity, was the maximun responsible in the distribution of the American Social Help. Together with a Bibliography, the Article offers documentation from the «Archivo Histórico Diocesano de Santiago».

  20. Correlations between attitude toward Christianity, prayer, and church attendance among 9- to 11-yr.-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J

    2004-02-01

    Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.

  1. Facilitators and Barriers to Implementing Church-Based Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W; Weeks, Fiona H; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W

    2017-02-01

    Black churches are an important community resource and a potentially powerful actor in adolescent health promotion. However, limited research exists describing the factors that may influence the successful implementation of evidence-based adolescent sexual health programs in churches. In the present study, a multi-informant approach was used to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing adolescent sexual health programs in black churches. Nine Black churches located in Baltimore, MD, were recruited to participate in this study. The senior pastor and youth minster from each congregation participated in an in-depth interview (N = 18). A total of 45 youth (ages 13-19 years) and 38 parents participated in 15 focus groups. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analytic approach. Participants agreed that comprehensive adolescent sexual health education should be available for youth in black churches. They also believed that abstaining from sex should be discussed in all adolescent sexual health programs. Three facilitators were discussed: widespread endorsement of church-based adolescent sexual health education, positive influence of youth ministers on youth, and life lessons as teaching tools. Four barriers are described: perceived resistance from congregants, discomfort among youth, lack of financial resources, and competing messages at home about sexual health. Our findings suggest that churches are a preferred place for adolescent sexual health education among some parents and youth. Study findings also reinforce the feasibility and desirably of church-based adolescent sexual health programs. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. American Views of the Progressive Catholic Church in Brazil, 1964-1972: From Suspicion to Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    ROMERO, SIGIFREDO

    2017-01-01

    Both the United States and the Brazilian Catholic Church played decisive roles during the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil between 1964 and 1985. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between these influential political actors is imperative. This article explores American views of and interests in the Brazilian Catholic Church through a critical examination, categorization, discourse analysis and periodization of cables produced by the U.S. diplomatic mission in Brazil from 1...

  3. San Pedro de la Mata (Sonseca, Toledo. Building and decorating an early medieval stone church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª de los Ángeles Utrero Agudo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to offer those results obtained by means of the archaeological, stylistic and geological analysis of the church of San Pedro de La Mata, of its building and decorative materials and of its quarries. Combining these studies (and methodologies has made possible to identify the original form of the church, to pinpoint the origin of the materials and to characterize thus the skills of the workshops responsible for its construction and decoration.

  4. Women ministers' experiences of gender discrimination in the Lutheran Church : a discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. The aim of this psychological study was to uncover women minister’s experiences of gender discrimination in the Lutheran Church by using a discourse analysis. Three female participants, who are involved in ministry in the Lutheran Church, were interviewed about their experiences and perceptions of gender discrimination. The resultant texts were analysed using Parker’s (2005) steps to discourse analytic reading. The discourses that were discovered indicate that power struggles are prev...

  5. Religion and Displacement in Africa: Compassion and Sacrifice in Congolese Churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the role of religion in contexts of displacement. The article looks at the role churches and church leaders play in the lives of refugees and more particularly the assistance that these actors provide. The analytical approach is to take into consideration both religious idea...... to refugees, how this is conceptualised as well as the practices in a perspective that includes the intersection between religious ideas (compassion and sacrifice) and ideas around social relationships, gift-giving and reciprocity....

  6. Missionary Destinations and Diasporic Destiny: Spatiality of Korean/American Evangelism and the Cell Church

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ju Hui Judy

    2005-01-01

    The existing literature on immigrant Korean Protestant churches in North America typically addresses identity formation and dynamics of assimilation in the context of North American religious pluralism and multiculturalism, particularly focusing on the role of religion in “maintaining ethnicity” and “preserving traditions.” In this literature, the immigrant Korean church is depicted as an ethnic enclave, a bounded territorial enclosure that facilitates adjustment and transition into the main...

  7. Discovering and exploring ubuntu-language in the dialogue between the Dutch Reformed Church and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussions with members of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA in Ohrigstad illustrate the possibilities of ubuntu-language in overcoming racism and prejudice. After proposing a number of meanings and values related to ubuntu, this research explores the role of ubuntu-language � and at times the lack thereof � in the concrete relationship between these two faith communities as an expression of recent South African history. Ubuntu-language seems to offer unique outcomes in this relationship in strengthening identity, unleashing vitality, celebrating diversity, awakening solidarity, revealing humanity, bolstering individualism and enhancing Christianity.

  8. Spiritual and Affective Responses to a Physical Church and Corresponding Virtual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Matt; Davies, Jim

    2017-11-01

    Architectural and psychological theories posit that built environments have the potential to elicit complex psychological responses. However, few researchers have seriously explored this potential. Given the increasing importance and fidelity of virtual worlds, such research should explore whether virtual models of built environments are also capable of eliciting complex psychological responses. The goal of this study was to test these hypotheses, using a church, a corresponding virtual model, and an inclusive measure of state spirituality ("spiritual feelings"). Participants (n = 33) explored a physical church and corresponding virtual model, completing a measure of spiritual feelings after exploring the outside and inside of each version of the church. Using spiritual feelings after exploring the outside of the church as a baseline measure, change in state spirituality was assessed by taking the difference between spiritual feelings after exploring the inside and outside of the church (inside-outside) for both models. Although this change was greater in response to the physical church, there was no significant difference between the two models in eliciting such change in spiritual feelings. Despite the limitations of this exploratory study, these findings indicate that both built environments and corresponding virtual models are capable of evoking complex psychological responses.

  9. Church-Based Social Support Among Caribbean Blacks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research notes the importance of church-based social support networks in the daily lives of Americans. However, few studies examine church-based support, and especially among ethnic subgroups within the U.S. Black population, such as Caribbean Blacks. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) to examine demographic and religious participation (e.g., attendance, interaction) correlates of church-based social support (e.g., receipt of emotional support, receipt of general support, provision of support to others, and negative interaction) among Caribbean Blacks residing in the U.S. Multiple regression analyses indicated that religious participation was associated with all four dependent variables. Church attendance was positively associated with receiving emotional support, general social support, and providing support to others, but was not associated with negative interaction. Frequency of interaction with fellow congregants was positively associated with receiving emotional support, receiving general support, providing support to others and negative interaction. Demographic findings indicated that women provided more support to church members and experienced more negative interactions with members than did men. Education was positively associated with frequency of support; household income was negatively associated with receiving emotional support and providing social support to others. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of church-based support networks in the lives of Caribbean Black immigrants and communities. PMID:27942078

  10. Statements of the church on the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1990-01-01

    Also the churches participated in the extensive discussion of energy politics effected in the FRG in the middle of the 70ies by the increased use of nuclear energy. There are a whole host of statements of the church, from general questions of energy supply to concrete yes/no statements on the further peaceful use of nuclear energy. Within the framework of a comparative analysis it has been tried to bring out of records the chronological order of statements on this subject made by both churches as well as by the ecumenical movement, the differences and common ground with regard to the analysis categories, the way the church sees herself, theological interpretations, ethical criteria and thus the requirements concerning energy politics based on these. The result shows that there are considerable differences of opinion between the Catholic and the Protestant Church about nuclear energy whereas the ecumenical statements constitute a real compromise as in the end the opinion of none of the two churches could gain full acceptance. (orig.) [de

  11. The Dynamism of the Sacraments of Healing in the Service of Church Community Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kluz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the prophetic vision of Blessed John Paul, the pastors of the Church in Poland made huge efforts to ensure that the Church is becoming a real home for her children. The statement became the keynote of the Polish Pastoral Program at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century. Building the Church community is of key importance for creating a common sense of fraternity, unity and peace in the world. The sacraments play a fundamental role in enhancing the process. Among all the sacraments, the so called Sacraments of Healing, namely the sacrament of penance and reconciliation and the sacrament of anointing of the sick, are of crucial importance, since they constitute an indispensable element of ecclesial identity. The article aims at showing the clearly ecclesial character of the sacrament of penance and the sacrament of the anointing. It also points out that faithful Christian fulfilment of all obligations arising from the sacraments of penance and anointing becomes the leaven of the Gospel, making the community of unity, love and peace present in the Church. Man reconciled with God in the Sacrament of Penance and strengthened in the Sacrament of the Anointing contributes to the growth of the whole Church and her holiness. Therefore, every important aspect of the life of the Church, and all that gives it the true dimension and meaning, can be found in the Sacraments of Healing.

  12. Probabilistic Feasibility of the Reconstruction Process of Russian-Orthodox Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.

  13. Nathaniel Hitch and the Making of Church Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Housed at the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds is the archive of the little-known sculptor Nathaniel Hitch (1845–1938. This comprises hundreds of studio photographs, which collectively and individually provide significant insight into a hitherto neglected branch of Victorian sculpture: church sculpture. Changing attitudes to religion from the 1840s onwards created conditions that enabled sculptors such as Hitch to establish successful local and international practices specializing in ecclesiastical work, from ornamental pew ends to free-standing polychrome figurative sculpture. Examining the ecclesiastical dimension of nineteenth-century British sculpture complicates and extends our current understanding of sculpture in the period, by presenting alternative models of education, style, subject matter, sculptural precedents, studio practice, and practices of making to the current centrality of ideal classical sculpture and of the New Sculpture in the scholarship. It allows for the integration of different types of sculptors and sculpture within the study of Victorian sculpture, and prompts investigation into the influence of specifically Christian and British values and concerns on what was still essentially a classical medium.

  14. The regulation of Christian churches: Ecclesiology, law and polity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hill QC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the internal regulation of religious organisations in terms of their law, order or polity. It offers a systematic comparative analysis of how different Christian traditions structure and regulate themselves. The resultant legal frameworks are expressive of the institutional self-understanding of particular churches and, as such, are a form of applied ecclesiology. The paper draws upon two ongoing research studies: the Colloquium of Anglican and Roman Catholic Canon Lawyers and the Christian Law Panel of Experts, the latter having submitted a detailed submission to the World Council of Churches’ Faith and Order Commission giving a legal critique of its recent document ‘Towards a Common Vision’. Through a detailed methodical and comparative analysis of the various structural and regulatory formulae adopted by the different branches of the Christian family, profound similarities are discernible that are redolent with deeper theological significance. This research represents an emergent platform capable of being utilised within the ecumenical endeavour to give traction in the movement towards greater visible unity in the 21st century.

  15. English Medieval Churches, 'Festival Orientation' and William Wordsworth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Peter G.; Ketel, Hans

    2015-05-01

    A church that is shown to be aligned with sunrise or sunset on the feast day of the saint to whom the building was dedicated is said to display 'festival orientation'. The earliest work to touch upon this practice in English dates from c. 1678. William Wordsworth gave impetus to the subject in two poems published in 1827; he also played a part in the design of St Mary's chapel (1823-4), Rydal, Cumbria in the English Lake District. The 14th-century St Catherine's chapel at Houghton St Giles, Norfolk, was constructed for the use of pilgrims on their way to nearby Walsingham. Careful measurement of the orientation and eastern horizon of these two buildings has shown that St Mary's is aligned with sunrise on the Marian festival of The Visitation (2 July), and St Catherine's is directed towards the rising Sun on the feast of St Catherine of Alexandria (25 November). It is only by taking into account the character of the horizon that meaningful tests for festival orientation may be carried out.

  16. TOMOGRAFÍA DE RESISTIVIDAD ELÉCTRICA 3D EN LA CATEDRAL DE MORELIA, MÉXICO (3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Morelia Cathedral, Mexico

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    Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava

    2017-12-01

    results from survey using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (TRE-3D carried out in 2014, 2016 and 2017, in Morelia Cathedral and along its northern front. The survey identified the location of deep structures which cannot be explained by geological context, suggesting the existence of a variety of subterranean structures of anthropogenic origin. The TRE-3D used in this study combines conventional and unconventional methodologies to offer insights into the distribution of subterranean structures at Morelia Cathedral, in accordance with both oral traditions and documented history.

  17. First record of Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae from mummies at the Sant’Antonio Abate Cathedral of Castelsardo, Sardinia, Italy

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    Giorgia Giordani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of insects from archaeological contexts can provide an important supplement of information to reconstruct past events, climate and environments. Furthermore, the list of the species present in an area in the past allows the reconstruction of the entomofauna on that area at that time, that can be different from the nowadays condition, providing information about biodiversity changes. In this work, the results of a funerary archaeoentomological study on samples collected from mummified corpses discovered during the restoration of the crypt of the Sant’Antonio Abate Cathedral of Castelsardo (Sardinia, Italy are reported. The majority of the sampled specimens were Diptera puparia, whereas only few Lepidoptera cocoons and some Coleoptera fragments were isolated. Among Diptera, Calliphoridae puparia were identified as Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826 and Calliphora vicina, (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 both species typical of the first colonization waves of exposed bodies. Three puparia fragments were also identified as belonging to a Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826, species (Sarcophagidae. Several Muscidae puparia of the species Hydrotaea capensis (Weidmermann, 1818, a late colonizer of bodies, and typical of buried bodies were also collected. The few moth (Lepidoptera cocoons were identified as belonging to the family Tineidae. This family comprises species feeding on dry tissues and hair typical of the later phases of the human decomposition. Among Coleoptera a single specimen in the family Histeridae, Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba, 1790 and a single elytra, potentially of a species in the family Tenebrionidae, were also collected. Overall, the samples collected indicated an initial colonization of the bodies in an exposed context, mainly in a warm season. This research allows the finding of elements indicating the presence, at least in the past, of P. regina in Sardinia. This species at the moment seems extinct from Sardinia while it is quite common

  18. Feminists and their perspectives on the church fathers' beliefs regarding women: An inquiry

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    Hannelie Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The church fathers and their views on women were influenced substantially and significantly by philosophical voices, such as that of Aristotle and Plato, amongst others. A brief account on Aristotle�s and Plato�s ideas about women, from feminist perspectives, will be touched upon. The article furthermore explores feminist voices, regarding the church fathers� thinking about women, and how these views contributed to women�s subordination and domination. The research will focus on the many varied views on women held by Latin church fathers, such as Tertullian (c. 155�255, Cyprian (c. 200�258 AD, Jerome (c. 347�419, Ambrose (c. 339�397 and Augustine (354�430, and the Greek church fathers, such as Clement of Alexander (c. 150�215, Origen (c. 185�254 and Chrysostom (c. 347�407, from the perspective of feminists. It will be contended that an insensitive and too early denunciation of the early church fathers as misogynists often occurs in women�s history without taking into consideration the church fathers� philosophical and social contexts and, hence, the opinions that formed their views. One such theory that helped to shape the church fathers� views about women is the classic medical theory, and this therefore merits a brief discussion. Another important point one has to take into account is the church fathers� perceptions of the carnal (sexual and the spiritual world that shaped their views about women.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: History teaches us what people before us did, what their intentions were and where they failed or went wrong. If historical viewpoints about women reflect women�s subordination and oppression, they force women to discover their roots and their past. The church fathers, however, inherited a long tradition of debates, beliefs, and arguments regarding women�s moral, intellectual, and natural capacities. Therefore, generalised, simplified, and unsympathetic views

  19. THE CONCEPT OF IDENTITY IN THE SOCIO-POLITICAL DISCOURSE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH

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    E. M. Morozov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the strategy of the Russian Orthodox Church for the revival of national, state and church identity in Russia. The peculiarities of the church interpretation of the concept of identity and the risks of loss of national identity are revealed from the standpoint of the Church. The author concludes that in the socio-political discourse of the Orthodox Church the concept of identity is presented as a cultural and social marker and is comprehended in the paradigm of conformity with established standards and behavioral responses. Spiritual identity is seen in Orthodoxy through an appeal to the religious tradition and is correlated with the moral imperative formed in the past and with the social and legal code. The Church considers the Orthodox self-identification of citizens and its participation in sociocultural transformations of Russia to be important factors of state identity. In declarations on the topic of Christian identity, the leaders of the Church rely on the idea of Russian religious philosophy about the genetic connection of Orthodoxy with national consciousness. The tendency of Orthodox participation in the public examination of secular cultural events, in teaching schoolchildren (“General Professional Competences’ in the course of ‘The Basics of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics” and in the scientific activity of higher educational institutions (the inclusion of “theology” in the list of scientific disciplines of the Higher Certifying Commission is developing. Public support for the interaction of the Church with state institutions of culture and education is regarded by the author as a factor of acquiring institutional features of identity by Orthodoxy. The active participation of the Church in the public discussion on the relationship between Russia and European countries is motivated by the desire to develop international cooperation, which is hampered by the value contradictions that the

  20. Silence and the Audibility of the Word: Contemplative Listening as a Fundamental Act of the New Evangelization. Part 2: Jesus Christ, the Eternal Listener

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    J. Marianne Siegmund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of her arguing for contemplative listening as a fundamental act of the new evangelization, the author turns to the theological perspective of Jesus Christ as the eternal Listener and, thus, focuses upon his act of listening, which is the unique per-sonal form of his eternal divinity. The author addresses the following issues. Granted that listening has to do with obedi-ent readiness, how can one say it is in the eternal Son, who, being God, would seem to be naturally exempt from obedience? In order to answer this question, the author looks at the Balthasarian “enfleshment” of Thomas’ notion of the divine persons as subsistent relations. In brief, to say that the Son is the subsistent relation of sonship means that the Son receives himself from the Father. But this self-reception implies, the author argues, an obedient readiness. And, since the Son is Word, this obedient readiness translates into a “listening.” The Son is not only the eternal Word. He is also the eternal listener of the Word he is. Within the Godhead, each person is his relation (of “opposition” to the others and there is no difference between the person and his action. For example, the Son is his relation of sonship to the Father. But, one might ask, how could one speak of the Son’s obedi-ence? How does one avoid subordinationism? The key is to see how the Son’s posses-sion of divinity is compatible with a reception of it. If the Father is the “source and origin of all divinity,” the Son does, in fact, receive his divinity from the Father while, at the same time, he is co-equal and co-eternal with the Father. That the Father gener-ates the Son does not mean, as Arius asserted, that there was a time when the Son was not. Rather, the Son always possesses his divine sonship as being given from the Fa-ther, while the Father possesses divinity as being given away. Divinity is compatible with relationality in the mode of reception. In the