WorldWideScience

Sample records for chp technologies opportunities

  1. Mini and micro CHP technologies: opportunities of bio-fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-turbines are a distributed generation technology with a power output of 30 - 250 kWe. They are single-stage, single-shaft, low pressure ratio gas turbines that produce a high quality electrical output at an efficiency of 21 - 31%. Due to the high-value heat stream of the exhaust gas, it is a promising technology for small-scale heat and power generation with an overall efficiency of 75 - 81%. Micro-turbine systems offer very low maintenance costs, low supervision, and extremely low emissions of NOx and CO without exhaust gas treatment. Beside natural gas, the most frequently used fuel, various bio-gases and liquid bio-fuels, like methanol can be used. Despite difficult economics, micro-turbines can match other generation technologies even today. An example for this is the low-BTU-gas utilisation at landfills. Current research investigates micro-turbine operation on vegetable oil, for safe stand-alone generation in environmentally sensitive areas. (authors)

  2. Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-CHP system based on HT-PEMFC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technology is a well known and proved method to produce simultaneously power and heat at high efficiencies. This can be further improved by the introduction of a novel micro-CHP residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT......-PEMFC). The HT-PEMFC (based on PBI-membrane technology) operates at temperatures near 200oC, and this can be an ideal match for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system provides electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical household (1-5 kWe, 5-10 kWth). The micro-CHP system is...

  3. Micro CHP: implications for energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jeremy [EA Technology (United Kingdom); Kolin, Simon; Hestevik, Svein [Sigma Elektroteknisk A/S (Norway)

    2000-08-01

    This article explains how micro combined heat and power (CHP) technology may help UK energy businesses to maintain their customer base in the current climate of liberalisation and competition in the energy market The need for energy companies to adopt new technologies and adapt to changes in the current aggressive environment, the impact of privatisation, and the switching of energy suppliers by customers are discussed. Three potential routes to success for energy companies are identified, namely, price reductions, branding and affinity marketing, and added value services. Details are given of the implementation of schemes to encourage energy efficiency, the impact of the emissions targets set at Kyoto, the advantages of micro CHP generation, business opportunities for CHP, business threats from existing energy companies and others entering the field, and the commercial viability of micro CHP.

  4. A Comparative Technological Review of Hybrid CSP-Biomass CHP Systems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, C. M. Iftekhar; Duffy, Aidan; Norton, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore different solar technologies and its suitability for hybridization with biomass for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Europe. Although hybrid solar-biomass research and demonstration is in its infancy, it has the potential to provide dispatchable renewable energy at a significant scale over many areas in Europe. Therefore, this review examines the technical and economic reported performances on hybrid systems in order to assess the technical and economic v...

  5. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  6. An assessment of the present and future opportunities for combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As global fuel reserves are depleted, alternative and more efficient forms of energy generation and delivery will be required. Combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) provides an alternative energy production and delivery mechanism that is less resource intensive, more efficient and provides greater energy security than many popular alternatives. It will be shown that the economic viability of CHP-DH networks depends on several principles, namely (1) the optimisation of engineering and design principles; (2) organisational and regulatory frameworks; (3) financial and economic factors. It was found that in the long term DH is competitive with other energy supply and distribution technologies such as electricity and gas. However, in the short to medium term it is shown that economic risk, regulatory uncertainty and lock-in of existing technology are the most significant barriers to CHP-DH development. This research suggests that under the present regulatory and economic paradigm, the infrastructure required for DH networks remains financially prohibitive; the implementation of government policies are complicated and impose high transaction costs, while engineering solutions are frequently not implemented or economically optimised. If CHP-DH is going to play any part in meeting climate change targets then collaboration between public and private organisations will be required. It is clear from this analysis that strong local government involvement is therefore necessary for the co-ordination, leadership and infrastructural deployment of CHP-DH.

  7. Sustainable energy supply to very low-energy buildings by means of Micro-CHP technologies and solar thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sicre, Benoit Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Description and assessment of technology-related concepts aiming at improving the energy conservation in residential buildings. Explanation of the method and discussion of the whole-year simulation results for SOFC micro-CHP systems and Stirling engines in relation with single-family houses of different thermal insulation standards. Benchmark with conventional energy supply systems. Computation of allowable investment costs Beschreibung und Beurteilung unter technischen, ökonom...

  8. Wind Technologies and Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robi Robichaud

    2014-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview of wind energy research being conducted at the National Wind Technology Center, market and technology trends in wind energy, and opportunities for wind technology.

  9. Educational technology: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpulainen, K. (Kari)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Numerous educational technology programs and strategies have been developed on all continents to ensure that technology is used effectively for the benefit of student learning and achievement. The impact of technology on learning and instruction is still not clear. This book addresses several concerns of educators who rub elbows with a new technology. The book offers global research-based data on educational technology. The book consists of nine independent blind peer-reviewed sc...

  10. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  11. CHP or biofuel production in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, S; Wetterlund, E.; Dotzauer, E.; Kindermann, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitu...

  12. Technological opportunities and paths of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    rational they tend to choose opportunities for incremental improvements in their products and production techniques rather than developing radical new products and techniques. 4) Persistent differences between firms in an industry with regard to their products and process technologies are an outcome of the......Executive summary: 1) The technological development of firms in an industry is influenced by the opportunities for improving product and process, their ability to identify such opportunities and their ability to appropriate the benefit of the development effort. 2) Firms' historically developed...... the accumulation of technological knowledge that makes possible the identification of new technological problems and solutions. These dynamics produce a limited and coh stream of opportunities once a dominant design has emerged in an industry. 8) The dominant design, reducing uncertainty in both the...

  13. Review of CHP projections tp 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining market conditions for combined heat and power since 2000 and assessing the commercial position of cogeneration (CHP) in order to provide advice on likely distributed generation in relation to technology, location and commissioning timetables. Details are given of the modelling of the development of 'good quality' CHP by Cambridge Econometrics (CE), and the work carried out by ILEX updating the CE study. Modelling assumptions, market conditions for CHP since the CE study, the effect of market conditions on CE modelling assumptions, justified changes in assumptions, and evaluation of likely CHP capacity to 2010 are discussed.

  14. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  15. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  16. Stakeholder opportunities through nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the activities of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited as advisor to and agent of the Government of Canada in matters of public policy, enabler of business innovation and technology transfer and generator of highly qualified people. The nuclear Science and Technology focus is to build strategic advantage for Canada's tier one nuclear sector. Science and Technology creates stake holder opportunities.

  17. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  18. Small-Scale CHP Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, A.; Latosev, E; Siirde, A

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat l...

  19. Development of a CHP/DH system for the new town of Parand: An opportunity to mitigate global warming in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have gained a lot of interest. The idea of this paper is to recover exhaust hot gases of an existing gas turbine power plant to meet dynamic thermal energy requirements of a residential area (the new town of Parand) situated in the suburb of Tehran, and also use the rest of the heat source potential to feed a steam turbine cycle. In close proximity to this town, there are two GT plants: Parand (954 MWe) and Rudeshur (790 MWe). For handling the CHP/STC/DH plant, two methods are considered along with thermal load following operation strategy: maximum power generation (MPG) and minimum fuel consumption (MFC). Then, the alternatives are compared in terms of annual PES, CO2 abatement and NPV. For the best design from environmental viewpoint (Parand CHP-B), PES, CO2 abatement and NPV are calculated to be 27.31%, 2.56 million tons and 1491 million dollar, respectively. -- Highlights: • To propose a technical and financial methodology to evaluate CHP/DH projects. • To address environmental advantages of CHPs with conventional plants. • To present practical operation strategies to increase benefits of CHP/DH plants. • To report/compare benefits of various CHP/DH alternatives for a case study in Iran. • To conduct a comprehensive energy analysis of proposed CHP/DH design options

  20. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  1. Growth Opportunities, Technology Shocks, and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Kogan; Dimitris Papanikolaou

    2012-01-01

    We explore the impact of investment-specific technology (IST) shocks on the crosssection of stock returns. IST shocks reflect technological advances embodied in new capital goods. Using a structural model, we show that IST shocks have a differential effect on the two fundamental components of firm value, the value of assets in place and the value of growth opportunities. This differential sensitivity to IST shocks has two main implications. First, risk premia on firms with abundant growth opp...

  2. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  3. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Houwing M.; Negenborn R.R.; De Schutter B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed generation technology is a microcombined heat and power system (micro-CHP). Micro-CHP is an energy-efficient technology that simultaneously provides heat and electricity to households. In this paper, we ...

  4. Gasification for power, CHP and polygeneration Biomass Gasification for Combined Heat Power (CHP) Applications: the GAMECO Project

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, O; Khalfi, Az-Eddine; Sanchez, L.; Aleman, Y; Delebarre, A; Mauviel, G; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Poirier, J.; Kerhoas, J

    2014-01-01

    International audience Air-blown fluidised bed biomass gasification is a well adapted technology for Combined Heat Power (CHP) applications with syngas valorisation in a gas engine. However, it is not mature yet. Despite promising prototypes, CHP gasification needs further improvements to become the reference technology in the medium-size CHP market. This is the purpose of the GAMECO project, which aims at improving an existing technology by optimising its operation, increasing its feedsto...

  5. Technology in Parkinson's disease: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espay, Alberto J; Bonato, Paolo; Nahab, Fatta B; Maetzler, Walter; Dean, John M; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Merola, Aristide; Horak, Fay; Lang, Anthony E; Reilmann, Ralf; Giuffrida, Joe; Nieuwboer, Alice; Horne, Malcolm; Little, Max A; Litvan, Irene; Simuni, Tanya; Dorsey, E Ray; Burack, Michelle A; Kubota, Ken; Kamondi, Anita; Godinho, Catarina; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Mitsi, Georgia; Krinke, Lothar; Hausdorff, Jeffery M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Papapetropoulos, Spyros

    2016-09-01

    The miniaturization, sophistication, proliferation, and accessibility of technologies are enabling the capture of more and previously inaccessible phenomena in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, more information has not translated into a greater understanding of disease complexity to satisfy diagnostic and therapeutic needs. Challenges include noncompatible technology platforms, the need for wide-scale and long-term deployment of sensor technology (among vulnerable elderly patients in particular), and the gap between the "big data" acquired with sensitive measurement technologies and their limited clinical application. Major opportunities could be realized if new technologies are developed as part of open-source and/or open-hardware platforms that enable multichannel data capture sensitive to the broad range of motor and nonmotor problems that characterize PD and are adaptable into self-adjusting, individualized treatment delivery systems. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society Task Force on Technology is entrusted to convene engineers, clinicians, researchers, and patients to promote the development of integrated measurement and closed-loop therapeutic systems with high patient adherence that also serve to (1) encourage the adoption of clinico-pathophysiologic phenotyping and early detection of critical disease milestones, (2) enhance the tailoring of symptomatic therapy, (3) improve subgroup targeting of patients for future testing of disease-modifying treatments, and (4) identify objective biomarkers to improve the longitudinal tracking of impairments in clinical care and research. This article summarizes the work carried out by the task force toward identifying challenges and opportunities in the development of technologies with potential for improving the clinical management and the quality of life of individuals with PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27125836

  6. Marketing opportunities for CHP electricity in a virtual power plant. Direct and indirect marketing of flexibility; Vermarktungschancen fuer KWK-Strom im virtuellen Kraftwerk. Direkte und indirekte Flexibilitaetsvermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Achim; Baumgart, Bastian [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Virtuelle Kraftwerke

    2013-07-15

    The increasingly fluctuating feed-in of electricity by means of a rapid expansion of renewable energies results in an increasing demand for flexible performance for the regulation of production and consumption. An important part of the necessary flexibility could be provided by CHP plants. Their potential of flexibility is not always fully exploited.

  7. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  8. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawsher Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  9. CHP and District Cooling: An Assessment of Market and Policy Potential in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of India's CHP/DC status and recommendations for addressing barriers to allow India to meet its energy efficiency targets. Such barriers include a lack of governmental emphasis on CHP, the absence of a clear methodology for calculating CO2 emission reductions from CHP/DHC, and a tax and duty structure for CHP capital equipment that is not as attractive as for other renewable energy technologies.

  10. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  11. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  12. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Paul S Freemont; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  13. Aquaculture seminar in Saltville highlights technology, opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Becker, Angela I.

    2006-01-01

    The Southwest Virginia Aquaculture Research and Extension Center (AqREC) in Saltville, Va., will offer the seminar,"Aquaculture Opportunities for Southwest Virginia" on Tuesday, Jan. 17. The 5 p.m. seminar will be held at Northwood High School in Saltville and is open to those interested in becoming aquaculture producers.

  14. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  15. 小规模热电联供(CHP)技术的特点及发展前景%Features of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology and its development prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖颖; 曹广益; 朱新坚

    2005-01-01

    介绍了几种小规模热电联供(combined heat and power,简称CHP)技术(往复式发动机、微型涡轮机、史特林发动机、燃料电池)的特点.分析了影响小规模CHP技术发展的有利和不利因素.对目前世界范围内的小规模CHP技术的发展前景进行了展望,并就我国开展小规模CHP技术研究提出了建议.

  16. Training Staff for Technology: Options and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on effective technology training for library staff. Discusses helping staff overcome technophobia; suiting technology-based jobs with staff members' needs and capabilities; providing a policy/procedure manual to guide the training; the steps that should occur in training; aligning training with in-house library resources and services;…

  17. Exploring Challenges and Opportunities for Eco-Feedback Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption.......This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption....

  18. Determinants of Pharmaceutical Innovation: The Role of Technological Opportunities Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Rake, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical contributions emphasize the importance of (potential) market size for the development of new pharmaceuticals. At the same time many scholars point out the importance of of scientific advances for the industry’s R&D activities. Against this background I analyze the relationship between (potential) market size, technological opportunities, and the number of new pharmaceuticals in the United States. Technological opportunities are operationalized as growth rates of the relevant ...

  19. Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos

  20. Licensing Opportunities for NIH, CDC & FDA Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset represents all technologies available for licensing from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the...

  1. Bilingual Technology Equalizes Opportunities in Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Angela; Flores, Chencho

    Educational technology is a significant resource for meaningful, active, sensory, and relevant instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the elementary grades, particularly those students who are educationally disadvantaged. It is suitable for bridging the instructional gap in bilingual education so these children can have the…

  2. 75 FR 3791 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... efficiency by spurring technological advances in science and health; to invest in transportation... Availability and Solicitation of Applications, 74 FR 32545 (July 8, 2009). B. Round One In response to the... local governments; nonprofits; industry; small businesses; community anchor institutions such...

  3. From Ideas to Opportunities: Exploring the Construction of Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Giones

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of business ideas into market opportunities is at the core of entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the complexity of such a transformative process is seen to change depending on the variables influencing the opportunity-entrepreneur nexus. Although technology-entrepreneurship is regarded as a force of change and dynamism in socio-economic growth, it also depends upon an intricate process of opportunity development. The interest in understanding better how technology-based entrepreneurs simultaneously cope with technological uncertainty while trying to gain stakeholder support and access to resources, highlights a relevant research gap. The research described in this article uses the constructivist view to deepen our understanding of the technology-based entrepreneur’s conceptualization of the opportunity as a process of social construction. Our results show how initial consensus-building efforts and iteration with knowledgeable peers are an essential part of the emergence of the opportunity, changing both entrepreneur's and stakeholders' perceptions of the early business idea. Consequently, our results provide evidence in support of policy programs and measures that favour social-construction support mechanisms to foster technology-based entrepreneurship.

  4. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  5. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and......One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the...

  6. Technology opportunities in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the Strategic Research & Development (SR&D) program of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The intent of the program is to anticipate and shape the scientific and technological future of the electricity enterprise. SR&D serves those industry R&D needs that are more exploratory, precompetitive, and longer-term. To this end, SR&D seeks to anticipate technological change and, where possible, shape that change to the advantage of the electric utility enterprise and its customers. SR&D`s response to this challenge is research and development program that addresses the most probable future of the industry, but at the same time is robust against alternative futures. The EPRI SR&D program is organized into several vectors, each with a mission that relates directly to one or more EPRI industry goals, which are summarized in the paper. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Changing Technologies Offer New Opportunities in the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Culley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant sciences are now facing an unprecedented time in our history in which technology is advancing at a rapid pace, creating a wide variety of novel opportunities for our field. Applications in Plant Sciences is a new source for sharing exciting and innovative applications of new technologies that have the potential to propel plant research forward into the future.

  8. The Next Wave of Technologies Opportunities from Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Your all-inclusive guide to all the latest technologies. Providing you with a better understanding of the latest technologies, including Cloud Computing, Software as a Service, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Open Source, Mobile Computing, Social Networking, and Business Intelligence, The Next Wave of Technologies: Opportunities from Chaos helps you know which questions to ask when considering if a specific technology is right for your organization.: Demystifies powerful but largely misunderstood technologies; Explains how each technology works; Provides key guidance on determining if a p

  9. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  10. CHP and CCHP Systems Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkov, Marinko; Hnatko, Emil; Kljajin, Milan; Živić, Marija; Hornung, Krunoslav

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the CCHP system (combined cooling, heating and power - combined cooling, heating and electricity generation) is described in this paper. The development of CCHP systems comes from the CHP system (combined heat and power generation), also known as cogeneration. CHP systems generate electricity from fuel combustion, heat as a by-product may contain even 60% to 80% of the total potential energy, and may be re-used for different applications. CHP is generally defined as the combine...

  11. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...... the spot prices of the years 2001-2003, both with and without the immersion heater included in the model, and the results are compared to the full information case....

  12. The economic performance of combined heat and power from biogas produced from manure in Sweden – A comparison of different CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Interest in biogas from manure is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. ► Farm-scale production of CHP from manure-based biogas is not profitable in Sweden. ► Minor changes in energy prices or suggested production subsidies will make it profitable. ► Profitability is also affected by efficiency of scale and introduction of thermophilic conditions. -- Abstract: Interest in the generation of biogas from agricultural residues is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. In this study, an evaluation of the economic feasibility of various technologies, also on different scales, for the production of combined heat and power from manure-based biogas in Sweden is presented. The overall conclusion is that such production is not profitable under current conditions. Thus, the gap between the calculated biogas production cost and the acceptable cost for break-even must be bridged by, for example, different policy instruments. In general, efficiency of scale favors large-scale plants compared to individual farm-scale ones. However, a large, centralized biogas plant, using manure from numerous farms, is not always more cost efficient than a large, farm-scale plant treating manure from a few neighboring farms. The utilization of the produced heat, electricity prices, and political incentives, all have a significant impact on the economic outcome, whereas the value of the digestate as fertilizer is currently having a minor impact. Utilization of heat is, however, often limited by the lack of local heat sinks, in which case the implementation of a biogas process operating under thermophilic conditions could increase the profitability due to a more efficient utilization of reactor volume by using more process heat. The results from this study could be utilized by policy makers when implementing policy instruments considering biogas production from manure as well as companies involved in production and utilization of biogas.

  13. Mobile Technologies Enhance the E-Learning Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Keh-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the mobile technologies that enhance the E-Learning opportunity, examine the educational benefits and implementation issues in mobile learning, discuss the guidelines for implementing effective mobile learning, identify the current application and operation of mobile learning, and discuss the future of…

  14. Proceedings of Opportunity '95 -- Environmental technology through small business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Opportunity '95--Environmental Technology Through Small Business conference was held November 16--17, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of the Environmental Management--Office of Technology Development (EM-OTD) Program at METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting small businesses, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. Twenty papers were presented in three EM-OTD focus areas: mixed waste characterization, treatment and disposal (6 papers); contaminant plume containment and remediation (6 papers); and facility transitioning, decommissioning and final disposition (8 papers). In addition to the presentations, nine posters of environmental management areas were displayed. A panel discussion was also held on technology development assistance to small businesses. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Mobile display technologies: Past developments, present technologies, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been thirty years since the first active matrix (AM) flat panel display (FPD) was industrialized for portable televisions (TVs) in 1984. The AM FPD has become a dominant electronic display technology widely used from mobile displays to large TVs. The development of AM FPDs for mobile displays has significantly changed our lives by enabling new applications, such as notebook personal computers (PCs), smartphones and tablet PCs. In the future, the role of mobile displays will become even more important, since mobile displays are the live interface for the world of mobile communications in the era of ubiquitous networks. Various developments are being conducted to improve visual performance, reduce power consumption and add new functionality. At the same time, innovative display concepts and novel manufacturing technologies are being investigated to create new values.

  16. UV/VIS/NIR imaging technologies: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2015-05-01

    Challenges and opportunities of ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light imaging technologies are overviewed in this paper. For light detectors and image sensors for UV/VIS/NIR imaging, it is required that they have high sensitivity for wide spectral light waveband or targeted narrow waveband as well as the high stability of light sensitivity toward UV light based on cost effective technology. Wide spectral response, high sensitivity and high stability advanced Si photodiode (PD) pn junction formation technology based on the flattened Si surface and high transmittance on-chip optical filter formation technology were developed. A linear photodiode array (PDA), wide dynamic range and ultrahigh speed CMOS image sensors employing the developed technology were fabricated and their advanced performances are described in this paper.

  17. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  18. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    This document was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) under its Technical Guidance and Assistance and Project Financing Programs. The purpose was to provide an estimate of the national potential for combined heat and power (also known as CHP; cogeneration; or cooling, heating, and power) applications at federal facilities and the associated costs and benefits including energy and emission savings. The report provides a broad overview for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on when and where CHP systems are most likely to serve the government's best interest. FEMP's mission is to reduce the cost to and environmental impact of the federal government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP programs are driven by its customers: federal agency sites. FEMP monitors energy efficiency and renewable energy technology developments and mounts ''technology-specific'' programs to make technologies that are in strong demand by agencies more accessible. FEMP's role is often one of helping the federal government ''lead by example'' through the use of advanced energy efficiency/renewable energy (EERE) technologies in its own buildings and facilities. CHP was highlighted in the Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Report as a commercially available technology offering extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiencies and emission reductions. FEMP's criteria for emphasizing a technology are that it must be commercially available; be proven but underutilized; have a strong constituency and momentum; offer large energy savings and other benefits of interest to federal sites and FEMP mission; be in demand; and carry sufficient federal market potential. As discussed in the report, CHP meets all

  19. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  1. Nanomaterials and future aerospace technologies: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaia, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    Two decades of extensive investment in nanomaterials, nanofabrication and nanometrology have provided the global engineering community a vast array of new technologies. These technologies not only promise radical change to traditional industries, such as transportation, information and aerospace, but may create whole new industries, such as personalized medicine and personalized energy harvesting and storage. The challenge today for the defense aerospace community is determining how to accelerate the conversion of these technical opportunities into concrete benefits with quantifiable impact, in conjunction with identifying the most important outstanding scientific questions that are limiting their utilization. For example, nanomaterial fabrication delivers substantial tailorablity beyond a traditional material data sheet. How can we integrate this tailorability into agile manufacturing and design methods to further optimize the performance, cost and durability of future resilient aerospace systems? The intersection of nano-based metamaterials and nanostructured devices with biotechnology epitomizes the technological promise of autonomous systems and enhanced human-machine interfaces. What then are the key materials and processes challenges that are inhibiting current lab-scale innovation from being integrated into functioning systems to increase effectiveness and productivity of our human resources? Where innovation is global, accelerating the use of breakthroughs, both for commercial and defense, is essential. Exploitation of these opportunities and finding solutions to the associated challenges for defense aerospace will rely on highly effective partnerships between commercial development, scientific innovation, systems engineering, design and manufacturing.

  2. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  3. Sustainable ground transportation – review of technologies, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels, Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.

  4. Early recognition of technological opportunities. Realization and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the American consulting company Arthur D. Little, a number of procedures, including evaluation of literature data banks, expert interviews and expert workshops, were tried. A three-step concept was finally developed involving identification of candidate technologies (identification), collection of information on these candidates (exploration), ultimately leading to an assessment of the candidate technologies (evaluation). Such a procedure basically enables long-term observation of the scientific policy decisions. This information may serve to identify the deficits and strength of the German scientific system in comparison to that of other countries. Such a system permits the survey and documentation of scientists' subjective expectations on the trends of technology developments and the associated economic and other social consequences. It became apparent that this concept should not raise expectations too high and that it is not essentially different from the advisory instruments already employed today (advisory councils, expert consultants), but rather that these established procedures are merely systematized and supplemented by further information sources (e.g. data banks). In implementing this study two central sets of problems were identified which must be overcome: The early recognition of opportunities is in the long run based on analysts infiltrating the existing network of specialist scientists and examining the information in circulation there with respect to the aims of early recognition so that access to this network is a decisive requirement for an institutionalization of early recognition; incentive systems must be created motivating scientists to become actively involved in the early recognition of technological opportunities. (orig./HP)

  5. Decentralised CHP in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark.......The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark....

  6. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  7. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, Pedro [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Newell, LeLe [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  8. On the Sources and Significance of Interindustry Differences in Technological Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvin K. Klevorick; Richard C. Levin; Richard R. Nelson; Winter, Sidney G.

    1993-01-01

    The set of technological opportunities in a given industry is one of the fundamental determinants of technical advance in that line of business. We examine the concept of technological opportunity and discuss three categories of sources of those opportunities: advances in scientific understanding and technique, technological advances originating in other industries and in other private and governmental institutions, and feedbacks from an industry's own technological advances. Data from the Ya...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHP110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10711-1 | Contig-U13105-1 CHP1...10P (Link to Original site) CHP110F 130 CHP110Z 390 CHP110P 500 - - Show CHP110 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP1...11-1 | Contig-U13105-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHP1-A/CHP1...10Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHP110P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHP110 (CHP1...10Q) /CSM/CH/CHP1-A/CHP110Q.Seq.d/ TGTTGGCCTACTGGNACCTCCAACAAATAACAACCAACTTAGNATTTGTCAATTATATAT

  10. Development of a Packaged and Integrated Microturbine/ Chiller Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to define, develop, integrate, and validate at full scale the technology for a 1 MWe, microturbine-driven CHP packaged system for industrial or large commercial applications.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in polymer technology applied to veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, J M; Cid, A G; Ramírez-Rigo, M V; Quinteros, D; Simonazzi, A; Sánchez Bruni, S; Palma, S

    2014-04-01

    An important frontier in the administration of therapeutic drugs to veterinary species is the use of different polymers as drug delivery platforms. The usefulness of polymers as platforms for the administration of pharmaceutical and agricultural agents has been clearly recognized in the recent decades. The chemical versatility of polymers and the wide range of developed controlled-release strategies enhance the possibilities for the formulation of active molecules. In particular, the veterinary area offers opportunities for the development of novel controlled-release drug delivery technologies adapted to livestock or companion animal health needs. In some cases, it also allows to improve profitability in meat production or to meet the safety criteria related to drug residues. A number of factors affect the selection of polymers and subsequent properties of the controlled-release drug delivery system. However, their selection also dictates the release kinetics of the drug from the delivery system. Such choices are therefore crucial as they affect the success and potential of the delivery system for achieving the therapeutic goals of the veterinarian. It is the intention of this review to give an overview of the most relevant polymers, which are used or have been tested as drug delivery release rate modifiers in the veterinary field. The article highlights some recent developments focusing on their advantages and applications and analyzes the future direction of the scientific and technological advancements in this area. PMID:23980692

  12. Digital Technology and Mental Health Interventions: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet, mobile phones, social media and other digital technologies has changed our world in many ways. It has provided individuals with information that was previously only available to a select few. An example of the reach of technology is data that as of October 2012, there are over 6 billion phones worldwide (BBC, 2012. The availability of data in real time has presented hopes of intervening more efficiently and managing health problems by leveraging limited human resources. It also has an impact in changing the roles of providers and patients and in legal and ethical issues including privacy in digital health interactions. This paper will discuss why digital technology has received recent attention in the area of mental health, present some applications of technology for mental health to date, explore the challenges to full implementation in clinical settings, and present future opportunities for digital technologies.El crecimiento del Internet, los teléfonos móviles, las redes sociales y otras tecnologías digitales ha cambiado nuestro mundo de muchas maneras. Ha proporcionado a las personas con la información que antes sólo estaba disponible para un grupo selecto, por ejemplo a partir de octubre de 2012. Un ejemplo del alcance de la tecnología son los datos que dicen que hay más de 6 millones de teléfonos en todo el mundo (BBC, 2012. La disponibilidad de los datos en tiempo real a presentado la esperanza de intervenir de manera más eficiente y manejar los problemas de salud los recursos humanos limitados. También tiene un impacto en el cambio de los roles de los proveedores y los pacientes y en aspectos legales y éticos, incluyendo la privacidad en las interacciones de salud digital. Este artículo discutirá unas razones por cual la tecnología digital ha recibido atención recientemente en el área de salud mental, presentará algunas aplicaciones de la tecnología para mejorar la salud mental hasta la fecha

  13. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  14. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, Ken [ICF International; Hedman, Bruce [ICF International

    2009-03-01

    Data centers represent a rapidly growing and very energy intensive activity in commercial, educational, and government facilities. In the last five years the growth of this sector was the electric power equivalent to seven new coal-fired power plants. Data centers consume 1.5% of the total power in the U.S. Growth over the next five to ten years is expected to require a similar increase in power generation. This energy consumption is concentrated in buildings that are 10-40 times more energy intensive than a typical office building. The sheer size of the market, the concentrated energy consumption per facility, and the tendency of facilities to cluster in 'high-tech' centers all contribute to a potential power infrastructure crisis for the industry. Meeting the energy needs of data centers is a moving target. Computing power is advancing rapidly, which reduces the energy requirements for data centers. A lot of work is going into improving the computing power of servers and other processing equipment. However, this increase in computing power is increasing the power densities of this equipment. While fewer pieces of equipment may be needed to meet a given data processing load, the energy density of a facility designed to house this higher efficiency equipment will be as high as or higher than it is today. In other words, while the data center of the future may have the IT power of ten data centers of today, it is also going to have higher power requirements and higher power densities. This report analyzes the opportunities for CHP technologies to assist primary power in making the data center more cost-effective and energy efficient. Broader application of CHP will lower the demand for electricity from central stations and reduce the pressure on electric transmission and distribution infrastructure. This report is organized into the following sections: (1) Data Center Market Segmentation--the description of the overall size of the market, the size and

  15. CPV 101: Intro to CPV Technology, Opportunities and Challenges (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-26

    The presentation describes Concentrating Photovoltaic power (CPV), why it is important, the associated the opportunities and challenges, and more than 5-dozen companies that are pursuing the approach.

  16. Synchrotron Physics and Industry: new opportunities for technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , using the facility of variable energy selection, may provide new clinical insights. While X-ray lithography remains on hold, nanotechnology involving micromachining is already producing its first routine products and is attracting intense worldwide interest. The industrial opportunities for technology transfer are immense

  17. Innovative Technologies for Human Exploration: Opportunities for Partnerships and Leveraging Novel Technologies External to NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jason; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Reeves, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Human spaceflight organizations have ambitious goals for expanding human presence throughout the solar system. To meet these goals, spaceflight organizations have to overcome complex technical challenges for human missions to Mars, Near Earth Asteroids, and other distant celestial bodies. Resolving these challenges requires considerable resources and technological innovations, such as advancements in human health and countermeasures for space environments; self-sustaining habitats; advanced power and propulsion systems; and information technologies. Today, government space agencies seek cooperative endeavors to reduce cost burdens, improve human exploration capabilities, and foster knowledge sharing among human spaceflight organizations. This paper looks at potential opportunities for partnerships and spin-ins from economic sectors outside the space industry. It highlights innovative technologies and breakthrough concepts that could have significant impacts on space exploration and identifies organizations throughout the broader economy that specialize in these technologies.

  18. Analysis of the location for peak heating in CHP based combined district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is the main technology for providing the base load of district heating in China. However, CHP is not efficient for providing the peak load; instead, a peak boiler with high efficiency could be used to compensate the peak load. This paper studies how the location of the peak boiler can affect the energy efficiency and economic performance of such CHP based combined district heating system. Firstly, the connection mode and the control strategy for different peak heating locations are analyzed. Then the effect of the peak boiler's location on the initial investment of the network and the cost for distributing heat is studied. The objective is to place the peak boiler in a location where the overall costs are the smallest. Following this rule, the results indicate that the peak boiler should be located at the CHP plant if that allows using cheaper ‘self-use electricity’ in CHP for distributing the heat. However, if the market electricity price is used everywhere, or if energy efficiency is more emphasized, the location of the peak boiler should be closer to the users with dense heat loads. - Highlights: • Location for peak heating in the CHP based combined DH system is studied. • Regulation or control strategies for combined DH are summarized. • The heat load duration curve for combined DH is demonstrated. • Network design for combined DH with peak boiler outside of the CHP is analyzed

  19. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  20. 77 FR 14340 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Broadband Technology Opportunities Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in...; Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) Quarterly and Annual Performance Progress Reports AGENCY... broadband service to underserved areas of the country; (3) To provide broadband access, education,...

  1. New business opportunity: Green field project with new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Woo, Jong Hun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2014-06-01

    Since 2009 of global financial crisis, shipbuilding industry has undergone hard times seriously. After such a long depression, the latest global shipping market index shows that the economic recovery of global shipbuilding market is underway. Especially, nations with enormous resources are going to increase their productivity or expanding their shipyards to accommodate a large amount of orders expected in the near future. However, few commercial projects have been carried out for the practical shipyard layout designs even though those can be good commercial opportunities for shipbuilding engineers. Shipbuilding starts with a shipyard construction with a large scale investment initially. Shipyard design and the equipment layout problem, which is directly linked to the productivity of ship production, is an important issue in the production planning of mass production of ships. In many cases, shipbuilding yard design has relied on the experience of the internal engineer, resulting in sporadic and poorly organized processes. Consequently, economic losses and the trial and error involved in such a design process are inevitable problems. The starting point of shipyard construction is to design a shipyard layout. Four kinds of engineering parts required for the shipyard layout design and construction. Those are civil engineering, building engineering, utility engineering and production layout engineering. Among these parts, production layout engineering is most important because its result is used as a foundation of the other engineering parts, and also, determines the shipyard capacity in the shipyard lifecycle. In this paper, the background of shipbuilding industry is explained in terms of engineering works for the recognition of the macro trend. Nextly, preliminary design methods and related case study is introduced briefly by referencing the previous research. Lastly, the designed work of layout design is validated using the computer simulation technology.

  2. New business opportunity: Green field project with new technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seung Jae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009 of global financial crisis, shipbuilding industry has undergone hard times seriously. After such a long depression, the latest global shipping market index shows that the economic recovery of global shipbuilding market is underway. Especially, nations with enormous resources are going to increase their productivity or expanding their shipyards to accommodate a large amount of orders expected in the near future. However, few commercial projects have been carried out for the practical shipyard layout designs even though those can be good commercial opportunities for shipbuilding engineers. Shipbuilding starts with a shipyard construction with a large scale investment initially. Shipyard design and the equipment layout problem, which is directly linked to the productivity of ship production, is an important issue in the production planning of mass production of ships. In many cases, shipbuilding yard design has relied on the experience of the internal engineer, resulting in sporadic and poorly organized processes. Consequently, economic losses and the trial and error involved in such a design process are inevitable problems. The starting point of shipyard construction is to design a shipyard layout. Four kinds of engineering parts required for the shipyard layout design and construction. Those are civil engineering, building engineering, utility engineering and production layout engineering. Among these parts, production layout engineering is most important because its result is used as a foundation of the other engineering parts, and also, determines the shipyard capacity in the shipyard lifecycle. In this paper, the background of shipbuilding industry is explained in terms of engineering works for the recognition of the macro trend. Nextly, preliminary design methods and related case study is introduced briefly by referencing the previous research. Lastly, the designed work of layout design is validated using the computer simulation

  3. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    capacity constraints limit the efficient operation of the CHP plants. Heat pumps (HPs) can be used to decouple such constraints, but current state of the art are not competitive all things considered. Methods to improve the high energy efficiency are required to match the politically agreed carbon emission......In the current Danish energy system, the majority of electricity and heat is produced in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. With increasing shares of intermittent renewable power production, it becomes a challenging task to match power and heat production to its demand curves, as production...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...

  4. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  5. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  6. Opportunities for the Use of Business Data Analysis Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bāliņa, S; Žuka, R; Krasts, J

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the business data analysis technologies, provides their classification and considers relevant terminology. The feasibility of business data analysis technologies handling big data sources is overviewed. The paper shows the results of examination of the online big data source analytics technologies, data mining and predictive modelling technologies and their trends.

  7. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive. (author)

  8. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  9. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  10. Connection of small RES and CHP power generation units to the electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU member states have to ensure to the producers of 'green' electricity guaranteed access to the electrical grid including for small installations - Directive (2001/77/EC) of EC. For this reason the European Commission (EC) supports the project 'Production of Electricity with RES and CHP for Homeowners' - PERCH, in the framework of the program 'Intelligent Energy - Europe'. In the report the issues of connection (technical, contractual, tariff and metering) are investigated for small installations using RES and micro CHP, which are owned by individual family houses, small enterprises, etc. It is pointed out that small installations, mainly PV-systems, wind generators and small CHP, as well as combination of these technologies are rapidly applied on the European market. In Bulgaria the application of small PV-systems and wind generators, as well as CHP at present is limited. The elements for encouragement of such systems are defined, as well as the barriers for their wider application. (author)

  11. TEN-E revisited: Opportunities for HVDC technology

    OpenAIRE

    Buijs, Patrik; Cole, Stijn; Belmans, Ronnie

    2009-01-01

    The high voltage transmission grid is dominated by AC technology. This is justified by its technical characteristics and its cost efficiency. Although in future AC technology will still provide the core of the transmission grid, the changing context makes it ever more difficult to apply standard AC technology. Alternative technologies, such as VSC HVDC (Voltage Source Converter High Voltage Direct Current) become economically feasible. HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) is nothing new and has...

  12. Omakotitalokokoluokan mikro-CHP-laitokset

    OpenAIRE

    Kyllönen, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Työ tehtiin Oulun yliopiston Oulun Eteläisen instituutin Tulevaisuuden tuotantoteknologiat (FMT) -tutkimusryhmälle. Työn aiheena on tulevaisuuden energiaratkaisu omakotitalokokoluokassa. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä on miettiä konsepti mikro-CHP-laitokselle, jossa höyrykone on lämpövoimakoneena pyörittämässä generaattoriin liitettyä akselia. Tavoitteena on tehdä mahdollisimman kompakti hyvin eristetty laitos tulevaisuuden omakotitalon energiatarpeen tyydyttämiseksi. Työn on tehty tiedonha...

  13. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  14. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper;

    on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation...... of soil and groundwater, 3) cleaning of air, 4) reduction of energy consumption and 5) for improving hygiene in the health care sector by utilizing the antibacterial properties of certain nanomaterials....

  15. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  16. Educational Technology Use and Design for Improved Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of technology within educational settings has allowed for a substantial shift in the way in which educators teach learners of all ages. In order to implement these new learning tools, school administrators and teachers alike must seek new research outlining the latest innovations in the field. "Educational Technology Use and Design…

  17. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  18. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  19. A Storable, Hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle Technology Demonstrator for the 2020 Launch Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, A. A.; Karabeyoglu, M. A.; Cantwell, B. J.; Reeve, R.; Goldstein, B. G.; Hubbard, G. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Phoenix sized mission including a reduced payload, two-stage, hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle technology demonstrator is proposed for the 2020 opportunity. The hybrid MAV is storable on Mars and would retire risk for a Mars Sample Return campaign.

  20. SAGD produced water recycling: technology challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdicakis, B.; Fulton, C [Water Treatment Technology, Heavy Oil Technology Center, Statoil Canada Limited (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta's oil sands, several in situ technologies are used to recover bitumen. These techniques consist of producing and then injecting steam into the reservoir to mobilize the bitumen. These techniques are dependent on the use of water and equipment to produce steam and handling the water thus produced represents a significant investment. The purpose of this paper is to present Statoil's efforts in developing new technologies to address the water issue in SAGD operations. Different collaborative development projects, whose aims are to reduce costs, improve reliability and reduce the environmental footprint through a minimization of makeup water use, are presented. In addition to these programs, Statoil is working on the development of a Water Technology Development Center with the aim of accelerating the implementation of water recycling technologies. This paper highlights the participation of Statoil in several projects to develop innovative technologies which will address SAGD-produced water recycling challenges.

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHP159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP159 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15743-1 CHP159P (Link... to Original site) CHP159F 653 CHP159Z 743 CHP159P 1376 - - Show CHP159 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP159 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15743-1 Original site URL http://dict...TSTKXLSLDQVSLIVSIVFHHHVESSKRLQNQXKVNQAGSLVKKENLLALIKILH FDQSINRQQLNSILVQICTFSDNREELLCYILQILTGYQSIVSQQPQRKTAE...HHHVESSKRLQNQXKVNQAGSLVKKENLLALIKILH FDQSINRQQLNSILVQICTFSDNREELLCYILQILTGYQSIVSQ

  2. Anaerobic digestion and opportunities for international technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unmanaged pollutants from organic farm, industrial, and municipal wastes degrade in the environment, and methane emitted from their decomposition may contribute to global climate change. Under modern environmental regulations, these wastes are becoming difficult to dispose of using traditional means. One waste management system, anaerobic digestion or AD, not only prevents pollution but can also convert a disposal problem into a new profit center. This report summarizes the current status of AD as a key technology that both reduces waste and recovers a fuel and other valuable co-products, and AD possibilities for the future. Beyond the technology arena, this paper also discusses the efforts of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy AD Activity to encourage technology deployment. The Activity aims to provide reliable information on the cost-effectiveness of AD, markets for biogas and the other co-products, advanced technologies for biogas utilization, environmental benefits, and institutional barriers. The Activity's principal objectives are to accelerate exchange of information and practical experience, identify barriers to the deployment of AD technology, encourage the use of AD technology, and, where relevant, assist and encourage national Pilot and Demonstration (P and D) programs. The goal of these objectives is to increase the deployment of AD technologies and to transfer the ''lessons learned'' from past experience. (author)

  3. The Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer | Reagent Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    An objective of the Reagents and Resources component of NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer Initiative is to generate highly characterized monoclonal antibodies to human proteins associated with cancer.

  4. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  5. Multimedia technologies in university libraries: opportunities and tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavalbekh Serkhan Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia technologies (MMT are considered as a factor of qualitative changes of informational environment of education. Leading role of libraries in the process of integration of MMT environment of university is determined. Influence of libraries experience in usage of informational technologies both traditional and computer-aided, Internet in particular is observed. Determined that introduction of MMT noticeable improving the importance of library in MMT environment organization of universities, improvement of library informational service. Tasks of university libraries with integration into united media space are defining.

  6. Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A.; Elbert, Thomas; Sutton, Bradley P.; Heller, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the reasons for the contrast between the remarkable advances that hemodynamic and electromagnetic imaging of the human brain appear capable of delivering in clinical practice in psychology and their very limited penetration into practice to date. Both the heritages of the relevant technologies and the historical orientation of…

  7. Comparison of district heating CHP and distributed generation CHP with energy, environmental and economic criteria for Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • District heating CHP and distributed generation CHP are compared. • Energy, environmental and economic aspects are considered. • Analysed prime movers: internal combustion engines, microturbines, fuel cells. • Two scenario are discussed: maximum energy saving and maximum present value saving. • The trend of all the savings versus the CHP-size is also analysed. - Abstract: District heating CHP (combined heat and power) and distributed generation CHP have been compared in this paper on the basis of energy, environmental and economic criteria, and a deviation index has been proposed to establish, in aggregate form, what the improvement margins are for a given design choice. Three technologies that are suitable for both district heating and distributed generation have been chosen: a mature market technology, internal combustion engines, and recent entry market technologies, that is, microturbines, and fuel cells. The calculations have been based on the real heating load curve of a town in Northern Italy at the current market conditions: power and fuel prices, tax exemptions relative to cogeneration, white certificates, etc. Two scenarios have been considered: maximum energy saving and maximum present value saving. In the first scenario, district heating obtained better energy and CO2 savings than distributed generation, but critical values have been observed for local nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions, when internal combustion engines are adopted. In the second scenario, all the options offer positive energy, environmental and economic savings, and the payback times are significantly reduced compared to the previous scenario. The district heating options show the best present value savings and payback times, while distributed generation is only economically viable when internal combustion engines are adopted. Microturbines leads to the best NOx savings. Finally, the comparison with an alternative separate production of heat

  8. Renewable Energy Technologies in Ghana: Opportunities and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Amuzuvi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, there is a monopoly of electricity generation, transmission and distribution by some governmental agencies, resulting in little or no access to electricity in rural communities where a larger proportion of the population resides. A study of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET in Ghana is presented in this study. The renewable energy technology discussed is based on solar Photovoltaics (PV. This study addresses some of the vital factors that have prevented the growth of a viable market for RETs using solar PV as a typical example. Adverse policy environment and lack of financing are cited as the main barriers to be surmounted. Recommendations are made for government and all stakeholders to engage the private sector to give the RET industries a boost. The injection of an electrification fund is proposed to support grid extension to areas of proven economic potential using RET.

  9. Information and communication technologies in peacebuilding : implications, opportunities and challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Tellidis, Ioannis; Kappler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the volume of research exploring the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for destructive purposes (terrorism, crime, war propaganda) on the one hand, and development (ICT4D) on the other hand, very little has been said about the role that traditional, and especially new social media, can play for the transformation and prevention of conflicts. This paper recognises ICTs as a tool, thus accepting their multi-level and multi-dimensional potential in the transformati...

  10. Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies : Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gregory A.; Elbert, Thomas; Bradley P. Sutton; Heller, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the reasons for the contrast between the remarkable advances that hemodynamic and electromagnetic imaging of the human brain appear capable of delivering in clinical practice in psychology and their very limited penetration into practice to date. Both the heritages of the relevant technologies and the historical orientation of clinical psychology away from biological phenomena are factors. Discussion of some technical aspects and prospects of these methods and recommendatio...

  11. EPA and the Federal Technology Transfer Act: Opportunity knocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatchett, A.M.; Fradkin, L.; Moore, M.; Gorman, T.; Ehrlich, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    In 1986, the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) was established to promote a closer, collaborative relationship between federal government agencies and the private sector. With the increasing need for new cost-effective technologies to prevent and control pollution, both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and private industry are encouraged to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology under this Act. The FTTA removed several of the legal and institutional barriers to cooperative research that existed before the Act`s passage. Through the FTTA, the government strives to promote the movement of its products, processes, skills, and knowledge into the private sector for further development and commercialization by encouraging the exchange of technical personnel and the sharing of facilities and other resources. Collaborative efforts between industry, federal agencies, and academia are made possible through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Forty-two CRADAs and five licensing agreements have been initiated with EPA under this program. This paper provides an overview of this new and innovative program within the EPA. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 oC. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  13. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. The example of German technology providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market. (author)

  14. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  15. Educating the patient: challenges and opportunities with current technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry

    2011-09-01

    Patients using the Internet are inundated with abundant information on health care that may be correct and may be incorrect. It is becoming the role of clinicians to enable patients to educate themselves by providing information about accurate and reliable Web sites, and to answer questions from literature that patients encounter. In addition, there is a myriad of technological advances to help patients and clinicians access, retrieve, and file information, and numerous communication tools to foster the patient-clinician dialog. This article provides an overview and some recommendations for clinicians to help patients better use information to achieve better outcomes. PMID:21791269

  16. Opportunities for single event modeling in emerging commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single event effects - once the domain of high-reliability circuits destined for space applications and highly susceptible DRAMs with alpha-emitting packaging - are now envisioned to be a critical and wide-spread reliability issue for most future-generation commercial integrated circuits. Soft error rate specifications are now commonly found in commercial technology development road-maps. Commercial integrated circuit manufacturing companies, with no interest in space systems, are undertaking single event modeling efforts. This presentation will discuss modeling issues that are emerging as SEE analysis expands from a mission-critical to a commercial reliability-driven environment. (author)

  17. Dissemination of opportunities in nuclear science and technology in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, activities in the fields of nuclear science are increasing in Mexico. Notwithstanding the existence of just one nuclear power plant in the country, the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, young people (ages from 18 to 25) show a significant interest in areas such as environmental protection, nuclear safety, nuclear regulation, food irradiation, materials science, medical and industrial uses of ionising radiation, but this interest is heterogeneous and poorly grounded. Several schools provide formation of professionals in Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering. On the other hand, there are research institutes dedicated to specialized industrial activities which provide post-graduate courses and specific training in nuclear technology and related fields, and in radiation protection. However, there is a lack of a proper bond between schools and research institutes, and young people. Must of the students without a career orientation simply make their choice considering geographic and economic aspects. This kind of student is the focus of our interest in constructing the required proper bond between young people and nuclear technology. This paper evaluates the concept of a fair-festival event, and examines the possibility of it's use to promote the nuclear field in Mexico. Other current dissemination activities are considered too. (author)

  18. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  19. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  20. Opportunities and Challenges of Using Technology in Mathematics Education of Creative Technical Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and challenges of integrating technology to support mathematics teaching and learning in creative engineer- ing disciplines. We base our discussion on data from our research in the Media Technology department of Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark. Our ana...... analysis proposes that unlike in other engineering disciplines, technology in these disciplines should be used for contextualizing mathematics rather than in- troducing and exploring mathematical concepts....

  1. Health Technology Assessment and vaccine: new needs and opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health Technology Assessment (HTA can represent an innovative and effective approach to supply decisionmakers with a valid instrument to improve the allocation of resources in the field of vaccines. We proposed a HTA approach for considering the introduction of a new vaccine that could potentially have a great impact on the population’s health, using as an example the vaccine against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. This approach could be of great interest when the decision making process involves choices regarding new vaccines. We developed a HTA approach for assessing all of the aspects involved in the introduction of vaccines against HPV in Italy, considering the following issues: - epidemiological evaluation of HPV infection and related pathologies through the consultation of data banks and the scientific literature; - evaluation of health care resources utilisation by people suffering from the infection/ related diseases, through the consultation of hospital archives; - systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials on HPV vaccination effectiveness and safety; - mathematical modelling and economic evaluation of the vaccination using a cost-effectiveness analysis; - evaluation of the impact of vaccination on the Health System [organisational aspects, vaccine surveillance, relationship between different decisional levels (national, regional]; - analysis of the ethical, social (acceptability, availability, accessibility, information and legislative aspects of vaccination. A HTA report on the new vaccine could represent an new important tool to support the choice of decision makers in order to better inform the allocation of economic resources and maximize healthcare services, since it takes into account not only the burden and the epidemiology of the disease, and the economic evaluation of different scenarios, but also the social, legal and bioethical aspects. For HTA to support the introduction of new technologies, and new

  2. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo;

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation for...... approaches are formulated using binary and Special-Ordered-Set (SOS) variables. Both suggestions have been implemented into the optimization model DER–CAM to simulate investment decisions of CHP micro-turbines and CHP fuel cells with variable efficiencies. The approaches have further been applied...... promising method to model variable efficiencies in terms of computational costs and results. It should especially be considered for specific fuel cell technologies. Further investigation on the impacts of this approach on the prediction of fuel cell and micro-turbine performance is suggested....

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHP695 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 267 |AC117267.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 5836255-5862024 strain AX4, complete seq...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHP6-D/CHP695Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Represe...ntative DNA sequence >CHP695 (CHP695Q) /CSM/CH/CHP6-D/CHP695Q.Seq.d/ CTGTTGGCCTACTGGNA...GGTGGTACATCAGGTAGTTCATCAAGTGGTAGTTCATCAGGTGGXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequ...SGGTSGGSSSGGTSGGSSSGGTSGSSSSGSSSG--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: llaywxfyf*siqikkkt

  4. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  5. Mesh generation technology for nuclear reactor simulation; barriers and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesh generation in support of nuclear reactor simulation has much in common with the requirements of other application areas, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Indeed, fluid dynamics analysis of the coolant behavior inside the reactor core is an internal flow problem that requires the resolution of spatial and temporal variations in the flow caused by complex component configurations, fluids/structure interaction, turbulence, and thermal heating of the coolant. Typical concerns of meshing complex geometries; the use of hexahedral vs. tetrahedral elements, element geometric quality, mesh smoothness, use of anisotropic elements in the thermal boundary layer, etc., are all considerations important to the reactor meshing problem. Reactor meshing begins to become more specialized as the need to employ reactor simulation as a predictive design and safety analysis capability grows in importance. First, a predictive capability will require more precise physical models to be included, and these models will need to be supported by a computational science framework that will allow them to be accurately approximated both spatially and temporally during the reactor core analysis. Both the multiphysical nature of the composite reactor model and details of the physics algorithms themselves will place new requirements on the meshing process needed to support multidimensional reactor simulation. This article discusses the current state of meshing technology applied to reactor simulation and examines a set of issues that are important in the generation of high-quality reactor meshes today and in the future

  6. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  7. Technology for site remediation: availability, needs and opportunities for R and D at SCK/CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G.

    1996-09-18

    Considerable experience has been gained over the past years in the use of control and treatment technologies, applied to contaminated sites and environments. Although available technologies are adequate in many cases, it is recognized that many technologies are too costly or inadequate to address the multitude of contaminant problems. This insight has led national and international organizations as well as private organizations and universities to sponsor environment technology programmes to address technology needs. The United States Department of Energy for example has initiated an aggressive environmental technology development programme and the Commission of the European Union is sponsoring environmental technology development. An overview is given of innovative and emerging technologies that may become important. Opportunities for SCK/CEN in research, development, and demonstration programmes are outlined.

  8. Ecological assessment of new CHP systems and their combination; Oekologische Bewertung neuer WKK-Systeme und Systemkombinationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on new developments in the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation area. The objective of this study is an ecological and technical evaluation of various CHP systems and system combinations. These also include suitable combinations with other technologies. Systems for five different temperature levels are quantified according to their environmental impact. Various possible applications are compared with a highly efficient reference system using separate heat and power generation - a combined-cycle plant and a heat pump. For chilled water production a combination of the CHP system with an absorption chiller is investigated. The results of the investigations are presented and commented on. Also, advantageous applications of CHP systems are noted.

  9. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Lund, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2010-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency...... related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous...... configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic...

  10. Technology and the delivery of the curriculum of the future: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing availability of a wide range of technology that has the potential to support and enhance the curriculum of the future. Learners expect to use technology for their learning, but this requires the development of information and digital literacy skills to maximise the potential learning opportunities. Learning resources will be increasingly delivered by a variety of mobile devices and also through different immersive and virtual learning environments. Mobile devices and Web 2.0 technology provide opportunities for learners to create their own deep and personalised learning experiences that are relevant for future professional practice. Tutors have a crucial guidance and support role for the effective use of technology for learning. There is a little evidence base to support the impact on learning for many of the potential scenarios and further research is urgently required. PMID:22746960

  11. An ANP application for identifying and prioritizing opportunities and threatens for technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Attaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been different changes in global market due to fast development of science and technology. These changes have increased competition among all existing companies and it has made it difficult for new rivals to gain market share. This paper tries to identify the opportunities and threats of technology transfer in one of world’s fastest growing gas development regions called Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. The proposed model of this paper first identify important factors influencing both opportunities as well as threats and then uses analytical hierarchy process to rank all factors. The results show that the threats were more important than the existing opportunities and among the most important threats, embargo and sales of oil were the most important ones.

  12. The Opportunities and Challenges of Persuasive Technology in Creating Sustainable Innovation and Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Lindgren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    -focused sustainable innovation and business model innovation, which is explored through a theoretical review and case examples in the present study. The findings reveal a number of key opportunities to pursue and a number of critical challenges to adjust to as presented in propositions.......The opportunities of persuasive technology in facilitating sustainable innovation and business model innovation have been witnessed continuously during the last decade. The unique ability of persuasive technology in interacting and mediating across users, customers, decisions makers and other...... stakeholders provides access to core knowledge about behavior and opportunities to influence and even change their behavior in a positive and more sustainable manner. Sustainable innovation and business model innovation is gaining more and more competitive leverage due to customer requirements, the growing...

  13. Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutule, Anna; Obushevs, Artjoms; Lvov, Aleksandr;

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the main goals and achievements of the Smart Grids ERA-NET project named “Efficient identification of opportunities for Distributed Generation based on Smart Grid Technology (SmartGen)” during the second stage of project implementation. A description of Smart Grid Technology (SGT......) models developed within the framework of the project is given. The performed study cases where the SGT-models were implemented to analyze the impact of the electrical grid are discussed....

  14. D3.21. Political, social and industrial opportunities arising from the use of emerging technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsiopoulos, Ioannis; Yannapoulos, Angelos; Watson, Hayley; Finn, Rachel; Wadhwa, Kush; Papadimitriou, Alex

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The present document is the first version of the deliverable “Report on the political, social and industrial opportunities arising from the use of emerging technologies” (D3.21) of the COSMIC Support Action. The purpose is to look into the political, social and industrial implications of the use of emerging technologies in crisis situations, in relation to existing policies and standards for the development and use of such technologies, as well as to highligh...

  15. OPPORTUNITIES OF INFORMATION - COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PALESTINIAN WOMEN - MEDIA AND DISTANCE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Toprak; Secil Banar; Berrin Ozkanal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the sociocultural opportunities provided by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Palestinian women are dwelled on. The utilization of the ICT in education has led to the development of online distance education as a new learning environment. The aim of the paper is to elaborate and discuss the status of new communication technologies in the quest of Palestinian women via reviewing literature and evaluating statistics for the case of distance education.

  16. The Strategic Evaluation of Technology Innovation Opportunities in Waste Strategy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, Peter P.

    2004-01-01

    Technology innovation is needed to support sustainable waste management systems and innovation should be viewed as a central focus of policy design. The difficulty is that policy is designed at a single point in time where as the environment and the processes of innovation are dynamic. The research investigates the extent to which the design of European Union waste policy and its implementation in the UK stimulates the opportunity for technology innovation. The research inve...

  17. Modeling work of a small scale gasifier/SOFC CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Aravind, P.V.; Qu, Z.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: ming.liu@tudelft.nl, p.v.aravind@tudelft.nl, z.qu@tudelft.nl, n.woudstra@tudelft.nl, a. h. m. verkooijen@tudelft.nl; Cobas, V.R.M. [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Pinheirinhos, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    For a highly efficient biomass gasification/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation system, the gasifier, the accompanying gas cleaning technologies and the CHP unit must be carefully designed as an integrated unit. This paper describes such a system involving a two-stage fixed-bed down draft gasifier, a SOFC CHP unit and a gas cleaning system. A gas cleaning system with both low temperature and high temperature sections is proposed for coupling the gasifier and the SOFC. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for the gasifier/SOFC system with the proposed gas cleaning system. The net AC electrical efficiency of this system is around 30% and the overall system efficiency is around 60%. This paper also describes various exergy losses in the system and the future plans for integrated gasifier-GCU-SOFC experiments from which the results will be used to validate the modeling results of this system. (author)

  18. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  19. Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information Technology: A Decade of Broadening Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Orpheus S. L.; Harrison, Christopher D.; Haas, Guy; Garcia, Daniel D.; Humphreys, Sheila M.; Lewis, Colleen M.; Khooshabeh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information Technology is a decade-old endeavor to expose pre-college young women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities to the fields of computer science and engineering, and prepare them for rigorous, university-level study. We have served more than 150 students, and graduated more than 65…

  20. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) and study on new opportunities in plasma science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of plasma science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the PLSC to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of PLSC activities from July 15, 1991 to May 31, 1992. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier reports. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the PLSC study on opportunities in plasma science and technology. During the above period, the PLSC has continued to track and participate in, when requested, discussions on the health of the field. Much of the perspective of the PLSC has been presented in the recently-published report Research Briefing on Contemporary Problems in Plasma Science. That report has served as the basis for briefings to representatives of the federal government as well as the community-at-large. In keeping with its charge to identify and highlight specific areas for scientific and technological opportunities, the PLSC completed publication of the report Plasma Processing of Materials: Scientific and Technological Opportunities and launched a study on new opportunities in plasma science and technology

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHP463 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP463 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHP463P (Link to Original site) CHP463F ... sk*nvyryccnynifsinflcy*ntg*kiy*reksqksi*is**sts*ts*etc ... c*nr*tlfiwl*krsktk*klfl*frkeii*tpth*mlfqrty*lntisk ...

  2. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  3. Optimal design of CHP-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to current centralised energy generation systems, microgrids are adopted to provide local energy with lower energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DER). Several micro combined heat and power technologies have been developed recently for applications at domestic scale. The optimal design of DERs within CHP-based microgrids plays an important role in promoting the penetration of microgrid systems. In this work, the optimal design of microgrids with CHP units is addressed by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation model which integrates the results of a life cycle assessment of the microgrids investigated. The results show that the installation of multiple CHP technologies has a lower cost with higher environmental saving compared with the case when only a single technology is installed in each site, meaning that the microgrid works in a more efficient way when multiple technologies are selected. In general, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are chosen as the basic CHP technology for most solutions, which offers lower environmental impacts at low cost. However, internal combustions engines (ICE) and Stirling engines (SE) are preferred if the heat demand is high. - Highlights: • Optimal design of microgrids is addressed by coupling environmental and economic aspects. • An MILP model is formulated based on the ε-constraint method. • The model selects a combination of CHP technologies with different technical characteristics for optimum scenarios. • The global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) are determined. • The output of LCA is used as an input for the optimisation model

  4. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program perspective on technology transfer: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (DOE LLWMP) perspective in regard to transfer of LLWMP technology to current and potential users in both the commercial and defense sectors is discussed. Past, present, and future opportunities and challenges for the whole nuclear waste management are indicated. Elements considered include: historical and evolutionary events and activities; the purpose of the Program and its inherent opportunities and challenges; achievements and expected accomplishments; supporters and interactors; packaging and delivering technology; implementing and serving potential users; determining and meeting users' needs; and identifying and responding to opportunities and challenges. The low-level waste management effort to improve shallow land burial technology began in FY 1977 and has expanded to include waste treatment and alternative disposal methods. Milestones have been established and are used as principal management control items. This technology, the Program Product, is described and is made available. This year, the Program has drafted criteria for inclusion in a DOE order for radioactive waste management operations at DOE sites

  5. Human Subjects Protection and Technology in Prevention Science: Selected Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R; Wyman, Peter A; Mohr, David C; Perrino, Tatiana; Gallo, Carlos; Villamar, Juan; Kendziora, Kimberly; Howe, George W; Sloboda, Zili; Brown, C Hendricks

    2016-08-01

    Internet-connected devices are changing the way people live, work, and relate to one another. For prevention scientists, technological advances create opportunities to promote the welfare of human subjects and society. The challenge is to obtain the benefits while minimizing risks. In this article, we use the guiding principles for ethical human subjects research and proposed changes to the Common Rule regulations, as a basis for discussing selected opportunities and challenges that new technologies present for prevention science. The benefits of conducting research with new populations, and at new levels of integration into participants' daily lives, are presented along with five challenges along with technological and other solutions to strengthen the protections that we provide: (1) achieving adequate informed consent with procedures that are acceptable to participants in a digital age; (2) balancing opportunities for rapid development and broad reach, with gaining adequate understanding of population needs; (3) integrating data collection and intervention into participants' lives while minimizing intrusiveness and fatigue; (4) setting appropriate expectations for responding to safety and suicide concerns; and (5) safeguarding newly available streams of sensitive data. Our goal is to promote collaboration between prevention scientists, institutional review boards, and community members to safely and ethically harness advancing technologies to strengthen impact of prevention science. PMID:27220838

  6. Technology transfer of brain-computer interfaces as assistive technology: barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, F

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an analysis of perspectives from different stakeholders on the state-of-the-art of BCI. Three barriers for technology transfer of BCIs as access technologies are identified. First, BCIs are developed with a narrow focus on creating a reliable technology, while a broader focus on creating a usable technology is needed. Second, the potential target group, which could benefit from BCIs as access technologies is expected to be very small. Development costs are therefore high, while reimbursements are expected to be low, which challenges the commercial viability. Third, potential target users should be much more included in the design process of BCIs to ensure that the end-products meet technical, ethical, legal and social requirements. These three issues need to be urgently addressed so that target users may benefit from this promising technology. PMID:25595535

  7. Technology Opportunities in Nordic Energy System Transitions (TOP-NEST): Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Klitkou, Antje; Bolwig, Simon; Coenen, Lars; Solér, Ola; Scordato, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of the 4-year research project “Technology Opportunities in Nordic Energy System Transitions (TOP-NEST). The project was funded by Nordic Energy Research, under the Sustainable Energy Programme 2050. We thank Nordic Energy Research for the funding. The project partners were NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (project leader), CIRCLE Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy and the Faculty of...

  8. Starting a New Technology Course?: An Opportunity to Develop Student Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2008-01-01

    Starting a new course can be intimidating, especially if the person is the first to teach it in his or her school district. A teacher must take many things into consideration when constructing the content for a new course. The primary focus should be on the development of student technological literacy. The International Technology Education…

  9. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M. [Distributed Utility Associates, San Ramon, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  10. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  11. Gene and protein targeting technologies create novel opportunities in plant biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important platform technology that is missing in the field of plant science is gene targeting through homologous recombination. Moreover, for many economically important plant varieties, robust and efficient protocols for vegetative propagation and genetic modification are still lacking. The availability of such technologies is essential for the further development of plant biotechnology. Add2X Biosciences BV is a young biotech spin-off from Leiden University that aims to create novel opportunities in plant biotechnology, by developing innovative platform technologies and products for the directed and efficient delivery of DNA and proteins into plant cells. The Add2X portfolio includes: 1. Efficient gene targeting in plants through suppression of the non-homologous recombination pathway. Proof of concept has been obtained in different yeasts and filamentous fungi. Currently, research is in progress to confirm the applicability of this technology in plant species. 2. Agrobacterium-mediated protein translocation to produce and transiently 'inject' proteins of interest into plant cells in order to exert their function without permanently altering the host cells. 3. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in hitherto recalcitrant crop species. A protein family was identified that, when over-expressed, stimulates the spontaneous formation of somatic embryos from vegetative plant cells. The Add2X technologies stand well on their own, but clearly have the potential to be combined into integrated technologies or products. The technologies are developed in close collaboration with Leiden University. In addition, Add2X has established strategic alliances with other academic and industrial partners to explore novel opportunities and to achieve rapid implementation of the technologies in the biotechnology sector. (author)

  12. U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies: Emerging Global Technologies and R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, Joan [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies Workshop hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) on held on June 23, 2015. Representatives from industry, government, and academia met at the offices of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Washington, DC, to share information on emerging steel technologies, issues impacting technology investment and deployment, gaps in research and development (R&D), and opportunities for greater energy efficiency. The results of the workshop are summarized in this report. They reflect a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated by the individuals who attended and not all-inclusive of the steel industry and stakeholder community.

  13. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  14. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOXsm, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE's mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM's Office of Technology Development, has funded this work

  15. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions; KWK-Ausbaustrategie in NRW. Eine Blaupause fuer andere Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Dominik [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Sabine [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  16. Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ► Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ► The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ► Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

  17. Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems Using Fuzzy Shannon Entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Cavallaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration can play a strategic role in addressing environmental issues and climate change. CHP systems require less fuel than separate heat and power systems in order to produce the same amount of energy saving primary energy, improving the security of the supply. Because less fuel is combusted, greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants are reduced. If we are to consider the CHP system as “sustainable”, we must include in its assessment not only energetic performance but also environmental and economic aspects, presenting a multicriteria issue. The purpose of the paper is to apply a fuzzy multicriteria methodology to the assessment of five CHP commercial technologies. Specifically, the combination of the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy and the fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS approach will be tested for this purpose. Shannon’s entropy concept, using interval data such as the α-cut, is a particularly suitable technique for assigning weights to criteria—it does not require a decision-making (DM to assign a weight to the criteria. To rank the proposed alternatives, a fuzzy TOPSIS method has been applied. It is based on the principle that the chosen alternative should be as close as possible to the positive ideal solution and be as far as possible from the negative ideal solution. The proposed approach provides a useful technical–scientific decision-making tool that can effectively support, in a consistent and transparent way, the assessment of various CHP technologies from a sustainable point of view.

  18. Talking back to theory: the missed opportunities in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oliver

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research into learning technology has developed a reputation for being drivenby rhetoric about the revolutionary nature of new developments, for payingscant attention to theories that might be used to frame and inform research, andfor producing shallow analyses that do little to inform the practice of education.Although there is theoretically-informed research in learning technology, this isin the minority, and has been actively marginalised by calls for applied designwork. This limits opportunities to advance knowledge in the field. Using threeexamples, alternative ways to engage with theory are identified. The paper concludesby calling for greater engagement with theory, and the development of ascholarship of learning technology, in order to enrich practice within the fieldand demonstrate its relevance to other fields of work.

  19. Technologies for utilizing natural resources create new job opportunities in the geosciences in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Water, soils, minerals, and biota constitute a community's most significant natural resources. Innovations in technology are generating new jobs in converting into a resource what was yesterday a non-resource; in developing process and control technologies to minimize wastes; and in waste recycling.“Resources are not, they become,” in the words of Zimmerman. In the case of the developing countries, the technologies of choice have not only to be ecologically sustainable and economically viable, but more importantly, employment generating. The new kinds of jobs—for example, in poverty alleviation projects via micro-enterprises based on value-added processing of natural resources—have a strong environmental relevance and tend to lie at the interface of several traditional scientific disciplines. Geoscience graduates in the developing countries are best placed to take advantage of these new job opportunities involving Earth materials, but only if they are exposed to broad-based geoscience instruction.

  20. Investment in new power generation under uncertainty: Benefits of CHP vs. condensing plants in a copula-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we apply a spread-based real options approach to analyze the decision-making problem of an investor who has the choice between an irreversible investment in a condensing power plant without heat utilization and a plant with combined heat-and-power (CHP) generation. Our investigation focuses on large-scale fossil-fueled generation technologies and is based on a stochastic model that uses copula functions to provide the input parameters of the real options model. We define the aggregated annual spread as assessment criteria for our investigation since it contains all relevant volatile input parameters that have an impact on the evaluation of investment decisions. We show that the specific characteristics of CHP plants, such as additional revenues from heat sales, promotion schemes, specific operational features, and a beneficial allocation of CO2 allowances, have a significant impact on the option value and therefore on the optimal timing for investment. For the two fossil-fueled CHP technologies investigated (combined-cycle gas turbine and steam turbine), we conclude from our analysis that a high share of CHP generation reduces the risk exposure for the investor. The maximal possible CHP generation depends significantly on the local heat demand in the surroundings of the power plant. Considering this, the size of the heat sink available could gain more relevance in the future selection process of sites for new large-scale fossil power plants.

  1. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla;

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, the development of local combined heat and power (CHP) plants has been characterised by large growth throughout the nineties, based in part on government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. Simultaneously, there has been a significant growth of wind power, particularly in the...... Western Danish system. As both the power produced by the local CHPs and the wind power are prioritised, the production of these types of power is occasionally sufficient to meet the total demand in the system, causing the market price to drop dramatically, sometimes even to zero-level. In line with the...... liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...

  2. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  3. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  4. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHP195 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP195 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11819-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) CHP195F 138 - - - - - - Show CHP195 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP195 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11819-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...qilkvstnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICTYKKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllvfsnt*gink*...iin*kllck*sl*nnnynkymyi*kk--- Frame B: llaywffqilkvstnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICTYKKK--- Frame C: cwptgffkylryqq

  6. Fuel cell technology in Switzerland; Die Brennstoffzellen-Technologie in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieba, L.; Tauer, A.

    2001-07-01

    This is a short report assessing the present status of fuel cell technology development in Switzerland. In a first section the basic fuel cell variants are described, together with their potential uses according to their power and operating temperature ranges. The authors then highlight the expected market segments to be covered by Swiss fuel cells. In the mid term (10 years) they mainly see opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in residential buildings in the 1-10 kW power range by means of solid oxide fuel cells, for CHP generation in the 200 kW power range by means of phosphoric acid fuel cells as well as for devices replacing generators and motors in the 1 kW power range. In the longer run, many more opportunities may appear for fuel cells. Technology transfer from research and education institutes to industry has begun and should further be promoted.

  7. Development of Next Generation micro-CHP System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    Novel proposals for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-andpower) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology are described and analyzed to investigate the technical feasibility of such systems. The proposed systems must...... provide electricity, hot water, and space heating for an average single-family household in Denmark. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The research project is divided into five main study...... topics: (a) Modeling, simulation and validation of the system in LabVIEW environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components, and thereby more realistic design in the future; (b) Modeling, parametric study, and sensitivity analysis of the system in EES (Engineering Equation Solver...

  8. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland; Beseitigung von Hemmnissen bei der Verbreitung von Waermekraftkopplung (WKK) in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Landis, F. [Interface Politikstudien Forschung Beratung, Luzern (Switzerland); Lienhard, A.; Marti Locher, F. [Universitaet Bern, Kompetenzzentrum fuer Public Management (KPM), Bern (Switzerland); Krummenacher, S. [Enerprice Partners AG, Technopark Luzern, Root Laengenbold (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  9. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Mayer

    2010-03-31

    ECR International and its joint venture company, Climate Energy, are at the forefront of the effort to deliver residential-scale combined heat and power (Micro-CHP) products to the USA market. Part of this substantial program is focused on the development of a new class of steam expanders that offers the potential for significantly lower costs for small-scale power generation technology. The heart of this technology is the scroll expander, a machine that has revolutionized the HVAC refrigerant compressor industry in the last 15 years. The liquid injected cogeneration (LIC) technology is at the core of the efforts described in this report, and remains an excellent option for low cost Micro-CHP systems. ECR has demonstrated in several prototype appliances that the concept for LIC can be made into a practical product. The continuing challenge is to identify economical scroll machine designs that will meet the performance and endurance requirements needed for a long life appliance application. This report describes the numerous advances made in this endeavor by ECR International. Several important advances are described in this report. Section 4 describes a marketing and economics study that integrates the technical performance of the LIC system with real-world climatic data and economic analysis to assess the practical impact that different factors have on the economic application of Micro-CHP in residential applications. Advances in the development of a working scroll steam expander are discussed in Section 5. A rigorous analytical assessment of the performance of scroll expanders, including the difficult to characterize impact of pocket to pocket flank leakage, is presented in Section 5.1. This is followed with an FEA study of the thermal and pressure induced deflections that would result from the normal operation of an advanced scroll expander. Section 6 describes the different scroll expanders and test fixtures developed during this effort. Another key technical

  10. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Romaniuk; A. A. Bobich

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known ...

  12. Contribution to a Danish action plan for development and demonstration of CHP from solid biomass; Oplaeg til en national handlingsplan for udvikling og demonstration indenfor kraftvarme fra fast biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-01-15

    The report is the contribution from the industry to an action plan for development and demonstration of CHP technology for solid biomass. The report aims to serve as inspiration and basis for administrators and applicants of Danish funding schemes for development and demonstration in future tenders. Although Danish-based cogeneration technologies for solid biofuels are advanced compared to the competitors in many areas there is a large need to continuously improve the technology by sustained development and demonstration activities. The aim is to overcome the technological barriers that this project has identified and thus maintain competitiveness. The industry currently has very strong focus on market deployment of especially technologies for cogeneration in small scale (up to 15 MW thermal power) and on the overall economy of these plants. Reference installations that displays many operational hours with a reasonable economy, are crucial for investors. Currently, no companies market commercial plants that have sufficiently low costs to operate under Danish conditions and few do for the conditions found internationally. Thus, from the industry perspective there is still a need for development and demonstration of CHP technology below 15 MW thermal. The analysis does not exclude any technology tracks, but the development and demonstration efforts should lead to improvements in conditions such as availability, efficiencies and operating and maintenance costs. Also technologies for large plants and systems need to be improved with respect to availability and efficiency and reduced operating and maintenance costs. For all technologies, there is a need to develop the use of special solid biofuels that on the one hand may have troublesome characteristics but on the other may help lower operating costs. The Danish-based companies have good opportunities to find support for the development and demonstration effort. A number of support programs and pools are in place and

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHP149 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP149 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15648-1 CHP149P (Link to Original ... udogene (FLJ12598), the gene for a novel Mov34/MPN/PAD -1 family domain containing protein (KIAA1373 FLJ35 ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHP817 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP817 (Link to dictyBase) - G20462 DDB0229964 Contig-U15900-1 CHP817P (Lin ... ces. 44 1.9 1 CX075784 |CX075784.1 UCRCS08_46H11_b Parent ... Washington Navel Orange Callus cDNA Library UCRCS0 ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHP330 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP330 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11900-1 CHP330P (Link to Original ... 1844.1 Clostridium magnum acoR gene, complete cds; TPP -dependent acetoin dehydrogenase alpha and beta sub ...

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHP245 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP245 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16361-1 CHP245P (Link to Original ... 1-47.b_041.ab1 Whole-genome shotgun library of the elephant ... shark (aka elephant ... fish) Callorhinchus milii geno ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHP317 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP317 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11087-1 CHP317P (Link to Original ... 2-28.g_054.ab1 Whole-genome shotgun library of the elephant ... shark (aka elephant ... fish) Callorhinchus milii geno ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHP127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP127 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHP127P (Link to Original ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHP837 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP837 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16405-1 CHP837P (Link to Original ... ikyc*glyi*cfgfsilsksiqfei**ktkniw*ry shywlifkiiwws*fpy *fh*ck*tf--- ---emkvervhsllqhslefvqdqvqh*pi*nq*fqkf ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHP314 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP314 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11143-1 | Contig-U16256-1 CHP314P ... ession in good prognostic human neuroblastoma upon comparison ... between good prognostic human neuroblastoma and po ...

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHP579 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP579 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16298-1 | Contig-U16523-1 CHP579P ... Translated Amino Acid sequence tvgllx*qykffkylfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQS PLKQRTNNNNYQ ... sequence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllx*qykffkylfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQS PLKQRTNNNNYQ ...

  2. Simulation of micro-CHP diffusion by means of System Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simulation analysis with System Dynamics of the possible diffusion of micro-systems for combined heat-power generation (μ-CHP) as a substitute for centralised electricity generation and local boilers in the residential sector. Decentralised energy production is an important challenge in the 21st century to respond to the threats of exhaustion of non-renewable resources, and of global pollution. The purpose of the System Dynamics modelling is to show the difficulties μ-CHP faces, like most innovative technologies, mainly due to its high investment costs. Feedbacks are important in modelling the diffusion process of this technology and the fundamental aspect of learning effects on the cost decrease. The consumer model is based on the replacement of traditional boilers by μ-CHP installations using the Bass diffusion model. It is shown that natural economic forces are probably not sufficient to achieve a sustained growth. Several incentive schemes to be implemented by the regulatory authorities are investigated to promote this technology

  3. Optimization of a High Temperature PEMFC micro-CHP System by Formulation and Application of a Process Integration Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A 1 kWe micro combined heat and power (CHP) system based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is modeled and optimized by formulation and application of a process integration methodology. The system can provide heat and electricity for a singlefamily household...

  4. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) suitable for domestic applications (1-10 kWe) driven by solar thermal, biomass-fired boilers and waste heat resources have been investigated. These ORC-based micro-CHP systems have lower operation pressures and temperatures compared to conventional steam-Rankine cycle CHP systems and hence safer for household applications. However, the lack of commercially available expanders applicable to ORC-based micro-CHP systems has hindered the development of these novel CHP systems. This paper summarizes the findings of the market research for the expanders and discusses the selection and choices of the expanders for ORC-based micro-CHP systems. The working principles and the characteristics of several kinds of expanders, including turbine expanders (i.e., turboexpander), screw expanders, scroll expanders and vane expanders, are introduced and evaluated. - Highlights: → Expanders are vital to ORC-based micro-CHP but not yet commercially available. → Selection and choices of the expanders for 1-10 kWe micro-CHP are discussed. → Vane expanders modified from vane-type air motors have been applied by the authors. → Scroll expanders and vane expanders are likely the good choices for 1-10 kWe micro-CHP.

  5. Opportunities for early application of CO2 sequestration technology project. PEACS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme (IEA GHG) is to understand what could facilitate the introduction of mitigation technology. Geological storage of CO2 is a technology that has the potential (in combination with other mitigation measures) to make deep reductions in CO2 emissions, which will most probably be needed to achieve the UNFCC goal of stabilisation of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The idea behind the present PEACS study is to identify those combinations worldwide where industrial sources of high purity CO2 are located not too far away (up to 100 km) from oil or coal reservoirs. Injection of CO2 would then enable either Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) generation. If costs can be minimised by linking low cost storage options to nearby high purity CO2 sources and potential sources for financing can be found (including mechanisms related to GHG mitigation), then EOR and ECBM projects can be identified that may be attractive to potential investors. In this way, such projects would offer opportunities for early implementation of CO2 capture and storage technology which is the subject of the present PEACS study: Project for Early Application of Carbon dioxide Storage

  6. Cubic Satellites, Vanguard Technology Integration, an Educational Opportunity of Modernization in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Franco, Olmo A.; Muñoz-Ubando, L. A.; Moreno-Moreno, Prudenciano; Vargas-Méndez, Eduardo E.

    This paper provides a theoretical approach on the CubeSat standard making a cost-benefit analysis in the use of pico-satellites at the education and technology integration model for educational modernization. With the CubeSat format is planned to develop an orbit LEO pico-satellite as part of a multidisciplinary project led by the Robotics Institute of Yucatan (TRIY), assisted with previous experience in Mexico and Colombia, to build a satellite capable of stabilizing through a robotic device, which will be a training model for human resources in Mexico. The CubeSat initiative represents a technological development of more than 10 years who is still alive and growing, attracting new participants from different educational institutions and global business, which has proven to be a project that would be made and successful results with a significant low budget compared to other space missions, and finally is an opportunity to bring students and teachers to the aerospace industry, through a convergence of technology, and academic discipline.

  7. Integration Science and Technology of Silicon-Based Ceramics and Composites:Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic and composite parts starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance for high temperature applications, detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different technical approaches are required for the integration of ceramic to ceramic and ceramic to metal systems. Active metal brazing, in particular, is a simple and cost-effective method to integrate ceramic to metallic components. Active braze alloys usually contain a reactive filler metal (e.g., Ti, Cr, V, Hf etc) that promotes wettability and spreading by inducing chemical reactions with the ceramics and composites. In this presentation, various examples of brazing of silicon nitride to themselves and to metallic systems are presented. Other examples of joining of ceramic composites (C/SiC and SiC/SiC) using ceramic interlayers and the resulting microstructures are also presented. Thermomechanical characterization of joints is presented for both types of systems. In addition, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and integrated system testing under simulated application conditions will also be presented.

  8. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  9. Analyzing a self-managed CHP system for greenhouse cultivation as a profitable way to reduce CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To counter global warming, a transition to a low-carbon economy is needed. The greenhouse sector can contribute by installing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, known for their excellent energy efficiency. Due to the recent European liberalization of the energy market, glass horticulturists have the opportunity to sell excess electricity to the market and by tailored policy and support measures, regional governments can fill the lack of technical and economic knowledge, causing initial resistance. This research investigates the economic and environmental opportunities using two detailed cases applying a self managed cogeneration system. The Net Present Value is calculated to investigate the economic feasibility. The Primary Energy Saving, the CO2 Emission Reduction indicator and an Emission Balance are applied to quantify the environmental impact. The results demonstrate that a self-managed CHP system is economic viable and that CO2 emissions are reduced.

  10. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.

    2003-07-01

    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  11. Mapping and disruption of the chpB locus in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Y; Ohtsubo, E

    1994-01-01

    The chpB locus is a chromosomal homolog of the pem locus, which is responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100 within the host cells. Like pem, chpB codes for two genes, chpBK and chpBI, encoding a growth inhibitor and a suppressor for the killing action of the ChpBK protein, respectively. Here, we determined the precise location of the chpB locus, which is linked to ileR and ppa in the order ileR-chpB-ppa, at 95.7 min on the map of Escherichia coli. We then constructed mutants with an...

  12. Technological barriers to and opportunities for future content production business; Tulevaisuuden sisaeltoeliiketoiminnan teknologiset esteet ja mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.; Harjunpaeae, N.; Paerkkae, T.; Sjoeman, I. [University of Oulu (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    At the request of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Learning and Research Services unit at the University of Oulu made an exploratory study of technological barriers to and opportunities for future content production business. The study is based on interviews with experts, reports and other sources of information and carries the title Revenue generation and business potential at the interface between future technologies and content production. This exploratory study will serve as the basis for a future foresight study. The unspecified nature and vagueness of the concept 'content production' has become something of a mantra that is being repeated in nearby all reports, studies and investigations dealing with content production, its development and future possibilities. But because content production apparently exists, it means that also the creators of content are hiding somewhere. The difficult problem of trying to trace the very nature of content production and products could be approached from the perspective of a content creator. What are content products made of. For what and how are the creators of content being paid. In the present study, the content production business has been studied as a whole that is divided into parts on the basis of the logic of revenue generation, i.e. in primary production, development of technologies, development of products and, finally, development of business activities. Neither is the model for revenue generation nor future technology the most important thing when considering the future of the content production and the approach to be taken in the foresight study. The logic of revenue generation is always the same for all commodities: The product concerned meets either an irrational or a rational need of a customer, the customer feels that the product brings added value for him or her and pays the prices requested/negotiated. - In the case of content products, there is no need to develop a more complex logic of

  13. Opportunities and challenges for MEMS technology in Army missile systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    1999-07-01

    The military market drives the thrust for the development of robust, high performance MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control systems, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, aerodynamic flow control, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Army missile applications will be a fertile market for MEMS products, such as MEMS-based inertial sensors. MEMS technology should significantly enhance performance and provide more robust mission capability in applications where arrays of MEMS devices are required. The Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center is working diligently with other government agencies, academia, and industry to develop high performing MEMS devices to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, humidity, and long-term storage conditions often encountered by Army missile systems. The goals of the ongoing DARPA MEMS technology programs will meet a significant portion of the Army missile systems requirements. In lieu of presenting an all-inclusive review of Army MEMS applications, this paper addresses a number of opportunities and associated challenges for MEMS systems operating in military environments. Near term applications and the less mature, high-risk applications of MEMS devices are addressed.

  14. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  15. Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Schmeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

  16. Telerehabilitation clinical and vocational applications for assistive technology: research, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Mark R; Schein, Richard M; McCue, Michael; Betz, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost-effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. PMID:25945163

  17. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-01-01

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently. PMID:24859024

  18. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepelev, Mikhail V; Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by...

  19. Micro CHP as a new business model. Trianel distribution system decentralised production; Mikro-BHKW als neues Geschaeftsmodell. Trianel-Netzwerk Dezentrale Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Michel [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-04-29

    About four years ago, an energy distribution company in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) reported on mini and micro CHP in the media. When it comes to a decentralized production of electricity and heat, however public utilities are the perfect partner: the decentralized power generation in flexible adjustable combined heat and power plants offers the opportunity to provide highly efficient heat and power directly at the place of consumption. In addition, regional and municipal utilities score with the theme mini and micro CHP for their customers due to the support on the way to more energy efficiency.

  20. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  1. Opportunities for Regenerative Rehabilitation and Advanced Technologies in Physical Therapy: Perspective From Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norland, Ryan; Muchnick, Matthew; Harmon, Zachary; Chin, Tiffany; Kakar, Rumit Singh

    2016-04-01

    As rehabilitation specialists, physical therapists must continue to stay current with advances in technologies to provide appropriate rehabilitation protocols, improve patient outcomes, and be the preferred clinician of choice. To accomplish this vision, the physical therapy profession must begin to develop a culture of lifelong learning at the early stages of education and clinical training in order to embrace cutting-edge advancements such as stem cell therapies, tissue engineering, and robotics, to name a few. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a current perspective on faculty and graduate student awareness of regenerative rehabilitation concepts and (2) to advocate for increased integration of these emerging technologies within the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) curriculum. An online survey was designed to gauge awareness of principles in regenerative rehabilitation and to determine whether the topic was included and assessed in doctoral curricula. The survey yielded 1,006 responses from 82 DPT programs nationwide and indicated a disconnect in familiarity with the term "regenerative rehabilitation" and awareness of the inclusion of this material in the curriculum. To resolve this disconnect, the framework of the curriculum can be used to integrate new material via guest lecturers, interdisciplinary partnerships, and research opportunities. Successfully mentoring a generation of clinicians and rehabilitation scientists who incorporate new medical knowledge and technology into their own clinical and research practice depends greatly on sharing the responsibility among graduate students, professors, the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), and DPT programs. Creating an interdisciplinary culture and integrating regenerative medicine and rehabilitation concepts into the curriculum will cultivate individuals who will be advocates for interprofessional behaviors and will ensure that the profession meets the goals stated in APTA Vision 2020

  2. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  3. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  4. Exergy diagnosis of coal fired CHP plant with application of neural and regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the processes, that proceed in energetic machines and devices, in many cases are very complicated. In such cases, the exact analytical models should be equipped with the auxiliary empirical models that describe those parameters which are difficult to model in a theoretical way. Regression or neural models identified basing on measurements are rather simple and are characterized by relatively short computation time. For this reason they can be effectively applied for simulation and optimization of steering and regulation processes, as well as, for control and thermal diagnosis of operation (eq. power plants or CHP plants. In the paper regression and neural models of thermal processes developed for systems of operation control of thermal plants are presented. Theoretical-empirical model of processes proceeding in coal fired CHP plant have been applied. Simulative calculations basing on these models have been carried out. Results of simulative calculations have been used for the exergetic evaluation of considered power plant. The diagnosis procedure let to investigate the formation of exergy costs in interconnected components of the system of CHP, as well as, investigate the influence of defects in operation of components on exergy losses and on the exergetic cost in other components. [Acknowledgment. The paper has been prepared within the RECENT project (REsearch Center for Energy and New Technologies supported by 7th Framework Programme, Theme 4, Capacities.

  5. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  6. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  7. Implementation of a TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP application is designed, tested and demonstrated. • Thermal radiation was emitted by a porous emitter in the TPV unit. • The electric output of four TPV cell modules connected in series is measured and characterized under various conditions. • 246.4 Electricity is generated at the emitter temperature of 1265 °C. • This study shows that TPV generation in boilers/furnaces is feasible for micro-CHP application in residential buildings. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion using solid state devices such as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generators. TPV devices convert thermal radiation from heat sources into electricity without involving any moving parts. TPV opens up possibility for efficient and stand-alone power generation in boilers and furnaces. In this paper, a TPV integrated boiler was designed, built and investigated for micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) application in residential buildings. A full size gas fired residential boiler was used as a precursor for integration with TPV devices. Experiments were conducted with the prototype TPV boiler so as to evaluate various issues related to this new technology. The electric output of TPV modules installed in the boiler was characterized under different operating conditions. The TPV cell modules generated 246.4 W at an emitter temperature of 1265 °C, which would be enough to power the electrical components of the whole heating system. Moreover, such a TPV integrated boiler could be employed to form a micro-CHP system in residential homes, providing an effective means for primary energy savings, on-site power and energy security

  8. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system, and...... they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the...... variations in the load will be correlated between the systems, because both demands in part depend on the climate. The analysis in the paper is based on a numerical model which simulates the operation of a CHP plant with heat storage. The conditions for the operation of the plant are assumed to be consistent...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHP254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15541-1 - (Link to Original site) ... qvlf*rivftlkiakemkf*lnnghqlnqmletslkilfykv*dhqnmkh vtl *ll*fhvlvllkfhtqcgkn*sqhylktlkvvqkvlnnllfkhlvifvkkl ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHP249 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP249 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14444-1 - (Link to Original site) ... XXXXKIFFLKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: KKXKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKXKKKKXXXXX ...

  11. Opportunities for the Mashup of Heterogenous Data Server via Semantic Web Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Iyemori, Toshihiko; Koyama, Yukinobu; Yatagai, Akiyo; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, John; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Michael; Belehaki, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Opportunities for the Mashup of Heterogenous Data Server via Semantic Web Technology European Union ESPAS, Japanese IUGONET and GFZ ISDC data server are developed for the ingestion, archiving and distributing of geo and space science domain data. Main parts of the data -managed by the mentioned data server- are related to near earth-space and geomagnetic field data. A smart mashup of the data server would allow a seamless browse and access to data and related context information. However the achievement of a high level of interoperability is a challenge because the data server are based on different data models and software frameworks. This paper is focused on the latest experiments and results for the mashup of the data server using the semantic Web approach. Besides the mashup of domain and terminological ontologies, especially the options to connect data managed by relational databases using D2R server and SPARQL technology will be addressed. A successful realization of the data server mashup will not only have a positive impact to the data users of the specific scientific domain but also to related projects, such as e.g. the development of a new interoperable version of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) or ICUS's World Data System alliance. ESPAS data server: https://www.espas-fp7.eu/portal/ IUGONET data server: http://search.iugonet.org/iugonet/ GFZ ISDC data server (semantic Web based prototype): http://rz-vm30.gfz-potsdam.de/drupal-7.9/ NASA PDS: http://pds.nasa.gov ICSU-WDS: https://www.icsu-wds.org

  12. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  13. Roles of renewable energy technologies in improving the rural energy situation in Nepal: Gaps and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal is one of the least developed countries, with the lowest per capita energy consumption in the world. Traditional solid biomass plays a significant role in meeting the primary energy demand in the country, which represents about 87% of the total primary energy mix. Till date, only 50% of the population has access to electricity, and disparity between the urban and rural areas in terms of access to energy is prevalent. In order to improve the energy situation in rural areas, the Government of Nepal initiated the promotion and development of renewable energy technologies (RETs) through subsidies. Nepal has the potential to generate energy through renewable sources like mini/microhydro schemes, solar power, biogas and wind. It is estimated that more than 50 MW of electricity can be generated from the micro hydro schemes, 2100 MW from solar and 3000 MW from wind. Moreover, the country has the capacity to develop about 1.1 million domestic biogas plants. RETs may provide ample opportunity to improve the vulnerable rural energy system in Nepal if the available renewable resources are optimally utilized. - Highlights: • Traditional fuel constitutes more than 87% of the total energy consumption. • Nevertheless, Nepal has enormous potential of generating electricity from RETs. • More than 50 MW can be generated from micro hydropower schemes. • 2100 MW from solar and 3000 MW from wind

  14. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) and the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology (OPST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of plasma science in the United States and identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the PLSC to meet its charge. During July 1992, the PLSC sponsored a workshop on nonneutral plasmas in traps. Although no written report on the workshop results, was prepared for public distribution, a summary of highlights was provided to the OPST Subpanel on Nonneutral Plasmas. The PLSC also continued its follow-up briefings and discussions on the results of the results of the report Plasma Processing of materials. Scientific and Technological Opportunities. As a result of these activities, the Committee is now working with the NRC Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) to organize a symposium on database needs in plasma processing of materials

  15. Power Saving Strategies and Technologies in Network Equipment Opportunities and Challenges, Risk and Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Ceuppens, Luc; Kharitonov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from todays best-in-class solutions, we identify power-saving strategies that have succeeded in the past and look forward to new ideas and paradigms. We strongly believe that designing energy-efficient network equipment can be compared to building sports cars, task-oriented, focused and fast. However, unlike track-bound sports cars, ultra-fast and purpose-built silicon yields better energy efficiency when compared to more generic family sedan designs that mitigate go-to-market risks by being the masters of many tasks. Thus, we demonstrate that the best opportunities for power savings come via protocol simplification, best-of-breed technology, and silicon and software optimization, to achieve the least amount of processing necessary to move packets. We also look to the future of networking from a new angle, where energy efficiency and environmental concerns are viewed as fundamental design criteria and forces that need to be harnessed to continually create more powerful networking equipment.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHP682 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP682 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 | Contig-U16344-1 CHP682P ... 28 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 6.9 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.0 protein update 2008.11. 7 PSO ...

  17. Energy efficiency of CHP using condensing steam turbine with extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an investigation of energy efficiency of two CHP techniques– using only condensing steam turbine with extraction (single cycle) and using gas turbine with condensing steam turbine with extraction (double cycle) . The energy efficiency is estimated on base of two energy efficiency coefficients – brutto and effective electrical and by the fuel saving in case of CHP system comparatively with the SHP. The investigations are done by modeling using GateCycle software

  18. Optimization of Gas Supply of CHP Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Odiņeca, T; Zēbergs, V

    2008-01-01

    The article contains reviews the method of optimization of gas supply of CHP sources of energy - the method of calculation of permissible IRR. It is effective for analyzing the projects of CHP plants’ gasification (also in reconstruction of existing boiler houses). IRR is an effective criterion of profitability of gasification, if the forecast of the consumption of gas is precise. Using the method of calculation of permissible IRR it is possible to find the load limits in which CH...

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHP873 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP873 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10720-1 CHP873P (Link to Original ... X*iiskvwfrcya*cc*tstk*rye**fe*nysmvr*kssfpt*y*krfc sip *fh*s*ts*rikts*riki*nnnnynyhhyy*rs*tirrs*tirrs*tirr ... X*iiskvwfrcya*cc*tstk*rye**fe*nysmvr*kssfpt*y*krfc sip *fh*s*ts*rikts*riki*nnnnynyhhyy*rs*tirrs*tirrs*tirr ...

  20. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Guoquan; Liu, Hao; Riffat, Saffa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) suitable for domestic applications (1-10kWe) driven by solar thermal, bioma...

  1. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic benefits, together with the environmental impact of this deployment, will then be estimated. By using the Danish thermal energy system as a paradigm, this paper will consider the TEG application to district heating systems and power plants through the EnergyPLAN model, which has been created to design suitable energy strategies for the integration of electricity production into the overall energy system.

  2. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, S [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaffray, D [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Benedict, S [UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for solid tumors, in large part due to significant technological advances associated with, for instance, the ability to target tumors to very high levels of accuracy (within millimeters). Technological advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as an oncologic treatment option for patients. ASTRO, AAPM and NCI sponsored a workshop “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology” at the NCI campus in Bethesda, MD on June 13–14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together expert clinicians and scientists to discuss the role of disruptive technologies in radiation oncology, in particular with regard to how they are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. The technologies discussed encompassed imaging and delivery aspects, along with methods to enable/facilitate application of them in the clinic. Measures for assessment of the performance of these technologies, such as techniques to validate quantitative imaging, were reviewed. Novel delivery technologies, incorporating efficient and safe delivery mechanisms enabled by development of tools for process automation and the associated field of oncology informatics formed one of the central themes of the workshop. The discussion on disruptive technologies was grounded in the need for evidence of efficacy. Scientists in the areas of technology assessment and bioinformatics provided expert views on different approaches toward evaluation of technology efficacy. Clinicians well versed in clinical trials incorporating disruptive technologies (e.g. SBRT for early stage lung cancer) discussed the important role of these technologies in significantly improving local tumor control and survival for these cohorts of patients. Recommendations summary focused on the opportunities associated with translating the technologies into the clinic and assessing their

  3. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for solid tumors, in large part due to significant technological advances associated with, for instance, the ability to target tumors to very high levels of accuracy (within millimeters). Technological advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as an oncologic treatment option for patients. ASTRO, AAPM and NCI sponsored a workshop “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology” at the NCI campus in Bethesda, MD on June 13–14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together expert clinicians and scientists to discuss the role of disruptive technologies in radiation oncology, in particular with regard to how they are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. The technologies discussed encompassed imaging and delivery aspects, along with methods to enable/facilitate application of them in the clinic. Measures for assessment of the performance of these technologies, such as techniques to validate quantitative imaging, were reviewed. Novel delivery technologies, incorporating efficient and safe delivery mechanisms enabled by development of tools for process automation and the associated field of oncology informatics formed one of the central themes of the workshop. The discussion on disruptive technologies was grounded in the need for evidence of efficacy. Scientists in the areas of technology assessment and bioinformatics provided expert views on different approaches toward evaluation of technology efficacy. Clinicians well versed in clinical trials incorporating disruptive technologies (e.g. SBRT for early stage lung cancer) discussed the important role of these technologies in significantly improving local tumor control and survival for these cohorts of patients. Recommendations summary focused on the opportunities associated with translating the technologies into the clinic and assessing their

  4. Modeling and parametric study of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based residential micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    for fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems, since it can operate at higher temperature than Nafion-based fuel cells, and therefore can reach higher cogeneration efficiencies. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single......A detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and geometric model of a micro-CHP (Combined-Heatand-Power) residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) technology is developed, implemented and validated. HT-PEMFC technology is investigated as a possible candidate......-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary balance-of-plant components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system’s synthesis/ design and operational pattern is analyzed by means of a parametric study. The parametric study is conducted to...

  5. Comprehensive report to Congress: Proposals received in response to the Clean Coal Technology V Program Opportunity Notice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive overview of all proposals received and the projects that were selected in response to the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) for the Clean Coal Technology V (CCT-V) Demonstration Projects (solicitation number DE-PS01-92FE62647). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued the solicitation on July 6, 1992. Through this PON, DOE solicited proposals to conduct cost-shared Clean Coal Technology (CCT) projects that advance significantly the efficiency and environmental performance of coal-using technologies and that are applicable to either new or existing facilities.

  6. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  7. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  8. Design and test of a single effect thermal desalination plant using waste heat from m-CHP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work refers to an innovative integrated system for the simultaneous production of fresh water and electricity. In particular, a 1 kWe Stirling engine coupled with a thermal desalination plant has been considered for the purpose. The prototype, which refers to the distributed micro cogeneration field, has the final aim of building and testing a single effect distillation plant with a fresh water production of about 150 L/d. Firstly, thermodynamic theories and numerical analysis have been carried out to define the final prototype configuration. Then, an experimental test phase has been carried out to evaluate the actual plant performance. The experimental analysis has been in good agreement with the predicted results. In particular, at nominal operating conditions (@50 °C) the maximum heat transfer rate was higher than the evaporator heat exchanger designed condition (5.5 kWt). Despite the non-ideal plant thermal insulation, fresh water production reached a maximum of about 7 L/h at best operating conditions, proving a good process efficiency. According to the behavior predicted by the model, fresh water production is strongly dependent on the temperature difference between the heating fluid and the salt water in the evaporator tank while it is weakly influenced by the salt content of the treated water. Moreover, the apparatus exhibited a very good response to varying thermal power input thus confirming the opportunity to feed the desalination plant also with different forms of waste heat. More precisely, the plant average efficiency was about 1.3 L/kWh of energy input with minimum and maximum values equal to 1.16 and 1.42 L/kWh. Definitely the proposed solution, studied for a coupling with a 1 kWe Stirling engine, can be easily applied also to the other micro-CHP technologies. - Highlights: • A single effect thermal desalination plant has been designed and tested. • Waste heat from different m-CHP units can be used as energy input for the plant.

  9. Enabling Technologies for Entrepreneurial Opportunities in 3D printing of SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwas, Andrew; MacDonald, Eric; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan; Kief, Craig; Aarestad, Jim; Zemba, Mike; Marshall, Bill; Tolbert, Carol; Connor, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A consortium of innovative experts in additive manufacturing (AM) comprising Northrup Grumman Technical Services, University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), Configurable Space Microsystems Innovations & Applications Center (COSMIAC), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Youngstown State University, have made significant breakthroughs in the goal of creating the first complete 3D printed small satellite. Since AM machines are relatively inexpensive, this should lead to many entrepreneurial opportunities for the small satellite community. Our technology advancements are focused on the challenges of embedding key components within the structure of the article. We have demonstrated, using advanced fused deposition modeling techniques, complex geometric shapes which optimize the spacecraft design. The UTEP Keck Center has developed a method that interrupts the printing process to insert components into specific cavities, resulting in a spacecraft that has minimal internal space allocated for what traditionally were functional purposes. This allows us to increase experiment and instrument capability by provided added volume in a confined small satellite space. Leveraging initial progress made on a NASA contract, the team investigated the potential of new materials that exploit the AM process, producing candidate compositions that exceed the capabilities of traditional materials. These "new materials" being produced and tested include some that have improved radiation shielding, increased permeability, enhanced thermal properties, better conductive properties, and increased structural performance. The team also investigated materials that were previously not possible to be made. Our testing included standard mechanical tests such as vibration, tensile, thermal cycling, and impact resistance as well as radiation and electromagnetic tests. The initial results of these products and their performance will be presented and compared with standard properties. The new materials with

  10. Using Technology and Mentorship to Improve Teacher Pedagogy and Educational Opportunities in Rural Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Lindenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used ethnographic methods to understand factors influencing the implementation of an educational intervention combining short math content videos with teacher trainings and mentorship in high-poverty primary schools in Nicaragua with implications for rural school reform. Educators in rural schools in Latin American face serious obstacles to improve classroom instruction and pedagogy, including lack of resources and overcrowding. Research suggests an over-reliance on input-output models in which inputs (e.g. teacher salaries, textbooks, technology, computer labs, numbers of classrooms, etc. are expected to produce particular outputs (student retention, lowering drop-out rates, increasing graduation rates, etc.; however, studies show that regardless of the resources, much depends on effective use of resources for successful teaching and learning (O'Sullivan, 2006; L. S. Shulman, 1987. While input/output models provide insights into an educational systems economic efficiency, they do not offer insight into what actually transpires inside of a classroom (O'Sullivan, 2006. Much depends on effective training and use of these very resources. Though systemic issues in the Nicaraguan educational system produced numerous obstacles for the eleven participating 3rd and 6th grade teachers, the educational intervention model supported teachers’ ability to be innovative and grow their practice in four ways: a increased pedagogical knowledge; b opportunities to collaborate and support one another as a community of teachers; c flexibility in adaptation of the intervention model to their specific classroom context; and d use of videos as supportive resources for content knowledge.

  11. Optimal design of integrated CHP systems for housing complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An optimization formulation for designing domestic CHP systems is presented. • The operating scheme, prime mover and thermal storage system are optimized. • Weather conditions and behavior demands are considered. • Simultaneously economic and environmental objectives are considered. • Two case studies from Mexico are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach for designing residential cogeneration systems based on a new superstructure that allows satisfying the demands of hot water and electricity at the minimum cost and the minimum environmental impact. The optimization involves the selection of technologies, size of required units and operating modes of equipment. Two residential complexes in different cities of the State of Michoacán in Mexico were considered as case studies. One is located on the west coast and the other one is in the mountainous area. The results show that the implementation of the proposed optimization method yields significant economic and environmental benefits due to the simultaneous reduction in the total annual cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions

  12. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  13. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO2. • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  14. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  15. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  16. R&D-needs and opportunities to broaden the data base on materials and technology for liquid metal spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    Liquid metals have so far only been used to a very limited extent as spallation targets, notably at the ISOLDE-facility at CERN (Pb and La) to produce radioactive isotopes. Virtually no systematic studies have been carried out so far. The available data base is by no means sufficient to answer conclusively very important questions such as predicting reliably the service time of medium-to-high power target systems or determining precisely what technological measures are required and appropriate to maintain an optimum coolant quality, to mitigate the effects of pressure waves in short pulse sources and others. During the workshop several areas have been identified, where there exists an urgent need for improved knowledge and reliable data, and opportunities have been presented to acquire such knowledge and to generate such data. Opportunities to do such research and pertinent know-how, although scarce, are spread over institutions in several countries, and efforts to use these opportunities often require substantial resources both in man power and money. The workshop participants therefore unanimously supported the view that a coordinated and internationally concerted effort should be undertaken to make the best possible use of existing opportunities and available resources in order to develop the knowledge and technology necessary for the deployment and safe operation of target systems suitable for pulsed spallation neutron sources in the multi-megawatt range of beam power.

  17. Improving SMTEs’ Business Performance through Strategic Use of Information Communication Technology: ICT and Tourism Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Asna Ashari; Majid Heidari; Saeed Parvaresh

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technologies (ICTs) prevail in all functions of strategic and operational management. As information is the lifeblood of tourism, ICTs provide both opportunities and challenges for the industry. Unless the current tourism industry improves its competitiveness, by utilizing the emerging ITs and innovative management methods, there is a danger for exogenous players to enter the marketplace, jeopardizing the position of the existing ones. Only creative and innovative su...

  18. Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Jiang, Wei

    2008-03-31

    This document provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification (CxV). It starts by presenting system-level and component-level performance metrics, followed by descriptions of algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, using the metric presented earlier. Verification of commissioning is accomplished essentially by comparing actual measured performance to benchmarks for performance provided by the system integrator and/or component manufacturers. The results of these comparisons are then automatically interpreted to provide conclusions regarding whether the CHP system and its components have been properly commissioned and where problems are found, guidance is provided for corrections. A discussion of uncertainty handling is then provided, which is followed by a description of how simulations models can be used to generate data for testing the algorithms. A model is described for simulating a CHP system consisting of a micro-turbine, an exhaust-gas heat recovery unit that produces hot water, a absorption chiller and a cooling tower. The process for using this model for generating data for testing the algorithms for a selected set of faults is described. The next section applies the algorithms developed to CHP laboratory and field data to illustrate their use. The report then concludes with a discussion of the need for laboratory testing of the algorithms on a physical CHP systems and identification of the recommended next steps.

  19. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption in residential sector can be considerably reduced by enhancing the efficiency of energy supply. Fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies because of their high efficiency and low environmental impact. Since the design...... of a 70m2 single-family household with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. Detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. A transient model of the hot water storage tank is used to take into account the effect of peak...

  20. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo; BRANDON, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled...

  1. Development and evaluation of a biomass-fired micro-scale CHP with organic rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingjuan

    2011-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power Generation (CHP) or cogeneration has been considered worldwide as the major alternative to traditional energy systems in terms of signi ticant energy saving and environmental conservation. A renewable energy resource-fuelled CHP would deliver even more environmental benefits than a fossil tuel-driven CHP. Biomass is one of the renewable energy resources that plays an important role to the world primary energy supplies and can be used to fuel CHP systems. Many medium- a...

  2. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  3. Small scale combined heat and power (CHP) from bio-crude oil fuelled to a sterling engine (Bio-stir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyftopoulou, M.; Papamichael, I.; Boukis, I. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    De-coupling of biomass conversion and combined heat and power (CHP) production may be best achieved by a liquid fuel, namely Bio-Crude-Oil (BCO), derived by fast pyrolysis of biomass. BCO can be fuelled in a modified Stirling engine, which is able to provide a high electrical efficiency (approximately 30%) and a favourable overall efficiency (approximately 80% on CHP), which is extremely important for economic viability in small-scale (< 100 kW{sub e}). The external combustion employed in the Stirling engine enables the utilisation of relatively 'dirty' fuels such as BCO. On the aforementioned grounds, a project was drawn, aiming to accomplish the following objectives: Development of feedstock logistics for BCO production via fast pyrolysis technology; Testing of different feedstocks for BCO production and feedstock characterisation, fast pyrolysis reactor extensive operation - process optimisation, as well as BCO characterisation; Evaluation of the scale-up potential of the biomass fast pyrolysis technology; Development of a suitable burner for BCO combustion and adaptation of a Stirling engine to be fuelled with BCO; Techno-economic assessment of the proposed, entire biomass-to-energy route, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Investigation for the industrial exploitation of the technology including scale-up and small-scale CHP deployment. The project has resulted in the following industrial benefits: Assessment for the production and logistics of the selected feedstocks (i.e. pine and miscanthus) for BCO production; Adoption of measures to deal with major technical risks associated with industrial scale-up (in particular char and particulates removal and vapour quenching); Assessment of the scale-up potential of the fast pyrolysis technology (in the range of 5 to 25 MW{sub th}). Demonstration of BCO combustion in a modified Stirling engine; Evaluation of the Stirling engine performance in terms of efficiency and emissions; Assessment of the

  4. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  5. Opportunities of artistic and technological training in non-formal education

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Ivkina; Nadejda Testova

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with questions concerning the organization of art and technological training in the situation of informal education; experience including application of information technologies and network services in the work of the Center work.

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies and Economic Investment Opportunities in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    CHEVALLIER, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by carbon and capture (CCS) technologies in order to facilitate the transition to low-carbon emitting technologies in the medium term. More precisely, we address the following central questions: how will the development of CCS technologies impact energy policies in order to yield to sustainable energy solutions? At what costs will pollution reductions be achieved? And most importantly, which CCS technologies will turn out to offer the most effective and ef...

  7. The adoption of new smart-grid technologies incentives, outcomes, and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Christopher; Narayanan, Anu

    2015-01-01

    RAND Corporation researchers review the current technical, regulatory, and economic context of the electricity market and theoretical benefits of developing a smart grid; discuss some entrepreneurial opportunities associated with smart-grid data; examine empirical evidence related to smart-grid adoption and implementation; and offer policy suggestions for overcoming identified barriers.

  8. Demonstration Stirling Engine based Micro-CHP with ultra-low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, Rolf; Olsson, Fredrik [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB (Sweden); Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    This project has been initiated in order to develop a new type of natural gas fired low emission combustion system for a Stirling engine CHP-unit, and to demonstrate and evaluate the unit with the newly developed combustion system in a CHP application. The Stirling engine technology is well developed, but mostly used in special applications and CHP-applications are scarce. The very low exhaust emissions with the new combustion system would make the Stirling engine very suitable for installation in as a CHP-unit in domestic areas. The Stirling engine used in the project has been a V161 engine produced by Solo Kleinmotoren GmbH in Sindelfingen. The unit has a nominal output of 7,5 kW{sub el} and 20 kW{sub heat} (Hot water). The new combustion system was developed at Lund University and the very strict emission targets that were set up could be achieved, both in the laboratory tests and during the site-testing period. Typical performance and emission figures measured at the site installation are: Generator output (kW): 7,3; Hot water output (kW): 15; El. efficiency (%): 25,4; Total efficiency (%): 77,8; NO{sub x} (ppm): 14; CO (ppm): 112; HC (ppm): < 1; O{sub 2} (%): 8,0; Noise level 1 m from the unit (dBA): 83. The NO{sub x} emissions were reduced with almost 97 % as compared to a standard Stirling combustion system. The emission figures are considerably lower than what could be achieved in an internal combustion engine of similar size with an oxidation catalyst (report SGC 106), while the performance figures are similar for the two technologies. The site testing was carried out during a period of 1,5 year at a site owned by Goeteborg Energi. The site comprises a building structure with workshops, offices etc. covering a ground area of 2,500 m{sup 2}. A gas fired boiler with an output of 250 kW supplies hot water to a local grid for heating and tap water. The annual heat demand is typically 285 MWh and the hot water temperatures are normally 60-80 deg C. The site

  9. Molecular Characterization of a Bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, B. L.; Everson, J. S.; Fane, B.; Giannikopoulou, P.; Vretou, E.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no...

  10. The impact of 'incubator' organisations on opportunity recognition and technology innovation in new, entrepreneurial high-technology ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, S.; Park, J S

    2008-01-01

    The increasingly important role of SMEs in both regional and national economic development has been widely acknowledged in the economic and entrepreneurship literature.The development of an economic and policy environment supporting new, high-growth, high-technology ventures has become common strategy adopted by many policy makers, as a critical means of promoting future economic growth and job creation. Many of these high-technology, economic development programmes embrace enabling technolog...

  11. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  12. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.;

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E....... coli. We show that both proteins inhibit translation by inducing cleavage of translated mRNAs. Consistently, the inhibitory effect of the proteins was counteracted by tmRNA. Amino acid starvation induced strong transcription of chpA that depended on Lon protease but not on ppGpp. Simultaneously, Chp...

  13. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  14. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  16. 3D-animaation käyttö CHP-voimalan visualisoinnissa : esimerkkinä GASEK CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Muilu, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa GASEK Oy:lle animaatio kolmiulotteisella grafiikalla. Animaation tarkoitus oli esitellä GASEK Oy:n CHP-voimalaitosta, jossa sekapuuhakkeesta tuotetaan lämpöä ja sähköä. Työn pääpainona oli visualisoida CHP-voimalassa tapahtuva kaasutusprosessi ja puukaasun virtaus laitteistossa. Opinnäytetyön käytännön osuuksiin kuuluivat animaation suunnittelu, toteutus ja videon luominen. The aim of the thesis was to plan and produce an animatio...

  17. Accessible E-Learning and Educational Technology - Extending Learning Opportunities for People with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Christian; Fisseler, Björn

    2007-01-01

    The article describes possible barriers in e-learning and educational technology for people with disabilities. It starts with an overview of the different ways disabled people work with computers and assistive technology. Then several examples of creating accessible content and communication are provided. But because accessibility is not only about following technical standards and guidelines it is pointed out that accessible e-learning is more than just technology, using concepts of universa...

  18. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  19. Soyuz missions and taxi flights. New opportunities for technology development. An example: The ENEIDE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezza, R.; Pontetti, G.; Martinelli, E.; Lo Castro, F.; Di Natale, C.; D'Amico, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Soyuz vehicle represents today a key Spacecraft: it provides astronaut transfer from the ground to the ISS and it ensures, at the same time, the possibility to escape from it. A Soyuz capsule therefore has to remain always attached to the ISS to be potentially used as Crew Escape Vehicle in case of need. To maintain the full operability the Soyuz needs to be replaced every six months by a new one. The mission aimed to launch a new spacecraft and to retrieve the "used" one is called Taxi Flight. The Russians, since few years, offer commercial seat available during this mission on the bases of commercial contracts. Several Space Tourists already made use of this opportunity like Dennis Tito or Mark Shuttleworth. But a Taxi Flight is not only a good opportunity for Space Flight; it could represent also a unique chance for scientist and engineers to find new flight opportunities to carry out experiments. It is possible to fly a piece of equipment onboard ISS for up 10 days, with the possibility to have also other resources available, like crew time, telemetry, commanding, etc. Of course to exploit such an opportunity and to develop space hardware, a company willing to carry out its own experiment need to have in-house resource to support the mission. Often the resources are not enough or the specific know-how for a space mission is missing. But today to help the users, very often represented by a SME, there is in ESA a dedicated team, supported by national user support centers, able to transform an idea into a consolidated flying experiment. The paper is aimed at presenting the reference scenario, the approach and methodologies used and offer a guide for future users. The example of three experiments flown in the Soyuz 10S mission is presented together with the strategy used to pass from the idea to the results in less than nine months.

  20. Technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment of small scale biomass CHP plant in an existing Brazilian's industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.L.M.; Arrieta, F.R.P. [Papal Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: mlmroduol.com.br, feliperp_arrieta@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    A technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment was developed in order to verify the economic feasibility of the implementation of a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant in an existing Brazilian industry as a technological solution to assure the energy demands of its productive process. The assessment began with the attainment of the values of heat and electricity demands of the process. In a second stage, considering the current biomass availability and the existing boiler upgrade for the superheat steam generation, a small scale Rankine cycle was defined for the CHP plant. A thermodynamic model of the thermal cycle of CHP plant was crated in the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) and was used to simulating the interaction and integration with the production process and external interfaces. The simulation for the steady state operation considered the process values of heat and electricity demands considering two hypotheses: selling or not selling of electricity to the grid and burning wood chips or vegetal carbon residue as fuel. For the feasibility assessment, a cash flow was elaborated in a Microsoft Excel sheet and it was used for computing the conventional financial indicators of the CHP plant implementation: Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Pay Back. For the exergoeconomic assessment was applied the Thermo economic Structural Theory. The results show the mass, energy and entropy balances, as well as the characteristic parameters for the different equipment and the CCHP plant. The main conclusions are: there are not feasibility of the CHP plant implementation at the current electricity tariff and fuel price, but in a most favorable scenario the hypothesis of selling electricity to the grid was the most interesting among the assessed ones; the vegetal carbon residue is the fuel option with greater economic viability; the values of electricity cost calculated in the exergoeconomic analysis are coherent with the economic analysis ones and are

  1. Language Learning through Mobile Technologies: An Opportunity for Language Learners and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachore, Mebratu Mulatu

    2015-01-01

    These days, the innovations of technologies are contributing significantly to the quality of education in spite of their limitations. Mobile technologies are rapidly attracting new users, providing increasing capacity, and allowing more sophisticated use. Since they are becoming very accessible for individuals in most parts of the world, it has a…

  2. Technology transfer opportunities: patent license: electrochemical technique for introducing and redistributing ionic species into the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinz, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have expanded applications of the Chim electrode, technology used to perform partial geochemical extractions from soils. Recent applications of the the improved electrode technology show that geochemical extraction efficiencies can be improved by 2 orders of magnitude or better to about 30%.

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHP859 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP859 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 - (Link to Original site) ... ete sequence. 46 0.13 1 DD062477 |DD062477.1 HUMAN SCHIZOPHRENIA ... GENE. 46 0.13 1 DD021122 |DD021122.1 HUMAN SCHIZOP ...

  4. CHP plant can do a power of good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    With mounting pressure on hospitals and other healthcare facilities to reduce their energy bills, coupled with the need to reduce their carbon footprint, developer and supplier of combined heat and power systems Cogenco argues that adding CHP plant to existing energy generation equipment such as gas boilers has never made greater financial sense. Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:19911560

  5. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  6. Ontology-based semantic information technology for safeguards: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge of efficiently handling large volumes of heterogeneous information is a barrier to more effective safeguards implementation. With the emergence of new technologies for generating and collecting information this is an issue common to many industries and problem domains. Several diverse information‑intensive fields are developing and adopting ontology‑based semantic information technology solutions to address issues of information integration, federation and interoperability. Ontology, in this context, refers to the formal specification of the content, structure, and logic of knowledge within a domain of interest. Ontology‑based semantic information technologies have the potential to impact nearly every level of safeguards implementation, from information collection and integration, to personnel training and knowledge retention, to planning and analysis. However, substantial challenges remain before the full benefits of semantic technology can be realized. Perhaps the most significant challenge is the development of a nuclear fuel cycle ontology. For safeguards, existing knowledge resources such as the IAEA’s Physical Model and established upper level ontologies can be used as starting points for ontology development, but a concerted effort must be taken by the safeguards community for such an activity to be successful. This paper provides a brief background of ontologies and semantic information technology, demonstrates how these technologies are used in other areas, offers examples of how ontologies can be applied to safeguards, and discusses the challenges of developing and implementing this technology as well as a possible path forward.

  7. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro-CHP

  8. Future pathways for today's technologies. Limits and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Innovation- and Patent Management

    2015-06-01

    The majority of the feed-in tariffs as determined by the German Energy Feed-in Act (EEG) develop as follows: they decrease as the efficiency of technologies grows. However, there are some exceptions: offshore wind and geothermal energy feed-in tariffs have been rising, while storage technologies are not included at all although they are needed to make up for intermittent renewable generation. Furthermore, nuclear energy is burdened with the fuel tax, a kind of negative feed-in tariff. These technologies seem to be confronted with specific restrictions that yet prevent large-scale development. A thorough analysis of these limitations guides to the way to overcome them.

  9. Future pathways for today's technologies. Limits and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the feed-in tariffs as determined by the German Energy Feed-in Act (EEG) develop as follows: they decrease as the efficiency of technologies grows. However, there are some exceptions: offshore wind and geothermal energy feed-in tariffs have been rising, while storage technologies are not included at all although they are needed to make up for intermittent renewable generation. Furthermore, nuclear energy is burdened with the fuel tax, a kind of negative feed-in tariff. These technologies seem to be confronted with specific restrictions that yet prevent large-scale development. A thorough analysis of these limitations guides to the way to overcome them.

  10. Opportunities and Challenges of Digital Technology for HIV Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M; Kutner, Bryan A; Horvath, Keith J

    2015-12-01

    Novel eHealth interventions are creating exciting opportunities for health promotion along the continuum of HIV care and prevention. Reviews of recent work indicate the use of multiple platforms (e.g., smartphones, social media), with trends toward individualized approaches and real-time assessments. However, the field needs more rigorous investigations to provide evidence of long-term impact on clinical indicators and should expand its targets beyond men who have sex with men and medication adherence. Challenges to the field include working within restricted funding timelines and disseminating eHealth interventions to those most in need. PMID:26412082

  11. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs

  12. Communication technology and social media: opportunities and implications for healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Betsy; Lindsay, Bill; Gitelman, Betsy

    2012-09-01

    Electronic patient education and communications, such as email, text messaging, and social media, are on the rise in healthcare today. This article explores potential uses of technology to seek solutions in healthcare for such challenges as modifying behaviors related to chronic conditions, improving efficiency, and decreasing costs. A brief discussion highlights the role of technologies in healthcare informatics and considers two theoretical bases for technology implementation. Discussion focuses more extensively on the ability and advantages of electronic communication technology, such as e-mail, social media, text messaging, and electronic health records, to enhance patient-provider e-communications in nursing today. Effectiveness of e-communication in healthcare is explored, including recent and emerging applications designed to improve patient-provider connections and review of current evidence supporting positive outcomes. The conclusion addresses the vision of nurses' place in the vanguard of these developments. PMID:23036059

  13. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  14. Challenges and opportunities of silent commerce - applying Radio Frequency Identification technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Cata

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates applications of Radio Frequency Technology (RFID as an application of ubiquitous commerce. RFID has a wide application in the supply chain but still is very limited for customer support. This study introduces the concept of the Silent CRM (s-CRM which is an application of RFID to proactively support customer needs. Challenges of RFID application within companies, outside of companies and about the technology itself are discussed as well.

  15. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  16. Emerging pervasive information and communication technologies (PICT) ethical challenges, opportunities and safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Pimple, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a wide and deep perspective on the ethical issues raised by pervasive information and communication technology (PICT) - small, powerful, and often inexpensive Internet-connected computing devices and systems. It describes complex and unfamiliar technologies and their implications, including the transformative potential of augmented reality, the power of location-linked information, and the uses of ""big data,"" and explains potential threats, including privacy invaded, security violated, and independence compromised, often through widespread and lucrative manipulation.PICT i

  17. Decentralized biogas technology of anaerobic digestion and farm ecosystem: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunyeWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials (e.g., animal manure, crop straw and by-products from food industries as feedstocks. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for ecosystem farm. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion (AD is win-win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer. Finally, we discuss issues of deployment of decentralized biogas technology for ecosystem farms. Economic and technological barriers still exist for large scale deployment of biogas technology. Two national scale deployments in China and Nepal showed that the operational status of biogas digesters is not optimal and up to 50% of plants are non-functional after a short operation period regardless of the social and economic factors. Main barriers are a wide variation of feedstocks and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature over space and time. It becomes clear that the experimental conditions of the pilot plants need to be adjusted and calibrated to the local feedstocks and climate. Also, more research needs to be done in cold fermentation technology.

  18. More performance by means of enhancement of the efficiency of CHP plants. CHP operation of an ORC plant; Mehr Leistung durch Effizienzsteigerung von KWK-Anlagen. KWK-Betrieb einer ORC-Anlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschner, Timm; Fink, Jochen; Stadelmaier, Fabian [Duerr Cyplan Ltd., Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In November 2012, the biogas plant of Stadtwerke Gross-Gerau-Versorgungs-GmbH (GGV) was supplemented with an energy-efficient organic Rankine cycle system (ORC) from Duerr Cyplan Ltd. (Bietigheim-Bissingen, Federal Republic of Germany). The ORC technology enables the utilization of the exhaust heat from the combustion of the gas for the power generation. Hereby, the efficiency in the power generation is increased by about 8 % in Gross-Gerau. Furthermore, the existing energy recovery concept is improved by the CHP operation of the ORC system. With the experience from Gross-Gerau new business segments can be accessed by means of the ORC technology.

  19. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  20. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, J.; Beatty, B.; Hill, G.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  1. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  2. Technology and the defense industry: real threats, bad habits, or new (market) opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellais, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience Technology has been playing a central role in defense spending or arms-producing countries since World War II. Although there has been no major threat or conflict since the 1990s, defense R&D absorbs a large share of military expenditures, as well as public R&D. This technology-centric paradigm results from uncertainties surrounding defense matters and the need to avoid strategic surprises. However, one can wonder whether such a paradigm is still adapted to today's d...

  3. OPPORTUNITIES TO MARKET U.S. TECHNOLOGIES THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D

    1999-01-01

    This project involves an open-ended, continuous process of information gathering with respect to Latin American and Caribbean environmental issues. This entails the development of contacts with individuals and institutions conducting research and work on issues of sustainability and environmental technology in the Americas. As part of this phase, a database containing information on firms, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governmental institutions, and other participants in Latin America's environmental sector was developed and is continually being updated. In addition, FIU-HCET's efforts were geared toward determining environmental technological needs in different parts of the region and identifying the most significant and lucrative markets. The project requires that FIU-HCET continually cement those contacts already established, continue updating the database to be made available to external users, and identify U.S. companies with the necessary expertise to participate in the Latin American and Caribbean markets. To aid in this endeavor, comprehensive, country-specific studies of the market for environmental goods and services are drafted and published by FIU-HCET. FIU-HCET, with sponsorship from OST, will make new, innovative, and more cost-effective technologies available for transfer throughout the Western Hemisphere. Environmental/energy technology development projects encompass the range of problems experienced by LACN. This includes mixed waste characterization and treatment, soils and groundwater remediation. In addition, future activities will include the issues of energy, climate change, and fossil fuels.

  4. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  5. Leadership in Mobile Technology: An Opportunity for Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Roxie V.; Duke, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    A stroll across campus reveals that students are plugged into mobile technology. They never have to break stride in their social connectivity as they pursue an education.Where does the family and consumer sciences (FCS) teacher educator fit into this opportunistic scenario? From its inception, FCS has been at the forefront in the application of…

  6. Communication Opportunities via Special Messaging Technology for Two Post-Coma Persons with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; de Pace, Claudia; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a special messaging technology with two additional post-coma adults who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, but showed multiple disabilities including profound motor and communication impairments. For each participant, the study involved an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  7. Capitalizing on the Overlap between Instructional Technology and Human Resource Development: A Potential Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demps, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the apparent overlap between the fields of instructional technology (IT) and human resource development (HRD) and offers a preliminary conceptualization of how to capitalize on the overlap through graduate academic curricula, where IT and HRD practitioners and scholars are developed. This conceptualization was formed by first…

  8. R&D Needs and Opportunities in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an analysis of the relevant trends, market economics, science and technology needs of the Agricultural Research Service National Program on Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (NP 306), specifically issues that impact on the foods aspects of the program. It provides information ...

  9. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  10. The Quantified Self (QS) Movement and Some Emerging Opportunities for the Educational Technology Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The Quantified Self (QS) movement is a growing global effort to use new mobile and wearable technologies to automatically obtain personal data about everyday activities. The social and material infrastructure associated with the Quantified Self (QS) movement provides a number of ideas that educational technologists should consider incorporating…

  11. Stakeholder identification of advanced technology opportunities at international ports of entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Policy and Planning Dept.; Icerman, L. [Icerman and Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Technologies for International and Intermodal Ports of Entry (ATIPE) Project, a diverse group of stakeholders was engaged to help identify problems experienced at inland international border crossings, particularly those at the US-Mexican border. The fundamental issue at international ports of entry is reducing transit time through the required documentation and inspection processes. Examples of other issues or problems, typically manifested as time delays at border crossings, repeatedly mentioned by stakeholders include: (1) lack of document standardization; (2) failure to standardize inspection processes; (3) inadequate information and communications systems; (4) manual fee and tariff collection; (5) inconsistency of processes and procedures; and (6) suboptimal cooperation among governmental agencies. Most of these issues can be addressed to some extent by the development of advanced technologies with the objective of allowing ports of entry to become more efficient while being more effective. Three categories of technologies were unambiguously of high priority to port of entry stakeholders: (1) automated documentation; (2) systems integration; and (3) vehicle and cargo tracking. Together, these technologies represent many of the technical components necessary for pre-clearance of freight approaching international ports of entry. Integration of vehicle and cargo tracking systems with port of entry information and communications systems, as well as existing industry legacy systems, should further enable border crossings to be accomplished consistently with optimal processing times.

  12. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  13. SOFC-based micro-CHP system as an example of efficient power generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupecki, Jakub; Badyda, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Microscale combined heat and power (CHP) unit based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for distributed generation was analyzed. Operation principle is provided, and the technology development in recent years is briefly discussed. System baseline for numerical analysis under steady-state operation is given. Grid-connected unit, fuelled by biogas corresponds to potential market demand in Europe, therefore has been selected for analysis. Fuel processing method for particular application is described. Results of modeling performed in ASPEN Plus engineering software with certain assumptions are presented and discussed. Due to high system electrical efficiency exceeding 40%, and overall efficiency over 80%, technology is an example of highly competitive and sustainable energy generation unit.

  14. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications - Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Zogg

    2011-03-14

    The objective of the Micro-CHP Phase I effort was to develop a conceptual design for a Micro-CHP system including: Defining market potential; Assessing proposed technology; Developing a proof-of-principle design; and Developing a commercialization strategy. TIAX LLC assembled a team to develop a Micro-CHP system that will provide electricity and heating. TIAX, the contractor and major cost-share provider, provided proven expertise in project management, prime-mover design and development, appliance development and commercialization, analysis of residential energy loads, technology assessment, and market analysis. Kohler Company, the manufacturing partner, is a highly regarded manufacturer of standby power systems and other residential products. Kohler provides a compellingly strong brand, along with the capabilities in product development, design, manufacture, distribution, sales, support, service, and marketing that only a manufacturer of Kohler's status can provide. GAMA, an association of appliance and equipment manufacturers, provided a critical understanding of appliance commercialization issues, including regulatory requirements, large-scale market acceptance issues, and commercialization strategies. The Propane Education & Research Council, a cost-share partner, provided cost share and aided in ensuring the fuel flexibility of the conceptual design. Micro-CHP systems being commercialized in Europe and Japan are generally designed to follow the household thermal load, and generate electricity opportunistically. In many cases, any excess electricity can be sold back to the grid (net metering). These products, however, are unlikely to meet the demands of the U.S. market. First, these products generally cannot provide emergency power when grid power is lost--a critical feature to market success in the U.S. Even those that can may have insufficient electric generation capacities to meet emergency needs for many U.S. homes. Second, the extent to which net

  15. Opportunities and challenges for innovation in the design of low-carbon energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken into...... study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...... account to be able to achieve efficient reductions of energy and CO2 emissions and at the same time design a product attractive for the consumer, in terms of price, level of service and aesthetical demands, to ensure its strategic implementation. This paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a...

  16. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.

  17. Manufacturing the electric vehicle: a window of technological opportunity for Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    C O Quandt

    1995-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has mandated that by 1998 2% of new vehicles sold in California must be zero emission, effectively, electric vehicles. This requirement is largely responsible for the electric vehicle development programs run by almost every global automobile manufacturer that does business in the United States. At present, no single electric vehicle technology, from battery type, to propulsion system, to vehicle design, represents a standard for a protoelectric vehicle indu...

  18. Service design in information technology startups: Unpacking opportunities and challenges through three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Avesta

    2014-01-01

    What is the role and value of service design in startup companies in the Information Technology (IT) industry? And how can service design help startups develop their services more effectively? Increased global competition forces new ventures to create useful and unique service experiences, as customers rarely make purchasing decisions based on function alone. The need to think and act differently has shifted the service innovation paradigm and significantly increased the role and relevanc...

  19. The technofusion project for fusion technology development: opportunities for the inertial community

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Gonzalez Arrabal, Raquel; Garoz, D.; Perlado Martin, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Technofusion will be the new Spanish singular scientific-technical installation for fusion research. The research activities will be focused on seven areas of materials research considered the most relevant ones for further technological developments of fusion energy. In principle, most of the infrastructure in Technofusion will be useful for both, magnetic (MC) and inertial (IC) confinement fusion communities and most of the research and developments carried out for one of the fusion concept...

  20. Exploring performance measurement in SMEs - opportunities offered by new technologies and services

    OpenAIRE

    Tulokas, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Even though performance measurement has gained a lot of attention in accounting research, it is still a quite scarcely researched topic in the SMEs context. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has been the best-known performance measurement framework during the last two decades, but its feasibility for small companies has been doubtful. Simultaneously, technological development has increased the supply of different performance measurement applications and also accounting service providers' SaaS -bas...

  1. Using Biomedical Technologies to Inform Economic Modeling: Challenges and Opportunities for Improving Analysis of Environmental Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Brian E.; Haab, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in biomedical technology have irrevocably jarred open the black box of human decision making, offering social scientists the potential to validate, reject, refine and redefine the individual models of resource allocation that form the foundation of modern economics. In this paper we (1) provide a comprehensive overview of the biomedical methods that may be harnessed by economists and other social scientists to better understand the economic decision making process; (2) review researc...

  2. New Opportunities for eBeam Technologies in One Health. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, there is a growing recognition that, in order to address current and emerging risks and provide system-level solutions, one has to look at public health, animal health, and environmental health at a holistic level. Several international and federal agencies such as the United Nations, World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have come to embrace the One Health concept. The One Health concept is based on the premise that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are interconnected. Ionizing radiation technology, especially eBeam (electron beam) technology, can play a major role in providing solutions pertinent to the One Health concept. There can be no discussion of public health without confronting the issue of food safety and quality. There can be no discussion of animal health without tackling the pre-harvest pathogen protection strategies involving vaccination. And there can be no discussion of environmental health without discussing the proper management of the burgeoning levels of animal and human wastes. The salient features of eBeam technology such as high dose rate, economic feasibility, and that it is the ultimate “green technology”, can be exploited commercially to develop materials from natural and man-made sources that can be used for high value agricultural, industrial and therapeutic applications. (author)

  3. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system...... when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such system is explained. A sensitivity analysis of several key factors, e.g. fuel price, heat to power ratio...... of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to...

  4. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for building 878, manufacturing science and technology, organization 14100.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klossner, Kristin Ann

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.

  6. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHP418 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available genome. 32 0.013 27 CJ482405 |CJ482405.1 Macaca fascicularis mRNA, clone: QtrA-18375, 5' end, expressed in brain tem...HRP ESIEVDKGLQTVNRLMDLTDAVFRMHNSIVSATPYNDCKTSAFI--- ---wmhwlnkltlkelkprrni*rmvliwmmllnvnywlplkplkmlqthywpqnqrelq rrrvihqmllrqslrll...d pieces. 40 0.86 5 dna update 2005. 9.28 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant ali...1( AB023655 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum talB mRNA... 152 4e-35 ( P54633 ) RecName: Full=Talin-A; AltName: Full=Filopo...brane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for CHP418 is nuc 5' end seq. ID CHP41

  8. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from the......In this project the potential for ancillary services provision by distributed energy resources is investigated. Specifically, the provision of reactive power control by combined heat and power plants is examined, and the application of the new standard for DER communication systems, IEC 61850...... lines to underground cables has changed the reactive power balance, and third, the TSO has introduced restrictions in the allowed exchange of reactive power between the transmission system and distribution grids (known as the Mvar-arrangement). The demonstration includes a CHP plant with an electric...

  9. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  10. Photovoltaic technology and applications: Overview for the workshop on photochemistry research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The business surrounding photovoltaic energy conversion for terrestrial applications has changed dramatically in the last several years. It is now a business that makes money. Industry is responding. with manufacturing capacity expansions, and planned expansions, that will triple U.S. annual output within the next eighteen months. The majority of this product is exported (70%) where it is proven to be a cost competitive alternative. This industry provides experience in manufacturing and reliability in fielded systems that will serve as the basis for extrapolating growth to larger-scale installations and utility systems. The largest part of the National Photovoltaic Program budget supports assisting industry in advancing manufacturing technology and stimulating applications to reduce cost and expand the evolving industry. A growing segment of society looks to photovoltaics as an alternative that may be needed to replace conventional electric generating capacity. The grand challenge for photovoltaics is to make the technology economically competitive for large scale electric power generation before real or perceived evidence of environmental damage from conventional sources dictates its use at economically disruptive costs.

  11. Energy technology and opportunities for East-West co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The private sector is probably the principal Western actor in Central and Eastern Europe. The accelerated political reforms in the East have improved the prospects for Western partners to invest in the energy sector and collaborate on energy technology development and transfer while taking advantage of the specific local benefits offered. These benefits are primarily found on the energy production side where the specific knowledge of the Western partner may be employed for the development of energy markets in the East. Conversely, the Central and Eastern European countries appear to be looking to co-operation with Western partners to provide them with access to capital, technology and organizational know-how, as well as, to Western markets. The primary long-term economic aim of Central and Eastern European governments must be to promote a market based economy. This requires not merely the definition of an official energy price system, but also the presence of legal and other institutions to establish property rights, civil contractual laws, trade policy and framework conditions for the free development of market forces and private enterprise. The IEA, International Energy Agency, as an example of the effectiveness of international co-operation, may be in the position to provide some assistance on technical and policy matters

  12. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHP584 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP584 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15547-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Value BC047807_1( BC047807 |pid:none) Danio rerio hypoxia ... up-regulated 1... 105 9e-22 BC071372_1( BC071372 | ... pid:none) Danio rerio hypoxia ... up-regulated 1... 105 9e-22 BC043837_1( BC043837 | ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHP635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP635 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16371-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-178O04.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.003 1 DE078411 |DE078411.1 Oryzias ... latipes DNA, clone: ola1-200D13.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.003 1 DE067405 |DE067405.1 Oryzias ...

  15. Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chenette, Emily J.; Mitin, Natalia Y.; Der, Channing J.

    2006-01-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular associa...

  16. Translating Hardware Process Algebras into Standard Process Algebras : Illustration with CHP and LOTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Salaün, Gwen; Serwe, Wendelin

    2005-01-01

    A natural approach for the description of asynchronous hardware designs are hardware process algebras, such as Martin's CHP (Communicating Hardware Processes), Tangram, or BALSA, which are extensions of standard process algebras with particular operators exploiting the implementation of synchronisation using handshake protocols. In this research report, we give a structural operational semantics for value-passing CHP. Compared to existing semantics of CHP defined by translation into Petri net...

  17. CHP2 gene expression and quantitation in Egyptian patients with acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Ahmed Hammam; Hisham Hasan Eissa; Mohamed Roshdy El Masry; Sarah Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Aim: CHP2 (calcineurin B homologous protein 2) is identified as a tumor-associated antigen highly expressed in different malignancies. It plays a critical role in cancer cell development, proliferation, motility and survival. It is suggested that the human tumor related gene CHP2 expression in leukemia primary cells and leukemia cell lines significantly increase, which may play an important role in growth process of leukemia cells. Methods: In this study, the expression of CHP2 gene was an...

  18. Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Condensing Economizer Installation at Riga CHP Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zigurs, Aris; Kunickis, Maris; Balodis, Maris; Linkevics, Olegs; Stuklis, Ilmars; Ivanova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, passive exhaust gas condensing economizer installation is evaluated at Riga CHP plants No. 1 and No. 2 to increase efficiency of heat only boilers (HOBs). Five options are investigated: two options for Riga CHP plant No. 1 and three options for Riga CHP plant No. 2. The study provides the analysis of HOBs operation statistics, determination of HOBs operation trends, development of production programmes, as well as economic and sensitivity analysis of the considered options. Bas...

  19. A chromodomain protein, Chp1, is required for the establishment of heterochromatin in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaie, Mahito; Iida, Tetsushi; URANO, TAKESHI; Nakayama, Jun-ichi

    2004-01-01

    The chromodomain is a conserved motif that functions in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Here, we report the functional characterization of a chromodomain protein, Chp1, in the heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast. We show that Chp1 is a structural component of three heterochromatic regions—centromeres, the mating-type region, and telomeres—and that its localization in these regions is dependent on the histone methyltransferase Clr4. Although deletion of the chp1+ gene causes c...

  20. Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Son, Heung Soo; Park, Chung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60°C, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained af...

  1. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed genera

  2. Developing a Model for a CHP System with Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abunku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A model for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP system developed using Matlab is presented in this project. The model developed includes sub-models of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE and generator, electrical and thermal storage systems, and power converters (rectifier and inverter. The model developed is able to simulate the performance of a CHP system when supplying user load. The battery electrical storage system is modelled and used as the electrical storage for this project, and the water storage tank is modelled and used as thermal storage. The project presents the model developed, and the results of the analysis done on the model. The model considered only heat from engine cooling, which is used to heat water to supply the DHW (District Hot Water needs of the user. The results show that by the addition of storage to the CHP system, the overall system efficiency is increased by 32% indicating that the model developed is reliable, and the project is a feasible one

  3. Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.

  4. Quasi static optimized management of a multinode CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants are increasingly used, when feasible, as a mean to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The thermal and electrical production must be adapted to load requirements and must lead to the fulfilment of all the constraints imposed by energy saving regulations. As one of such requirements [a minimum 'fuel energy savings ratio' (FESR)] is an integral constraint that can be evaluated only at the end of each year of production, during the design phase of the plant it is of the utmost importance to have a fast algorithm able to simulate and optimize the operating conditions of all the candidate CHPs configurations, as the non-compliance with FESR regulations may lead to loose significant tax discounts, and therefore make the investment less profitable. The paper describes a suitable algorithm and its application to the optimization of a real CHP site located in Italy; besides, this work has led, as a further step toward the optimized control of larger systems, to the introduction of an additional degree of freedom ('on-off' state of some machines) extending in principle the optimization procedure to multinode CHP plants.

  5. Comparison of Technological Options for Distributed Generation-Combined Heat and Power in Rajasthan State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper reviews the different technological options available for DG. DG offers a number of potential benefits. The ability to use the waste heat from fuel-operated DG, known as combined heat and power (CHP, offers both reduced costs and significant reductions of CO2 emissions. The overall efficiency of DG-CHP system can approach 90 percent, a significant improvement over the 30 to 35 percent electric grid efficiency and 50 to 90 percent industrial boiler efficiency when separate production is used. The costs of generation of electricity from six key DG-CHP technologies; gas engines, diesel engines, biodiesel CI engines, microturbines, gas turbines, and fuel cells, are calculated. The cost of generation is dependent on the load factor and the discount rate. It is found that annualized life cycle cost (ALCC of the DG-CHP technologies is approximately half that of the DG technologies without CHP. Considering the ALCC of different DG-CHP technologies, the gas I.C. engine CHP is the most effective for most of the cases but biodiesel CI engine CHP seems to be a promising DG-CHP technology in near future for Rajasthan state due to renewable nature of the fuel.

  6. New developments in shockwave technology intended for meat tenderization: Opportunities and challenges. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolumar, Tomas; Enneking, Mathias; Toepfl, Stefan; Heinz, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Meat tenderness is an important quality parameter determining consumer acceptance and price. Meat tenderness is difficult to ensure in the global meat chain because the production systems are not always aiming at this purpose (ex.: cattle derived from milk production) and by the existence within the carcass of "tough" primals. Different methods can be used by the meat industry to improve meat tenderness each with its advantages and drawbacks. The application of hydrodynamic pressure or shockwaves has showed outstanding improvements by reducing the Warner Bratzler Shear Force by 25% or more. However, the technology has not penetrated into the market as first systems were based on the use of explosives and further developments seemed to lack the robustness to fulfill industrial requirements. The present paper describes the main challenges to construct a prototype for the continuous treatment of meat by shockwaves based on electrical discharges under water. Finally, improvements on the tenderness of meat by using the novel prototype are presented. PMID:23660173

  7. Is micro-CHP price controllable under price signal controlled Virtual Power Plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    As micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems move towards mass deployment together with other kinds of distributed energy resources (DER), an increasing emphasis has been placed on how to coordinate such a large diversified DER portfolio in an efficient way by the Virtual Power Plant (VPP...... three different micro-CHP systems to investigate the feasibility of being controlled by price. Such analysis is relevant for both controller designs for micro-CHP systems and VPP related operations. The results indicate that controlling the micro-CHP systems by price is feasible but could result in...

  8. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  9. Latest on Mobile Methane Measurements with Fast Open-Path Technology: Experiences, Opportunities & Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Anderson, Tyler; Ediger, Kevin; von Fischer, Joseph; Gioli, Beniamino; Ham, Jay; Hupp, Jason; Kohnert, Katrin; Larmanou, Eric; Levy, Peter; Polidori, Andrea; Pikelnaya, Olga; Price, Eric; Sachs, Torsten; Serafimovich, Andrei; Zondlo, Mark; Zulueta, Rommel

    2016-04-01

    Methane plays a critical role in the radiation balance, chemistry of the atmosphere, and air quality. The major sources of methane include agricultural and natural production, landfill emissions, oil and gas development sites, and natural gas distribution networks in rural and urban environments. The majority of agricultural and natural methane production occurs in areas with little infrastructure or easily available grid power (e.g., rice fields, arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc.) Past approaches for direct measurements of methane fluxes relied on fast closed-path analyzers, which typically require powerful pumps and grid power. Power and labor demands may be among the key reasons why such methane fluxes were often measured at locations with good infrastructure and grid power, and not necessarily with high methane production. Landfill methane emissions were traditionally assessed via point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, etc. These are subject to large uncertainties because of the snapshot nature of the measurements, while the changes in emission rates are continuous due to ongoing landfill development, changes in management practices, and the barometric pumping phenomenon. Installing a continuously operating flux station in the middle of an active landfill requires a low-power approach with no cables stretching across the landfill. The majority of oil and gas and urban methane emission happens via variable-rate point sources or diffused spots in topographically challenging terrains, such as street tunnels, elevated locations at water treatment plants, vents, etc. Locating and measuring methane emissions from such sources is challenging when using traditional micrometeorological techniques, and requires development of novel approaches. In 2010, a new lightweight high-speed high-resolution open-path technology was developed with the goal of

  10. S'COOL Provides Research Opportunities and Current Data for Today's Technological Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.; Racel, Anne M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) project, a hands-on educational project, was an innovative idea conceived by the scientists in the Radiation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in 1996. It came about after a local teacher expressed the idea that she wanted her students to be involved in real-life science. S'COOL supports NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, which was launched on the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997, as part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. With the S'COOL project students observe clouds and related weather conditions, compute data and note vital information while obtaining ground truth observations for the CERES instrument. The observations can then be used to help validate the CERES measurements, particularly detection of clear sky from space. In addition to meeting math, science and geography standards, students are engaged in using the computer to obtain, report and analyze current data, thus bringing modern technology into the realm of classroom, a paradigm that demands our attention.

  11. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, Marianne

    values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating...... estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines...... combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit...

  12. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Satish V [Georgetown University

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  13. Real-time monitoring of nutrients and dissolved organic matter in rivers: Capturing event dynamics, technological opportunities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip J; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte E M; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Excessive riverine nutrient concentrations threaten aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. In this paper, we review the principles underlying the key techniques used for in-situ nutrient monitoring and highlight both the advantages, opportunities and challenges associated with high-resolution sampling programs. We then suggest how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising several different temporal sample frequencies, controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid changes in environmental conditions. Finally, we suggest future research directions based on emerging technologies in this field. PMID:27376920

  14. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, N; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been ...

  15. Greenhouse gas balances and new business opportunities for biomass-based transportation fuels and agro biomass; Liikenteen biopolttoaineiden ja peltoenergian kasvihuonekaasutaseet ja uudet liiketoimintakonseptit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuula Maekinen, T.; Soimakallio, S.; Paappanen, T. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Pahkala, K. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Mikkola, H. [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The aim of the project was to assess greenhouse gas balances and greenhouse gas reduction costs for biomass-based fuels used in transportation and combined heat and power production (CHP). New business opportunities were identified, and business plans for commercialisation of the most cost-effective technologies through research, development and demonstration were presented. Both the commercial technologies and the technologies under development were assessed. The main options were barley-based ethanol, biodiesel (RME), forest residue and reed canary grass-derived synthetic fuels, and forestry residues and reed canary grass as a fuel for CHP production. The whole utilisation chain from the fuel production to the end se was evaluated. The results indicated that e.g. the production and use of barley- based ethanol or rape seed-based biodiesel does not necessarily reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but can on the contrary increase the greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil-based reference fuels. However, absolute emissions can be reduced by optimising cultivation and production chains, e.g. by utilisation straw in energy production. The second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as a raw material seems to be significantly more favourable in reducing greenhouse gases cost- effectively. (orig.)

  16. Should a small combined heat and power plant (CHP) open to its regional power and heat networks? Integrated economic, energy, and emergy evaluation of optimization plans for Jiufa CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of industrial ecology has led company managers to increasingly consider their company's niche in the regional system, and to develop optimization plans. We used emergy-based, ecological-economic synthesis to evaluate two optimization plans for the Jiufa Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant, Shandong China. In addition, we performed economic input-output analysis and energy analysis on the system. The results showed that appropriately incorporating a firm with temporary extra productivity into its regional system will help maximize the total productivity and improve ecological-economic efficiency and benefits to society, even without technical optimization of the firm itself. In addition, developing a closer relationship between a company and its regional system will facilitate the development of new optimization opportunities. Small coal-based CHP plants have lower-energy efficiency, higher environmental loading, and lower sustainability than large fossil fuel and renewable energy-based systems. The emergy exchange ratio (EER) proved to be an important index for evaluating the vitality of highly developed ecological-economic systems

  17. Numerical optimization and economic analysis in the design of a micro-CHP systemwith a Stirling engine and a solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento do Programa Doutoral em Engenharia Industrial e de Sistemas The micro-CHP systems are a promising technology for improving the energy efficiency of small energy conversion units, located near the end user. The combined heat and power production allows the optimal use of the primary energy sources and significant reductions in carbon emissions. Its use, still incipient, has a great potential for applications in the residential sector. This study aims to develop a method...

  18. Needs and emerging opportunities of electron beam accelerators on radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In South America there are 17 industrial electron beam accelerators with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1400 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major end-use markets for these EB units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, foams, tires and components, semiconductors and multilayer packages. In addition, the Brazilian Technical Association for Radiation Curing was foundered in 1993. The knowledge on EB technology has been sharing with the associated industries and partners in Brazil, since that time. In 2006, an agreement with RadTech International North America and this Brazilian association promotes the RadTech South America, which has its headquarters in IPEN-CNEN/SP. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in South America are paints, adhesives and coatings cure; disinfestations of seeds; films and multilayer packages irradiation for low-energy EBA (150 - 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (300 keV-5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite materials and carbon fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (5-10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; sugarcane bagasse irradiation as pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; soil remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; treatment of effluent from petroleum production units and

  19. A Pilot Evaluation of Small Group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Smith, Bradley H.; Bogle, Kristin E.; Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Cole, Wesley R.; Pender, Carolyn A. S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a…

  20. Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Šiupšinskas, G.; Martinaitis, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses the conditions for the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP) in Lithuania.......The article analyses the conditions for the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP) in Lithuania....

  1. A closed-form expression for the optimal capacity of CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Arie ten Cate

    2009-01-01

    In this memorandum the optimal capacity of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is derived, using a simple model with an analytical solution. The solution is expressed as the fraction of the time during which the heat demand exceeds the optimal CHP heat production capacity.

  2. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    Samples of particles collected at CHP plants in the project 'Survey of emissions from CHP Plants' have been analysed in this project to give information on the morphology and chemical composition of individual particle size classes. The objective of this project was to characterize ultrafine and fine particles emitted to the atmosphere from Danish CHP plants. Nine CHP plants were selected in the Emission Survey Project as being representative for the different types of CHP plants operating in Denmark: 1) Three Waste-to Energy (WTE) plants. 2) Three biomass fired (BM) plants (two straw fired, one wood/saw dust fired). 3) Two gas fired (GF) plants (one natural gas, one landfill gas fired). 4) One gasoil (GO) fired plant. At the WTE and BM plants, various types of emission control systems implemented. The results from these plants represent the composition and size distribution of combustion particles that are emitted from the plants emission control systems. The measured emissions of particles from the waste-to-energy plants WTE1-3 are generally very low. The number and mass concentrations of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}) were particularly low in the flue gas from WTE2 and WTE3, where bag filters are used for the reduction of particle emissions. The EDX analysis of particles from the WTE plants indicates that the PM{sub 0.1} that penetrates the ECS at WTE can contain high fractions of metals such as Fe, Mn and Cu. The SEM analysis of particles from WTE1-3 showed that the particles were generally porous and irregular in shape. The concentrations of particles in the flue gas from the biomass plants were generally higher than found for the WTE plants. The time series results showed that periodical, high concentration peaks of PM emissions occur from BM1 and BM2. The chemical composition of the particles emitted from the three biomass plants is generally dominated by C, O and S, and to some extend also Fe and Si. A high amount of Cu was found in selected

  3. D3.2.2. Final report on the political, social and industrial opportunities arising from the use of emerging technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsiopoulos, Ioannis; Yannapoulos, Angelos; Watson, Hayley; Finn, Rachel; Rodrigues, Rowena; Wadhwa, Kush; Papadimitriou, Alex; Baruh, Lemi

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The present document is the final version of the deliverable “Report on the political, social and industrial opportunities arising from the use of emerging technologies” of the COSMIC Support Action. The purpose is to look into the political, social and industrial implications of the use of emerging technologies in crisis situations, in relation to existing policies and standards for the development and use of such technologies, as well as to highlight the op...

  4. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling...... engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been developed. In this engine the combustion system and the geometry of the hot heat exchanger...... of the Stirling engine has been adapted to the use of a gas with a low specific energy content and a high content of tar and particles. In the spring of 2001 a demonstration plant has been built in the western part of Denmark where this Stirling engine is combined with an updraft gasifier. A mathematical...

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHP896 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence; segment 4/5. 38 6e-04 16 DD041861 |DD041861.1 Light-driven energy generation using proteorhodopsin...lnln*yhvhfqlhhllhhfqlvvvaavvvfhlkvv*lkniknhldhqdmeiikil lkdf*nalie*lkfikni...AM270196 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An09c007... 35 7.5 AE010299_2657( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosa...D CHP896 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16351-1 Original site URL ht...equence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllxftlkcrttityhli**l*ivviisl*elhylqfinkkikk*iikkiknnqkdfy fsyrvinky*yr***sil*ggeahlcdf*qqinni

  6. Savukaasujen hiilidioksidin talteenottoprosessin vaikutukset olemassa olevaan monipolttoaine-CHP-voimalaitokseen

    OpenAIRE

    Keskitalo, E. (Esa)

    2013-01-01

    Kasvihuonepäästöjen rajoittaminen on yksi tämän hetken suurista haasteista. Suomi on EU:n jäsenmaana sitoutunut vähentämään kasvihuonepäästöjä 20 % vuoteen 2020 mennessä. Tästä osuudesta on tavoitteena saada talteen 10 % hiilen talteenotto- ja varastointimenetelmien (CCS) avulla. Diplomityön tarkoituksena oli tutkia, mitä teknisiä ratkaisuja on olemassa hiilidioksidin talteenotolle monipolttoaine-CHP-voimalaitoksen savukaasuista. Teoriaosiossa käytiin ensin läpi yleisellä tasolla CO2:n ta...

  7. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO2-emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO2-advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO2-characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO2-advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.)

  8. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  9. Generation technologies of the future for Polish power system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolesław Zaporowski

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of electricity generation technologies, as well as heat and electricity cogeneration technologies of the future for Polish power system. The analysis focuses on technologies used in three types of power plants: system large power plants, large and medium power CHP plants and small power CHP plants (distributed sources). Individual solutions are characterised by their specifi c CO2 emissions (kg CO2/kWh) and specifi c electricity generation cost discounted for 20...

  10. Fuel cells and electricity companies - new risk management opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Deregulation, distributed generation, combined heat and power, renewables, fuel cells, hydrogen. Power companies are facing a rapidly evolving environment that is testing their ability to effectively deploy capital and earn profits. While recent deregulation trends have shifted the structure of power markets into separating generators from distributors, the improving economic value proposition offered by smaller scale distributed generation technologies - such as fuel cells - would seem to be a conflicting development. In this complex and changing environment, decisions based on the economic reality of the capital markets are likely to prevail. By examining the opportunity to enhance risk management offered by stationary fuel cells, particularly in CHP applications, we provide a context for the issues being discussed in today's sessions focusing on power companies and electric utilities. Our risk management perspective suggests a pathway for implementing fuel cells in combined heat and power applications that large power generators can introduce in increasingly smaller sizes. With capital costs of fuel cells high and risk tolerance of power companies low, the challenge for smaller technology developers will be to reduce the apparently long time horizon that persists for substantial deployment. (author)

  11. Energie-Cites opinion on the directive project of CHP. To meet urban energy requirements with optimal energy efficiency and production closer to residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directive on ''the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market'' should be adopted very soon. The initial aim of the Directive is to strengthen existing measures to promote CHP in line with the Community target of doubling the share of CHP in EU electricity generation from 9% in 1994 to 18% by 2010. But no target has been mentioned. Energie-Cites states, in this document, its opinion of this draft proposal. Cogeneration is a well-tried and proven technology which has achieved tangible results and is one of the more efficient ways for the EU to fulfill the commitments it made under the Kyoto Protocol. (A.L.B.)

  12. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  13. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  14. Life cycle assessment of micro production technologies - solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors; Livscyklusvurdering af mikroproduktionsteknologier - solceller, husstandsvindmoeller og mikromotorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeborg Poulsen, A.; Kruse, H.; Hvid Ipsen, K.

    2000-07-15

    This report contains a life cycle based estimation of environmental effects of CHP based on the micro production technologies: solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors. The technologies cover CHP production on very small plants which are characterised by being located by the individual consumer. (BA)

  15. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    OpenAIRE

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such ...

  16. The Chp1-Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS

    OpenAIRE

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Shanker, Sreenath; Partridge, Janet F.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at fission yeast centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced Initiation of Transcriptional gene Silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small non-coding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which bridges between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with, apart from its chromodomain, no recognizable domains. Here we describe how the structured C-terminal h...

  17. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better

  18. Missing the spark: An investigation into the low adoption paradox of combined heat and power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study tests the influence of regulatory requirements for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies on its adoption in the market-place controlling for other relevant variables identified in the literature. Control variables in this study include profitability of CHP technology at the individual firm level, ownership structure of the firm, and knowledge about CHP within firms. Employing a logit model with data collected from a survey and an energy engineering software program, the study finds that firms initially search for CHP technologies in order to reduce their current energy cost. Subsequently, however, firms abandon the adoption process due to concerns about the complexity of regulatory requirements. Ownership structure and familiarity with CHP are found to be not significant in this analysis. The study recommends that information programs that promote CHP need to place stronger emphasis on the profitability of CHP. Another recommendation calls for the deployment of alternative regulatory structures that could govern CHP. This research was supported with a grant from the National Science Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program (Grant DGE 9870646)

  19. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHP795 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP795 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 - (Link to Original site) ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... Influenza A virus (swine/Ille et Vilaine/1455/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1488/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  1. Biomass CHP plant Guessing: reliable solution for fossil free municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start up of the biomass gasification CHP plant in 2002 marked the last step of the small Austrian town of Guessing towards the supply with 100 % biomass based renewable energy. Furthermore a sustainable process of regional development has been set into force, which turned this former poor region into a prospering European centre of renewable energy. Reaching an electric efficiency of 25 % and a total efficiency of 80 %, the process of steam blown gasification and gas utilisation in an engine enables economic operation even in small plants. For more than 11,000 operating hours the system could prove its reliability. Due to the favourable characteristics of the product gas research projects beyond electricity production were already started. (authors)

  2. Exergetic comparison of efficiency indicators for combined heat and power (CHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legislative regulations in favor of combined heat and power (CHP) production have been implemented in many countries. Although these regulations put different emphasis on power production vs. process heat production, they are based on energy quantities and not on exergy. In order to analyze and compare the exergetic consequences of the various legislations, a relative avoided irreversibility (RAI) is defined. This can be regarded as the exergy loss that is avoided when reference plants with separate production are replaced by an actual CHP plant. Some series of industrial and district heating CHP plants, under varying operational conditions, are used as test cases. It is seen that some, but not all, CHP cases are exergetically beneficial to separate generation. Comparison with the RAI allows a quantitative assessment of the various performance indicators. It is seen that exergetic improvements were only captured to a limited degree by the various energy-based efficiency indicators. Some legislatively defined indicators even appear to discourage thermodynamic improvements

  3. Hashoj has a CHP-plant and biogas-plant that are adjusting to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Denmark many small combined heat and power (CHP) plants struggles for survival in a time with a very low price on electricity and therefore a high price on heat, to maintain the credibility of the plant. But that gives the CHP-plants some special problems to deal with. A visit to Hashoj CHP -plant shows what their situation are, and how some of these new perspectives, are to be solved. The CHP-plant operates together with a biogas- plant. The biogas plant has also made some investments to meet the problems that a liberalised market for electricity will make for a supplier of the basic energy for producing green electricity. (authors)

  4. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff.......The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff....

  5. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled ''Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP'' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying rate at RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital. (author)

  6. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled 'Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital

  7. The energetic feasibility of CHP compared to the separate production of heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, promotion of combined production of heat and power (CHP) plays a significant role in most national energy strategies, aiming at primary energy savings and CO2-reduction. However, it is not correct to state that rational use of energy and reduction of CO2-emission are intrinsic to CHP. The amount of energy savings and CO290%)] are strongly improving, the required performances of CHP plants being preferable to separate systems for the production of heat and power, have to be tightened. In this paper, a calculation methodology for evaluating the primary energy consumption and CO2-emission for both options (CHP and separate production of heat and power) is presented. Based on calculations with this methodology and with practical figures of performances of CHP plants and separate systems for production of heat and power, the boundary conditions that have to be met by CHP systems for being less energy consuming and less CO2-producing are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. CHP Gorzow - first Polish gas-steam CHP with GT8C turbine; EC Gorzow SA - pierwsza w Polsce elektrocieplownia gazowo-parowa z turbina GT8C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloncewicz, Z. [Elektrocieplownia Gorzow S.A., Gorzow Wielkopolski, (Poland); Rudny, S. [Energoprojekt Gliwice S.A., Gliwice (Poland); Wronkowski, H.; Dzierzgowski, J. [ABB Zamech Ltd., Elblag, (Poland)

    1996-06-01

    Combined-cycle power plant Gorzow generates heat and electric power for the needs of Gorzow Wielkopolski town and local industry. Old part of the plant with 4 coal-fired units will be replaced by gas-steam CHP in 1998. The basic technical data of CHP are given and GT8C turbine is described. The consequences for environment such as elimination of dust as well as substantial abatement of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission are stressed. A way of noise abatement is also presented. 7 figs.

  9. Information and Communication Technology Integration into Teaching and Learning: Opportunities and Challenges for Commerce Educators in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Thomas; Thomas, Raju

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the opportunities available and challenges experienced by Commerce subjects' educators using ICT. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive research was used. Six high schools were purposely selected for the study because they are all equipped with computer laboratories. A purposive sample consisted of 138 school-based commerce…

  10. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian; Nielsen, Suna Løwe

    2012-01-01

    development oriented, the act of ‘recognition’ is still a central part of the definition. Recently the term “Opportunity Design” has been introduced, suggesting that opportunities can be proactively and intentionally designed. However, the relatedness between the opportunity recognition process and...... opportunity design is not clear. Furthermore, there is still a lack of approaches, methods and tools, which can support entrepreneurs in designing the entrepreneurial opportunities. In this paper, we take steps towards defining opportunity design in respect to the opportunity recognition process, and identify...... some of the specific approaches applicable to the design of opportunities. By looking at industrial designers working with entrepreneurial opportunities, it becomes evident that there is a set of approaches, which can turn the opportunity recognition process into an intentional and proactive process....

  11. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  12. Conceptual design of nuclear CHP using absorption cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at providing a conceptual idea on the combined heat and power (CHP) using the absorption cycle to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat, which is applicable to the conventional nuclear power plants (NPPs). The originality of the scheme is 1) it does not change the operation strategy of the NSSS, 2) the thermal energy of waste heat can be transferred to a long distance, and 3) the thermal energy can be used for cooling as well. As it is expected that the number and the share of NPPs increases soon, the necessity of a partial load operation was raised in argument in case of South Korea. This means the surplus of nuclear energy. In order to make the best of nuclear fuels loaded once, we proposed a combined cycle instead of cutting back reactor power to meet a partial load demand. Figure 1 shows the schematic drawing of the proposal. Since a steam demand in the turbine cycle is equivalent even though an electricity demand is different, the operation strategy of the NSSS does not need to be changed. When a partial load demand is triggered off, turbine power is cut back and a bypass path is open. The bypass path is used for transferring waste heat to an absorption cycle. The CHP using absorption principles was initially developed over 100 years ago. The absorption cycle is a process by which heating and/or cooling effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input. The absorption cycles accomplish heat transferring through the evaporation of a refrigerant at a low pressure and the rejection of heat through the condensation of the refrigerant at a higher pressure. In the absorption cycles, a secondary fluid or absorbent is used to circulate the refrigerant. Absorption cycles are commercially available today in two basic configurations; lithium bromide/water and water/ammonia (respectively absorbent/ refrigerant). We can have several advantages in this idea. This principle can design a heat transfer mechanism

  13. Crystal structure of CHP2 complexed with NHE1-cytosolic region and an implication for pH regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Youssef Ben; Takeda, Soichi; Hisamitsu, Takashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) require calcineurin B homologous protein (CHP) as an obligatory binding partner for ion transport. Here, we report the first crystal structure of CHP (CHP2 isoform) in complex with its binding domain in NHE1. We show that the cytoplasmic α-helix of NHE1 is inserted into the hydrophobic cleft formed by N- and C-lobes of CHP2 and that the size and shape of this crevice together with hydrogen bond formation at multiple positions assure a high degree of...

  14. Proceedings of the Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse: technology interventions in water purification and management - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference deals with the issues relevant to water security, desalination processes and water reuse. The topics covered in the symposium include: water scenario, integrated water resource management, innovative desalination technologies, nuclear and renewable energy based desalination, intake and out fall systems, advances in water purification technologies, advanced water treatment, nanotechnologies in water purification, innovations in desalination technologies, reject brine management, drinking water in rural and remote areas, water quality monitoring and assurance, emerging membrane technologies, spent membrane management, environment and health, techno-economic evaluation and financial models etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) and the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology (OPST). Final technical progress report, 1 June 1993--31 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of plasma science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the PLSC to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of PLSC activities from June 1, 1993 to May 31, 1994. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier reports. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the PLSC study on opportunities in plasma science and technology. During the above period, the PLSC continued to track and participate in, when requested, discussions on the health of the field. Much of the perspective of the PLSC has been presented in its report Research Briefing on Contemporary Problems in Plasma Science. That report not only has served as the basis for briefings to representatives of the federal government and the community-at-large, but also served as the starting point for the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology (OPST) as it began an assessment of the field. The PLSC also continued its follow-up briefings and discussions on the results of the report Plasma Processing of Materials: Scientific and Technological Opportunities (PPPM). As a result of these activities, the Committee is now working with the NRC Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) to organize a symposium on database needs in plasma processing of materials.

  16. STEM Professions: Opportunities and Challenges for Latinos in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taningco, Maria Teresa V.; Mathew, Ann Bessie; Pachon, Harry P.

    2008-01-01

    Although the United States has the best innovation ecosystem in the world, according to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), American students have weak math and science skills compared with those in the rest of the world. Even students at the top tier pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and…

  17. Digital Opportunities within the Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: A Study of Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Proficiency in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Karon; Peacock, Kim; Norton, Yvonne; Steinhauer, Evelyn; Snart, Fern; Carbonaro, Mike; Boechler, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores changes that occurred in preservice teachers' thinking about the use of educational technology in a post-secondary, Aboriginal, elementary teacher education program. The research explores relationships associated with changes in preservice teachers' attitudes and perceived proficiency with technology integration. Quantitative…

  18. Idaho Robotics Opportunities for K-12 Students: A K-12 Pipeline of Activities Promoting Careers in Science, Engineering, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    4-H youth development programs nationwide are responding to the 4-H National Science, Engineering, and Technology (4-H SET) Initiative to involve more youth in Science, Engineering, and Technology activities. The goal is to increase the numbers of youth choosing to pursue SET careers. This article describes a program that is having great success…

  19. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  20. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term open-quotes GIS,close quotes, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a open-quotes black boxclose quotes shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options

  1. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  2. Large-scale educational telecommunications systems for the US: An analysis of educational needs and technological opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.; Rothenberg, D.; Robinson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The needs to be served, the subsectors in which the system might be used, the technology employed, and the prospects for future utilization of an educational telecommunications delivery system are described and analyzed. Educational subsectors are analyzed with emphasis on the current status and trends within each subsector. Issues which affect future development, and prospects for future use of media, technology, and large-scale electronic delivery within each subsector are included. Information on technology utilization is presented. Educational telecommunications services are identified and grouped into categories: public television and radio, instructional television, computer aided instruction, computer resource sharing, and information resource sharing. Technology based services, their current utilization, and factors which affect future development are stressed. The role of communications satellites in providing these services is discussed. Efforts to analyze and estimate future utilization of large-scale educational telecommunications are summarized. Factors which affect future utilization are identified. Conclusions are presented.

  3. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act. Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg.

  4. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...... BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system is simulated in LabVIEW environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components and thereby more realistic design in the future. A part-load study has been conducted to...

  5. Mini-Central heating and Power Plant (CHP): the choice of the optimal structure and modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Konahina, I. A.; Kashapov, N. F.; Fahreev, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of the different types of organizations of mini-CHP, the results of a comparative evaluation of their performance in terms of the variable load. The recommendations to improve power facilities of the mini-CHP on the basis of system analysis methods and the technical and economic optimization are defined.

  6. DOE/SNL-TTU scaled wind farm technology facility : research opportunities for study of turbine-turbine interaction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; White, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    The proposed DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) hosted by Texas Tech University at Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, will provide a facility for experimental study of turbine-turbine interaction and complex wind farm aerodynamics. This document surveys the current status of wind turbine wake and turbine-turbine interaction research, identifying knowledge and data gaps that the proposed test site can potentially fill. A number of turbine layouts is proposed, allowing for up to ten turbines at the site.

  7. Energy and Economic Effectiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesław Zaporowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of energy and economic effectiveness of electricity generation technologies of the future in: system power plants, large and medium scale combined heat and power (CHP plants, and small scale power plants and CHP plants (distributed sources. For particular generation technologies were determined the quantities characterizing their energy effectiveness, unitary emission of CO2 (kg CO2/kWh and unitary discounted electricity generation costs of 2013.

  8. Symposium on hydrogen technology and fuel cells - opportunities for the economy; Symposium Wassertechnologie und Brennstoffzellen - Chancen fuer die Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This volume contains 17 contributions on fuel cell technology and on the infrastructure required for hydrogen production and supply, in the form of abstracts and short reports. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 17 Beitraege zum Themenkreis Brennstoffzellentechnologie und die dazu erforderliche Infrastruktur fuer die Wasserstofferzeugung und -versorgung in Form von Kurzfassungen und Vortragsfolien.

  9. Another 25 Years of AIED? Challenges and Opportunities for Intelligent Educational Technologies of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkwart, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts an analysis of some current trends and future developments in computer science, education, and educational technology. Based on these trends, two possible future predictions of AIED are presented in the form of a utopian vision and a dystopian vision. A comparison of these two visions leads to seven challenges that AIED might…

  10. What Engineering Technology Could Do for Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Current Needs and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamford, Jonathan A; Schmidt, Peter N; Friedl, Karl E

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves well-known motor symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and altered gait, but there are also nonlocomotory motor symptoms (e.g., changes in handwriting and speech) and even nonmotor symptoms (e.g., disrupted sleep, depression) that can be measured, monitored, and possibly better managed through activity-based monitoring technologies. This will enhance quality of life (QoL) in PD through improved self-monitoring and also provide information that could be shared with a healthcare provider to help better manage treatment. Until recently, nonmotor symptoms ("soft signs") had been generally overlooked in clinical management, yet these are of primary importance to patients and their QoL. Day-to-day variability of the condition, the high variability in symptoms between patients, and the isolated snapshots of a patient in periodic clinic visits make better monitoring essential to the proper management of PD. Continuously monitored patterns of activity, social interactions, and daily activities could provide a rich source of information on status changes, guiding self-correction and clinical management. The same tools can be useful in earlier detection of PD and will improve clinical studies. Remote medical communications in the form of telemedicine, sophisticated tracking of medication use, and assistive technologies that directly compensate for disease-related challenges are examples of other near-term technology solutions to PD problems. Ultimately, a sensor technology is not good if it is not used. The Parkinson's community is a sophisticated early adopter of useful technologies and a group for which engineers can provide near-term gratifying benefits. PMID:26259205

  11. 250 kWe class atmospheric Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) power plant installation and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 250 kWe SOFC/CHP system was designed as the first pre-commercial demonstration of Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation's (SWPC) atmospheric-pressure SOFC technology. This integrated package combining fuel cell and heat recovery, was predicted to deliver electrical-generation efficiencies above 45% and total energy efficiency with heat recovery approaching 80%. SOFC technologies are widely heralded as the state-of-the art in stationary power generation. High electrical conversion efficiencies (up to a potential of 70% in pressurized hybrid units), very low emissions, virtually solid state (few moving parts), and high exhaust-heat recovery make SOFCs very desirable as distributed generation technologies. With their tubular technology, SWPC is recognized as the world leader in SOFC stationary systems designed for distributed generation applications. (author)

  12. H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) effects on energy performances of a condensing micro-CHP (combined heat and power) for residential applications: An expeditious assessment of water condensation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accomplish significant primary energy saving and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction, CHP (combined heat and power) technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances (i.e. Fuel Cell) wide deployment, ICEs (internal combustion engines) fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy. This paper deals with the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Single Cylinder ICE, fuelled with NG (natural gas) and H2NG @ 15% vol. In detail, energy performances were assessed at rated and partial loads. From data analysis, it emerged that the electrical efficiency increased up to 2.28%, at the expense of the heat recovery one, having added hydrogen. Additionally, due to the higher water content in exhaust gas when H2NG is burned, it was investigated on how heat recovery efficiency has been affected by condensing operating conditions. Finally, to estimate this benefit, an expeditious procedure was developed building three maps for H2NG blends condensing properties from 0% up to 30% vol. of H2. Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture. - Highlights: • H2NG mixture effects on a commercial technology μCHP for residential applications. • Experimental analysis and methodology for H2NG condensing properties assessment. • CO2 specific emissions calculation accounting for electrical and thermal outputs. • Uncertainty analysis on the μCHP energy performances and methodology validation. • H2 addition coupling a condensing heat exchanger enhance CHP First Law efficiency

  13. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  14. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, G. K. H.; van Foreest, N. D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  15. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpen J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  16. E-recruitment and Applicant Tracking System : New age of technology based applicant screening. Threat or opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Gagua, Levan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide reader with in-depth information of new technological instruments, which recruiters apply in order mitigate application data. This study examines how applicant tracking system has integrated in Finnish organizations´ human resource department and how it helps managing labour force. This case study was executed in nature of qualitative research, where subjected organizations were interviewed via telephone and e-mail conversations. Findings wer...

  17. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller;

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is about transforming novel ideas into future business, but it requires an entrepreneurial opportunity to be exploited via an effective strategic and organizational design. While the entrepreneurship literature says much about how to implement and organize new opportunities in a...... market setting (the back-end of entrepreneurial processes), it pays less attention to how entrepreneurs purposely design opportunities (the front-end of entrepreneurial processes). Drawing on methods and processes from the creative design literature, the paper introduces a framework of “opportunity...... design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion to...

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Electrochemical Processes as Next-Generation Technologies for the Treatment of Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Sedlak, David L

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical processes have been extensively investigated for the removal of a range of organic and inorganic contaminants. The great majority of these studies were conducted using nitrate-, perchlorate-, sulfate-, and chloride-based electrolyte solutions. In actual treatment applications, organic and inorganic constituents may have substantial effects on the performance of electrochemical treatment. In particular, the outcome of electrochemical oxidation will depend on the concentration of chloride and bromide. Formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated, and brominated organics may compromise the quality of the treated effluent. A critical review of recent research identifies future opportunities and research needed to overcome major challenges that currently limit the application of electrochemical water treatment systems for industrial and municipal water and wastewater treatment. Given the increasing interest in decentralized wastewater treatment, applications of electrolytic systems for treatment of domestic wastewater, greywater, and source-separated urine are also included. To support future adoption of electrochemical treatment, new approaches are needed to minimize the formation of toxic byproducts and the loss of efficiency caused by mass transfer limitations and undesired side reactions. Prior to realizing these improvements, recognition of the situations where these limitations pose potential health risks is a necessary step in the design and operation of electrochemical treatment systems. PMID:26370517

  19. Micro-CHP for self-supply in the housing industry. Profitability and system integration; Mikro-BHKW zur Eigenversorgung in der Wohnungswirtschaft. Wirtschaftlichkeit und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Raphael; Buettner, Markus; Erge, Thomas; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Wittwer, Christof [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The use of micro-CHP units in multifamily buildings is particularly profitable if the produced electricity - coupled with the thermal energy production - is used directly by the operator or sold locally. To maximize the share of own consumption the use of thermal storages to operate the CHP at times of high electrical demand is necessary. By conducting a field test it is shown that the share of own consumption can be increased by predictive control of CHP with thermal storages. The approach increases the profitability of the CHP operation under today's conditions as well as the system integration of the CHP electricity. (orig.)

  20. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR): Big Data Opportunities for Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA. PMID:26446859

  1. Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology (BOOST): Enhancing Capacity for Hydrologic Science in Morocco and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Benaabidate, L.; Laftouhi, N.; Fekri, A.; Cherif, O.; Elewa, H.; Garamoon, H.; Ward, J. W.; Hanley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Across North Africa and the Middle East, absolute water scarcity and impaired water quality pose significant challenges. Another critical issue is suitable employment opportunities for university graduates. With the support of the U.S. State Department, we developed a 2-year pilot project (BOOST) to address both problems by working with graduate students in hydrologic sciences on developing 'hard' (technical) and 'soft' (professional) skills. Two cohorts of six students each were selected from Morocco and Egypt. The Moroccans were geology students from three universities, whereas the Egyptians included four geologists, a soil scientist, and a physical geographer from four universities. English proficiency was emphasized and at least half the participants in each cohort were female. Training began during spring 2012 with an Internet-based course introducing GIS, remote sensing, and hydrologic modeling. Students traveled to the USA in summer 2012 for a week of field training activities and a week-long, 'hands-on' workshop as a capstone to the long-distance course. Field activities in the Concho River watershed of west Texas included mapping of hydraulic heads in an unconfined aquifer, measurements of stream flow and infiltration rates, and analyses of water-quality parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity). In a second Internet-based course during fall 2012, students developed resumes and LinkedIn pages, gave written and oral summaries of webinars (on career options for geoscientists and hydrologic topics), and completed a module on research ethics. The capstone activity for the second course was presentation of posters on research topics at the 2012 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. During winter-spring 2013, students participated in outreach activities such as training other students at their institutions. The group met for final debriefing and discussions with stakeholders (secondary-school educators and

  2. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  3. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysko Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  4. A thermodynamic criterion for selection of working fluid for subcritical and supercritical domestic micro CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Mikielewicz, Dariusz; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A thermodynamic criterion for selection of a fluid both for subcritical and supercritical organic Rankine cycle has been proposed. Theoretical performances of few fluids have been comparatively assessed for use in low-temperature domestic organic Rankine cycle micro systems. Of 20 fluids investigated, ethanol, R123 and R141b appear as the most suitable for small scale domestic CHP applications.

  5. A thermodynamic criterion for selection of working fluid for subcritical and supercritical domestic micro CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic criterion for selection of a fluid both for subcritical and supercritical organic Rankine cycle has been proposed. Theoretical performances of few fluids have been comparatively assessed for use in low-temperature domestic organic Rankine cycle micro systems. Of the 20 fluids investigated, ethanol, R123 and R141b appear as the most suitable for small scale domestic CHP applications.

  6. CHP-plant with PEM fuel cells; Kraftvarmeanlaeg med PEM braendselsceller - Fase 1. Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moth, K.; Damgaard Schmidt, J.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this ambitious project was to design and construct a PEM fuel cell based CHP plant. The project succeeded. Furthermore, the project has contributed significantly to knowledge acquisition of data as regards design and construction of plants of this type, and the participants in the projects are placed in a good position in preparation for further activities within this area. (BA)

  7. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  8. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF HEAT PUMPS ON THE CHP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculus of the efficiency of the use of heat pumps on the CHP plants. There are presented the interdependences between the pay-back period and NPV of heat pump and the price of 1 kWt of thermal power of heat pump and of the tariff of electricity.

  9. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  10. Adaptive Regulation of the Boiler-Turbine Unit of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified nonlinear model of a CHP system is used to investigate the steady state errors, hunting phenomena and high interactions produced in the linear regulators currently employed in industry. A gain-scheduling regulator is designed to overcome these shortcomings.

  11. Small scale CHP: Alternative integration forms in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Denmark, introduction of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants were part of the energy policy during the 1990's. Thus, the installed electricity capacity on this type of units multiplied approximately ten times during this decade, to constitute more than 2000 MW in 2000, or around 20% of total installed electricity capacity. The motivation for this development was mainly energy savings due to the relatively high thermal efficiency in combined production, and the associated reduction of emissions. The remuneration for the electricity delivered to the electrical network was in part based on a feed in tariff. The construction of the tariff reflected estimated benefits to the electrical system. With the liberalisation of the electricity markets this arrangement has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the differentiated payment to local CHP should be based on electricity market prising. For Denmark this would imply that the local CHP should trade the electricity on the Nordpool electricity spot market. This paper analyses parts of these two alternative ways of economic arrangements in relation to small scale CHP. First it describes the development and status till now. Then it analyses the production patterns and associated economic consequences of a change from the tariff based system to a market system. (BA)

  12. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  13. Dynamic analysis of PEMFC-based CHP systems for domestic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Dynamic model of a CHP energy system based on a PEM fuel cell was developed. ► The CHP system behavior at variable electrical and thermal load was investigated. ► The optimal RH value was assessed maximizing PEMFC performance through simulations. ► The system best operating conditions are characterized by a RH value equal to 50%. -- Abstract: Fuel cell-based CHP systems for distributed residential power generation represent an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants. This is mainly due to the high efficiency obtainable in the production of electricity and heat in a decentralised, quiet and environmental friendly way. The current paper focuses on the development, in Matlab®Simulink environment, of a complete dynamic model of a residential cogenerative (CHP) energy system consisting of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), fuel processor, heat exchangers, humidifier and auxiliary hot water boiler. The target of the study is the investigation through such a model of the behavior of CHP systems based on fuel cell (FC) at variable electrical and thermal load, in reference to typical load curves of residential users. With the aim to evaluate the system performance (efficiency, fuel consumption, hot water production, response time) and then to characterize its better operating conditions with particular attention to air relative humidity, suitable simulations were carried out. They are characterized by the following of a typical electrical load trend and in relation to two different thermal load profiles. The dynamic model presented in this paper has allowed to observe the fully functioning of the FC based system under variable loads and it has permitted to design appropriate control logics for this system.

  14. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Regulation of Type IV Pilus Function by the Chp Chemosensory System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Jacob J.; West, Joyce T.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2009-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the coordinate expression of many virulence factors, including type IV pili, which are required for colonization of host tissues and for twitching motility. Type IV pilus function is controlled in part by the Chp chemosensory system, which includes a histidine kinase, ChpA, and two CheY-like response regulators, PilG and PilH. How the Chp components interface with the type IV pilus motor proteins PilB, PilT, and PilU ...

  16. Nuclear-localized Calcineurin Homologous Protein CHP1 Interacts with Upstream Binding Factor and Inhibits Ribosomal RNA Synthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Vidal, Maite; Srivastava, Jyoti; Putney, Luanna K; Barber, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcineurin homologous protein 1 (CHP1) is a widely expressed, 22-kDa myristoylated EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein that shares a high degree of similarity with the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin (65%) and with calmodulin (59%). CHP1 localizes to the plasma membrane, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus and functions to regulate trafficking of early secretory vesicles, activation of T cells, and expression and transport of the Na-H exchanger NHE1. Although CHP1 contains nuclear export signa...

  17. Preclinical Safety Pharmacology Study of a Novel Protein-Based Cancer Vaccine CHP-NY-ESO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Naozumi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiyasu; Sakaguchi, Yasue; Kuno, Takayoshi; Hishida, Tadashi; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    CHP-NY-ESO-1 is a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinantprotein of cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 and a polysaccharide-based delivery system,cholesteryl pullulan. A pilot clinical study of CHP-NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients waspreviously conducted, and the adverse events related to this drug were observed to belimited to skin reactions at injection sites. To further establish the safety ofCHP-NY-ESO-1, we studied the effects of its subcutaneous injection on vital functionssuch as ...

  18. Structural insights into ChpT, an essential dimeric histidine phosphotransferase regulating the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus

    OpenAIRE

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Clantin, Bernard; Dewitte, Frédérique; Lens, Zoé; Verger, Alexis; Biondi, Emanuele G; Villeret, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Two-component and phosphorelay signal-transduction proteins are crucial for bacterial cell-cycle regulation in Caulobacter crescentus. ChpT is an essential histidine phosphotransferase that controls the activity of the master cell-cycle regulator CtrA by phosphorylation. Here, the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of ChpT is reported. ChpT is a homodimer and adopts the domain architecture of the intracellular part of class I histidine kinases. Each subunit consists of two distinct domains: a...

  19. Opportunities for First Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rodrigo [Anaia Global (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The recent development of wind energy project creates opportunities for First Nations. Although they are interested by such projects, First Nations nevertheless have questions such about how they can be a part of the wind industry, what are their rights, what investment would they need to make, and how to judge if they are getting a favourable deal. This presentation aimed at answering those questions an maintained that wind energy would bring social and economic development to First Nations communities as well as diversifying their sources of revenue. Several companies offer their services to First Nations and Anaia Global is a company which helps aboriginal people identify to promote their investment opportunities in renewable energy projects and benefit from the technology transferred to them. This presentation showed that there are significant opportunities for First Nations in the wind energy sector and that Anaia Global is focusing on helping them seize these opportunities.

  20. Integrated HT-PEMFC and multi-fuel reformer for micro CHP. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    reformed both methane and biogas although the efficiency was low, on the order of 15% due to excessive slip and heat losses. The construction and test of an integrated micro CHP system revealed several problems with the core technology. Therefore, rather than working with the integrated system, individual system components were tested separately. In spite of the problems with the reformer and the fuel cell stack the system was successfully operated and an electric efficiency of 18%{sub LHV} was demonstrated. (Author)

  1. Opportunities in microstructured photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans Peter; Sfez, Tristan; Scharf, Toralf

    2010-01-01

    The progress in novel light sources, detectors, materials and technology enable new opportunities and challenges for diffractive optics and nanoscale photonics. Important are also analysis tools, such as near-field imaging (SNOM). Only structures that can be characterized can be fabricated

  2. Opportunities for Taiwan's industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jen-Lien Lin; Guang-Way Jang

    2004-01-01

    The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan recently introduced nanotechnology to local traditional industries. Nanotechnologies provide a great opportunity for these companies to meet outside challenges and join the blooming electronic and optoelectronic industries. The Nanotechnology Community (NTC) was established in 2003, with the goal of finding commercial applications. This year, the Taiwan Nanotechnology Industrialization Promotion Association (TANIPA) was established...

  3. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. → We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. → Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. → HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. → Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to

  4. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  5. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.

    2003-10-10

    can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca2+-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  7. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  8. Energy consumption indicators and CHP technical potential in the Brazilian hospital sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demands in hospitals are characterized by their need for high quality, guaranteed supplies. The existence of captive electricity uses and the size and regularity of the electrical and heat loads required by hospitals are aspects that could well buttress the possibility of installing cogeneration plants fired by natural gas (CHP). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the CHP technical potential in Brazilian hospitals. Based on a classification of Brazilian hospitals by specific energy consumption indicators, this potential is assessed, taking into consideration gas fueled engines associated with absorption cooling systems. A potential figure of approximately 500 MWe was obtained, whose effective implementation runs up against the obstacles inherent to Brazil's hospital sector, listed at the end of this paper. Consequently, some actions are proposed for surmounting these barriers

  9. Micro CHP module with Stirling engine: tests and market introduction; Mikro-KWK-Modul mit Stirlingmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, A.

    2002-07-01

    This article describes a small combined heat and power (CHP) module based on a stationary Stirling engine with a 2 - 9 kW electrical and a 8 - 24 kW thermal rating. Its associated gas burner is also described. The article reviews the history of the development of this CHP module and describes how the Stirling engine works. The advantages offered by the Stirling engine in comparison with conventional engines in terms of low maintenance requirements and low emissions of pollutants are discussed. The design of the module and its integration into heating systems are examined. Tests with 30 units providing a total of 150,000 hours of operation are discussed. Production facilities and market introduction activities are briefly described.

  10. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Matysko Robert; Mikielewicz Jarosław; Ihnatowicz Eugeniusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipp...

  11. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigati...

  12. A Simplified Nonlinear Model For A Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H

    1990-01-01

    Steady state errors, hunting and high interactions have been reported in the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems working with steam turbines. The design of currently employed regulators in industry is usually absed on a linear model of the system. An improved system regulation can only be achieved if a more accurate mathematical model is available. In this paper, a simplified nonlinear model is derived which can be used to investigate the present problems and evaluate new contr...

  13. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alta Knizley; Pedro J. Mago; James Tobermann

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP) system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP) on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR), is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance...

  14. 我国技术市场发展的机遇、挑战和战略选择研究%The Research of Opportunities,Challenges and Strategic Choice of the Technology Market Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅正华; 张玢; 林耕; 李明亮

    2016-01-01

    我国技术市场经过30多年的发展,已经进入新的发展机遇期,新科技革命、经济转型、创新型国家建设以及加快全面建成小康社会的战略目标都为技术市场的发展带来了难得的机遇;与此同时,伴随机遇而来的是挑战,现有管理体制问题、技术市场发展的机制性缺陷、技术市场发展的观念性障碍以及国际技术转移等都给技术市场发展提出了新挑战。面对机遇与挑战,国家需要作出战略性的抉择,通过促进技术交易产业平稳健康发展、进一步活跃技术交易、建立和完善国家技术转移体系和技术市场法律体系、建立健全技术市场管理和组织等措施加快技术市场的发展。%Having developed 30 years,Chinese technology market had entered into a new development opportunity.The new technological revolution,the economic transformation and the strategic goals of constructing an innovative country and speeding up to build a well -off all -round society have brought a rare opportunity for the development of Chinese technolo-gy market.At the same time,along with the opportunity are challenges,such as the existing problems of management sys-tem,institutional defects of the technology market development,the ideogenetic disorder of technology market development and international technology transfer,which have put forward new challenges to the development of technology market.Fa-cing the opportunities and challenges,the government needs to make a strategic decision,take measures such as promoting steady and healthy development of the technology trading industry,further activating technology trading,establishing and perfecting the system of the national technology transfer and technology market legal system,establishing and perfecting the technology market management and organization to speed up the development of the technology market.

  15. A new approach for near real-time micro-CHP management in the context of power system imbalances – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An aggregator consisting of micro-CHPs was proposed. • A near-real time balance optimization was developed. • A case study that resembles the actual situation of the Belgian energy market is studied. • Using the near-real time balance optimization a cost decrease between 2.5% and 5% can be achieved. - Abstract: In order to ensure reliable operation of the electric grid, it is required to keep the balance between total generation and consumption of power in real-time. This task is performed by the transmission system operator. Nowadays, with the large penetration of intermittent generation on the electric grid there is a need to increase the flexibility of the system in order to ensure the balance. The present study develops a methodology to provide near real-time balancing services making use of an aggregation of micro-CHP devices. The controller of the aggregator bids electricity into the day-ahead market using the expected heat demand and spot market prices. The main focus of this work is on the near real-time optimization which is performed during the actual day. This optimization provides the opportunity to obtain extra profits by rescheduling the operation of the aggregator. The rescheduling is done in order to compensate the total system imbalance. To achieve this, every time step, the aggregator evaluates the system demand for up or down regulation and decides if it is profitable to adjust its position to provide balancing services to the power system. The methodology is applied to a case study that resembles the actual situation of the energy market and CHP installations in Belgium. The results show that using the near real-time balancing optimization a total cost decrease of 5% can be achieved depending on the season. This conclusion is valid even if there is an increase of the gas prices and if the actual governmental support on CHPs is not taken into account

  16. An energetic-exergetic analysis of a residential CHP system based on PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A zero-dimensional of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. → The electrochemical model has been validated with experimental data. → The performances of this CHP system have been evaluated through a series of simulations. → An energy/exergy analysis of the simulation results has allowed to define the PEMFC optimal operating conditions. → The PEMFC optimal operating conditions detected are: 1 atm, 353.15 K and 100% RH. -- Abstract: The use of fuel cell systems for distributed residential power generation represents an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants due to their high efficiency and the potential recovering of the heat generated by the internal electrochemical reactions. In this paper the study of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is reported. With the aim to evaluate the performance and then the feasibility of this non-conventional energy system, in consideration of thermal and electrical basic demand of a multifamily apartment blocks, a zero-dimensional PEMFC model in Aspen Plus environment has been developed. A simulations sequence has been carried out at different operating conditions of the fuel cell (varying temperature, pressure and relative humidity). Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, an energy/exergy analysis has been conducted to define the optimal operating conditions of the PEMFC that ensures the most efficient use of the energy and exergy inputs.

  17. CHP efficiency of a 2000 × CPV system with reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Gaetano; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Collura, Alfonso; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Milone, Sergio; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Paredes, Filippo; Cannas, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this work we have developed a combined heat and power (CHP) prototype that operates at 2000 × concentration based on reflective optics. The receiver consists of a InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell in thermal contact with an aluminium heat sink driving a forced water flow. This CHP system was tested both indoor (DNI of 650 W/m2) and outdoor (DNI of 900 W/m2) under different conditions of fluid parameters as the flow rate (ranging from 0.2 liters/min to 1.2 liters/min) and temperature (ranging from 25 °C to 60 °C). Electrical and thermal power were determined by acquiring IV curves and by measuring the heat subtracted from the cell while it delivered the maximum electrical power, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that this CHP system achieves a total efficiency of about 80%, shared between the electrical (30%) and the thermal one (50%).

  18. Development and field test of a SOLO 161 Stirling engine based micro-CHP unit with ultra-low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2001-07-01

    For the last decade, work has been made at Lund University, Sweden, on developing a new sort of natural gas combustion chamber for the V160/SOLO 161 Stirling. It is a lean premix combustion chamber with internal combustion gas recirculation and a metallic flame holder for flame stabilisation, and it has produced extremely low emissions that are comparable to the emissions of catalytic combustion. The combustion chamber is considered ready for market introduction by the end of 2001. To combine the task of adapting this combustor for the market with the need to demonstrate small-scale Stirling engine CHP technology, a project has been started with the purpose to demonstrate and evaluate the operation of a Stirling engine unit based on the SOLO 161 Stirling engine equipped with the Lund combustion chamber. The evaluation program should give information regarding operation costs, efficiencies, emissions and running characteristics. In November 2000 the engine was transferred from the Lund University laboratory to its final location in Gothenburg. The engine is now installed and all necessary adaptation of engine, gas system and water heating system is made. The unit is running unattended in normal everyday operation. Current operating time is approx. 1200 hours, and delivered electric output is approx. 6000 kWh (July 2001)

  19. CFD simulation of Pd-based membrane reformer when thermally coupled within a fuel cell micro-CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roses, Leonardo; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Campanari, Stefano [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    In this work, a bi-dimensional CFD simulation investigates a fuel processor for hydrogen production from natural gas or biogas composed by a steam methane reformer coupled with a palladium-based hydrogen permeable membrane, the so-called ''membrane reformer'' (MREF). The heat required for the endothermic reforming reaction taking place on the MREF is supplied by a stream of hot gas coming from an external source, typically represented by a combustor burning the unconverted fuel and the unpermeated hydrogen. The resulting fuel processor arrangement, which has already been simulated by the point of view of energy and mass balances, may achieve a very high efficiency and is particularly suited for integration with fuel cells. The interest on this configuration relies on the possibility to implement this technology within a PEMFC-based micro-cogenerator (also micro-Combined Heat and Power, or m-CHP) with a net electrical power output in a range of 1-2 kW. In particular, the work focuses on the temperature profiles along the membrane, which should be kept as close as possible to 600 C to favourite permeation and avoid any damages, and examines the advantages of hot gas on co-current direction vs. counter-current with respect to the reformer flux direction. (author)

  20. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  1. Testing and model-aided analysis of a 2 kW el PEMFC CHP-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, P.; Weber, A.; Lewald, N.; Aicher, T.; Jörissen, L.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Szolak, R.; Brendel, M.; Kaczerowski, J.

    A prototype PEMFC CHP-system (combined heat and power) for decentralised energy supply in domestic applications has been installed in the Fuel Cell Testing Laboratory at the Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE), Universität Karlsruhe (TH). The system, which was developed at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung ZSW, Ulm (FC-stack) and the Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (reformer) is operated and tested in close cooperation with the Stadtwerke Karlsruhe. The tests are carried out as part of the strategic project EDISon, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWA). The performance of the system is evaluated for different operating conditions. The tests include steady state measurements under different electrical and thermal loads as well as an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system during load changes. First results of these steady state and dynamic operation characteristics will be presented in this paper.

  2. Comparison of Technological Options for Distributed Generation-Combined Heat and Power in Rajasthan State of India

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Kumar Agrawal; Kamal Kishore Khatri

    2013-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper reviews the different technological options available for DG. DG offers a number of potential benefits. The ability to use the waste heat from fuel-operated DG, known as combined heat and power (CHP), offers both reduced costs and significant reductions of CO2 emissions. The overall efficiency of DG-CHP system can approach 90 percent, a significant improvemen...

  3. Seizing Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After the remarkable progress of the past five years, China has entered its new five-year plan period, starting from 2006, aiming to further its economic and social development. Though some are still talking about "China threat," many others consider the country's growth a huge opportunity. In an interview with People's Daily, Bill Fischer, former President of the Sino-European International Business School in Shanghai, comments on China's current development and also talks about problems the country fac...

  4. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP100), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y−1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  5. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  6. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO2, but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  7. Thermodynamic indices assessing the integration of coal-fired CHP plants with post-combustion CO2 processing units (CPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Although, CHP plants are pro-ecological, they also need CO2 capture units. • CHP integrated with CO2 capture needs a modification of thermodynamic indices. • Indices of the relative internal load of heat and electricity have been elaborated. • Formulae of the net Energy Utilization Factor have been calculated. • Partial energy efficiencies of heat and electricity production have been determined. - Abstract: Although cogeneration is an effective way of reducing the CO2 emission in CHP plants, installations permitting the removal of CO2 ought to be applied. Installations based on chemical absorption using amine solvents is justified in the case of power plants and CHP plants. The CO2 processing unit (CPU) is characterized by a large amount of stream for solvent regeneration and the consumption of electricity mainly in compressors of CO2 product. Additional internal consumption of heat and electricity produces waste heat due to the condensation of H2O in the mixture of CO2 and H2O resulting from the desorption of CO2 and interstage cooling of the CO2 compressors. The waste heat recovery system can be connected with the preheating of network water in the district heating systems cooperating with CHP plants. In this way the integration of the CHP plants with the post-combustion CO2 processing unit is realized. This integration requires some supplements in algorithms describing the thermodynamic indices in comparison with traditional cogeneration systems. Firstly, the indices of the internal load of heat and electricity was changed. This influences the net Energy Utilization Factor, secondly the analyzed thermodynamic index, and thirdly the partial energy efficiencies of the production of heat and electricity in a CHP unit. In this last case the principle of avoided fuel expenditure and the exergy method in coupled processes have been applied. The new algorithms for calculations mentioned above thermodynamic indices and the results of their

  8. Biomass based oxyfuel combustion in CHP power plant with opportunity of oxygen storage system for carbon capture and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Mohammad Mahmodul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from coal-based power plants is one of the major environmental concerns since coal will remain as a dominant source of energy for the next few decades. Therefore, the CO2 emission requires to be decreased and move towards renewable energy sources to meet the environmental and sustainability targets. However, it will not be able to meet the worldwide energy demand because of the limited commercialization of renewable energy sources. As coal is the most leading ene...

  9. Closing the Windows on Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Norman

    1995-01-01

    The rapid adoption of graphic user interface (GUI), as indicated by Microsoft's Windows95 and the Internet's increased use of graphics, is threatening information technology opportunities for people with disabilities. Recent legislation requires that schools provide access to computers and information technology, and producers of Mosaic are…

  10. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Knizley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR, is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance may be improved by limiting operation of the system to months in which the PHR is relatively low. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how the facility PHR parameter could be used to establish the potential of a D-CHP system to reduce operational cost with respect to traditional CHP systems and conventional systems with separate heating and power. This paper analyzes the relationship between the PHR and the operational cost savings of eight different benchmark buildings. Achieving operational cost savings through optimal operation based on monthly PHR for these building types can enhance the implementation potential of D-CHP and CHP systems. Results indicate that the PHR parameter can be used to predict the potential for a D-CHP system to reduce the operational cost.

  11. Analysis of the impact of Heat-to-Power Ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application under different climate regions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Brandon, Nigel;

    2011-01-01

    according to the summer energy demand. The winter energy demand shows a Heat-to-Power Ratio which cannot be covered by the mCHP unit alone. To ensure that the mCHP system meets both the thermal and electrical energy demand over the entire year, an auxiliary boiler and a hot water storage tank need to be...

  12. SOSYAL POLİTİKA AÇISINDAN CHP İLE AKP’NİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKUL, Nilay BAŞOK; DİNÇER, Müjde Ker; BAT, Mikail

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada siyasal yelpazedeki yerini sosyal demokrat olarak tanımlayan CHP ile muhafazakâr sağ olarak tanımlayan AKP’nin, tarihsel ve betimsel araştırma yöntemleri ışığında benimsediği ekonomi anlayışının ortaya konularak, izledikleri sosyal politikaların bu çerçevede irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu bağlamda, CHP ile AKP’nin ekonomi politikası ortaya konduktan sonra, her iki partinin ekonomi politikaları benzerlik ve farklılık bakımından karşılaştırılmıştır. Daha sonra da CHP ile AKP’nin iz...

  13. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    -horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market.......In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity....... We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present a...

  14. CHP-II: The Carnegie Hubble Program to Measure Ho to 3% Using Population II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Jeffrey; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Beaton, Rachael; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Seibert, Mark; Bono, Giuseppe; Clementini, Gisella; Yang, Soung-Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2015-01-01

    There has been great progress in the measurement of cosmological parameters in recent years, but controversy has arisen over the Planck/WMAP versus the direct measurement of the Hubble constant. The goal of our Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is to obtain a direct measure of Ho to 3%. In CHP I, we used Cepheid variables to calibrate the extragalactic distance scale. In the second phase, CHP II, we are establishing a completely independent route to Ho using RR Lyrae variables, the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Not only is the RR Lyrae route independent of the Cepheids, but its PL relation has a scatter that is a factor of 2 smaller. Unlike the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae / TRGB distance scale can be applied to both elliptical and spiral galaxies. This is a great systematic advantage, given the small number of galaxies (9 in total) close enough to have measured Cepheid calibrators within the SNIa hosts. By providing a new calibration using a Pop II distance scale, we will immediately double the number of SN Ia distances based on geometry, linking to over 200 SNe in the pure Hubble flow out to z = 0.7. Four calibrators containing both Cepheids and TRGB stars provide an important cross-check on systematics. Initially, the accuracy of our value of Ho will be set by four galactic RR Lyrae calibrators with HST/FGS parallaxes. With Gaia, both the RR Lyrae zero point and TRGB method will be independently calibrated with at least an order of magnitude more calibrators, each having precisions of 1% or better. This will allow the highest accuracy measurement of Ho to date using the "Distance Ladder" method.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of two micro CHP systems operating with geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Two micro CHP ORC plants using solar and low temperature geothermal are presented. ► Three different fluids (R134a, R236fa, R245fa) are investigated. ► R245fa shows the best cycle efficiency; R134a releases the highest heat. ► Solar collectors accounts for nearly 50% of the system exergy destruction. ► Preliminary analysis of CHP performance with R134a in heating season is carried out. -- Abstract: Micro combined heat and power (CHP) plants operating through an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using renewable energy are analyzed. The reference system is designed to produce 50 kWe. The heat sources of the system are geothermal energy at low temperature (80–100 °C) and solar energy. Two different system layouts, a single and a double stage arrangement, are presented. The first uses a solar field composed only by evacuated solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine. In the double-stage system, a field of evacuated solar collectors heats the working fluid up to an intermediate temperature. After this first stage, only a part of the working fluid flow rate is heated in a second solar field, composed of direct-steam parabolic through collectors (PTCs), up to the maximum temperature of the cycle. The mechanical work is then produced in two turbo-expanders arranged in series. For the investigations, different working fluids (e.g. R134a, R236fa, R245fa) are considered. The results of the simulation in terms of efficiencies, heat and electricity production and the main characteristics of the system (i.e. heat exchanger surface, solar collector area) are presented and discussed.

  16. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base КСк-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  17. Renewables and CHP with District Energy in Support of Sustainable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Chris

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the powerful idea of connecting many energy users to environmentally optimum energy sources through integrated community energy systems. Such systems require piping networks for distributing thermal energy, i.e., district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. The possibilities and advantages of the application of integrated energy concepts are discussed, including the economic and environmental benefits of integrating localized electrical generating systems (CHP), transportation systems, industrial processes and other thermal energy requirements. Examples of a number of operating systems are provided. Some of the R and D carried out by the IEA Implementing Agreement on District Heating and Cooling is also described.

  18. Anuário Investigação CHP 2008

    OpenAIRE

    DEFI

    2011-01-01

    Documenta-se a produção científica do Centro Hospitalar do Porto (CHP) apresentando os artigos da autoria ou co-autoria dos profissionais das três instituições nele integradas (Hospital de Santo António, HSA; Hospital Maria Pia, HMP; Maternidade Júlio Dinis, MJD) publicados em revistas científicas, durante o ano 2008.1 A listagem foi elaborada pelo Departamento de Ensino, Formação e Investigação (DEFI), com base em pesquisas em bases de dados bibliográficos. Consideram-se se...

  19. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducte...... vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES....

  20. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  1. Energy-optimisation of biogas-fuelled CHP units; Energetische Optimierung von Biogas-BHKW's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltic, P.; Edenhauser, D.; Winkler, A.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the energy-related optimisation of combined heat and power (CHP) units that are fuelled with non-processed biogas. Ways of increasing the efficiency of these units as far as the production of electricity is concerned are examined and commented on. Also, ways of using the heat generated by the CHP units to produce electricity using other, exergetic means are also described. Systems such as Stirling engines and existing and new thermo-electrical elements are discussed. The economic viability of the systems is also discussed.

  2. The Impact of Modified EU ETS Allocation Principles on the Economics of CHP-based District Heating Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The economics of large-scale combined heat and power (CHP) generation for district heating (DH) applications are strongly affected by the costs and allocation mechanism of CO2 emission allowances. In the next period of the European emission trading system (EU ETS), from 2013 onwards, the allocation rules for CHP generation will be modified according to the principles announced in EU Directive 2009/29/EC. By means of a discounted cash-flow model we first show that the implementation of the mod...

  3. Modeling and optimization of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP residential system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature-proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFC)-based micro-combined-heat-and-power (CHP) residential system is designed and optimized, using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization strategy. The proposed system consists of a fuel cell stack, steam methane reformer (SMR) reactor, water gas...... shift (WGS) reactor, heat exchangers, and other balance-of-plant (BOP) components. The objective function of the single-objective optimization strategy is the net electrical efficiency of the micro-CHP system. The implemented optimization procedure attempts to maximize the objective function by...

  4. Techno-Economic Study of Adsorption Processes for Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture at a Biomass CHP Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Oreggioni, Gabriel David; Friedrich, Daniel; Brandani, Stefano; Ahn, Hyungwoong

    2014-01-01

    An exemplary 10 MWth biomass CHP plant with a FICFB (Fast Internally Circulating Fluidised Bed) gasifier and Jenbacher type 6 gas engine was simulated to estimate the power and thermal outputs. The biomass-fuelled CHP plant was modified for carbon capture using either adsorption or amine process. It was found that a two-stage, two-bed PVSA (Pressure Vacuum Swing Adsorption) unit applied to syngas stream for pre-combustion capture spent less specific energy per captured CO2 than a conventional...

  5. Greenhouse gas balances and new business opportunities for biomass-based transportation fuels and agrobiomass in Finland; Liikenteen biopolttoaineiden ja peltoenergian kasvihuonekaasutaseet ja uudet liiketoimintakonseptit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, T.; Soimakallio, S.; Paappanen, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Pahkala, K.; Mikkola, H. [Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of the project was to assess energy and greenhouse gas balances as well as greenhouse gas emission reduction costs for biomass-based fuels used in transportation and combined heat and power production (CHP) compared to reference fuels. New business opportunities were identified based on the results. Both commercial technologies and technologies under development were assessed. The most suitable large-scale technologies for Finnish conditions were selected for the evaluation. Technologies utilising field crops and forest biomass as raw materials were evaluated. The main options were barley-based ethanol, biodiesel (RME) from turnip rape, forest residue and reed canary grass-derived synthetic fuels, and forest residues and reed canary grass as a fuel for CHP production. The whole utilisation chain from fuel production to end-use was evaluated. The overall energy input per output ratio was less than one for all assessed transportation biofuel chains, which means that more energy is produced than consumed. This energy consumption per energy content of the fuels was, however, 3 to 5 fold compared to fossil fuel chains. The results indicated that the production and use of barley-based ethanol or biodiesel from turnip rape does not necessarily reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but can on the contrary increase the greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil-based reference fuels, when the whole production and utilisation chain is considered. The second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as raw materials seem to be significantly more favourable as regards to greenhouse gas emissions, which results mainly from significantly lower fertilization levels of particular raw materials expressed in terms of energy. Significant uncertainties are involved in the emission estimates. Production of transportation biofuels is currently 30.100% more expensive than production of fossil fuels. The emission reduction costs for the second

  6. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  7. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......-cylinder Stirling engine SM3D with an electric output of 35 kW. This engine is a further development of the engine SM3B that has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The engine heater is being adapted for use with wood powder as fuel. During a two-year period a combustion system for this engine...

  8. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  9. Opportunities for Taiwan's industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Lien Lin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI in Taiwan recently introduced nanotechnology to local traditional industries. Nanotechnologies provide a great opportunity for these companies to meet outside challenges and join the blooming electronic and optoelectronic industries. The Nanotechnology Community (NTC was established in 2003, with the goal of finding commercial applications. This year, the Taiwan Nanotechnology Industrialization Promotion Association (TANIPA was established, with the support of the Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA, to formulate a strategy for industrial applications in Taiwan and to facilitate cooperation between industries, universities, and research institutes.

  10. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  11. Optimization of operation for combined heat and power plants - CHP plants - with heat accumulators using a MILP formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grue, Jeppe; Bach, Inger [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology]. E-mails: jeg@iet.auc.dk; ib@iet.auc.dk

    2000-07-01

    The power generation system in Denmark is extensively based on small combined heat and power plants (CHP plants), producing both electricity and district heating. This project deals with smaller plants spread throughout the country. Often a heat accumulator is used to enable electricity production, even when the heat demand is low. This system forms a very complex problem, both for sizing, designing and operation of CHP plants. The objective of the work is the development of a tool for optimisation of the operation of CHP plants, and to even considering the design of the plant. The problem is formulated as a MILP-problem. An actual case is being tested, involving CHP producing units to cover the demand. The results from this project show that it is of major importance to consider the operation of the plant in detail already in the design phase. It is of major importance to consider the optimisation of the plant operation, even at the design stage, as it may cause the contribution margin to rise significantly, if the plant is designed on the basis of a de-tailed knowledge of the expected operation. (author)

  12. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing the...

  13. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining. The...

  14. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is...

  15. Experimental study and modeling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peder Lund;

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modeling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing the...

  16. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. A biomass-fired micro-scale CHP system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) - Thermodynamic modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of thermodynamics modelling studies of a 2 kW (e) biomass-fired CHP system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Three environmentally friendly refrigerants, namely HFE7000, HFE7100 and n-pentane, have been selected as the ORC fluids. The thermodynamic properties of the selected ORC fluids which have been predicted by commercial software (EES) are used to predict the thermal efficiency of ORC. The results of modelling show that under the simulated conditions (1) the ORC thermal efficiency with any selected ORC fluid is well below (roughly about 60% of) the Carnot cycle efficiency; the ORC efficiency depends on not only the modelling conditions but also the ORC fluid - the highest predicted ORC efficiency is 16.6%; the predicted ORC efficiency follows the following order: n-pentane > HFE7000 > HFE7100 (2) both superheating and sub-cooling are detrimental to the ORC efficiency (3) the electrical efficiency of the CHP system with the selected ORC fluids is predicted to be within the range of 7.5%-13.5%, mainly depending on the hot water temperature of the biomass boiler and the ORC condenser cooling water temperature as well as the ORC fluid, and corresponding to about 1.5 kW and 2.71 kW electricity output (4) the overall CHP efficiency of the CHP system is in the order of 80% for all three ORC fluids although the amount and quality of heating supplied by the CHP system depend on the ORC fluid selected and the modelling conditions. -- Highlights: → Thermodynamics modelling of a 2 kW (e) biomass-fired CHP system with ORC is presented. → ORC fluids - HFE7000, HFE7100 and n-pentane. → ORC efficiency follows the order: n-pentane >HFE7000 > HFE7100 under the modelling conditions. → Electrical efficiency of 7.5%-13.5% depending on the ORC fluid and conditions. → Amount and quality of heating depending on the ORC fluid and conditions with CHP efficiency ∼80%.

  19. Optimal power flow based TU/CHP/PV/WPP coordination in view of wind speed, solar irradiance and load correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Formulate probabilistic OPF with VPE, multi-fuel options, POZs, FOR of CHP units. • Propose a new powerful optimization method based on enhanced black hole algorithm. • Coordinate of TUs, WPPs, PVs and CHP units together in the proposed problem. • Evaluate the impacts of inputs’ uncertainties and their correlations on the POPF. • Use the 2m + 1 point estimated method. - Abstract: This paper addresses a novel probabilistic optimisation framework for handling power system uncertainties in the optimal power flow (OPF) problem that considers all the essential factors of great impact in the OPF problem. The object is to study and model the correlation and fluctuation of load demands, photovoltaic (PV) and wind power plants (WPPs) which have an important influence on transmission lines and bus voltages. Moreover, as an important tool of saving waste heat energy in the thermoelectric power plant, the power networks share of combined heat and power (CHP) has increased dramatically in the past decade. So, the probabilistic OPF (POPF) problem considering valve point effects, multi-fuel options and prohibited zones of thermal units (TUs) is firstly formulated. The PV, WPP and CHP units are also modeled. Then, a new method utilizing enhanced binary black hole (EBBH) algorithm and 2m + 1 point estimated method is proposed to solve this problem and to handle the random nature of solar irradiance, wind speed and load of consumers. The correlation between input random variables is considered using a correlation matrix. Finally, numerical results are presented and considered regarding the IEEE 118-busses, including PV, WPP, CHP and TU at several busses. The simulation and comparison results obtained demonstrate the broad advantages and feasibility of the suggested framework in the presence of dependent non-Gaussian distribution of random variables

  20. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo;

    2014-01-01

    under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...... to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria for sizing the system components of the micro-CHP are specifically addressed. The developed methodology can be...

  1. Comparison and Research of Standards for CHP Energy Efifciency%我国热电联产能效标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐为; 马娜

    2013-01-01

    Based on China’s standards on Combined Heating&Power (CHP) energy efifciency, this paper compares and researches the local energy efifciency standards on CHP, analyzes the local policies and industrial characters of CHP, as well as summarizes the conclusions of the comparison.%在梳理我国热电联产能效标准现状的基础上,对比研究我国地方热电联产能效标准,分析地方热电联产制度环境和产业特点,总结相应对比结论。

  2. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  3. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  4. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated temperatures, as compared to Nafion-based PEMFCs and therefore can be a significant candidate for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system is simulated in LabVIEWTM environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components and thereby more realistic design in the future. A part-load study has been conducted to indicate performance characteristics at off-design conditions. The system is sized to provide realistic dimensioning of the actual system. -- Research highlights: → An HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP system is modeled in LabVIEW to provide a basis for future experimental calculations. → We examine operation in various loads to indicate performance characteristics at off-design conditions. → An electrical efficiency varying from 45.4% (25%-load) to 38.8% (full-load) was calculated. The corresponding total efficiency was around 95.2%.

  5. COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS OF UNCONVENTIONAL CHP UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An unconventional CHP unit with a hot air engine is designed as the primary energy source with fuel in the form of biomass. The heat source is a furnace designed for combustion of biomass, whether in the form of wood logs or pellets. The transport of energy generated by the biomass combustion to the working medium of a hot-air engine is ensured by a special heat exchanger connected to this resource. The correct operation of the hot-air engine is largely dependent on an appropriate design of the exchanger. The paper deals with the calculation of the heat exchanger for the applicationsmentioned, using criterion equations, and based on CFD simulations.

  6. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  7. Music education - changes and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological revolution directly or indirectly affects at improvements to education. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need of changes and opportunities to improve the work of the class teachers. Key Words: modern teacher, teaching plan and program, textbooks, students

  8. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  9. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  10. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  11. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and electricity supply markets, they also offer the potential to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable electricity infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner electricity and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise

  12. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  13. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  15. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  16. Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  17. Economic, energy and GHG emissions performance evaluation of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit in a domestic dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performance of a Stirling engine MK IV micro-CHP unit was evaluated in a domestic dwelling in Ireland. • The performance of the micro-CHP was compare to that of a condensing gas boiler. • The micro-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 compared to the condensing gas boiler. • Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. • The micro-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler during one year of operation. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the energy, economic and greenhouse gas emissions performances of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit for use in a conventional house in the Republic of Ireland. The energy performance data used in this study was obtained from a field trial carried out in Belfast, Northern Ireland during the period June 2004–July 2005 by Northern Ireland Electricity and Phoenix Gas working in collaboration with Whispertech UK. A comparative performance analysis between the μ-CHP unit and a condensing gas boiler revealed that the μ-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 with an incremental simple payback period of 13.8 years when compared to a condensing gas boiler. Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. The μ-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler

  18. The capsid-coding region hairpin element (cHP) is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Karen; Barrera, Julio; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Flavivirus genus of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA sequences and structures, primarily in the untranslated regions, have been shown to modulate flaviviral gene expression and genome replication. Previously, we demonstrated that a structure in the DENV coding region (cHP) enhances translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication. Here we further characterize the role of the cHP in the DENV life cycle. We ...

  19. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  20. Record of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition (D and D) workshop: A new focus for technology development, opportunities for industry/government collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia, on July 11--12, 1995. The workshop sought to establish a foundation for continued dialogue between industry and the DOE to ensure that industry's experiences, lessons learned, and recommendations are incorporated into D and D program policy, strategy, and plans. The mission of the D and D Focus Area is to develop improved technologies, processes and products, to characterize, deactivate, survey, maintain, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of DOE surplus structures, buildings, and contents. The target is a five-to-one return on investment through cost avoidance. The cornerstone of the D and D focus area activities is large-scale demonstration projects that actually decontaminate, decommission, and dispose of a building. The aim is to demonstrate innovative D and D technologies as part of an ongoing DOE D and D project. OTD would pay the incremental cost of demonstrating the innovative technologies. The goal is to have the first demonstration project completed within the next 2 years. The intent is to select projects, or a project, with visible impact so all of the stakeholders know that a building was removed, and demonstrate at a scale that is convincing to the customers in the EM program so they feel comfortable using it in subsequent D and D projects. The plan is to use a D and D integrating contractor who can then use the expertise in this project to use in jobs at other DOE sites