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Sample records for chp plant based

  1. The design of Chp plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Chp is considered with a bottom-up view, as the most efficient way to satisfy the needs of the users. In order to achieve optimal results a particular care must be used in analyzing the thermal and electrical loads and their interactions. On this basis and taking into account the relationships among the user and the suppliers of electricity, fuels and heat, the energy market structure, the cost of energy and the tax assessment it is possible to properly design Chp plants with benefits for the users [it

  2. Investment in new power generation under uncertainty: Benefits of CHP vs. condensing plants in a copula-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a spread-based real options approach to analyze the decision-making problem of an investor who has the choice between an irreversible investment in a condensing power plant without heat utilization and a plant with combined heat-and-power (CHP) generation. Our investigation focuses on large-scale fossil-fueled generation technologies and is based on a stochastic model that uses copula functions to provide the input parameters of the real options model. We define the aggregated annual spread as assessment criteria for our investigation since it contains all relevant volatile input parameters that have an impact on the evaluation of investment decisions. We show that the specific characteristics of CHP plants, such as additional revenues from heat sales, promotion schemes, specific operational features, and a beneficial allocation of CO 2 allowances, have a significant impact on the option value and therefore on the optimal timing for investment. For the two fossil-fueled CHP technologies investigated (combined-cycle gas turbine and steam turbine), we conclude from our analysis that a high share of CHP generation reduces the risk exposure for the investor. The maximal possible CHP generation depends significantly on the local heat demand in the surroundings of the power plant. Considering this, the size of the heat sink available could gain more relevance in the future selection process of sites for new large-scale fossil power plants.

  3. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  4. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  5. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  6. Monitoring of the energy performance of a district heating CHP plant based on biomass boiler and ORC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Dario; Renzi, Massimiliano; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    More than seventy district heating (DH) plants based on biomass are operating in South Tyrol (Italy) and most of them supply heat to residential districts. Almost 20% of them are cogenerative systems, thus enabling primary energy savings with respect to the separate production of heat and power. However, the actual performance of these systems in real operation can considerably differ from the nominal one. The main objectives of this work are the assessment of the energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled with an Organic Rankine Cycle (i.e. ORC) generator under real operating conditions and the identification of its potential improvements. The fluxes of energy and mass of the plant have been measured onsite. This experimental evaluation has been supplemented with a thermodynamic model of the ORC generator, calibrated with the experimental data, which is capable to predict the system performance under different management strategies of the system. The results have highlighted that a decrease of the DH network temperature of 10 °C can improve the electric efficiency of the ORC generator of one percentage point. Moreover, a DH temperature reduction could decrease the main losses of the boiler, namely the exhaust latent thermal loss and the exhaust sensible thermal loss, which account for 9% and 16% of the boiler input power, respectively. The analysis of the plant has pointed out that the ORC pump, the flue gases extractor, the thermal oil pump and the condensation section fan are the main responsible of the electric self-consumption. Finally, the negative effect of the subsidisation on the performance of the plant has been discussed. - Highlights: • Energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled to an ORC turbine in real operation. • Potential improvements of a CHP plant connected to a DH network. • Performance prediction by means of a calibrated ORC thermodynamic model. • Influence of the DH temperature on the electric efficiency. • Impact of the

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  8. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....... manufacturer, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, an Austrian development and engineering company. Based on the technology developed, a pilot plant was designed and erected in Austria. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 35 kWel and the nominal thermal output amounts to approx. 220 kWth. The plant...

  9. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  10. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Nadine; Yildiz, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  11. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  12. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    , and they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the peak hour......Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system...... characteristics of the electricity and gas systems will be investigated. The point is here that the two systems will tend to have peak demand during the same hours. This is the typical situation, since load is high during the same hours of the day and of the year. Moreover, the random variations in the load...

  13. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  14. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  15. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...... lines to underground cables has changed the reactive power balance, and third, the TSO has introduced restrictions in the allowed exchange of reactive power between the transmission system and distribution grids (known as the Mvar-arrangement). The demonstration includes a CHP plant with an electric......In this project the potential for ancillary services provision by distributed energy resources is investigated. Specifically, the provision of reactive power control by combined heat and power plants is examined, and the application of the new standard for DER communication systems, IEC 61850...

  16. Analysis of the location for peak heating in CHP based combined district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haichao; Lahdelma, Risto; Wang, Xin; Jiao, Wenling; Zhu, Chuanzhi; Zou, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is the main technology for providing the base load of district heating in China. However, CHP is not efficient for providing the peak load; instead, a peak boiler with high efficiency could be used to compensate the peak load. This paper studies how the location of the peak boiler can affect the energy efficiency and economic performance of such CHP based combined district heating system. Firstly, the connection mode and the control strategy for different peak heating locations are analyzed. Then the effect of the peak boiler's location on the initial investment of the network and the cost for distributing heat is studied. The objective is to place the peak boiler in a location where the overall costs are the smallest. Following this rule, the results indicate that the peak boiler should be located at the CHP plant if that allows using cheaper ‘self-use electricity’ in CHP for distributing the heat. However, if the market electricity price is used everywhere, or if energy efficiency is more emphasized, the location of the peak boiler should be closer to the users with dense heat loads. - Highlights: • Location for peak heating in the CHP based combined DH system is studied. • Regulation or control strategies for combined DH are summarized. • The heat load duration curve for combined DH is demonstrated. • Network design for combined DH with peak boiler outside of the CHP is analyzed

  17. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    Samples of particles collected at CHP plants in the project 'Survey of emissions from CHP Plants' have been analysed in this project to give information on the morphology and chemical composition of individual particle size classes. The objective of this project was to characterize ultrafine and fine particles emitted to the atmosphere from Danish CHP plants. Nine CHP plants were selected in the Emission Survey Project as being representative for the different types of CHP plants operating in Denmark: 1) Three Waste-to Energy (WTE) plants. 2) Three biomass fired (BM) plants (two straw fired, one wood/saw dust fired). 3) Two gas fired (GF) plants (one natural gas, one landfill gas fired). 4) One gasoil (GO) fired plant. At the WTE and BM plants, various types of emission control systems implemented. The results from these plants represent the composition and size distribution of combustion particles that are emitted from the plants emission control systems. The measured emissions of particles from the waste-to-energy plants WTE1-3 are generally very low. The number and mass concentrations of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}) were particularly low in the flue gas from WTE2 and WTE3, where bag filters are used for the reduction of particle emissions. The EDX analysis of particles from the WTE plants indicates that the PM{sub 0.1} that penetrates the ECS at WTE can contain high fractions of metals such as Fe, Mn and Cu. The SEM analysis of particles from WTE1-3 showed that the particles were generally porous and irregular in shape. The concentrations of particles in the flue gas from the biomass plants were generally higher than found for the WTE plants. The time series results showed that periodical, high concentration peaks of PM emissions occur from BM1 and BM2. The chemical composition of the particles emitted from the three biomass plants is generally dominated by C, O and S, and to some extend also Fe and Si. A high amount of Cu was found in selected

  18. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  19. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power production (CHP) are essential for implementation of the climate change response objectives in many countries. In an introduction period, small CHP plants have typically been offered fixed electricity prices, but in many countries, such pricing conditions are now being replaced by spot market prices. Consequently, new methodologies and tools for the optimisation of small CHP plant designs are needed. The small CHP plants in Denmark are already experienced in optimising their electricity production against the triple tariff, which has existed for almost 10 years. Consequently, the CHP plants have long term experience in organising when to switch on and off the CHP units in order to optimise their profit. Also, the CHP owners have long term experience in designing their plants. For instance, small CHP plants in Denmark have usually invested in excess capacity on the CHP units in combination with heat storage capacity. Thereby, the plants have increased their performance in order to optimise revenues. This paper presents the Danish experience with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff. Moreover, the changes in such methodologies and tools in order to optimise performance in a market with fluctuating electricity prices are presented and discussed

  20. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO 2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  1. Optimization of operation for combined heat and power plants - CHP plants - with heat accumulators using a MILP formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grue, Jeppe; Bach, Inger [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology]. E-mails: jeg@iet.auc.dk; ib@iet.auc.dk

    2000-07-01

    The power generation system in Denmark is extensively based on small combined heat and power plants (CHP plants), producing both electricity and district heating. This project deals with smaller plants spread throughout the country. Often a heat accumulator is used to enable electricity production, even when the heat demand is low. This system forms a very complex problem, both for sizing, designing and operation of CHP plants. The objective of the work is the development of a tool for optimisation of the operation of CHP plants, and to even considering the design of the plant. The problem is formulated as a MILP-problem. An actual case is being tested, involving CHP producing units to cover the demand. The results from this project show that it is of major importance to consider the operation of the plant in detail already in the design phase. It is of major importance to consider the optimisation of the plant operation, even at the design stage, as it may cause the contribution margin to rise significantly, if the plant is designed on the basis of a de-tailed knowledge of the expected operation. (author)

  2. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining...

  3. Design of Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems based on Economic Risk using Minimax Regret Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wen Choong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to identify optimum technologies for CHP systems that utilise biomass and convert it into heat and power. In this respect, industry decision makers are lacking in confidence to invest in biomass CHP due to economic risk from varying energy demand. This research work presents a linear programming systematic framework to design biomass CHP system based on potential loss of profit due to varying energy demand. Minimax Regret Criterion (MRC approach was used to assess maximum regret between selections of the given biomass CHP design based on energy demand. Based on this, the model determined an optimal biomass CHP design with minimum regret in economic opportunity. As Feed-in Tariff (FiT rates affects the revenue of the CHP plant, sensitivity analysis was then performed on FiT rates on the selection of biomass CHP design. Besides, design analysis on the trend of the optimum design selected by model was conducted. To demonstrate the proposed framework in this research, a case study was solved using the proposed approach. The case study focused on designing a biomass CHP system for a palm oil mill (POM due to large energy potential of oil palm biomass in Malaysia.

  4. Is micro-CHP price controllable under price signal controlled Virtual Power Plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    As micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems move towards mass deployment together with other kinds of distributed energy resources (DER), an increasing emphasis has been placed on how to coordinate such a large diversified DER portfolio in an efficient way by the Virtual Power Plant (VPP...... for three different micro-CHP systems to investigate the feasibility of being controlled by price. Such analysis is relevant for both controller designs for micro-CHP systems and VPP related operations. The results indicate that controlling the micro-CHP systems by price is feasible but could result...

  5. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO 2 and other emissions (NO x , SO x and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  6. Multi-Objective Analysis of a CHP Plant Integrated Microgrid in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Waqar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Pakistan, the capacity shortage (CS of electricity is a critical problem. The frequent natural gas (NG outages compel consumers to use electricity to fulfill the thermal loads, which ends up as an increase in electrical load. In this scenario, the authors have proposed the concept of a combined heat & power (CHP plant to be a better option for supplying both electrical and thermal loads simultaneously. A CHP plant-based microgrid comprising a PV array, diesel generators and batteries (operating in grid-connected as well as islanded modes has been simulated using the HOMER Pro software. Different configurations of distributed generators (DGs with/without batteries have been evaluated considering multiple objectives. The multiple objectives include the minimization of the total net present cost (TNPC, cost of generated energy (COE and the annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, as well as the maximization of annual waste heat recovery (WHR of thermal units and annual grid sales (GS. These objectives are subject to the constraints of power balance, battery operation within state of charge (SOC limits, generator operation within capacity limits and zero capacity shortage. The simulations have been performed on six cities including Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Gilgit. The simulation results have been analyzed to find the most optimal city for the CHP plant integrated microgrid.

  7. Large-Scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Generation at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergroth, N.

    2010-01-01

    Fortum has applied for a Decision in Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit (Loviisa 3) ranging from 2800-4600 MWth at its site located at the southern coast of Finland. An attractive alternative investigated is a co-generation plant designed for large-scale district heat generation for the Helsinki metropolitan area that is located approximately 75 km west of the site. The starting point is that the district heat generation capacity of 3 unit would be around 1 000 MWth.The possibility of generating district heat for the metropolitan area by Loviisa's two existing nuclear power plant units was investigated back in the 1980s, but it proved unpractical at the time. With the growing concern of the climate change and the subsequent requirements on heat and power generation, the idea is much more attractive today, when recognising its potential to decrease Finland's carbon dioxide emissions significantly. Currently the district heat generation in metropolitan area is based on coal and natural gas, producing some five to seven million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions annually. Large-scale combined heat and power (CHP) generation at the 3 unit could cut this figure by up to four million tonnes. This would decrease carbon dioxide emissions by as much as six percent. In addition, large-scale CHP generation would increase the overall efficiency of the new unit significantly and hence, reduce the environmental impact on the local marine environment by cutting heat discharges into the Gulf of Nuclear energy has been used for district heating in several countries both in dedicated nuclear heating plants and in CHP generation plants. However, the heat generation capacity is usually rather limited, maximum being around 250 MWth per unit. Set against this, the 3 CHP concept is much more ambitious, not only because of the much larger heat generation output envisaged, but also because the district heating water would have to be transported over a

  8. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  9. Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starfelt, Fredrik; Tomas Aparicio, Elena; Li, Hailong; Dotzauer, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the integration of a torrefaction reactor in a CHP plant. • Techno-economic analysis for the system is performed. • Flue gas integration of torrefaction show better performance. • Heat or electricity production is not compromised in the proposed system. - Abstract: Torrefied biomass shows characteristics that resemble those of coal. Therefore, torrefied biomass can be co-combusted with coal in existing coal mills and burners. This paper presents simulation results of a case study where a torrefaction reactor was integrated in an existing combined heat and power plant and sized to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the fossil coal in one of the boilers. The simulations show that a torrefaction reactor can be integrated with existing plants without compromising heat or electricity production. Economic and sensitivity analysis show that the additional cost for integrating a torrefaction reactor is low which means that with an emission allowance cost of 37 €/ton CO 2 , the proposed integrated system can be profitable and use 100% renewable fuels. The development of subsidies will affect the process economy. The determinant parameters are electricity and fuel prices

  10. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity......-horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market........ We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present...

  11. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff.......The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff....

  12. Dynamic analysis of PEMFC-based CHP systems for domestic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Ottaviano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic model of a CHP energy system based on a PEM fuel cell was developed. ► The CHP system behavior at variable electrical and thermal load was investigated. ► The optimal RH value was assessed maximizing PEMFC performance through simulations. ► The system best operating conditions are characterized by a RH value equal to 50%. -- Abstract: Fuel cell-based CHP systems for distributed residential power generation represent an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants. This is mainly due to the high efficiency obtainable in the production of electricity and heat in a decentralised, quiet and environmental friendly way. The current paper focuses on the development, in Matlab®Simulink environment, of a complete dynamic model of a residential cogenerative (CHP) energy system consisting of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), fuel processor, heat exchangers, humidifier and auxiliary hot water boiler. The target of the study is the investigation through such a model of the behavior of CHP systems based on fuel cell (FC) at variable electrical and thermal load, in reference to typical load curves of residential users. With the aim to evaluate the system performance (efficiency, fuel consumption, hot water production, response time) and then to characterize its better operating conditions with particular attention to air relative humidity, suitable simulations were carried out. They are characterized by the following of a typical electrical load trend and in relation to two different thermal load profiles. The dynamic model presented in this paper has allowed to observe the fully functioning of the FC based system under variable loads and it has permitted to design appropriate control logics for this system.

  13. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  14. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...

  15. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  16. An energetic-exergetic analysis of a residential CHP system based on PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Ottaviano, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A zero-dimensional of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. → The electrochemical model has been validated with experimental data. → The performances of this CHP system have been evaluated through a series of simulations. → An energy/exergy analysis of the simulation results has allowed to define the PEMFC optimal operating conditions. → The PEMFC optimal operating conditions detected are: 1 atm, 353.15 K and 100% RH. -- Abstract: The use of fuel cell systems for distributed residential power generation represents an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants due to their high efficiency and the potential recovering of the heat generated by the internal electrochemical reactions. In this paper the study of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is reported. With the aim to evaluate the performance and then the feasibility of this non-conventional energy system, in consideration of thermal and electrical basic demand of a multifamily apartment blocks, a zero-dimensional PEMFC model in Aspen Plus environment has been developed. A simulations sequence has been carried out at different operating conditions of the fuel cell (varying temperature, pressure and relative humidity). Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, an energy/exergy analysis has been conducted to define the optimal operating conditions of the PEMFC that ensures the most efficient use of the energy and exergy inputs.

  17. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, Marianne

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been...... estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines...

  18. Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Jing-Ming; Su, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Chiao-Ying [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Duh, Yih-Shing, E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lien-Da, Miaoli, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

  19. Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Jing-Ming; Su, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Chiao-Ying; Duh, Yih-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ► Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ► The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ► Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

  20. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF HEAT PUMPS ON THE CHP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculus of the efficiency of the use of heat pumps on the CHP plants. There are presented the interdependences between the pay-back period and NPV of heat pump and the price of 1 kWt of thermal power of heat pump and of the tariff of electricity.

  1. Grid Interaction of MV-connected CHP-plants during disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster, E.J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays the amount of distributed generation (DG) units is increasing rapidly. Most dominant are combined heat and power (CHP) plants and wind turbines. At this moment, in most systems, there are no requirements defined for short-circuit behavior of such generators connected to the medium voltage

  2. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  3. Energy conservation in methanol plant using CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Marjan; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of turbo expander integration with an industrial plant was studied. • Combined pinch-exergy analysis was used to achieve optimum performance of process. • Generation of power led to profitability of gas turbine integrated plant. - Abstract: Today, the efficient use of energy is a significant critical issue in various industries such as petrochemical industries. Hence, it seems essential to apply proper strategies to reduce energy consumption in such processes. A methanol production plant at a live Petrochemical Complex was selected as the case study in this research. The plant was first evaluated with combined pinch and exergy analysis from exergetic dissipation point of view. Owing to high temperature and pressure of reactor outlet stream, methanol synthesis reactor products contain considerable content of exergy. For the purpose of the present survey, the available content of exergy was used for power production by integrating a turbine expander with methanol reactor product. Utilization of reactor product’s high pressure in turbine reduces the temperature of turbine outlet stream to levels lower than those required for heating demands of existing streams in methanol synthesis cycle. Therefore, to keep the stream thermally balanced, the required hot utility of the process is increased and to compensate this increase, the heat exchanger network of the process was retrofitted based on pinch analysis concepts. The results showed that in gas turbine integrated scheme, approximately a net power of 7.5 MW is produced. Also, the total investment of turbine, compressor and heat exchangers area equals to 18.2 × 10 6 US$, and the annual saving value is about 6.1 × 10 6 US$/y. Based on economic data, payback period is estimated to be 3 years.

  4. Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-CHP system based on HT-PEMFC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technology is a well known and proved method to produce simultaneously power and heat at high efficiencies. This can be further improved by the introduction of a novel micro-CHP residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC......). The HT-PEMFC (based on PBI-membrane technology) operates at temperatures near 200oC, and this can be an ideal match for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system provides electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical household (1-5 kWe, 5-10 kWth). The micro-CHP system...

  5. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  6. A CSP plant combined with biomass CHP using ORC-technology in Bronderslev Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Yuan, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    A new CSP plant combined with biomass CHP, using ORC technology, will be built and taken into operation in Bronderslev, Denmark during spring 2017. The price for Biomass is expected to increase with more and more use of this very limited energy source and then CSP will be cost effective in the long...... run, also in the Danish climate. Oil is used as heat transfer fluid instead of steam giving several advantages in this application for district heating at high latitudes. Total efficiencies and costs, competitive to PV plants. are expected....

  7. Aeroderivative Gas Turbo engine in CHP Plant. Compatibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities to develop Combined Cycle Units based onaeroderivative Gas Turbo engines and on existing Steam Turbines. The specific compatibilityproblems of these components and the thermodynamic performances of the analyzed Combined CycleUnits are also presented.

  8. Increased electrical efficiency in biofueled CHP plants by biomass drying; Oekat elutbyte i biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar med hjaelp av foertorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Mikael; Thorson, Ola; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    In this report, integrated biofuel drying has been studied for two cases. One is the existing CHP plant at ENA Energi AB in Enkoeping and the other is a theoretical case. The thought plant is assumed to have a steam generating performance that is probable for a future CHP plant optimised for power production. The CHP plant at ENA Energi with its integrated bed drying system has been used as a model in this study. The plant has a grate fired boiler with the capacity to co-produce 24 MW electricity and 55 MW heat. It is designed to use biofuel with moisture content between 40 and 55 %. However, the boiler is able to manage even dryer fuels with the moisture content of about 35 % without complications. Since the boiler operates on part load during most of the season, there are free capacity which can be used for delivering heat to the drying system. The increased power production is a result of mainly two factors: Increased demand of heat as the dryer uses district heating and thus improved possibility to produce steam; and, The season of operation can be extended, since the point where the minimum load of the boiler occurs can be pushed forward as a result of increased demand of heat. For future CHP plants, an optimised plant has been used as a model. The steam data is assumed to be 170 bar and 540 deg C with reheating. For this plant, both on-site and offsite drying have been studied. The case study comprises a whole season of operation and the fuel is assumed to be dried from 50 to 10 %. The size of the optimised plant is as to fit the dimension of a main production unit in a district heating net equal to the tenth largest in Sweden. Heat delivery is assumed to be 896 GWh/year and the maximum heat delivery of district heating is 250 MW. The sizing of the boiler is made to maximise the production of electricity, and thus dependent of the drying strategy used. Flue gas condensation is assumed to be used as much as possible. It decreases the basis for power production

  9. A family of serine proteases of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis: chpC plays a role in colonization of the host plant tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Ines; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Burger, Annette; Eichenlaub, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Genes for seven putative serine proteases (ChpA-ChpG) belonging to the trypsin subfamily and homologous to the virulence factor pat-1 were identified on the chromosome of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) NCPPB382. All proteases have signal peptides indicating export of these proteins. Their putative function is suggested by two motifs and an aspartate residue typical for serine proteases. Furthermore, six cysteine residues are located at conserved positions. The genes are clustered in a chromosomal region of about 50 kb with a significantly lower G + C content than common for Cmm. The genes chpA, chpB and chpD are pseudogenes as they contain frame shifts and/or in-frame stop codons. The genes chpC and chpG were inactivated by the insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette. The chpG mutant was not impaired in virulence. However, in planta the titre of the chpC mutant was drastically reduced and only weak disease symptoms were observed. Complementation of the chpC mutant by the wild-type allele restored full virulence. ChpC is the first chromosomal gene of Cmm identified so far that affects the interaction of the pathogen with the host plant.

  10. Spatial distribution of pollutants in the area of the former CHP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The quality of atmospheric air and level of its pollution are now one of the most important issues connected with life on Earth. The frequent nuisance and exceedance of pollution standards often described in the media are generated by both low emission sources and mobile sources. Also local organized energy emission sources such as local boiler houses or CHP plants have impact on air pollution. At the same time it is important to remember that the role of local power stations in shaping air pollution immission fields depends on the height of emitters and functioning of waste gas treatment installations. Analysis of air pollution distribution was carried out in 2 series/dates, i.e. 2 and 10 weeks after closure of the CHP plant. In the analysis as a reference point the largest intersection of streets located in the immediate vicinity of the plant was selected, from which virtual circles were drawn every 50 meters, where 31 measuring points were located. As a result, the impact of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia levels could be observed and analyzed, depending on the distance from the street intersection.

  11. Micro scale CHP based on biomass intelligent heat transfer with thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, W.; Aigenbauer, S.; Heckmann, M.; Friedl, G. (Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria)); Hofbauer, H. (Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology (Austria))

    2007-07-01

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2} balanced heat in a comfortable and environment friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the device in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. An option for micro scale CHP is the usage of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). They allow direct conversion of heat into electrical power. They have the advantage of a long maintenance free durability and noiseless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. The useful heat remains almost unaffected and can still be used for heating. TEGs are predestined for the use in micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. In this paper the first results from the fully integrated prototype are presented. The performance of the TEG was observed for different loads and operating conditions in order to realise an optimised micro scale CHP based on solid biomass. (orig.)

  12. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  13. Should a small combined heat and power plant (CHP) open to its regional power and heat networks? Integrated economic, energy, and emergy evaluation of optimization plans for Jiufa CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, T.; Lu, H.F.; Wu, W.L.; Campbell, D.E.; Zhao, G.S.; Zou, J.H.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of industrial ecology has led company managers to increasingly consider their company's niche in the regional system, and to develop optimization plans. We used emergy-based, ecological-economic synthesis to evaluate two optimization plans for the Jiufa Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant, Shandong China. In addition, we performed economic input-output analysis and energy analysis on the system. The results showed that appropriately incorporating a firm with temporary extra productivity into its regional system will help maximize the total productivity and improve ecological-economic efficiency and benefits to society, even without technical optimization of the firm itself. In addition, developing a closer relationship between a company and its regional system will facilitate the development of new optimization opportunities. Small coal-based CHP plants have lower-energy efficiency, higher environmental loading, and lower sustainability than large fossil fuel and renewable energy-based systems. The emergy exchange ratio (EER) proved to be an important index for evaluating the vitality of highly developed ecological-economic systems

  14. Experimental development, 1D CFD simulation and energetic analysis of a 15 kw micro-CHP unit based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, M.; Gimelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. - Highlights: • This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant. • The 15 kW micro-CHP plant is based on a GPL reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. • Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. • It was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. • The analysed solution is particularly suited for

  15. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  16. Factors that are influencing the economical efficiency of the CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruieneanu, Liviu; Ion, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some factors that might influence the economical efficiency of a cogeneration plant. These factors are: the understanding of the fuel economy at consumers; - the influence of the electricity production efficiency; - the influence of exergy losses. The statistical data for different countries of Europe show that under the conditions of a deregulated liberalized market of energy the cogeneration plants have numerous financial difficulties. Even if the use of cogeneration ensures a fuel saving, if this economy it is not obvious for the consumers, those consumers might prefer for the production of heat the use of a heat only generating plant. This trend might spread rapidly if the increase of the electricity will not be present immediately in the bill of the consumers that renounce to the heat produced by the CHP plant. The method used for cost allocation on both types of energy has also a great importance, because it might facilitate the rehabilitation measures and doing so it might allow lower prices for both types of energy. Perhaps the most important factor for the economical efficiency of the plant are the exergy losses. The analysis presented above shows two things, namely: - that the electricity production has a very high price, and this cost might be lowered down by some rehabilitation measures (for example repowering); - and that the heat only plants (boilers) are not affected by the exergy losses and that's why if we analyse only the heat production, the use of cogeneration might seem inappropriate

  17. Optimal design of CHP-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to current centralised energy generation systems, microgrids are adopted to provide local energy with lower energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DER). Several micro combined heat and power technologies have been developed recently for applications at domestic scale. The optimal design of DERs within CHP-based microgrids plays an important role in promoting the penetration of microgrid systems. In this work, the optimal design of microgrids with CHP units is addressed by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation model which integrates the results of a life cycle assessment of the microgrids investigated. The results show that the installation of multiple CHP technologies has a lower cost with higher environmental saving compared with the case when only a single technology is installed in each site, meaning that the microgrid works in a more efficient way when multiple technologies are selected. In general, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are chosen as the basic CHP technology for most solutions, which offers lower environmental impacts at low cost. However, internal combustions engines (ICE) and Stirling engines (SE) are preferred if the heat demand is high. - Highlights: • Optimal design of microgrids is addressed by coupling environmental and economic aspects. • An MILP model is formulated based on the ε-constraint method. • The model selects a combination of CHP technologies with different technical characteristics for optimum scenarios. • The global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) are determined. • The output of LCA is used as an input for the optimisation model

  18. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO 2 . • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  19. Decentralised CHP in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark.......The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark....

  20. Experimental study on a project with CHP system basing on absorption cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for the CHP (combined heating and power) is presented, and HRU (heat recovery unit) and AHE (absorption heat exchanger) are invented to improve the total energy efficiency of the conventional CHP system by more than 20%, which are installed at the thermal power plant and the heating substation separately. The HRU could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine directly, and the AHE could decrease the temperature of back water of primary pipe to a lower temperature than that of secondary pipe without changing the flow rate of secondary pipe. A large demonstration project employing this technology has been built in Datong of China. And experimental results of HRU and AHE are presented to evaluate this system. - Highlights: • The total energy efficiency of CHP could by increased by more than 20%. • Temperature of back water of primary pipe could be lower than that of secondary pipe. • Heating capacity of primary pipe could be increased significantly. • Low grade heat of exhausted steam from turbine could be recovered directly

  1. A Geothermal Energy Supported Gas-steam Cogeneration Unit as a Possible Replacement for the Old Part of a Municipal CHP Plant (TEKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more intensive utilization of local renewable energy sources is indisputable. Under the current economic circumstances their competitiveness in comparison with fossil fuels is rather low, if we do not take into account environmental considerations. Integrating geothermal sources into combined heat and power production in a municipal CHP plant would be an excellent solution to this problem. This concept could lead to an innovative type of power plant - a gas-steam cycle based, geothermal energy supported cogeneration unit.

  2. Analysis of a CHP plant in a municipal solid waste landfill in the South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, Ricardo; Carvalho, Monica; Abrahão, Raphael; Becerra, José

    2015-01-01

    The most effective strategy to manage and treat solid urban residues, with the least environmental impact as well as lowest economic and energy costs, is a challenge for sustainability in current society, who actually pay for the final management of these residues. This manuscript analyzes the potential of biogas generation in an urban solid residue treatment plant, and the potential use for cogeneration in situ at the landfill. The objective is to identify the energy potential associated with the landfill and its potential use to accelerate the evaporation of leachate through the supply of heat, reducing the risks of exceeding the collection capacity of the leachate ponds. The change in legislation for generation within the special regime in Spain (2014) introduced a sudden change in the direction of energy policies, which affected significantly the profitability of these facilities. This manuscript analyzes the application of both legislations, previous (2007) and current (2014), for the case of a cogeneration system installed in this landfill. The results obtained indicate that even with a much more restrictive legislation in force, acceptable values are obtained for the evaluation of the investment – however, better results were obtained for the previous legislation that favored the special regime. The new regulation constrains the maximum and minimum annual operating hours for landfill cogeneration. It results in relevant periods with limited use of biogas for electricity generation. Biogas storage for delayed future consumption in the same installation and biogas selling for external use in boilers are proposed as options for this biogas in excess. They can reduce greenhouse gases emissions from the non-used biogas and can improve the economic results of the facility. - Highlights: • Analysis of biogas generation capacity in an existing landfill at South of Spain. • Analysis of the integration of gas engine for cogeneration. • CHP integration for

  3. Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market: the case of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Siupsinskas, G.; Martinaitis, V.

    2005-01-01

    Within five years from now, Lithuania is going to close down Ignalina, the only nuclear-power plant in the country. Since Ignalina generates more than 75% of the Lithuanian electricity production, new generation capacities are needed. Traditional steam-turbines, fuelled with fossil fuels, would mean further imports of fuel as well as a rise in CO 2 emissions. At the same time, several small district-heating companies one suffering from high heating-prices. Typically, the price in small towns is 20-50% higher than the price in large urban areas. Consequently, alternative strategies should be considered. This article analyses the conditions for one such strategy, namely the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP). Compared with new power stations, fuel can be saved and CO 2 -emissions reduced. Also this strategy can be used to level the difference between low heating prices in the large urban areas and high prices in small towns and villages. (Author)

  4. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  5. The concept of system for chips production need to work demo CHP plant in company 'AGROSAVA' from Šimanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Aleksandar Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper according to the calculation of chips productivity needs for gasification in the demo CHP plant for co-generation: electricity and heat, chippers were analyzed due to: the type of mobility, running for chipping and the method of delivering chips to temporary yard. The plant was planned to generate electricity power up to 200kWelec. First, in consideration were taken the chippers with medium capacity, which mainly served for chipping brushwood and leaves that remain after harvest plantations on mostly flat terrain and parks. Later, the comparative characteristics of the world's three largest manufacturers of machinery for the production of wood chips significantly larger amounts (up to 30m3/h were given. These chippers were particularly suitable for the higher density of crops and stationed yard, in which brushwood would be brought and chip. At the end, the types of convective dryers were analyzed that could be successfully used for drying wood chips (drum and pneumatic dryer and based on the calculation proposed the types of dryers that were available in the local market.

  6. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price. Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappi, Pauli; Ollikka, Kimmo; Ollikainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO 2 -intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO 2 -intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion. (author)

  7. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price. Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, Pauli; Ollikka, Kimmo; Ollikainen, Markku [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO{sub 2}-intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO{sub 2}-intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion. (author)

  8. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price: Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, Pauli, E-mail: pauli.lappi@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ollikka, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.ollikka@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ollikainen, Markku, E-mail: markku.ollikainen@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO{sub 2}-intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO{sub 2}-intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion.

  9. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  10. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    with the liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...... the consequences of acting in a liberalised market for a given CHP plant, based on the abovementioned bottom-up model. The key assumption determining the bottom line is the electricity spot price. The formation of the spot price in the Nordic area depends heavily upon the state of the water reservoirs in Norway...

  11. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  12. System analysis of CO_2 sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO_2 sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO_2 sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO_2 capture, CO_2 transport and CO_2 storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO_2 sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO_2 from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO_2 neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO_2 emissions to be established until 2020, as well as the use of CO_2 as

  13. Modeling and optimization of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP residential system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature-proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFC)-based micro-combined-heat-and-power (CHP) residential system is designed and optimized, using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization strategy. The proposed system consists of a fuel cell stack, steam methane reformer (SMR) reactor, water gas...

  14. Modeling and parametric study of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based residential micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and geometric model of a micro-CHP (Combined-Heatand-Power) residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) technology is developed, implemented and validated. HT-PEMFC technology is investigated as a possible candidate...

  15. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  16. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  17. Optimal economic dispatch of FC-CHP based heat and power micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari-Heris, Morteza; Abapour, Saeed; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi objective economic/environmental heat and power MG dispatch is solved. • The heat and power MG include FC, CHP, boiler, storage system, and heat buffer tank. • Multi objective scheduling of heat and power MG is solved using ε-constraint method. • DR program is employed in the stochastic programming of heat and power MG dispatch. • The uncertainties for load demand and price signals are taken into account. - Abstract: Micro-grids (MGs) are introduced as a solution for distributed energy resource (DER) units and energy storage systems (ESSs) to participate in providing the required electricity demand of controllable and non-controllable loads. In this paper, the authors study the short-term scheduling of grid-connected industrial heat and power MG which contains a fuel cell (FC) unit, combined heat and power (CHP) generation units, power-only unit, boiler, battery storage system, and heat buffer tank. The paper is aimed to solve the multi-objective MG dispatch problem containing cost and emission minimization with the considerations of demand response program and uncertainties. A probabilistic framework based on a scenario method, which is considered for load demand and price signals, is employed to overcome the uncertainties in the optimal energy management of the MG. In order to reduce operational cost, time-of-use rates of demand response programs have been modeled, and the effects of such programs on the load profile have been discussed. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, the ε-constraint method is used and a fuzzy satisfying approach has been employed to select the best compromise solution. Three cases are studied in this research to confirm the performance of the proposed method: islanded mode, grid-connected mode, and the impact of time of the use-demand response program on MG scheduling.

  18. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.

    1993-03-01

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO 2 -emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO 2 -advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO 2 -characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO 2 -advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.) [de

  19. Marketing opportunities for CHP electricity in a virtual power plant. Direct and indirect marketing of flexibility; Vermarktungschancen fuer KWK-Strom im virtuellen Kraftwerk. Direkte und indirekte Flexibilitaetsvermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Achim; Baumgart, Bastian [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Virtuelle Kraftwerke

    2013-07-15

    The increasingly fluctuating feed-in of electricity by means of a rapid expansion of renewable energies results in an increasing demand for flexible performance for the regulation of production and consumption. An important part of the necessary flexibility could be provided by CHP plants. Their potential of flexibility is not always fully exploited.

  20. Optimisation of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Intraday Market: Riga CHP-2 Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the research, the influence of optimised combined cycle gas turbine unit – according to the previously developed EM & OM approach with its use in the intraday market – is evaluated on the generation portfolio. It consists of the two combined cycle gas turbine units. The introduced evaluation algorithm saves the power and heat balance before and after the performance of EM & OM approach by making changes in the generation profile of units. The aim of this algorithm is profit maximisation of the generation portfolio. The evaluation algorithm is implemented in multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLab on the example of Riga CHP-2. The results show that the use of EM & OM approach in the intraday market can be profitable or unprofitable. It depends on the initial state of generation units in the intraday market and on the content of the generation portfolio.

  1. Optimisation of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Intraday Market: Riga CHP-2 Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, P.; Grebesh, E.; Linkevics, O.

    2018-02-01

    In the research, the influence of optimised combined cycle gas turbine unit - according to the previously developed EM & OM approach with its use in the intraday market - is evaluated on the generation portfolio. It consists of the two combined cycle gas turbine units. The introduced evaluation algorithm saves the power and heat balance before and after the performance of EM & OM approach by making changes in the generation profile of units. The aim of this algorithm is profit maximisation of the generation portfolio. The evaluation algorithm is implemented in multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLab on the example of Riga CHP-2. The results show that the use of EM & OM approach in the intraday market can be profitable or unprofitable. It depends on the initial state of generation units in the intraday market and on the content of the generation portfolio.

  2. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer; Nueva planta e cogeneración para un fabricante de productos de hule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-07-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  3. Energetic and exergetic efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in district heating systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chunhui; Ertesvåg, Ivar S.; Zhao, Jianing

    2013-01-01

    The efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in the district heating systems of China were analyzed with a thermodynamic model in the Hysys program. The influences of four parameters were evaluated by the Taguchi method. The results indicated that the extraction steam flow rate and extraction steam pressure are the most important parameters for energetic and exergetic efficiencies, respectively. The relations between extraction steam flow rate, extraction steam pressure and the energetic and exergetic efficiencies were investigated. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies were compared to the RPES (relative primary energy savings) and the RAI (relative avoided irreversibility). Compared to SHP (separate heat and power) generation, the CHP systems save fuel energy when extraction ratio is larger than 0.15. In the analysis of RAI, the minimum extraction ratio at which CHP system has advantages compared with SHP varies between 0.25 and 0.6. The higher extraction pressure corresponds to a higher value. Two of the examined plants had design conditions giving RPES close to zero and negative RAI. The third had both positive RPES and RAI at design conditions. The minimum extraction ratio can be used as an indicator to design or choose CHP plant for a given district heating system. - Highlights: • Extraction flow rate and extraction pressure are the most important parameters. • The exergetic efficiency depends on the energy to exergy ratio and system boundary. • The minimum extraction ratio is a key indicator for CHP plants. • Program Hysys and Taguchi method are used in this research

  4. Energy Management for Community Energy Network with CHP Based on Cooperative Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy system (IES has received increasing attention in micro grid due to the high energy efficiency and low emission of carbon dioxide. Based on the technology of combined heat and power (CHP, this paper develops a novel operation mechanism with community micro turbine and shared energy storage system (ESS for energy management of prosumers. In the proposed framework, micro-grid operator (MGO equipped with micro turbine and ESS provides energy selling business and ESS leasing business for prosumers. Prosumers can make energy trading with public grid and MGO, and ESS will be shared among prosumers when they pay for the rent to MGO. Based on such framework, we adopt a cooperative game for prosumers to determine optimal energy trading strategies from MGO and public grid for the next day. Concretely, a cooperative game model is formulated to search the optimal strategies aiming at minimizing the daily cost of coalition, and then a bilateral Shapley value (BSV is proposed to solve the allocation problem of coalition’s cost among prosumers. To verify the effectiveness of proposed energy management framework, a practical example is conducted with a community energy network containing MGO and 10 residential buildings. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to provide financial benefits to all prosumers, while providing peak load leveling for the grid.

  5. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Noie, S.H.; Akbarzadeh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  6. Analysis of the impact of Heat-to-Power Ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application under different climate regions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Brandon, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the ability of a micro combined heat and power (mCHP) system to cover the heat and electricity demand of a single-family residence is investigated. A solid oxide fuel cell based mCHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank is analyzed. The energy profiles of single-family hous......In this paper, the ability of a micro combined heat and power (mCHP) system to cover the heat and electricity demand of a single-family residence is investigated. A solid oxide fuel cell based mCHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank is analyzed. The energy profiles of single...... according to the summer energy demand. The winter energy demand shows a Heat-to-Power Ratio which cannot be covered by the mCHP unit alone. To ensure that the mCHP system meets both the thermal and electrical energy demand over the entire year, an auxiliary boiler and a hot water storage tank need...

  7. Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the project ''Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization'' was to combine the Danish experiences with the Stirling engine and updraft gasification with the application of the FLOX gas burner technology for developing and demonstrating a flexible biomass-based small scale CHP plant with 75 kW electrical output, high power efficiency and low emissions. Further, the project has aimed at increasing the technology's reliability and decreasing the need for service. Also, the project has included the development of a control and communication system for unmanned start-up and operation of the plant. During the project the objective was altered and so the development of a new Stirling engine design was done on the 4-cylindred 35 kWe Stirling engine instead of the 8-cylindred 75 kWe Stirling engine. Focus has been on designing a more durable engine designed for easy and fast service. Cold test of the engine has been successful and now full-scale hot tests are to be performed. In the project Stirling DK has also in cooperation with project partner Danish gas Technology Centre developed the Stirling Engine with Diluted Oxidation (SEDIOX) concept which is a combustion technology based on the diluted oxidation principle. A trademark is obtained and also a patent application is filed and pending regarding the SEDIOX combustion chamber concept. All components for the Stirling gasification plant were produced and installed at Svanholm Estate. The plant consisted of one conventional combustion chamber and one SD3E-type Stirling engine. The plant was commissioned in June 2009 and 1,472 hours of operation and 43 MWh of electricity production was achieved before the plant was de-commissioned in February 2010 due to divergences between Svanholm Estate and Stirling DK. During operation the control system including remote access was tested thoroughly and with great success. The new overall

  8. CHP in Switzerland from 1990 to 1998. Thermal power generation including combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a study on thermal power generation in Switzerland show that combined heat and power (CHP) systems have grown rapidly. Statistics are presented on the development of CHP-based power and also on thermal power stations without waste heat usage. Figures are given for gas and steam turbine installations, combined gas and steam turbine stations and motor-driven CHP units. Power production is categorised, separating small and large (over 1 Megawatt electrical) power generation facilities. On-site, distributed power generation at consumers' premises and the geographical distribution of plant is described

  9. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro-CHP

  10. Energy Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine-Based CHP System for Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaeid Ganjehkaviri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive thermodynamic study is conducted of a diesel based Combined Heat and Power (CHP system, based on a diesel engine and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Present research covers both energy and exergy analyses along with a multi-objective optimization. In order to determine the irreversibilities in each component of the CHP system and assess the system performance, a complete parametric study is performed to investigate the effects of major design parameters and operating conditions on the system’s performance. The main contribution of the current research study is to conduct both exergy and multi-objective optimization of a system using different working fluid for low-grade heat recovery. In order to conduct the evolutionary based optimization, two objective functions are considered in the optimization; namely the system exergy efficiency, and the total cost rate of the system, which is a combination of the cost associated with environmental impact and the purchase cost of each component. Therefore, in the optimization approach, the overall cycle exergy efficiency is maximized satisfying several constraints while the total cost rate of the system is minimized. To provide a better understanding of the system under study, the Pareto frontier is shown for multi-objective optimization and also an equation is derived to fit the optimized point. In addition, a closed form relationship between exergy efficiency and total cost rate is derived.

  11. Demonstration Stirling Engine based Micro-CHP with ultra-low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, Rolf; Olsson, Fredrik [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB (Sweden); Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    This project has been initiated in order to develop a new type of natural gas fired low emission combustion system for a Stirling engine CHP-unit, and to demonstrate and evaluate the unit with the newly developed combustion system in a CHP application. The Stirling engine technology is well developed, but mostly used in special applications and CHP-applications are scarce. The very low exhaust emissions with the new combustion system would make the Stirling engine very suitable for installation in as a CHP-unit in domestic areas. The Stirling engine used in the project has been a V161 engine produced by Solo Kleinmotoren GmbH in Sindelfingen. The unit has a nominal output of 7,5 kW{sub el} and 20 kW{sub heat} (Hot water). The new combustion system was developed at Lund University and the very strict emission targets that were set up could be achieved, both in the laboratory tests and during the site-testing period. Typical performance and emission figures measured at the site installation are: Generator output (kW): 7,3; Hot water output (kW): 15; El. efficiency (%): 25,4; Total efficiency (%): 77,8; NO{sub x} (ppm): 14; CO (ppm): 112; HC (ppm): < 1; O{sub 2} (%): 8,0; Noise level 1 m from the unit (dBA): 83. The NO{sub x} emissions were reduced with almost 97 % as compared to a standard Stirling combustion system. The emission figures are considerably lower than what could be achieved in an internal combustion engine of similar size with an oxidation catalyst (report SGC 106), while the performance figures are similar for the two technologies. The site testing was carried out during a period of 1,5 year at a site owned by Goeteborg Energi. The site comprises a building structure with workshops, offices etc. covering a ground area of 2,500 m{sup 2}. A gas fired boiler with an output of 250 kW supplies hot water to a local grid for heating and tap water. The annual heat demand is typically 285 MWh and the hot water temperatures are normally 60-80 deg C. The site

  12. Potential of ORC Systems to Retrofit CHP Plants in Wastewater Treatment Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacartegui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment stations take advantage of the biogas produced from sludge in anaerobic digesters to generate electricity (reciprocating gas engines and heat (cooling water and engine exhaust gases. A fraction of this electricity is used to operate the plant while the remaining is sold to the grid. Heat is almost entirely used to support the endothermic anaerobic digestion and a minimum fraction of it is rejected to the environment at a set of fan coolers. This generic description is applicable to on-design conditions. Nevertheless, the operating conditions of the plant present a large seasonal variation so it is commonly found that the fraction of heat rejected to the atmosphere increases significantly at certain times of the year. Moreover, the heat available in the exhaust gases of the reciprocating engine is at a very high temperature (around 650 oC, which is far from the temperature at which heat is needed for the digestion of sludge (around 40 oC in the digesters. This temperature difference offers an opportunity to introduce an intermediate system between the engines and the digesters that makes use of a fraction of the available heat to convert it into electricity. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with an appropriate working fluid is an adequate candidate for these hot/cold temperature sources. In this paper, the techno-economic effect of adding an Organic Rankine Cycle as the intermediate system of an existing wastewater treatment station is analysed. On this purpose, different working fluids and system layouts have been studied for a reference wastewater treatment station giving rise to optimal systems configurations. The proposed systems yield very promising results with regard to global efficiency and electricity production (thermodynamically and economically.

  13. Multi-period MINLP model for optimising operation and structural changes to CHP plants in district heating networks with long-term thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveit, Tor-Martin; Savola, Tuula; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2009-01-01

    By using thermal storages it is possible to decouple the generation of power and heat, and it can also lead to an reduction in investments, as the storage can be used to cover the peak load periods. This work presents a MINLP model that can be used for analysing new investments and the long-term operation of CHP plants in a district heating network with long-term thermal storage. The model presented in this work includes the non-linear off-design behaviour of the CHP plants as well as a generic mathematical model of the thermal storage, without the need to fix temperatures and pressure. The model is formulated in such a way that it is suitable for deterministic MINLP solvers. The model is non-convex, and subsequently global optimality cannot be guaranteed with local solvers. In order to reduce the chance of obtaining a poor local optimum compared to the global optimum, the model should be solved many times with the initial values varying randomly. It is possible to extract a lot of results from the model, for instance total annual profit, the optimal selection of process options, mass flow through the plant, and generated power from each plant. The formulation of the model makes it suitable for deterministic MINLP solvers

  14. Kyoto commitments: CHP will help the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In order to meet the United Kingdom's targets for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, agreed at the Kyoto Summit, the UK Government is promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Such schemes need to offer over 70% efficiency, have on-site or nearby heat uses, and allow flexibility for the export of electricity where this is appropriate. Electricity trading arrangements will need to be re-organised in line with similar commodities, in order to facilitate and promote the growth of CHP and renewable energy schemes. Financial incentives and regulation of electricity prices will also contribute to the promotion of CHP schemes, ultimately leading to reduced CO 2 pollution as a result of the growth in the UK's CHP capacity. (UK)

  15. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiandong; Wang, Yifei; Qin, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  16. Researching of the possibility of using absorption heat exchangers for creating the low return temperature heat supply systems based on CHP generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovsky, Y. V.; Malenkov, A. S.; Zhigulina, Y. V.; Romanov, D. O.; Kurzanov, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with the variant of modernization of the heat point within urban heat supply network in order to create the system of heat and cold supply on its basis, providing the suppliers with heat in cold months and with heat and cold in warm months. However, in cold months in the course of heating system operation, the reverse delivery water temperature is maintained below 40 °C. The analysis of heat and power indicators of the heat and cold supply system under different operating conditions throughout the year was conducted. The possibility to use the existing heat networks for the cold supply needs was estimated. The advantages of the system over the traditional heat supply systems that use Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant as a heat source as exemplified by heat supply system from CHP with ST-80 turbine were demonstrated.

  17. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  18. Reducing the network load and optimization of the economic efficiency of CHP plants by forecast-guided control; Verringerung der Netzbelastung und Optimierung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von KWK-Anlagen durch prognosegefuehrte Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Daniel; Adelhardt, Stefan [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Sensorik; beECO GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Heat-guided combined heat and power (CHP) plants often cause large compensation energy amounts, additional costs to the operator respectively and another burden on the parent network. The balance energy is caused by errors in the production forecast whose quality heavily depends on the heat load performance. This paper identifies the forecasting problems with heat-guided CHP and reveals how the accompanying cost and the network burden can be reduced. This is achieved by an improvement of the forecast in conjunction with a forecast-guided control without affecting the heat supply. In addition, an outlook on further measures to the earnings with the system is presented. (orig.)

  19. Micro CHP: implications for energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jeremy [EA Technology (United Kingdom); Kolin, Simon; Hestevik, Svein [Sigma Elektroteknisk A/S (Norway)

    2000-08-01

    This article explains how micro combined heat and power (CHP) technology may help UK energy businesses to maintain their customer base in the current climate of liberalisation and competition in the energy market The need for energy companies to adopt new technologies and adapt to changes in the current aggressive environment, the impact of privatisation, and the switching of energy suppliers by customers are discussed. Three potential routes to success for energy companies are identified, namely, price reductions, branding and affinity marketing, and added value services. Details are given of the implementation of schemes to encourage energy efficiency, the impact of the emissions targets set at Kyoto, the advantages of micro CHP generation, business opportunities for CHP, business threats from existing energy companies and others entering the field, and the commercial viability of micro CHP.

  20. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kok Siew; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2011-01-01

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  1. Thermodynamic, ecological and economic aspects of the use of the gas turbine for heat supply to the stripping process in a supercritical CHP plant integrated with a carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Variants of integration of CHP plant with CCS and gas turbine unit were analyzed. • The simulations of operation of plants under changing load were realized. • Conditions of competitiveness for all solutions were identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach values >60 €/MgCO 2 . - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermodynamic and economic analyses for eight variants of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant fuelled with coal working under supercritical steam parameters and integrated with a CO 2 capture installation and a gas turbine system. The motivation behind using a gas turbine in the system was to generate steam to supply heat for the stripping process that occurs in the separation installation to regenerate the sorbent. Additional analyses were conducted for the reference case, a CHP unit in which the CO 2 separation process was not conducted, to enable an economic evaluation of the integration of a CHP unit with a CO 2 separation installation according to the variants proposed. The break-even price of electricity and avoided emission costs were used to evaluate the respective solutions. In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation indicators in terms of the change in the annual operation time, price of emission allowance and heat demand rate for the realization of the stripping process for all cases are presented

  2. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  3. Potential for CHP in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yameogo, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that many industries in Africa could benefit from biomass-fired cogeneration so long as the correct structures and learning processes are put in place. The article discusses Africa's energy background and gives figures for generation sources and consumption. A profile of Sudan and its energy needs is presented. It is argued that although some barriers do exist, a move to cogeneration is essential. CHP should be particularly attractive for industries able to use thermal energy for drying, heating and cooling: typical areas would be pharmaceutical and chemical plants, textile factories, cement works and steel mills

  4. Advanced m-CHP fuel cell system based on a novel bio-ethanol fluidized bed membrane reformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviente, J.L.; Melendez Rey, J.; Pacheco Tanaka, D.A.; Gallucci, F.; Spallina, V.; Manzolini, G.; Foresti, S.; Palma, V.; Ruocco, C.; Roses, L.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed power generation via Micro Combined Heat and Power (m-CHP) systems, has been proven to over-come disadvantages of centralized generation since it can give savings in terms of Primary Energy consumption and energy costs. The FluidCELL FCH JU/FP7 project aims at providing the Proof of

  5. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  6. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a combined heat and power (CHP) demonstration project that reduces the energy costs and environmental impact of a plant while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid.

  7. Development of a Transient Model of a Stirling-Based CHP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Cacabelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Stirling engine was invented in 1816, this heat engine still continues to be investigated due to the variety of energy sources that can be used to power it (e.g., solar energy, fossil fuels, biomass, and geothermal energy. To study the performance of these machines, it is necessary to develop and simulate models under different operating conditions. In this paper, we present a one-dimensional dynamic model based on components from Trnsys: principally, a lumped mass and a heat exchanger. The resulting model is calibrated using GenOpt. Furthermore, the obtained model can be used to simulate the machine both under steady-state operation and during a transient response. The results provided by the simulations are compared with data measured in a Stirling engine that has been subjected to different operating conditions. This comparison shows good agreement, indicating that the model is an appropriate method for transient thermal simulations. This new proposed model requires few configuration parameters and is therefore easily adaptable to a wide range of commercial models of Stirling engines. A detailed analysis of the system results reveals that the power is directly related to the difference of temperatures between the hot and cold sources during the transient and steady-state processes.

  8. Sizing a solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system for residential application in diverse climatic conditions based on 3E analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Ramin Shabanpour; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E analysis was performed on solar CHP systems. • Significant primary energy saving and greenhouse gas reduction were obtained. • The engine was sized so that it had the best economic sound. • Various criteria at different weathers were used for sizing the engine. - Abstract: A solar dish Stirling cogeneration system is considered to provide energy demands of a residential building. As energy demands of the building and output power of the engine are functions of weather condition and solar irradiation flux, the benchmark building was considered to be located in five different cities in Iran with diverse climatic and solar irradiation conditions. The proposed solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system was analyzed based on 3E analysis. The 3E analysis evaluated primary energy saving analysis (energy analysis), carbon dioxide emission reduction (environmental analysis) and payback period for return of investment (economic analysis) and was compared to a reference building that utilized primary energy carriers for its demands. Three scenarios were considered for assessment and sizing the solar dish Stirling engine. In the first scenario, size of the solar dish Stirling engine was selected based on the lowest annual electric power demand while, in second, the highest annual electric power consumption was considered to specify size of the engine. In the third scenario, a solar dish Stirling engine with constant output capacity was considered for the five locations. It was shown that implementing the solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system had good potential in primary energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in all scenarios and acceptable payback period for return of the investment in some scenarios. Finally, the best scenario for selecting size of the engine in each city was introduced using the TOPSIS decision making method. It was demonstrated that, for dry weather, the first scenario was the best while, for hot and humid cities and

  9. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  10. Small scale CHP: Alternative integration forms in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeg, Rasmus; Gatautis, Ramunas; Engberg Pedersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Rune; Ravn, Hans F.

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, introduction of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants were part of the energy policy during the 1990's. Thus, the installed electricity capacity on this type of units multiplied approximately ten times during this decade, to constitute more than 2000 MW in 2000, or around 20% of total installed electricity capacity. The motivation for this development was mainly energy savings due to the relatively high thermal efficiency in combined production, and the associated reduction of emissions. The remuneration for the electricity delivered to the electrical network was in part based on a feed in tariff. The construction of the tariff reflected estimated benefits to the electrical system. With the liberalisation of the electricity markets this arrangement has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the differentiated payment to local CHP should be based on electricity market prising. For Denmark this would imply that the local CHP should trade the electricity on the Nordpool electricity spot market. This paper analyses parts of these two alternative ways of economic arrangements in relation to small scale CHP. First it describes the development and status till now. Then it analyses the production patterns and associated economic consequences of a change from the tariff based system to a market system. (BA)

  11. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  12. Stochastic PSO-based heat and power dispatch under environmental constraints incorporating CHP and wind power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piperagkas, G.S.; Anastasiadis, A.G.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Electric Power Division, 9, Iroon Polytechneiou Str., GR-15773 Zografou, Athens (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper an extended stochastic multi-objective model for economic dispatch (ED) is proposed, that incorporates in the optimization process heat and power from CHP units and expected wind power. Stochastic restrictions for the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are used as inequality constraints. The ED problem is solved using a multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. The available wind power is estimated from a transformation of the wind speed considered as a random variable to wind power. Simulations are performed on the modified IEEE 30 bus network with 2 cogeneration units and actual wind data. Results concerning minimum cost and emissions reduction options are finally drawn. (author)

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHP827 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP827 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15898-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) CHP827F 148 - - - - - - Show CHP827 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP827 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15898-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...ments: (bits) Value N AC116984 |AC116984.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 2567470-3108875 strain ...18q21 clone:RP11-866E20, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 18 unordered pieces. 42 0.073 4 CK406764 |CK406764.1 AUF_IfLvr_212_c09 Ict

  14. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vicidomini, Maria; Scarpellino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel small scale solar power plant was designed and simulated. • The system is based on evacuated solar thermal collectors and an ORC system. • An average electric efficiency of 10% was found for the ORC. • The efficiency of solar collectors was found to be high in summer (>50%). • Pay-back periods lower than 5 years were estimated, in case of public funding. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a novel prototype of a 6 kW e solar power plant. The system is based on the coupling of innovative solar thermal collectors with a small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), simultaneously producing electric energy and low temperature heat. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the solar collector field, which is based on stationary evacuated flat-plate solar thermal collectors capable to achieve the operating temperatures typical of the concentrating solar thermal collectors. The solar field consists of about 73.5 m 2 of flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, heating a diathermic oil up to a maximum temperature of 230 °C. A diathermic oil storage tank is employed in order to mitigate the fluctuations due to the variability of solar energy availability. The hot diathermic oil exiting from the tank passes through an auxiliary gas-fired burner which provides eventual additional thermal energy. The inlet temperature of the diathermic oil entering the ORC system varies as a function of the availability of solar energy, also determining an oscillating response of the ORC. The ORC was simulated in Engineering Equation Solver (EES), using zero-dimensional energy and mass balances. The ORC model was subsequently implemented in a more general TRNSYS model, including all the remaining components of the system. The model was used to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the solar CHP system under analysis, in different climatic conditions. The results show that the efficiency of the ORC does not significantly vary during the

  15. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  16. Strandby Harbour on solar cooling. Demonstration of 8.000 m{sup 2} solar collectors combined with flue gas cooling with a absorption cooling system; Combined heat and power plant (CHP); Strandby havn paa solkoeling. Demonstration af 8.000 m{sup 2} solfangere kombineret med roeggaskoeling med absorptionskoeleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Flemming (Strandby Varmevaerk, Strandby (Denmark)); Soerensen, Per Alex (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Ulbjerg, F. (Ramboell, Odense (Denmark)); Sloth, H. (Houe and Olsen, Thisted (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate 1) high solar heating ratio (18% annually) at a decentralized natural gas combined heat and power plant; 2) increased efficiency (5% of the heat consumption) in a natural gas CHP by using an extra flue gas cooler and an absorption heat pump; 3) a double tank system where a new tank during winter is used for cooling/ heat storage for the absorption heat pump and during summer for solar heat storage in serial operation with the old tank. The concept of combining solar power, absorption cooling and natural gas-fired small-scale CHP in Strandby met expectations and could be replicated in other CHP plants. However, it is important to note that if major construction modifications in the flue gas condensation system in the boiler or engine are required, the operating hours must not be reduced significantly in the amortisation period for the conversion. (ln)

  17. Future market relevance of CHP installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the future market relevance of combined heat and power (CHP) installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW. Developments over the past ten years are reviewed. Important reductions in the price of motor-driven CHP units and the price of the electrical power produced are noted and commented on. The technical market potential of CHP units and the degree to which this potential has been implemented are commented on. Work done, including CHP implementation in the industrial, commercial and residential areas, is commented on. Future developments both in the technical area as well as in commercial areas are commented on. Micro-gas-turbine based CHP systems are also discussed, as are fuel-cell based systems in both the higher and lower capacity power generation area. The prospects for CHP systems in general in the electricity generation area are discussed

  18. Fuel cell-based CHP system modelling using Artificial Neural Networks aimed at developing techno-economic efficiency maximization control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, F.J.; San Martín, J.I.; Zamora, I.; Garcia-Villalobos, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of the performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)-based cogeneration system to integrate it in hybrid and/or connected to grid systems and enable the optimization of the techno-economic efficiency of the system in which it is integrated. To this end, experimental tests on a PEMFC-based cogeneration system of 600 W of electrical power have been performed to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Once the learning of the ANN, it has been able to emulate real operating conditions, such as the cooling water out temperature and the hydrogen consumption of the PEMFC depending on several variables, such as the electric power demanded, temperature of the inlet water flow to the cooling circuit, cooling water flow and the heat demanded to the CHP system. After analysing the results, it is concluded that the presented model reproduces with enough accuracy and precision the performance of the experimented PEMFC, thus enabling the use of the model and the ANN learning methodology to model other PEMFC-based cogeneration systems and integrate them in techno-economic efficiency optimization control systems. - Highlights: • The effect of the energy demand variation on the PEMFC's efficiency is predicted. • The model relies on experimental data obtained from a 600 W PEMFC. • It provides the temperature and the hydrogen consumption with good accuracy. • The range in which the global energy efficiency could be improved is provided.

  19. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CHP Partnership seeks to reduce air pollution and water usage associated with electric power generation by promoting the use of CHP. The Partnership works to remove policy barriers and to facilitate the development of new projects.

  20. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichi, S.G.; Ardehali, M.M.; Nazari, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and $2.9x10 6 over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems.

  1. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Ibrahim, Muhammad H.; Leach, Matthew; Sinclair, Phillip; Campbell, Grant M.; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2013-01-01

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP 100 ), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y −1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP 100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  2. Islanded house operation using a micro CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2007-01-01

    The µCHP is expected as the successor of the conventional high-efficiency boiler producing next to heat also electricity with a comparable overall efficiency. A µCHP appliance saves money and reduces greenhouse gas emission. An additional functionality of the µCHP is using the appliance as a

  3. Small-scale biomass CHP using gasa turbines: a scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.W.; Landen, R.

    1996-01-01

    Various options for small-scale (up to 250 KWe) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants evaluated in this scoping study. Plants using small gas turbines, and able to use biomass fuels when available are included. Three detailed case studies of small-scale biomass CHP plants are compared to match specific technical options with customer requirements. The commercial development of such biomass-fired CHP units, using gas turbines, is shown to be economically viable depending on fuel costs and the continuation of existing financial incentives. (UK)

  4. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use CHP when life-cycle costs indicate energy reduction goals will be met. FEMP can assist facilities to conduct this analysis. The model developed for this report estimates the magnitude of CHP that could be implemented under various performance and economic assumptions associated with different applications. This model may be useful for other energy technologies. It can be adapted to estimate the market potential in federal buildings for any energy system based on the cost and performance parameters that a user desires to assess. The model already incorporates a standard set of parameters based on available data for federal buildings including total building space, building type, energy use intensity, fuel costs, and the performance of many prime movers commonly used in CHP applications. These and other variables can be adjusted to meet user needs or updated in the future as new data become available.

  5. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  6. Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haichao; Jiao Wenling; Lahdelma, Risto; Zou Pinghua

    2011-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (β). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at β=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently. - Highlights: ► Combined heating systems comply with the energy structure reformation in China. ► We consider the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. ► Combined heating systems can be economically more feasible and sustainable. ► The net heating cost of a combined heating system is more sensitive to coal price. ► The optimal basic heat load ratio is more easily influenced by gas price.

  7. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    are the possibility to partially reform hydrocarbon in the fuel cell anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration. In this work, different configurations of solid oxide fuel cell system for decentralized electricity production are examined. The Balance of Plant (BoP) components...

  8. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  9. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, K. V.; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  10. Multi-criteria evaluation for CHP system options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilavachi, P.A.; Roumpeas, C.P.; Minett, S.; Afgan, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Several Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system options have been considered for evaluation with respect to the end-user requirements. These included Internal Combustion Engines (Otto and Diesel), Gas Turbines, Steam Turbines and Combined Cycles covering a wide range of electrical output. Data have been obtained from literature and the CHP systems have been evaluated using different criteria such as overall efficiency, investment cost, fuel cost, electricity cost, heat cost, CO 2 production and footprint. A multi-criteria method is used with an agglomeration function based on the statistical evaluation of weight factors. The technical, economic and social aspects of each system have been evaluated in an integrated manner and the results have been compared by means of the Sustainability Index. Based on the above criteria and depending on the user requirements, the best CHP system options have been established

  11. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    2006-01-01

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  12. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  13. Studying effect of heating plant parameters on performances of a geothermal-fuelled series cogeneration plant based on Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habka, Muhsen; Ajib, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed performances of a series ORC–CHP plant versus the heating plant parameters. • ORC–CHP power is destructed when raising the heat demand or the return temperature. • Only the high supply temperatures of the heating plant affect negatively the performances. • Reducing the return temperature optimizes both the energetic and exergetic criteria. • Increasing the heat demand improves the exergetic efficiency of the total CHP system. - Abstract: The present work aims to analyze the performance characteristics of the series Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) under influence of the heating plant parameters without considering the chemistry of the geothermal water considered as heat source. For evaluation, energetic and exergetic criteria along with the heat transfer capacities have been determined, and also the working fluid R134a has been used. The results showed that increasing the heat demand or the return temperature and only the high supply temperatures lead to destruct the net power generated by the ORC–CHP system. While, influence of the last parameters on the total exergy efficiency and losses is different; whereas raising the heat demands optimizes these exergetic indicators, variation of the supply temperature leads to an optimum for these performances. Since increasing the return temperature has purely negative impacts on all exergetic and energetic criteria, the latter can be improved by reducing this temperature with attention to the heat transfer capacities. Thus, reduction of the return temperature about 5 °C lowers the exhausted stream losses by app. 25% and enhances the power generation by app. 52% and the total exergy efficiency by 9%

  14. Review of CHP projections tp 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining market conditions for combined heat and power since 2000 and assessing the commercial position of cogeneration (CHP) in order to provide advice on likely distributed generation in relation to technology, location and commissioning timetables. Details are given of the modelling of the development of 'good quality' CHP by Cambridge Econometrics (CE), and the work carried out by ILEX updating the CE study. Modelling assumptions, market conditions for CHP since the CE study, the effect of market conditions on CE modelling assumptions, justified changes in assumptions, and evaluation of likely CHP capacity to 2010 are discussed.

  15. Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications

  16. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  17. Development of Next Generation micro-CHP System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    Novel proposals for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-andpower) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology are described and analyzed to investigate the technical feasibility of such systems. The proposed systems must...

  18. Modelling the adoption of industrial cogeneration in Japan using manufacturing plant survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2003-01-01

    Electric power deregulation in Japan opens opportunity for further penetration of on-site generation (cogeneration) otherwise known as distributed generation. In the paper the authors present a survey on Japanese industrial plants to fill existing gaps for the assessment of modern cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP). The objective of the paper is to empirically examine CHP systems based on cross-sectional binary models; second to review diffusion trends of CHP by system vintage during the 1980-2000 period in the manufacturing sector. The econometric results point that the probabilities of embracing this technology increase, in declining importance, with on-site power consumption, and steam demand, operational hours as well as with payback period, purchased power. For example the survey shows that the CHP is used for the purpose of exporting power rather than meeting the plant's own consumption. Some of our results are in line with those of Dismukes and Kleit (Resource Energy Econ. 21 (1999) 153) as well with Rose and Macdonald (Energy J. 12(12) (1991) 47). We also find that a unit increase in satisfaction with CHP will lead to a 54% in CHP capacity. We find significant evidence on the cost effectiveness of CHP under conservative assumptions. Regarding the influence of satisfaction and performance indicators for the several plants, the survey threw some unexpected evidence on the nature of CHP

  19. Environmental and economic gains of the conversion of the Zvolen (Slovakia) district CHP plant from low quality brown coal combustion to co-firing of biomass and low-sulphur brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilavsky, Jan; Jankovsky, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Zvolen CHP plant was originally commissioned in 1954. Overall installed output is 311 MW in heat production and 44,3 MW in power. Annual supply to the consumers was 788,910 GJ of heat and 102,459 GJ of electricity in 2004. Some 60 % of the heat production was used for heat and hot water supply to more than 9,000 houses and apartments and 40 % to industrial consumers. It uses pulverized lignite with up to 1 % of sulphur content as fuel. The content of sulphur in emitted flue gas is as high as 3,500-4,000 mg SO 2 /m 3 . It causes serious environmental problems in the region. New national limits for greenhouse gases emissions are 1.700 mg SO 2 /m 3 and 600 mg NO x /m 3 with effect from 1 January 2007. CHP is not able to achieve them without substantial improvement of technology with very high investment costs. Several alternatives of technical changes have been analysed in a study. Shift from lignite to low-sulphur content brown coal with co-firing of biomass has been identified economically most feasible and environmentally acceptable solution. The paper presents results of the study analysing the whole chain from biomass resources in the region up to the technical solutions for boilers reconstruction. The first part of the study was focused at identification of biomass resources for energy use from forestry, wood processing industry and agriculture. Ecological, economic and operational factors limiting utilization of potential biomass resources were identified and factored into calculations. Two boilers, each of them with the output of 108 MW t , will be reconstructed for co-firing of pulverized low sulphur content brown coal and biomass. Biomass will share up to 30% of the combusted fuel. After the reconstruction one boiler will remain with the same output of 108 MW t and the other will be with the output of 65 MW t . Power will be produced by the back pressure 25 MW e turbine. Chips will be stored in 9.000 m 3 open depot and in 3.000 m 3 silo. Chips will be fed

  20. Evaluation of an alkaline fuel cell system as a micro-CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaert, Ivan; Mulder, Grietus; De Paepe, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis on system configuration of the AFC as a micro-CHP. • Flow rate in the secondary heating circuit can be used to control water management. • Part load behavior of fuel cells is compared to other micro-CHP technologies. • For future energy demand in buildings fuel cells have the best performance. - Abstract: Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology to reduce the non-renewable energy demand in buildings and reduce peak load in the grid. Fuel cell based cogeneration (CHP) has interesting prospects for building applications, even at relatively low heat demand. This is due to their partial load behavior which is completely different, compared to other micro-CHP technologies. Within the fuel cell technologies suitable for small scale CHP or micro-CHP, the existing configuration of an alkaline fuel cell system is analyzed. This analysis is based on validated models and offers a control strategy to optimize both water management and energy performance of the alkaline fuel cell system. Finally, the model of the alkaline fuel cell system with optimized control strategy is used to compare its part load behavior to other micro-CHP technologies.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  2. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, S.; Landis, F.; Lienhard, A.; Marti Locher, F.; Krummenacher, S.

    2009-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  3. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  4. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...... the two remaining can be located at positions with availability of high temperature sources by utilising the DH network to distribute the heat. A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of HPs operated with natural working fluids, which may be the only feasible choice...... representation allows infeasible production. Using MIP or NLP optimisation, the number of operation hours and the total production of heat from HPs are significantly increased, as the HPs may be used to shave the load patterns of CHP units in significantly constrained energy systems. A MIP energy system model...

  5. System analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability; Systemanalyse der CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung aus Biomasse-Heizkraftwerken (Bio-KWK-CCS). Technik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-15

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO{sub 2} sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO{sub 2} sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} transport and CO{sub 2} storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO{sub 2} sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO{sub 2

  6. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  7. Increasing the flexibility of operational scheduling for a large-scale CHP plant used for generating district heat and electricity in order to meet the varying market demands; Steigerung der Einsatzflexibilitaet einer grossen KWK-Anlage zur Fernwaerme- und Stromerzeugung gemaess aktueller Marktanforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meierer, Matthias; Krupp, Roland; Stork, Rolf [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The substantial changes in the structure of German power supply plants pose high demands on the flexibility of the operational scheduling of conventional thermal power plants. Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG is a power plant company that is operating a plant for combined power and district heat generation. The paper describes some measures which have been taken to improve the plant's operational flexibility. In addition, the associated technical systems and their functions, as well as the state of ongoing projects are outlined. Special focus is placed on topics related to issues such as ''district-heat storage unit of the new unit 9, flexibility of operational scheduling, and efficient CHP plant operation''.

  8. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Kozuh, Mitja

    2007-01-01

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled 'Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital

  9. New market based price regulation on combined heat and power in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Jesper; Nielsen, Marianne; Hansen, Anders B.; Lawaetz, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Major economic risks can become reality when local co-generation plants (L-CHP ) meet the full market penetration with new market based price regulation. Co-generation produces more than 50% of the national electricity consumption and half of the production is generated from L-CHP. The new price regulation is assumed to take action in 2004. The paper will present an analysis of a market based price regulation on the L-CHP-sector. The paper will spotlight on L-CHP in district heating systems supplying heat for domestic purposes. When smaller and medium sized CHP sell electricity they are paid an average price of 46 Euro per MWh. The return of selling electricity shall primarily cover the expenditure of buying gas for electricity production and writing off investments cost of a CHP-plant. With the framework of today it is a fact that the plants (in average) are only slightly competitive compared to individual heat production plants. When CHP meet market conditions there is a high risk that electricity prices will be reduced significantly (prices of 20 - 30 Euro per MWh) for a longer period. Significantly reduced electricity prices will result in dramatically increased heat prices. If no action is taken there will be a potential risk that heat consumers in the smaller and medium sized cities together must pay an extra bill of 200 million Euro each year. It corresponds to an average increase of the heating bill of 300 - 500 Euro per year for an average house. This is far from acceptable. There will also be a high risk that companies with industrial CHP will permanently convert to heat only boiler and only use their CHP occasionally because CHP plants might not be cost-effective when electricity prices are low. These effects can cause a significant increase of the national CO 2 emission

  10. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  11. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    sizing CHP to thermal and electrical estimates. The table below is a summary of findings of CHP potential for those federal facilities that chose to participate in the screening process. The study focused on three U.S. regions: California, Texas, and New York/New England. All federal facilities in these three regions with reported building space greater than 100,000 square feet were initial targets to contact and offer CHP screening services. Ranking criteria were developed to screen sites for near term CHP potential. The potential site list was pared down for a variety of reasons including site- specific and agency wide decisions not to participate, desk audit assessments, and untraceable contact information. The results are based upon the voluntary participation of those sites we were able to contact, so they reflect a fraction of the total potential CHP opportunities at federal government facilities.

  12. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  13. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...

  14. Load scheduling for decentralized CHP plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg, orlov 31.07.2008; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    ) an interactive decision support tool by which optimal schedules can be found given the forecasts or user-defined modifications of the forecasts, and (iii) an automatic on-line system for monitoring when conditions have changed so that rescheduling is appropriate. In this report the focus is on methods applicable...... be obtained. Furthermore, we believe that all relevant forecasting methods are far too complicated to allow for this integration; both uncertainties originating from the dependence of heat load on climate and from meteorological forecasts need to be taken into account. Instead we suggest that the decision....... By letting the system find optimal schedules for each of these realizations the operator can gain some insight into the importance of the uncertainties. It is shown that with modern personal computers (e.g. 1 GHz Pentium III), operating systems (e.g. RedHat Linux 6.0), and compilers (e.g. GNU C 2...

  15. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  16. Contribution of wind power and CHP to exports from Western Denmark during 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignard, D.; Harrison, G.P.; Pritchard, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The experience of Denmark is used by the United Kingdom's anti-wind lobby to demonstrate that intermittency and inaccuracies in wind forecasting make wind power ineffective and expensive. A further assertion is that most of the power is 'unwanted' since up to 80% of it is exported. Here, available data for Danish energy production for 2000-2004 is used to assess the link between wind generation and exports and test the validity of these claims. Net exports in Western Denmark showed good correlation with wind production. However, they were more significantly correlated with the production from local combined heat and power (CHP) plants. In order to test the 80% export claim, a simple technique was devised to correlate and rank hourly net exports and generation from wind and local CHP. In the case where net exports were primarily attributed to (or blamed on) wind, 44-84% of annual wind production was deemed to be exported, with wind 'causing' 57-79% of net annual exports. For this extreme scenario, the percentage values are in line with those of critics. However, under the opposite extreme scenario in which exports are attributed to local CHP, 77-94% of exports were caused by CHP and only 4-32% of wind production was exported. Overall, this study shows that there is some degree of correlation between net exports and wind power, but that the claim that 80% is exported is unwarranted since it ignores the demonstrably stronger influence of local CHP. (author)

  17. Optimal placement of combined heat and power scheme (cogeneration): application to an ethylbenzene plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin Abd Manan; Lim Fang Yee

    2001-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) scheme, also known as cogeneration is widely accepted as a highly efficient energy saving measure, particularly in medium to large scale chemical process plants. To date, CHP application is well established in the developed countries. The advantage of a CHP scheme for a chemical plant is two-fold: (i) drastically cut down on the electricity bill from on-site power generation (ii) to save the fuel bills through recovery of the quality waste heat from power generation for process heating. In order to be effective, a CHP scheme must be placed at the right temperature level in the context of the overall process. Failure to do so might render a CHP venture worthless. This paper discusses the procedure for an effective implementation of a CHP scheme. An ethylbenzene process is used as a case study. A key visualization tool known as the grand composite curves is used to provide an overall picture of the process heat source and heat sink profiles. The grand composite curve, which is generated based on the first principles of Pinch Analysis enables the CHP scheme to be optimally placed within the overall process scenario. (Author)

  18. Management of fluctuations in wind power and CHP comparing two possible Danish strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Clark, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Both CHP (combined heat and power production) and wind power are important elements of Danish energy policy. Today, approximately 50% of both the Danish electricity and heat demand are produced in CHP and more than 15% of the electricity demand is produced by wind turbines. Both technologies are essential for the implementation of Danish climate change response objectives, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Meanwhile, the integration of CHP and wind power is subject to fluctuations in electricity production. Wind turbines depend on the wind, and CHP depends on the heat demand. This article discusses and analyses two different national strategies for solving this problem. One strategy, which is the current official government policy known as the export strategy, proposes to take advantage of the Nordic and European markets for selling and buying electricity. In this case, surplus electricity from wind power and CHP simply will be sold to neighbouring countries. Another strategy, the self-supply strategy, runs the CHP units to meet both demand and the fluctuations in the wind scheduling. In this case, investments in heat storages are necessary and heat pumps have to be added to the CHP units. Based on official Danish energy policy and energy plans, this article quantifies the problem for the year 2015 in terms of the amount of surplus electricity, and investments in heat pumps, etc. needed to solve the problem are calculated. Based on these results between the two different strategies, the conclusion is that the self-supply strategy is recommended over the official export strategy. (author)

  19. Ecological assessment of new CHP systems and their combination; Oekologische Bewertung neuer WKK-Systeme und Systemkombinationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on new developments in the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation area. The objective of this study is an ecological and technical evaluation of various CHP systems and system combinations. These also include suitable combinations with other technologies. Systems for five different temperature levels are quantified according to their environmental impact. Various possible applications are compared with a highly efficient reference system using separate heat and power generation - a combined-cycle plant and a heat pump. For chilled water production a combination of the CHP system with an absorption chiller is investigated. The results of the investigations are presented and commented on. Also, advantageous applications of CHP systems are noted.

  20. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Tingting; Alvfors, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PEMFC stack with a 40% of electrical efficiency will make the integrated PEMFC-CHP, biogas plant and dairy farm self-sufficient. • The quality of the reformate gas is good enough to support normal operation of the PEMFC-CHP. • The methane conversion rate and the content of the CH 4 in the biogas need to be balanced in order to obtain the best system performance. • Compared with a coal-fired CHP plant, the integrated system can avoid coal consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter–fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus®. The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the

  1. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  2. Analysis and optmization of CHP, CCHP, CHP-ORC, and CCHP-ORC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffed, Anna Kathrine

    Increased demand for energy, rising energy costs, and heightened environmental concerns are driving forces that continually press for the improvement and development of new technologies to promote energy savings and emissions reduction. Combined heating and power (CHP), combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP), and organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are a few of the technologies that promise to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC), cost, and emissions. CHP systems generate electricity at or near the place of consumption using a prime mover, e.g. a combustion engine or a turbine, and utilize the accompanying exhaust heat that would otherwise be wasted to satisfy the building's thermal demand. In the case of CCHP systems, exhaust heat also goes to satisfy a cooling load. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) combined with a CHP or CCHP system can generate electricity from any surplus low-grade heat, thereby reducing the total primary energy, cost, and emissions.

  3. Development of a CHP/DH system for the new town of Parand: An opportunity to mitigate global warming in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi Tehrani, S. Saeed; Saffar-Avval, M.; Mansoori, Z.; Behboodi Kalhori, S.; Abbassi, A.; Dabir, B.; Sharif, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have gained a lot of interest. The idea of this paper is to recover exhaust hot gases of an existing gas turbine power plant to meet dynamic thermal energy requirements of a residential area (the new town of Parand) situated in the suburb of Tehran, and also use the rest of the heat source potential to feed a steam turbine cycle. In close proximity to this town, there are two GT plants: Parand (954 MW e ) and Rudeshur (790 MW e ). For handling the CHP/STC/DH plant, two methods are considered along with thermal load following operation strategy: maximum power generation (MPG) and minimum fuel consumption (MFC). Then, the alternatives are compared in terms of annual PES, CO 2 abatement and NPV. For the best design from environmental viewpoint (Parand CHP-B), PES, CO 2 abatement and NPV are calculated to be 27.31%, 2.56 million tons and 1491 million dollar, respectively. -- Highlights: • To propose a technical and financial methodology to evaluate CHP/DH projects. • To address environmental advantages of CHPs with conventional plants. • To present practical operation strategies to increase benefits of CHP/DH plants. • To report/compare benefits of various CHP/DH alternatives for a case study in Iran. • To conduct a comprehensive energy analysis of proposed CHP/DH design options

  4. Carbon Debt Payback Time for a Biomass Fired CHP Plant—A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Madsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has experienced a large increase in the use of biomass for energy in the last decades. In 2015, biomass used to generate electricity, heat, and to a limited extent, liquid fuels accounted for 51% of the EU’s renewable energy production. Bioenergy use is expected to grow substantially to meet energy and climate targets for 2020 and beyond. This development has resulted in analyses suggesting the increased use of biomass for energy might initially lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere, a so-called carbon debt. Here, we analyze carbon debt and payback time of substituting coal with forest residues for combined heat and power generation (CHP. The analysis is, in contrast to most other studies, based on empirical data from a retrofit of a CHP plant in northern Europe. The results corroborate findings of a carbon debt, here 4.4 kg CO2eq GJ−1. The carbon debt has a payback time of one year after conversion, and furthermore, the results show that GHG emissions are reduced to 50% relative to continued coal combustion after about 12 years. The findings support the use of residue biomass for energy as an effective means for climate change mitigation.

  5. Distributed Control in a Network of Households with microCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Gunn; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; van Foreest, Nicolaas

    2011-01-01

    This is an application of a dynamic price mechanism to distributed optimization of a network of houses which are both producers and consumers of electricity. One possibility for domestic generation is the Micro Combined Heat Power system (µCHP). We use a pricing mechanism based on dual

  6. Future market relevance of CHP installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW; Zukuenftige Marktbedeutung von WKK-Anlagen mit 1 - 1000 kW elektrischer Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R.

    2003-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the future market relevance of combined heat and power (CHP) installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW. Developments over the past ten years are reviewed. Important reductions in the price of motor-driven CHP units and the price of the electrical power produced are noted and commented on. The technical market potential of CHP units and the degree to which this potential has been implemented are commented on. Work done, including CHP implementation in the industrial, commercial and residential areas, is commented on. Future developments both in the technical area as well as in commercial areas are commented on. Micro-gas-turbine based CHP systems are also discussed, as are fuel-cell based systems in both the higher and lower capacity power generation area. The prospects for CHP systems in general in the electricity generation area are discussed

  7. The Design, Construction, and Experimental Evaluation of a Compact Thermoacoustic-Stirling Engine Generator for Use in a micro-CHP Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A., Jr.

    Micro combined heat and power or micro-CHP is the simultaneous generation of useful heat and electricity on a residential scale. The heat and electricity are produced at the point of use, avoiding the distribution losses associated with a centralized power plant. These appliances combine a conventional gas-fired condensing boiler with an electric power module capable of generating electricity from the heat of combustion. Currently, the leading power modules for micro-CHP appliances are free-piston Stirling engines (FPSEs) which can generate 1050 watts of electricity at a thermal-to-electric efficiency of 26%.[1] These external combustion engines have been under development for the last 25 years, with FPSE micro-CHP appliances only recently being introduced to the commercial market. Publications by developers assert unlimited service life and high efficiency, with low noise and emissions; but despite these claims, the actual reliability and cost of manufacturing has prevented their successful mass-market adoption. A Thermoacoustic-Stirling Engine Generator or TaSEG is one possible alternative to FPSE's. A TaSEG uses a thermoacoustic engine, or acoustic heat engine, which can efficiently convert high temperature heat into acoustic power while maintaining a simple design with fewer moving parts than traditional FPSE's. This simpler engine is coupled to an electrodynamic alternator capable of converting acoustic power into electricity. This thesis outlines the design, construction, and experimental evaluation of a TaSEG which is appropriate for integration with a gas burner inside of a residential micro- CHP appliance. The design methodology is discussed, focusing on how changes in the geometry affected the predicted performance. Details of its construction are given and the performance of the TaSEG is then outlined. The TaSEG can deliver 132 watts of electrical output power to an electric load with an overall measured thermal-to-electric (first law) efficiency of eta

  8. Two-phase optimizing approach to design assessments of long distance heat transportation for CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał; Piotrowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for long distance heat transportation system effectivity evaluation. • Decision model formulation which reflects time and spatial structure of the problem. • Multi-criteria and complex approach to solving the decision-making problem. • Solver based on simulation-optimization approach with two-phase optimization method. • Sensitivity analysis of the optimization procedure elements. - Abstract: Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for power plants is a method of putting to use waste heat which would be otherwise released to the environment. This allows the increase in thermodynamic efficiency of the plant and can be a source of environmental friendly heat for District Heating (DH). In the paper CHP for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is analyzed with the focus on heat transportation. A method for effectivity and feasibility evaluation of the long distance, high power Heat Transportation System (HTS) between the NPP and the DH network is proposed. As a part of the method the multi-criteria decision-making problem, having the structure of the mathematical programming problem, for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of the HTS is formulated. The constraints for this problem include a static model of HTS, that allows considerations of system lifetime, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby variation of annual heat demand within the DH area, variability of ground temperature, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile can be taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. In general, the analyzed optimization problem is multi-criteria, hybrid and nonlinear. The two-phase optimization based on optimization-simulation framework is proposed to solve the decision-making problem. The solver introduces a number of assumptions concerning the optimization process. Methods for problem decomposition

  9. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...... temperatures, as compared to Nafion-based PEMFCs and therefore can be a significant candidate for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary...

  10. Biomass gasification for CHP with dry gas cleaning and regenerative heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Small scale CHP plants based on biomass gasification technologies are generally expensive and not very efficient due to gas quality problems which increase operation and maintenance cost as well as breakdown. To overcome this situation the team has developed, integrated and tested a complete biomass gasification combine heat and power prototype plant of 250 kWth equipped with a specifically developed dry gas cleaning and heat recovery system. The dry gas cleaning device is a simple dry gas regenerative heat exchanger where tars are stopped by condensation but working at a temperature above due point in order to avoid water condensation. Two types of heat particles separation devices have been tested in parallel multi-cyclone and ceramic filters. After several month spent on modelling design, construction and optimisation, a full test campaign of 400 hours continuous monitoring has been done where all working parameters has been monitored and gas cleaning device performances has been assessed. Results have shown: Inappropriateness of the ceramic filters for the small scale unit due to operation cost and too high sensibility of the filters to the operation conditions fluctuating in a wide range, despite a very high particle separation efficiency 99 %; Rather good efficiency of the multi-cyclone 72% but not sufficient for engine safety. Additional conventional filters where necessary for the finest part; Inappropriateness of the dry gas heat exchanger device for tar removal partly due to a low tar content of the syngas generated, below 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} , but also due to their composition which would have imposed, to be really efficient, a theoretical condensing temperature of 89 C below the water condensation temperature. These results have been confirmed by laboratory tests and modelling. However the tar cracking phase have shown very interesting results and proved the feasibility of thermal cracking with full cleaning of the heat exchanger without further mechanical

  11. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  12. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland; Beseitigung von Hemmnissen bei der Verbreitung von Waermekraftkopplung (WKK) in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Landis, F. [Interface Politikstudien Forschung Beratung, Luzern (Switzerland); Lienhard, A.; Marti Locher, F. [Universitaet Bern, Kompetenzzentrum fuer Public Management (KPM), Bern (Switzerland); Krummenacher, S. [Enerprice Partners AG, Technopark Luzern, Root Laengenbold (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  13. Combined heat and power production planning in a waste-to-energy plant on a short-term basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touš, Michal; Pavlas, Martin; Putna, Ondřej; Stehlík, Petr; Crha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, WtE (waste-to-energy) plants are CHP (combined heat and power) producers. They are often integrated into a central heating system and they also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, they have to plan their operation on a long-term basis (months, years) as well as on a short-term basis (hours, days). Simulation models can effectively support decision making in CHP production planning. In general, CHP production planning on a short-term basis is a challenging task for WtE plants. This article presents a simulation based support. It is demonstrated on an example involving a real WtE plant. Most of the models of relevant WtE sub-systems (boilers, steam turbine) are developed using operational data and applying linear regression and artificial neural network technique. The process randomness given mainly by fluctuating heating value of waste leads to uncertainty in a calculation of CHP production and a stochastic approach is appropriate. The models of the sub-systems are, therefore, extended of a stochastic part and Monte-Carlo simulation is applied. Compared to the current planning strategy in the involved WtE plant, the stochastic simulation based planning provides increased CHP production resulting in better net thermal efficiency and increased revenue. This is demonstrated through a comparison using real operational data. - Highlights: • Introduction of a stochastic model of a CHP production in a waste-to-energy plant. • An application of the model for the next day CHP production planning. • Better net thermal efficiency and therefore increased revenue achieved.

  14. Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems Using Fuzzy Shannon Entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Cavallaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration can play a strategic role in addressing environmental issues and climate change. CHP systems require less fuel than separate heat and power systems in order to produce the same amount of energy saving primary energy, improving the security of the supply. Because less fuel is combusted, greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants are reduced. If we are to consider the CHP system as “sustainable”, we must include in its assessment not only energetic performance but also environmental and economic aspects, presenting a multicriteria issue. The purpose of the paper is to apply a fuzzy multicriteria methodology to the assessment of five CHP commercial technologies. Specifically, the combination of the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy and the fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS approach will be tested for this purpose. Shannon’s entropy concept, using interval data such as the α-cut, is a particularly suitable technique for assigning weights to criteria—it does not require a decision-making (DM to assign a weight to the criteria. To rank the proposed alternatives, a fuzzy TOPSIS method has been applied. It is based on the principle that the chosen alternative should be as close as possible to the positive ideal solution and be as far as possible from the negative ideal solution. The proposed approach provides a useful technical–scientific decision-making tool that can effectively support, in a consistent and transparent way, the assessment of various CHP technologies from a sustainable point of view.

  15. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  16. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  17. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land: Case of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominković, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of unused agricultural land for biomass and fruit production is assessed. • Technical and energy potential of biomass from SRC and fruit pruning is calculated. • Economic feasibility of CHP plants utilizing biomass from SRC is presented for Croatia. • Sensitivity analysis and recommendations for shift toward feasibility are provided. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused for food crops, represent significant potential for growing biomass that could be used for energy. This biomass could be used to supply power plants of up to 15 MW_e in accordance with heat demands of the chosen locations. The methodology for regional energy potential assessment was elaborated in previous work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10 PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost.

  18. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the

  19. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  20. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  1. Base case industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper briefly describes an industrial scale plant for reprocessing thermal oxide fuel. This description was used as a base case by the Group for their later assessments and for comparing actual national plans for reprocessing plants. The plant described uses the Purex process and assumes an annual throughput of 1000 t/U. The maintenance, safety and safeguards philosophy is described. An indication of the construction schedule and capital and operating costs is also given

  2. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  3. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Mayer

    2010-03-31

    challenge to the development of a long life LIC system is the development of a reliable and efficient steam generator. The steam generator and support equipment development is described in Section 7. Just one year ago, ECR International announced through its joint venture company, Climate Energy, that it was introducing to the USA market a new class of Micro-CHP product using the state-of-the-art Honda MCHP gas fired internal combustion (IC) engine platform. We now have installed Climate Energy Micro-CHP systems in 20 pilot demonstration sites for the 2005/2006 heating season. This breakthrough success with IC engine based systems paves the way for future advanced steam cycle Micro-CHP systems to be introduced.

  4. The Significance of a Building’s Energy Consumption Profiles for the Optimum Sizing of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP System—A Case Study for a Student Residence Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available University buildings, such as student residence halls with year-round consistent energy demands, offer strong opportunities for Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems. The economic and environmental feasibility of a CHP project is strongly linked with its optimum sizing. This study aims to undertake such an assessment for a CHP system for a student residence hall located in London, the United Kingdom (UK. The study also aims to undertake a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of different parameters on the project’s economics. Necessary data are collected via interviews with the University’s Energy Manager. Modeling of the CHP system is performed using the London South Bank University (LSBU, London, the UK CHP model. Results demonstrate that optimum sizing of CHP is crucial for achieving higher economic and environmental benefits and strongly depends on the authenticity of the energy consumption data, based on which the CHP is being sized. Use of incorrect energy data could result in an undersized or oversized CHP system, where an oversized system will result in higher negative results compared to an undersized system. Finally, Monto Carlo statistical analysis shows that electricity price is the significant factor that could affect the project’s economics. With an increasing spark gap, the payback period decreases, and vice versa.

  5. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling...... engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been developed. In this engine the combustion system and the geometry of the hot heat exchanger...... of the Stirling engine has been adapted to the use of a gas with a low specific energy content and a high content of tar and particles. In the spring of 2001 a demonstration plant has been built in the western part of Denmark where this Stirling engine is combined with an updraft gasifier. A mathematical...

  6. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...

  7. Is the Korean public willing to pay for a decentralized generation source? The case of natural gas-based combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas (NG)-based combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be installed near electricity-consuming areas and do not require large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. This paper attempts to assess the public's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for substituting consumption of a unit of electricity generated from nuclear power plant, currently a dominant power generation source in Korea, with that produced from NG-based CHP plant in terms of decentralized generation using the contingent valuation (CV) method. To this end, a CV survey of 1,000 households was implemented. The results show that the mean additional WTP for substituting nuclear power plant by NG-based CHP plant is estimated to be KRW 55.3 (USD 0.047) per kWh of electricity, which is statistically significant at the 1% level. This value amounts to 44.7% of the average price for electricity, KRW 123.69 (USD 0.106) in 2015, which implies that the public are ready to shoulder a significant financial burden to achieve the substitution. Moreover, the value can be interpreted as an external cost of nuclear power generation relative to NG-based CHP generation, or as an external benefit of NG-based CHP generation relative to nuclear power generation with a view to decentralized generation. - Highlights: • Combined heat and power (CHP) is a representative decentralized generation source. • Nuclear power requires large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. • We assess people's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for CHP over nuclear power. • We conduct a contingent valuation survey of 1,000 households in Korea. • The mean additional WTP amounts to 44.2% of the average price for electricity.

  8. Stockholm CHP potential - An opportunity for CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danestig, Maria; Gebremehdin, Alemayehu; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2007-01-01

    The potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Stockholm is large and a total heat demand of about 10 TWh/year can be met in a renewed large district heating system. This model of the Stockholm district heating system shows that CHP generation can increase from 8% in 2004 to 15.5% of the total electricity generation in Sweden. Increased electricity costs in recent years have awakened an interest to invest in new electricity generation. Since renewable alternatives are favoured by green certificates, bio-fuelled CHP is most profitable at low electricity prices. Since heat demand in the district heating network sets the limit for possible electricity generation, a CHP alternative with a high electricity to heat ratio will be more profitable at when electricity prices are high. The efficient energy use in CHP has the potential to contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, when they are required and the European electricity market is working perfectly. The potential in Stockholm exceeds Sweden's undertakings under the Kyoto protocol and national reduction goals. (author)

  9. Optimization of a High Temperature PEMFC micro-CHP System by Formulation and Application of a Process Integration Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A 1 kWe micro combined heat and power (CHP) system based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is modeled and optimized by formulation and application of a process integration methodology. The system can provide heat and electricity for a singlefamily household...

  10. CHP systems to save money and cut carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ian

    2014-10-01

    According to Ian Hopkins, a director of ENER-G Combined Power--which has delivered more than 50 CHP-led energy services contracts within the healthcare sector, having, for the past 30 years, designed and manufactured CHP systems at its global headquarters and R&D centre in Salford--'the energy cost and carbon-saving benefits of combined heat and power are difficult to match where there is a large heating/cooling demand over extended periods'. In this article, he explains how hospitals and other busy healthcare facilities thus 'make ideal bedfellows' for CHP, and outlines the key criteria and considerations, such as sizing, for healthcare engineers, when looking to specify such a system.

  11. Optimal design of integrated CHP systems for housing complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes-Cortés, Luis Fabián; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Nápoles-Rivera, Fabricio; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization formulation for designing domestic CHP systems is presented. • The operating scheme, prime mover and thermal storage system are optimized. • Weather conditions and behavior demands are considered. • Simultaneously economic and environmental objectives are considered. • Two case studies from Mexico are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach for designing residential cogeneration systems based on a new superstructure that allows satisfying the demands of hot water and electricity at the minimum cost and the minimum environmental impact. The optimization involves the selection of technologies, size of required units and operating modes of equipment. Two residential complexes in different cities of the State of Michoacán in Mexico were considered as case studies. One is located on the west coast and the other one is in the mountainous area. The results show that the implementation of the proposed optimization method yields significant economic and environmental benefits due to the simultaneous reduction in the total annual cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions

  12. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Lund, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    benefits, together with the environmental impact of this deployment, will then be estimated. By using the Danish thermal energy system as a paradigm, this paper will consider the TEG application to district heating systems and power plants through the EnergyPLAN model, which has been created to design......High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency...... configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic...

  13. CHP as a Boiler Replacement Opportunity (Webinar) – April 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar provides information about the benefits of replacing a boiler with a CHP system, describes CHP project analysis and delivery processes, and highlights a case study at Penn State University.

  14. Cogeneration plant in a pasta factory: Energy saving and environmental benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panno, Domenico; Messineo, Antonio; Dispenza, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Italy produces approximately 4,520,000 tons of pasta annually, which is about 67% of its total productive potential. As factories need electric and thermal energy simultaneously, combined heat and power (CHP) systems are the most suitable. This paper describes a feasibility study of a CHP plant in a pasta factory in Italy while analyzing energy saving and environmental benefits. Commercially available CHP systems suitable for the power range of energy demand in pasta production use reciprocating engines or gas turbines. This study demonstrates how their use can reduce both energy costs and CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gas emission in the environment. An economic analysis was performed following the methodology set out by Italian National Agency for Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA) based on a discounted cash flow (DCF) method called 'Valore Attuale Netto' (VAN), which uses a cash flow based on the saving of energy when using different energy processes

  15. CHP and District Cooling: An Assessment of Market and Policy Potential in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of India's CHP/DC status and recommendations for addressing barriers to allow India to meet its energy efficiency targets. Such barriers include a lack of governmental emphasis on CHP, the absence of a clear methodology for calculating CO2 emission reductions from CHP/DHC, and a tax and duty structure for CHP capital equipment that is not as attractive as for other renewable energy technologies.

  16. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to its...

  17. Micro CHP as a new business model. Trianel distribution system decentralised production; Mikro-BHKW als neues Geschaeftsmodell. Trianel-Netzwerk Dezentrale Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Michel [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-04-29

    About four years ago, an energy distribution company in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) reported on mini and micro CHP in the media. When it comes to a decentralized production of electricity and heat, however public utilities are the perfect partner: the decentralized power generation in flexible adjustable combined heat and power plants offers the opportunity to provide highly efficient heat and power directly at the place of consumption. In addition, regional and municipal utilities score with the theme mini and micro CHP for their customers due to the support on the way to more energy efficiency.

  18. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E......AK cleaved tmRNA in its coding region. Thus, ChpAK and ChpBK inhibit translation by a mechanism very similar to that of E. coli RelE. On the basis of these results, we propose a model that integrates TA loci into general prokaryotic stress physiology....

  19. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Renzi, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO 2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  20. Investigation of Continuous Gas Engine CHP Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 hours of gas engine operation with producer gas from biomass as fuel has been conducted on the gasification CHP demonstration and research plant, named “Viking” at the Technical University of Denmark. The gas engine is an integrated part of the entire gasification plant. The excess...... operates with varying excess of air due to variation in gas composition and thus stoichiometry, and a second where the excess of air in the exhaust gas is fixed and the flow rate of produced gas from the gasifier is varying. The interaction between the gas engine and the gasification system has been...... investigated. The engine and the plant are equipped with continuously data acquisition that monitors the operation including the composition of the producer gas and the flow. Producer gas properties and contaminations have been investigated. No detectable tar or particle content was observed...

  1. Market conditions for cogeneration plants. Ensuring efficiency; Marktbedingungen fuer KWK-Anlagen. Wirtschaftlichkeit sicherstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottersbach, Joerg; Otto, Falk; Schrader, Knut [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und Technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Due to declining wholesale prices for electricity, the profitability of base load power and heat generation plants decreases significantly. Therefore, concepts such as the increased use of electricity or natural plant flexibility have to be developed. The improved framework conditions by means of the amended Combined Heat and Power Act are helpful. When modernising plants, it is even possible under favorable conditions and with a good concept to fully refinance the investment on the CHP surcharges.

  2. Identification of an operon, Pil-Chp, that controls twitching motility and virulence in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Luciana; Galvani, Cheryl D; Athinuwat, Dusit; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases, including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Disease manifestation by X. fastidiosa is associated with the expression of several factors, including the type IV pili that are required for twitching motility. We provide evidence that an operon, named Pil-Chp, with genes homologous to those found in chemotaxis systems, regulates twitching motility. Transposon insertion into the pilL gene of the operon resulted in loss of twitching motility (pilL is homologous to cheA genes encoding kinases). The X. fastidiosa mutant maintained the type IV pili, indicating that the disrupted pilL or downstream operon genes are involved in pili function, and not biogenesis. The mutated X. fastidiosa produced less biofilm than wild-type cells, indicating that the operon contributes to biofilm formation. Finally, in planta the mutant produced delayed and less severe disease, indicating that the Pil-Chp operon contributes to the virulence of X. fastidiosa, presumably through its role in twitching motility.

  3. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Michele; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Peretto, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  4. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  5. Annual energy balances of CHP-units supplying households; Jahresenergiebilanzen von KWK-Anlagen zur Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, B.; Muehlbacher, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik

    2008-07-01

    A method to balance CHP-units for use in households on an annual basis has been developed. Seasonal as well as intraday fluctuations of the CHP-units are accounted for in the model. The results of this new method were validated in a test facility for certain days. Together with experimentally obtained data from a CHP-unit, the potential for technical improvements and a more favourable operational mode can be derived from the model. (orig.)

  6. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  7. Financing CHP Projects at Wastewater Treatment Facilities with Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities, including applications, financial challenges, and financial opportunities, such as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  8. Economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under CHP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rist, Johannes F.; Dias, Miguel F.; Palman, Michael; Zelazo, Daniel; Cukurel, Beni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Economic dispatch of a micro gas turbine is considered for smart grid integration. •A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted for variable load CHP operation. •Benefits are shown for case studies with real demand profiles and energy tariffs. •Optimal unit schedule can be electricity, heat, revenue or maintenance-cost driven. -- Abstract: This work considers the economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under combined heat and power (CHP) operation. A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted on a representative micro-gas turbine unit with non-constant component efficiencies and recuperator bypass. Based on partial and full load configurations, an accurate optimization model is developed for solving the economic dispatch problem of integrating the turbine into the grid. The financial benefit and viability of this approach is then examined on four detailed scenarios using real data on energy demand profiles and electricity tariffs. The analysis considers the optimal operation in a large hotel, a full-service restaurant, a small hotel, and a residential neighborhood during various seasons. The optimal schedule follows four fundamental economic drivers which are electricity, heat, revenue, and maintenance-cost driven.

  9. Large combined heat and power plants in sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    . It is concluded that the CCGT CHP plant is the most feasible both from a technical analysis and a market economic analysis with electricity exchange. It is found that the current economic framework for large CHP plants in Denmark generates a mismatch between socio economy and business economy as well...

  10. A biofuel-based cogeneration plant in a natural gas expansion system: An energetic and economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Marco; Modica, Stefano; Portoraro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Natural Gas Turbo Expander system with a rapeseed oil fueled CHP is studied. • The experimental data of the plant are considered in the analyses. • The energetic index of performance shows the attractiveness of the plant. • Incentives and fuel price volatility effects on economic profitability are analysed. - Abstract: The paper deals with an analysis of the energetic and economic performance of a City Gas Station (CGS) plant, made up of a rapeseed oil cogenerator coupled to a turbo-expansion system for the reduction of natural gas pressure, which is currently in operation in Italy. Although this kind of systems concept is well known, the plant can be considered unusual because the heat needed to pre-heat the gas before its expansion is obtained from a renewable source. The aim of the paper is to analyse the energetic efficiency of the plant and its economic viability, which is affected to a great extent by subsidizing energy policies and by the volatility of vegetable oil prices. All the evaluations have been based on a real set of experimental data.

  11. Nanotechnology based surface treatments for corrosion protection and deposit control of power plant equipment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Nanotechnology can provide possibilities for obtaining new valuable information regarding performance and corrosion protection in power plants. In general the desired performance of the contact surfaces is an easy-to-release effect. This is in order to prolong the time interval between cleaning periods or make the cleaning procedures easier and less expensive. Corrosion protection is also desired in order to extend the life time of various parts in the power plants and thus optimize the energy output and overall efficiency of the plant. Functional sol-gel coating based on nanotechnology is tested in a variety of conditions. Applications of functional sol-gel coatings were performed in the condenser and on seven air preheaters at Fynsvaerket, Odense, with corrosion protection as the main issue. Coatings with easy-to-clean effects were tested in the Flue Gas Desulphurization plant at Nordjyllandsvaerket, Aalborg, with the aim of reducing gipsum deposit. Thermo stabilized coatings were tested on tube bundles between in the passage from the 1st to 2end pass and on the wall between 1st and 2end pass at Amagervaerket, Copenhagen, and in the boiler at Haderslev CHP plant. The objective of this test were reducing deposits and increasing corrosion protection. The tested coatings were commercial available coatings and coatings developed in this project. Visual inspections have been performed of all applications except at Nordjyllandsvaerket. Corrosion assessment has been done at DTU - Mechanical Engineering. The results range from no difference between coated and uncoated areas to some improvements. At Amagervaerket the visual assessment showed in general a positive effect with a sol-gel hybrid system and a commercial system regarding removal of deposits. The visual assessment of the air preheaters at Fynsvaerket indicates reduced deposits on a sol-gel nanocomposite coated air preheater compared to an uncoated air preheater. (Author)

  12. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHP 2000 TYPE PROGRESSIVE GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lonkwic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The project of CHP2000 type progressive gear has been presented in the article. The offered solution from its construction point of view differs from the existing solutions due to the application of Belleville springs packets supporting the braking roller cam and achieving a flexible range of the gear loading. The standard concept of the gear loading within a mathematical and a geometrical model has been presented in the article. The proposed solution can be used in the friction lifts with the loading capacity from 8500 up to 20000 N.

  13. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  14. Contribution to a Danish action plan for development and demonstration of CHP from solid biomass; Oplaeg til en national handlingsplan for udvikling og demonstration indenfor kraftvarme fra fast biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-01-15

    The report is the contribution from the industry to an action plan for development and demonstration of CHP technology for solid biomass. The report aims to serve as inspiration and basis for administrators and applicants of Danish funding schemes for development and demonstration in future tenders. Although Danish-based cogeneration technologies for solid biofuels are advanced compared to the competitors in many areas there is a large need to continuously improve the technology by sustained development and demonstration activities. The aim is to overcome the technological barriers that this project has identified and thus maintain competitiveness. The industry currently has very strong focus on market deployment of especially technologies for cogeneration in small scale (up to 15 MW thermal power) and on the overall economy of these plants. Reference installations that displays many operational hours with a reasonable economy, are crucial for investors. Currently, no companies market commercial plants that have sufficiently low costs to operate under Danish conditions and few do for the conditions found internationally. Thus, from the industry perspective there is still a need for development and demonstration of CHP technology below 15 MW thermal. The analysis does not exclude any technology tracks, but the development and demonstration efforts should lead to improvements in conditions such as availability, efficiencies and operating and maintenance costs. Also technologies for large plants and systems need to be improved with respect to availability and efficiency and reduced operating and maintenance costs. For all technologies, there is a need to develop the use of special solid biofuels that on the one hand may have troublesome characteristics but on the other may help lower operating costs. The Danish-based companies have good opportunities to find support for the development and demonstration effort. A number of support programs and pools are in place and

  15. EPA's Air Quality Rules for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) and their Application to CHP (Webinar) – June 24, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar discusses the effect of EPA's air quality regulations on CHP facilities and stationary RICE, and describes how CHP systems can comply with air quality regulations by using stationary RICE.

  16. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  17. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, Pedro [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Newell, LeLe [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  18. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  19. Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2018-02-13

    Plant-based diets, defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption, have been increasingly recommended for their health benefits. Numerous studies have found plant-based diets, especially when rich in high quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intermediate risk factors. This review summarizes the current evidence base examining the associations of plant-based diets with cardiovascular endpoints, and discusses the potential biological mechanisms underlying their health effects, practical recommendations and applications of this research, and directions for future research. Healthful plant-based diets should be recommended as an environmentally sustainable dietary option for improved cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  1. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P J [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  2. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  3. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Dominik; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  4. Comparative analysis of organizational obstacles to CHP/DH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, W.

    1986-04-01

    An explanation is given of the vast differences between the countries of Western Europe in the adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) for district heating (DH). The history of this technology in FR Germany and the UK is analysed in detail, and experiences of other countries are reviewed. It is concluded that the over centralization of the electricity supply industry is a major obstacle in the widespread adoption of combined heat and power and district heating. Significant improvements of energy efficiency would thus require organizational reforms giving greater powers to local energy organizations. This, however, should not imply total decentralization of energy supply. Instead, a two-tier system is proposed in which central organizations remain responsible for bulk supply but where local or regional bodies are in charge of all gas, electricity and heat supplies to the final user.

  5. Results from tests of a Stirling engine and wood chips gasifier plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Werling, J.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification and a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants based on biomass, because the need for gas cleaning is eliminated and problems with fouling of the Stirling engine heater are considerably reduced....... Furthermore, the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a small CHP plant based on a Stirling engine and an updraft gasifier has been developed and tested successfully. The advantages of updraft gasifiers are the simplicity and that the amount...... of the Stirling engine reduces the problems with tar to a minor problem in the design of the burner. The Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 35 kW, is specifically designed for utilisation of fuels with a content of particles. The gas burner for the engine is designed for low specific energy...

  6. Plant aging and design bases documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1985-01-01

    As interest in plant aging and lifetime extension continues to grow, the need to identify and capture the original design bases for the plant becomes more urgent. Decisions on lifetime extension and availability must be based on a rational understanding of design input, assumptions, and objectives. As operating plant time accumulates, the history of the early design begins to fade. The longer the utility waits, the harder it will be to re-establish the original design bases. Therefore, the time to develop this foundation is now. This paper demonstrates the impact that collecting and maintaining the original design bases of the plant can have on a utility's lifetime extension program. This impact becomes apparent when considering the technical, regulatory and financial aspects of lifetime extension. It is not good enough to know that the design information is buried somewhere in the corporate archives, and that given enough time, it could be retrieved. To be useful to the lifetime extension program, plant design information must be concise, readily available (i.e., retrievable), and easy to use. These objectives can only be met through a systematic program for collecting and presenting plant design documentation. To get the maximum benefit from a lifetime extension program, usable design bases documentation should be available as early in the plant life as possible. It will help identify areas that require monitoring today so that data is available to make rational decisions in the future

  7. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system.

  8. FPGA-Based Plant Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Kim, Hang Bae

    2011-01-01

    This paper relates to a plant protection system which detects non-permissible conditions and determines initiation of protective actions for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Conventional plant protection systems were designed based on analog technologies. It is well known that existing protection systems for NPPs contain many components which are becoming obsolete at an increasing rate. Nowadays maintenance and repair for analog-based plant protection systems may be difficult as analog parts become obsolete or difficult to obtain. Accordingly, as an alternative to the analog technology, the digitalisation of the plant protection system was required. Recently digital plant protection systems which include programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and/or computers have been introduced. However PLC or computer-based plant protection systems use an operating system and application software, and so they may result in a common mode failure when a problem occurs in the operating system or application software. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to conventional protection or control systems. The paper presents the design of a four-channel plant protection system whose protection functions are implemented in FPGAs without any central processing unit or operating system

  9. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  10. Optimal stochastic scheduling of CHP-PEMFC, WT, PV units and hydrogen storage in reconfigurable micro grids considering reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Uncertainties of wind speed, solar radiation and electricity market price are considered. • Profit maximization, emission and AENS minimization are considered as objective functions. • Modified firefly algorithm is employed to solve the problem. - Abstract: Nowadays the operation of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power (CHP) units is increased in micro grids; therefore, to reach optimal performance, optimal scheduling of these units is required. In this regard, in this paper a micro grid consisting of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power (PEMFC-CHP), wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) units, is modeled to determine the optimal scheduling state of these units by considering uncertain behavior of renewable energy resources. For this purpose, a scenario-based method is used for modeling the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance. It should be noted that the hydrogen storage strategy is also applied in this study for PEMFC-CHP units. Market profit, total emission production, and average energy not supplied (AENS) are the objective functions considered in this paper simultaneously. Consideration of the above-mentioned objective functions converts the proposed problem to a mixed integer nonlinear programming. To solve this problem, a multi-objective firefly algorithm is used. The uncertainties of parameters convert the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem to a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Moreover, optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro-grids improve the value of the objective functions. Simulation results obtained from a modified 33-bus distributed network as a micro grid illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  12. The economic performance of combined heat and power from biogas produced from manure in Sweden – A comparison of different CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interest in biogas from manure is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. ► Farm-scale production of CHP from manure-based biogas is not profitable in Sweden. ► Minor changes in energy prices or suggested production subsidies will make it profitable. ► Profitability is also affected by efficiency of scale and introduction of thermophilic conditions. -- Abstract: Interest in the generation of biogas from agricultural residues is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. In this study, an evaluation of the economic feasibility of various technologies, also on different scales, for the production of combined heat and power from manure-based biogas in Sweden is presented. The overall conclusion is that such production is not profitable under current conditions. Thus, the gap between the calculated biogas production cost and the acceptable cost for break-even must be bridged by, for example, different policy instruments. In general, efficiency of scale favors large-scale plants compared to individual farm-scale ones. However, a large, centralized biogas plant, using manure from numerous farms, is not always more cost efficient than a large, farm-scale plant treating manure from a few neighboring farms. The utilization of the produced heat, electricity prices, and political incentives, all have a significant impact on the economic outcome, whereas the value of the digestate as fertilizer is currently having a minor impact. Utilization of heat is, however, often limited by the lack of local heat sinks, in which case the implementation of a biogas process operating under thermophilic conditions could increase the profitability due to a more efficient utilization of reactor volume by using more process heat. The results from this study could be utilized by policy makers when implementing policy instruments considering biogas production from manure as well as companies involved in production and utilization of biogas.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis for combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdovski, Ace; Fushtikj, Vangel

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology and practical application of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Combined Heat and Power Plant (Cogeneration facility). Methodology include up-to-date and real data for cogeneration plant in accordance with the trends ill development of the CHP technology. As a case study a CHP plant that could be built-up in Republic of Macedonia is analyzed. The main economic parameters for project evaluation, such as NPV and IRR are calculated for a number of possible scenarios. The analyze present the economic outputs that could be used as a decision for CHP project acceptance for investment. (Author)

  14. Allocating resources and products in multi-hybrid multi-cogeneration: What fractions of heat and power are renewable in hybrid fossil-solar CHP?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo; Iora, Paolo; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the allocation of resources and products in multi-resource/multi-product facilities is developed with particular reference to the important two-resource/two-product case of hybrid fossil and solar/heat and power cogeneration. For a realistic case study, we show how the method allows to assess what fractions of the power and heat should be considered as produced from the solar resource and hence identified as renewable. In the present scenario where the hybridization of fossil power plants by solar-integration is gaining increasing attention, such assessment is of great importance in the fair and balanced development of local energy policies based on granting incentives to renewables resources. The paper extends to the case of two-resource/two-product hybrid cogeneration, as well as to general multi-resource/multi-generation, three of the allocation methods already available for single-resource/two-product cogeneration and for two-resource/single-product hybrid facilities, namely, the ExRR (Exergy-based Reversible-Reference) method, the SRSPR (Single Resource Separate Production Reference) method, and the STALPR (Self-Tuned-Average-Local-Productions-Reference) method. For the case study considered we show that, unless the SRSPR reference efficiencies are constantly updated, the differences between the STALPR and SRSPR methods become important as hybrid and cogeneration plants take up large shares of the local energy production portfolio. - Highlights: • How much of the heat and power in hybrid solar-fossil cogeneration are renewable? • We define and compare three allocation methods for hybrid cogeneration. • Classical and exergy allocation are based on prescribed reference efficiencies. • Adaptive allocation is based on the actual average efficiencies in the local area. • Differences among methods grow as hybrid CHP (heat and power cogeneration) gains large market fractions

  15. Hazard identification based on plant functional modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Whetton, C.

    1993-10-01

    A major objective of the present work is to provide means for representing a process plant as a socio-technical system, so as to allow hazard identification at a high level. The method includes technical, human and organisational aspects and is intended to be used for plant level hazard identification so as to identify critical areas and the need for further analysis using existing methods. The first part of the method is the preparation of a plant functional model where a set of plant functions link together hardware, software, operations, work organisation and other safety related aspects of the plant. The basic principle of the functional modelling is that any aspect of the plant can be represented by an object (in the sense that this term is used in computer science) based upon an Intent (or goal); associated with each Intent are Methods, by which the Intent is realized, and Constraints, which limit the Intent. The Methods and Constraints can themselves be treated as objects and decomposed into lower-level Intents (hence the procedure is known as functional decomposition) so giving rise to a hierarchical, object-oriented structure. The plant level hazard identification is carried out on the plant functional model using the Concept Hazard Analysis method. In this, the user will be supported by checklists and keywords and the analysis is structured by pre-defined worksheets. The preparation of the plant functional model and the performance of the hazard identification can be carried out manually or with computer support. (au) (4 tabs., 10 ills., 7 refs.)

  16. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  17. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E; Rodwell, E [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  18. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J. [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  19. Process Intensification in Fuel Cell CHP Systems, the ReforCELL Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Viviente

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a FP7/FCH JU project (ReforCELL that developed materials (catalysts and membranes and an advance autothermal membrane reformer for a micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP system of 5 kWel based on a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In this project, an active, stable and selective catalyst was developed for the reactions of interest and its production was scaled up to kg scale (TRL5 (TRL: Technology Readiness Level. Simultaneously, new membranes for gas separation were developed. In particular, dense supported thin palladium-based membranes were developed for hydrogen separation from reactive mixtures. These membranes were successfully scaled up to TRL4 and used in lab-scale reactors for fluidized bed steam methane reforming (SMR and autothermal reforming (ATR and in a prototype reactor for ATR. Suitable sealing techniques able to integrate the different membranes in lab-scale and prototype reactors were also developed. The project also addressed the design and optimization of the subcomponents (BoP for the integration of the membrane reformer to the fuel cell system.

  20. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  1. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  2. Modeling work of a small scale gasifier/SOFC CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Aravind, P.V.; Qu, Z.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: ming.liu@tudelft.nl, p.v.aravind@tudelft.nl, z.qu@tudelft.nl, n.woudstra@tudelft.nl, a. h. m. verkooijen@tudelft.nl; Cobas, V.R.M. [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Pinheirinhos, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    For a highly efficient biomass gasification/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation system, the gasifier, the accompanying gas cleaning technologies and the CHP unit must be carefully designed as an integrated unit. This paper describes such a system involving a two-stage fixed-bed down draft gasifier, a SOFC CHP unit and a gas cleaning system. A gas cleaning system with both low temperature and high temperature sections is proposed for coupling the gasifier and the SOFC. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for the gasifier/SOFC system with the proposed gas cleaning system. The net AC electrical efficiency of this system is around 30% and the overall system efficiency is around 60%. This paper also describes various exergy losses in the system and the future plans for integrated gasifier-GCU-SOFC experiments from which the results will be used to validate the modeling results of this system. (author)

  3. CHP HIGHER EDUCATION, SCHOLARSHIPS AND DEMAND ABROAD ARE POLITICS (1942-1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat ZEYREK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkey was followed by a very slow development in the course of the republic’s first year in higher education.By 1955, there are only two universities in the three cities in Turkey.Although the new university will be declared opened by Ismet Inonu’s mouth several times it was not possible for various reasons.Turkey’s economic situation, the shortage of trained personel and it has been hampered by severe conditions of World War II.But even more important excuses should have prevented the spread of higher education in Turkey. This article will be presented in the light of the real causes of the problem of archival sources mentioned above.Period ruling party, the CHP’s higher education policy followed in scholarships and dormitories were investigated.CHP likely to promote higher education in the first primary education spread to the base and thus wants to create a higher demand.For this reason, it is necessary first of all to build infrastructure for higher education institutions and rules.Coming from big cities in different regions of Anatolia youth to take education to all students experience difficulties and inclusive, egalitarian policies were followed.

  4. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  5. Plant-based Rasayana drugs from Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kukkupuni, Subrahmanya Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-02-01

    Rasayana tantra is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda. It is a specialized practice in the form of rejuvenative recipes, dietary regimen, special health promoting behaviour and drugs. Properly administered Rasayana can bestow the human being with several benefits like longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from diseases, youthful age, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum strength of physique and sense organs, respectability and brilliance. Various types of plant based Rasayana recipes are mentioned in Ayurveda. Review of the current literature available on Rasayanas indicates that anti-oxidant and immunomodulation are the most studied activities of the Rasayana drugs. Querying in Pubmed database on Rasayanas reveals that single plants as well as poly herbal formulations have been researched on. This article reviews the basics of Rasayana therapy and the published research on different Rasayana drugs for specific health conditions. It also provides the possible directions for future research.

  6. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cells in stationary power and CHP. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in stationary power and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs and SOFCs in stationary power and CHP applications, the report examines those for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for these different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to stationary power and CHP, and offers estimates of market potential for SOFCs in CHP markets, SPFCs in CHP markets and SOFCs in distributed power generation markets. Both large SPFC and SOFC CHP systems require further development to deliver the necessary cost reductions in materials and manufacturing processes before pre-commercial sales can begin. The routes taken by different manufacturers and their choice of preferred technology are explained. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell cars concludes that while cost reduction is a major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells, there are insufficient data available from operating fuel cells systems (other than PAFC) in stationary power and CHP applications to assess the economic attractiveness of fuel cells compared with existing systems. More field trials are required to confirm energy and environmental performance in such applications and to evaluate operational and economic performance under commercial operating conditions. Such field trials could also provide a focus for the required developments in fuel cells for stationary power/CHP systems.

  7. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  8. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  9. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; van Foreest, N.D.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household

  10. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...

  11. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  12. Anti-diabetic effect of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP)-enriched yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic effect of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP)-enriched yeast hydrolysate in ... The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the daily ... in the area under curve (AUC) value of YH supplemented groups as compared ...

  13. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  14. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysko Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  15. Micro-CHP for self-supply in the housing industry. Profitability and system integration; Mikro-BHKW zur Eigenversorgung in der Wohnungswirtschaft. Wirtschaftlichkeit und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Raphael; Buettner, Markus; Erge, Thomas; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Wittwer, Christof [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The use of micro-CHP units in multifamily buildings is particularly profitable if the produced electricity - coupled with the thermal energy production - is used directly by the operator or sold locally. To maximize the share of own consumption the use of thermal storages to operate the CHP at times of high electrical demand is necessary. By conducting a field test it is shown that the share of own consumption can be increased by predictive control of CHP with thermal storages. The approach increases the profitability of the CHP operation under today's conditions as well as the system integration of the CHP electricity. (orig.)

  16. Performance and cost results from a DOE Micro-CHP demonstration facility at Mississippi State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffin, Paxton K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the cost and performance results of a Micro-CHP demonstration facility. ► Evaluation includes both summer and winter performance. ► Evaluation in comparison to a conventional HVAC system using grid power. ► Influence of improperly sized equipment. ► Influence of natural gas prices on the viability of CHP projects using that fuel. - Abstract: Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems have been around for decades, but systems that utilize 20 kW or less, designated as Micro-CHP, are relatively new. A demonstration site has been constructed at Mississippi State University (MSU) to show the advantages of these micro scale systems. This study is designed to evaluate the performance of a Micro-CHP system as opposed to a conventional high-efficiency Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system that utilizes electrical power from the existing power grid. Raw data was collected for 7 months to present the following results. The combined cycle efficiency from the demonstration site was averaged at 29%. The average combined boiler and engine cost was $1.8 h −1 of operation for heating season and $3.9 h −1 of operation for cooling season. The cooling technology used, an absorption chiller exhibited an average Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 0.27. The conventional high-efficiency system, during cooling season, had a COP of 4.7 with a combined cooling and building cost of $0.2 h −1 of operation. During heating mode, the conventional system had an efficiency of 47% with a fuel and building electrical cost of $0.28 h −1 of operation.

  17. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  18. In-plant reliability data base for nuclear power plant components: data collection and methodology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.P.; Borkowski, R.J.; Pike, D.H.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a component reliability data for use in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments and reliabiilty studies is presented in this report. The sources of the data are the in-plant maintenance work request records from a sample of nuclear power plants. This data base is called the In-Plant Reliability Data (IPRD) system. Features of the IPRD system are compared with other data sources such as the Licensee Event Report system, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data system, and IEEE Standard 500. Generic descriptions of nuclear power plant systems formulated for IPRD are given

  19. Optimization of Combine Heat and Power Plants in the Russian Wholesale Power Market Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the relevant problem to optimize the combine heat and power (CHP plants in the Russian wholesale power market conditions. Since 1975 the CHP plants specialists faced the problem of fuel rate or fuel cost reduction while ensuring the fixed level of heat and power production. The optimality criterion was the fuel rate or fuel cost which has to be minimized. Produced heat and power was paid by known tariff. Since the power market started in 2006 the power payment scheme has essentially changed: produced power is paid by market price. In such condition a new optimality criterion the paper offers is a profit which has to be maximized for the given time horizon. Depending on the optimization horizon the paper suggests four types of the problem urgency, namely: long-term, mid-term, short-term, and operative optimization. It clearly shows that the previous problem of fuel cost minimization is a special case of profit maximization problem. To bring the problem to the mixed-integer linear programming problem a new linear characteristic curves of steam and gas turbine are introduced. Error of linearization is 0.6%. The formal statement of the problem of short-term CHP plants optimization in the market conditions is offered. The problem was solved with IRM software (OpenLinkInternational for seven power plants of JSC “Quadra”: Dyagilevskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP-1, Lipetskaya CHP-2, Orlovskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP NWR, Tambovskaya CHP, and Smolenskaya CHP-2.The conducted computational experiment showed that a potential profit is between 1.7% and 4.7% of the fuel cost of different CHP plants and depends on the power plant operation conditions. The potential profit value is 2–3 times higher than analogous estimations, which were obtained solving fuel cost minimization problem. The perspectives of the work are formalization of mid-term and long-term CHP plants optimization problem and development of domestic software for the new problem

  20. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  1. CHP and Local Governments: Case Studies and EPA’s New Guide (Webinar) – September 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presents two case studies of CHP development projects undertaken through cooperation between private companies and government entities, and introduces an EPA guide to assist local governments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  2. Optimized raw material usage and utilization degree in a polygeneration plant for heat, electricity, biofuel and market fuel; Optimal raavaruinsats och utnyttjandegrad i energikombinat foer vaerme, el, biodrivmedel och avsalubraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Rodin; Olle Wennberg; Mikael Berntsson; Rolf Njurell; Ola Thorson

    2012-01-15

    Energy and economic efficiency for six different types of energy combines which include heat, electricity, pellets and fuel production have been studied. The basic case is a conventional power plant, which subsequently is expanded with various additional facilities (dryer, pellets and/or fuel). Maximum exploitation of the product against inserted biofuel was obtained in case 6, pulp mills that use waste heat for district heating supply and drying of bark. Case 6 had also the lowest payoff period; two years. Of the CHP [combined heat and power] based energy combines 'the big combine' with four different products generally showed best marginal efficiency and economy. The results indicate that drying may be an economical way to extend the operating season and increase the production of electricity in a CHP based energy combine.

  3. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  5. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...... work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...... biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost....

  6. MicroCHP: Overview of selected technologies, products and field test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Vollrad [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Franzoesische Strasse 23, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Klemes, Jiri; Bulatov, Igor [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, M60 1QD Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    This paper gives an overview on selected microCHP technologies and products with the focus on Stirling and steam machines. Field tests in Germany, the UK and some other EC countries are presented, assessed and evaluated. Test results show the overall positive performance with differences in sectors (domestic vs. small business). Some negative experiences have been received, especially from tests with the Stirling engines and the free-piston steam machine. There are still obstacles for market implementation. Further projects and tests of microCHP are starting in various countries. When positive results will prevail and deficiencies are eliminated, a way to large-scale production and market implementation could be opened. (author)

  7. Satellite combined heat and power plants and their legal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Since the landmark decision by the German Court of Justice concerning the term ''plant'' in the context of biogas plants it should be clear beyond doubt that satellite combined heat and power plants (CHPs) are legally autonomous plants pursuant to Para. 3 No. 1 of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). What has yet to be finally resolved are the conditions under which satellite CHPs are to be regarded as autonomous. This will be a question of distance on the one hand and of operation autonomy on the other. In the individual case both these factors will have to be assessed from the perspective of an average objective, informed citizen. To the extent that its heat and electricity are being utilised in a meaningful manner, the plant's autonomy will be beyond doubt, at least in operational terms. Regarding the remuneration to be paid for satellite CHPs the only case requiring special consideration is when a CHP falls under the EEG of 2012. In this case Para. 1 Section 1 Sentence 2 EEG provides that the remuneration for the CHP in question is to be calculated as if there was a single overall plant. To the extent that none of the CHPs fall under the EEG of 2012, the ruling remains that there is a separate entitlement to remuneration for each satellite CHP. This also holds in cases where satellite CHPs that were commissioned after 1 January 2012 are relocated. When a satellite CHP is replaced by a new one, the rate and duration of remuneration remain unchanged. However, when a new satellite CHP is added to an existing satellite CHP via a gas collector line it is to be treated according to the decisions of the Federal Court of Justice concerning biogas plant extensions: It falls under the law that applies to the existing CHP and has an entitlement to a new minimum remuneration period, albeit subject to the degression rate provided by the EEG version in question.

  8. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  9. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Tagore, S.; Turhollow, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam 3 ). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef; Takeda, Soichi; Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca 2+ -binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na + /H + -exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  11. The research for the design verification of nuclear power plant based on VR dynamic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Yu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a new method of design verification through the VR plant, in order to perform verification and validation the design of plant conform to the requirements of accident emergency. The VR dynamic plant is established by 3D design model and digital maps that composed of GIS system and indoor maps, and driven by the analyze data of design analyzer. The VR plant could present the operation conditions and accident conditions of power plant. This paper simulates the execution of accident procedures, the development of accidents, the evacuation planning of people and so on, based on VR dynamic plant, and ensure that the plant design will not cause bad effect. Besides design verification, simulated result also can be used for optimization of the accident emergency plan, the training of accident plan and emergency accident treatment. (author)

  12. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus nanoparticles are described, and examples are provided. The review ends with a discussion of the implications of plant-based cancer immunotherapy for developing countries. PMID:28884013

  13. The prediction of the LWR plant accident based on the measured plant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.; Schmuck, P.

    2005-01-01

    In case of accident affecting a nuclear reactor, it is essential to anticipate the possible development of the situation to efficiently succeed in emergency response actions, i.e. firstly to be early warned, to get sufficient information on the plant: and as far as possible. The ASTRID (Assessment of Source Term for Emergency Response based on Installation Data) project consists in developing a methodology: of expertise to; structure the work of technical teams and to facilitate cross competence communications among EP players and a qualified computer tool that could be commonly used by the European countries to reliably predict source term in case of an accident in a light water reactor, using the information available on the plant. In many accident conditions the team of analysts may be located far away from the plant experiencing the accident and their decision making is based on the on-line plant data transmitted into the crisis centre in an interval of 30 - 600 seconds. The plant condition has to be diagnosed based on this information, In the ASTRID project the plant status diagnostics has been studied for the European reactor types including BWR, PWR and VVER plants. The directly measured plant data may be used for estimations of the break size from the primary system and its locations. The break size prediction may be based on the pressurizer level, reactor vessel level, primary pressure and steam generator level in the case of the steam generator tube rupture. In the ASTRID project the break predictions concept was developed and its validity for different plant types and is presented in the paper, when the plant data has been created with the plant specific thermohydraulic simulation model. The tracking simulator attempts to follow the plant behavior on-line based on the measured plant data for the main process parameters and most important boundary conditions. When the plant state tracking fails, the plant may be experiencing an accident, and the tracking

  14. [Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis based on classification of M. Buchler and coworkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchko, I A; Boĭko, V V; Goncharova, N N; Andreeshchev, S A

    2011-08-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 452 patients, suffering chronic pancreatitis (CHP), were analyzed. The CHP classification, elaborated by M. Buchler and coworkers (2009), based on clinical signs, morphological peculiarities and pancreatic function analysis, contains scientifically substantiated recommendations for choice of diagnostic methods and complex treatment of the disease. The classification proposed is simple in application and constitutes an instrument for studying and comparison of the CHP course severity, the patients prognosis and treatment.

  15. Production planning of combined heat and power plants with regards to electricity price spikes : A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems could help manage the expected increase of volatility on the Nordic electricity market by starting a combined heat and power production plant (CHP) instead of a heat only production plant when electricity prices are expected to be high. Fortum Värme is interested in adjusting the production planning of their district heating system more towards high electricity prices and in their system there is a peak load CHP unit that could be utilised for this purpose. The econom...

  16. Plant iTRAQ-based proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handakumbura, Pubudu; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Georg C.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana

    2017-06-21

    We present a simple one-­pot extraction protocol, which rapidly isolates hydrophyllic metabolites, lipids, and proteins from the same pulverized plant sample. Also detailed is a global plant proteomics sample preparation method utilizing iTRAQ multiplexing reagents that enables deep proteome coverage due to the use of HPLC fractionation of the peptides prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We have successfully used this protocol on several different plant tissues (e.g., roots, stems, leaves) from different plants (e.g., sorghum, poplar, Arabidopsis, soybean), and have been able to successfully detect and quantify thousands of proteins. Multiplexing strategies such as iTRAQ and the bioinformatics strategy outlined here, ultimately provide insight into which proteins are significantly changed in abundance between two or more groups (e.g., control, perturbation). Our bioinformatics strategy yields z-­score values, which normalize the expression data into a format that can easily be cross-­compared with other expression data (i.e., metabolomics, transcriptomics) obtained from different analytical methods and instrumentation.

  17. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...

  18. Numerical study of evaporators in power plants for improved dynamic fl exibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Axel Vodder Ohrt

    The main objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to describe and analyse the most recent knowledge about operational flexibility in steam power plant evaporators, based on mathematical / numerical methods. The thesis addresses a mathematical study of steam power plant evaporators and involves the reader...... will be introduced to basic concepts in the power sector, including lifetime terms, such as corrosion, creep and fatigue, related to the evaporator tubes, which are responsible for the transfer of energy from the boiler to the water / steam circuit of a power plant. New evaporator technologies are briefly described......, followed by a simulation of a steam power plant evaporator of Skærbækværket (SKV3), which is one of DONG Energy’s ten central CHP plants, built in 1998 and located in Skærbæk at the mouth of Kolding Fjord in Denmark. Here different heating profiles of the evaporator are investigated, as well...

  19. Reconceptualizing cancer immunotherapy based on plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be used as inexpensive and facile production platforms for vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. More recently, plant-based biologics have expanded to include cancer immunotherapy agents. The following review describes the current state of the art for plant-derived strategies to prevent or reduce cancers. The review discusses avenues taken to prevent infection by oncogenic viruses, solid tumors and lymphomas. Strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and virus na...

  20. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Bravi, Mirko; Tempesti, Duccio; Salvatici, Enrica; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Basosi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO 2 , but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  1. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  2. Market orientated design studies for SOFC based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietsch, T.; Clark, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the development status of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, assesses its commercial potential for heat and power generation in the UK and identifies key development areas for both the SOFC stack and associated system components. A range of Distributed Generation (DG) and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications were considered in arriving at these recommendations. The project commenced with initial surveys of leading SOFC technology companies and centres world-wide. These surveys were conducted in parallel with consultations with key operator organisations in the UK which enabled the requirements of these organisations within the UK Energy Supply Industry to be identified. As a result of the initial survey, over 30 fuel cell based power plants, of size ranging from 1 kW{sub e} to 20 MW{sub e} for both DG and CHP applications, were identified. Outline designs of these applications were then set up and simulated. These candidate systems were then assessed against each other in terms of efficiency, cost of electricity, specific costs, technical risk and market potential for the UK industry. The final ranking obtained was then confirmed with the key operator organisations. On the basis of the ranking process noted above, nine SOFC based power generation/CHP applications were chosen for more detailed investigation in terms of their potential in both UK and overseas markets. Detailed simulations were conducted for each application to allow study of: the influence of efficiency on the economics of the different plants/stacks; the combination of stack and Balance of Plant (BoP) costs; and the cost and availability of key balance of plant devices. These systems were then again assessed in terms of the criteria noted for the outline stage. Finally key development areas for both SOFC stacks and associated Balance of Plant devices were identified. (author)

  3. Supporting plant operation through computer-based procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Victor; Medrano, Javier; Mendez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Digital Systems are becoming more important in controlling and monitoring nuclear power plant operations. The capabilities of these systems provide additional functions as well as support operators in making decisions and avoiding errors. Regarding Operation Support Systems, an important way of taking advantage of these features is using computer-based procedures (CBPs) tools that enhance the plant operation. Integrating digital systems in analogue controls at nuclear power plants in operation becomes an extra challenge, in contrast to the integration of Digital Control Systems in new nuclear power plants. Considering the potential advantages of using this technology, Tecnatom has designed and developed a CBP platform taking currently operating nuclear power plants as its design basis. The result is a powerful tool which combines the advantages of CBPs and the conventional analogue control systems minimizing negative effects during plant operation and integrating operation aid-systems to support operators. (authors)

  4. Relative radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    1983-04-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. However, low concentrations may become important if large quantities of coal are burnt in thermal power plants. Therefore a study was performed to determine the radioactivity in coal, in fly-ash and slag and assess the importance of radioactive emissions from thermal power plants. The results were compared to the radiological impact of nuclear power stations. Based on these data, theoretical estimates for the population living within 80km from power stations indicate that the collective dose commitments of coal-fired plants are one order of magnitude higher than those for BWR-type nuclear plants. Measurements taken in the vicinity of coal-fired plants were comparable to those for nuclear plants, i.e. within the range of variation of natural background radiation in India

  5. Renewables and CHP with District Energy in Support of Sustainable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Chris

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the powerful idea of connecting many energy users to environmentally optimum energy sources through integrated community energy systems. Such systems require piping networks for distributing thermal energy, i.e., district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. The possibilities and advantages of the application of integrated energy concepts are discussed, including the economic and environmental benefits of integrating localized electrical generating systems (CHP), transportation systems, industrial processes and other thermal energy requirements. Examples of a number of operating systems are provided. Some of the R and D carried out by the IEA Implementing Agreement on District Heating and Cooling is also described.

  6. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The off-gases now enter into a heat recovery steam generator to produce steam for a ...

  7. Market optimization of a cluster of DG-RES, micro-CHP, heat pumps and energy storage within network constraints: The Power Matching City field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliek, F.W.; Van den Noort, A. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); De Wit, J.; Van de Velde, J. [HumiQ, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Eijgelaar, M. [Essent, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    The share of renewable energy resources for electricity production, in a distributed setting (DG-RES), increases. The amount of energy transported via the electricity grid by substitution of fossil fuels for mobility applications (electric vehicles) and domestic heating (heat pumps) increases as well. Apart from the volume of electricity also the simultaneity factor increases at all grid levels. This poses unprecedented challenges to capacity management of the electricity infrastructure. A solution for tackling this challenge is using more active distribution networks, intelligent coordination of supply and demand using ICT and using the gas distribution network to mitigate electricity distribution bottlenecks. In the EU FP6 Energy Program Integral project, a large scale heterogeneous field test has been designed for application of the software agent based PowerMatcher technology. The test is conducted in a suburb of Groningen, Hoogkerk, and entails approximately 30 homes with either a 'dual fuel' heating system (electrical heat pump with gas-fired peak-burners) or a micro-CHP. Homes also may have PV. Furthermore, a wind production facility and nodes with electricity chargers for EVs and electricity storage are part of the Virtual Power Plant cluster, constructed in this way. Domestic heating systems have intrinsic operational flexibility in comfort management through the thermal mass of the dwellings. Furthermore, the field test comfort systems are equipped with possibilities for hot water storage for central heating as well as for tap-water. Finally, having additional gas-fired heating capacity for electrical heat pumps adds to increasing flexibility by switching the energy source dependent on the status of the electricity grid. Purpose of the field test is using this flexibility to react to phenomena in the electricity system. From a commercial perspective, the aggregated cluster reacts on small-time scale events like real-time portfolio imbalance

  8. Simulation Based Data Reconciliation for Monitoring Power Plant Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Jun; Heo, Gyun Young

    2010-01-01

    Power plant efficiency is analyzed by using measured values, mass/energy balance principles, and several correlations. Since the measured values can have uncertainty depending on the accuracy of instrumentation, the results of plant efficiency should definitely have uncertainty. The certainty may occur due to either the randomness or the malfunctions of a process. In order to improve the accuracy of efficiency analysis, the data reconciliation (DR) is expected as a good candidate because the mathematical algorithm of the DR is based on the first principles such as mass and energy balance considering the uncertainty of instrumentation. It should be noted that the mass and energy balance model for analyzing power plant efficiency is equivalent to a steady-state simulation of a plant system. Therefore the DR for efficiency analysis necessitates the simulation which can deal with the uncertainty of instrumentation. This study will propose the algorithm of the simulation based DR which is applicable to power plant efficiency monitoring

  9. Efficient use of green taxes in the CHP sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.; Mognesen, Martin Frank; Pade, L.L.

    2007-06-01

    Since 1977 green taxes have been used in the Danish power and heat sector. Green taxes principally assure an efficient, market-based reduction of pollution by reducing the energy consumption or increasing the share of renewable energy in power and heat production. This report takes its point of departure in four potential barriers which prevent a marketbased, cost-effective increase of the proportion of renewable energy in power and heat production. We primarily concentrate on three policy measures. 5. green and lessgreen taxes; 6. mandatory combined heat and power production; 7. fuel restrictions. Furthermore, we analyse a fourth characteristic in the law: 8. high transactions costs connected to the enlargement of renewable energy. The purpose of the report is to describe how the four potential barriers contradict the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector. We do this: 1) by clarifying how legislation in the power and heat sector affects the extension of renewable energy; and 2) by evaluating the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector in relation to legislation. (au)

  10. Exergoeconomic evaluation of a KRW-based IGCC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsavonis, G.; Lin, L.; TawFik, T.; Gallaspy, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study supported by the US Department of Energy, in which several design configurations of Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW)-based Integrated Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants were developed. One of these configurations was analyzed from the exergoeconomic (thermoeconomic) viewpoint. The detailed exergoeconomic evaluation identified several changes for improving the cost effectiveness of this IGCC design configuration. Based on the cost information supplied by the M.W. Kellogg Company, an attempt was made to calculate the economically optimal exergetic efficiency for some of the most important plant components. This information is currently used in plant optimization studies

  11. Antihypertensive Properties of Plant-Based Prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Lim, Ting-Jin; Liong, Min-Tze

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised. PMID:20111692

  12. Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Saeed; Ghaffarpour, Reza; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Mozaffari, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New hub planning formulation is proposed to exploit assets of midsize/large CHPs. • Linearization approaches are proposed for two-variable nonlinear CHP fuel function. • Efficient operation of addressed CHPs & hub devices at contingencies are considered. • Reliability-embedded integrated planning & sizing is formulated as one single MILP. • Noticeable results for costs & reliability-embedded planning due to mid/large CHPs. - Abstract: Use of multi-carrier energy systems and the energy hub concept has recently been a widespread trend worldwide. However, most of the related researches specialize in CHP systems with constant electricity/heat ratios and linear operating characteristics. In this paper, integrated energy hub planning and sizing is developed for the energy systems with mid-scale and large-scale CHP units, by taking their wide operating range into consideration. The proposed formulation is aimed at taking the best use of the beneficial degrees of freedom associated with these units for decreasing total costs and increasing reliability. High-accuracy piecewise linearization techniques with approximation errors of about 1% are introduced for the nonlinear two-dimensional CHP input-output function, making it possible to successfully integrate the CHP sizing. Efficient operation of CHP and the hub at contingencies is extracted via a new formulation, which is developed to be incorporated to the planning and sizing problem. Optimal operation, planning, sizing and contingency operation of hub components are integrated and formulated as a single comprehensive MILP problem. Results on a case study with midsize CHPs reveal a 33% reduction in total costs, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formulation ceases the need for additional components/capacities for increasing reliability of supply.

  13. Techno, Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP System—A Case Study for a University Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Universities in the United Kingdom that have installed Combined Heat and Power (CHP technology are making good moves towards achieving their CO2 reduction targets. However, CHP may not always be an economical option for a university campus due to numerous factors. Identification of such factors is highly important before making an investment decision. A detailed technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of CHP is, therefore, indispensable. This study aims to undertake a detailed assessment of CHP for a typical university campus and attempts to highlight the significance of such factors. Necessary data and information were collected through site visits, whereas the CHP sizing was performed using the London South Bank University (LSBU CHP model. The results suggest that there is a strong opportunity of installing a 230 kW CHP that will offset grid electricity and boilers thermal supply by 47% and 75%, respectively, and will generate financial and environmental yearly savings of £51k and 395 t/CO2, respectively. A wider spark gap decreases the payback period of the project and vice versa. The capital cost of the project could affect the project’s economics due to factors, such as unavailability of space for CHP, complex existing infrastructure, and unavailability of a gas connection.

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  15. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  16. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  17. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  18. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  19. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  20. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikmeier, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  1. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    : trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty....

  2. Decision Support Tools for Electricity Retailers, Wind Power and CHP Plants Using Probabilistic Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zugno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a number of applications of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets resulting from the research project ENSYMORA. A general mathematical formulation applicable to problems of optimization under uncertainty in energy markets is presented. This formulation can be effortlessly adapted to describe different approaches: the deterministic one (usable within a rolling horizon scheme, stochastic programming and robust optimization. The different features of this mathematical formulation are duly interpreted with a view to the energy applications reviewed in this paper: trading for a price-maker wind power producer, management of heat and power systems, operation for retailers in a dynamic-price market. A selection of results shows the viability and appropriateness of the presented stochastic optimization approaches for managing energy systems under uncertainty.

  3. The Role of CHP Plants in the Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system......The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system...

  4. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......-cylinder Stirling engine SM3D with an electric output of 35 kW. This engine is a further development of the engine SM3B that has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The engine heater is being adapted for use with wood powder as fuel. During a two-year period a combustion system for this engine...

  5. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications - Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Zogg

    2011-03-14

    The objective of the Micro-CHP Phase I effort was to develop a conceptual design for a Micro-CHP system including: Defining market potential; Assessing proposed technology; Developing a proof-of-principle design; and Developing a commercialization strategy. TIAX LLC assembled a team to develop a Micro-CHP system that will provide electricity and heating. TIAX, the contractor and major cost-share provider, provided proven expertise in project management, prime-mover design and development, appliance development and commercialization, analysis of residential energy loads, technology assessment, and market analysis. Kohler Company, the manufacturing partner, is a highly regarded manufacturer of standby power systems and other residential products. Kohler provides a compellingly strong brand, along with the capabilities in product development, design, manufacture, distribution, sales, support, service, and marketing that only a manufacturer of Kohler's status can provide. GAMA, an association of appliance and equipment manufacturers, provided a critical understanding of appliance commercialization issues, including regulatory requirements, large-scale market acceptance issues, and commercialization strategies. The Propane Education & Research Council, a cost-share partner, provided cost share and aided in ensuring the fuel flexibility of the conceptual design. Micro-CHP systems being commercialized in Europe and Japan are generally designed to follow the household thermal load, and generate electricity opportunistically. In many cases, any excess electricity can be sold back to the grid (net metering). These products, however, are unlikely to meet the demands of the U.S. market. First, these products generally cannot provide emergency power when grid power is lost--a critical feature to market success in the U.S. Even those that can may have insufficient electric generation capacities to meet emergency needs for many U.S. homes. Second, the extent to which net

  6. Knowledge based diagnostics in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.; Fiedler, U.; Weiss, F.P.; Werner, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a special process diagnostic system (PDS) is presented. It must be seen as the result of a long term work on computerized process surveillance and control; it includes a model based system for noise analysis of mechanical vibrations, which has recently been enhanced by using of knowledge based technique (expert systems). The paper discusses the process diagnostic frame concept and emphasize the vibration analysis expert system

  7. AgroKnowledgeBase (AKB) for plant diseases: Poppy plant use case

    OpenAIRE

    Terhorst, Andew; Morshed, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    World’s economy drives on crop production. Currently, most of the countries are facing food shortage in each year. Farmers are trying to increase their productivity but they need specific information so that they can take right decision in the right time. One of particular challenge facing farmers is plant disease, which can be defined as deviation from normal physiological functioning that harmful to a plant. In this paper, we proposed a knowledge based prototype called AKB that help farmer...

  8. Optimum power yield for bio fuel fired combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Nystroem, Olle; Joensson, Mikael

    2012-05-15

    Plant owners, suppliers, research institutions, industry representatives and (supporting) authorities are continuing to question the viability of what can be expected by increasing the steam data and the efficiency of cogeneration plants. In recent years, the overall conditions for investment in CHP have changed. Today, there is access to new materials that allow for more advanced steam data while maintaining availability. Although the financial environment with rising prices of electricity, heating and fuel along with the introduction of energy certificates and the interest in broadening the base of fuel has changed the situation. At the same time as the increased interest in renewable energy production creates competition among energy enterprises to find suppliers, increased prices for materials and labor costs have also resulted in increased investment and maintenance costs. Research on advanced steam data for biomass-fired power cogeneration plants has mainly emphasized on technical aspects of material selection and corrosion mechanisms based on performance at 100 % load looking at single years. Reporting has rarely been dealing with the overall economic perspective based on profitability of the CHP installations throughout their entire depreciation period. In the present report studies have been performed on how the choice of steam data affects the performance and economy in biomass-fired cogeneration plants with boilers of drum type and capacities at 30, 80 and 160 MWth with varied steam data and different feed water system configurations. Profitability is assessed on the basis of internal rate of return (IRR) throughout the amortization period of the plants. In addition, sensitivity analyses based on the most essential parameters have been carried out. The target group for the project is plant owners, contractors, research institutions, industry representatives, (supporting) authorities and others who are faced with concerns regarding the viability of what

  9. Knowledge bases for modelisation of industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorre, J.P.; Evrard, J.M.; Dorlet, E.

    1992-01-01

    Our experience in the development of numerous knowledge based control systems for large industrial applications has led us to the expression of a generic problem and to the implementation of the tools to address it. This paper illustrates, with different practical examples that we have encountered, the principal concepts found in the modelling and management of large industrial knowledge bases. We thus arrive at the definition of the formalism to be used. The principles described are now integrated into the tool SPIRAL and are currently being employed in the development of several applications

  10. Development of HT-PEMFC components and stack for CHP unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Q. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Terkelsen, C.; Rudbech, H.C.; Steenberg, T. (Danish Power System Aps, Charlottenlund (Denmark)); Thibault de Rycke (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark))

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project has been to further develop components for an all Danish high temperature PEM fuel cells stack for application in combined heat and power units (CHP units). The final product aimed at was a 1.5-2 kW stack for operation at 150-200 deg. C. The project follows the previous PSO project 4760, 'High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell'. The project has addressed the HT-PEM fuel cells form a components point of view and the materials here for. The main areas were polymer and membrane development, electrode and MEA development (MEA = membrane electrode assembly, i.e. the cells.) and stack development. The membrane development begins with the polymer. The polymerization technique was improved significantly in two ways. Better understanding of the process and the critical issues has led to more reproducible results with repeated high molecular weights. The molecular weight is decisive for the membrane strength and durability. The process was also scaled up to 100-200 g polymer pr. batch in a new polymerization facility build during the project. It is dimensioned for larger batches too, but this was not verified during the project. The polymer cannot be purchased in the right quality for fuel cell membranes and it is important that it manufacture is not a limiting factor at the present state. Experiments with other membrane casting techniques were also made. The traditional PBI doped with phosphoric acid is still the state of art membrane for the HT-PEM fuel cells, but progress was also made with modified membranes. Different variants of PBI were synthesized and tested. Electrodes have been manufactured by a spray technique in contrast to the previously applied tape casting. The hand held spray gun previously led to an improvement of the electrodes, but the reproducibility was limited. Subsequently the construction of a semi automated spray machine was started and results like of the best hand sprayed electrodes were obtained. A viable way of MEA rim

  11. Screen-based process control in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Arnoldt, C.; Hessler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Requirements, development and conceptual design of a screen-based control room for nuclear power plants are outlined. The control room consists of three or four equally equipped operator workstations comprising screens for process information and manual process control. A plant overview will assist the coordination among the operators. A safety classified backup system (safety control area) is provided to cover postulated failures of the control means. Some aspects of ergonomical validation and of future development trends are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. An automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using machine learning-based plant segmentation and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Unseok; Chang, Sungyul; Putra, Gian Anantrio; Kim, Hyoungseok; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A high-throughput plant phenotyping system automatically observes and grows many plant samples. Many plant sample images are acquired by the system to determine the characteristics of the plants (populations). Stable image acquisition and processing is very important to accurately determine the characteristics. However, hardware for acquiring plant images rapidly and stably, while minimizing plant stress, is lacking. Moreover, most software cannot adequately handle large-scale plant imaging. To address these problems, we developed a new, automated, high-throughput plant phenotyping system using simple and robust hardware, and an automated plant-imaging-analysis pipeline consisting of machine-learning-based plant segmentation. Our hardware acquires images reliably and quickly and minimizes plant stress. Furthermore, the images are processed automatically. In particular, large-scale plant-image datasets can be segmented precisely using a classifier developed using a superpixel-based machine-learning algorithm (Random Forest), and variations in plant parameters (such as area) over time can be assessed using the segmented images. We performed comparative evaluations to identify an appropriate learning algorithm for our proposed system, and tested three robust learning algorithms. We developed not only an automatic analysis pipeline but also a convenient means of plant-growth analysis that provides a learning data interface and visualization of plant growth trends. Thus, our system allows end-users such as plant biologists to analyze plant growth via large-scale plant image data easily.

  13. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., this 14th day of October 2011. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0092] Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative Monitoring and...

  14. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...

  15. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  16. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement. This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  17. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  18. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Ab Kasim; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah; Shukri Mohd

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  19. Feasibility design study. Land-based OTEC plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, J. H.; Minor, J.; Jacobs, R.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to determine the feasibility of installing 10 MWe (MegaWatt-electric) and 40 MWe land-based OTEC demonstration power plants at two specific sites: Keahole Point on the western shore of the island of Hawaii; and Punta Tuna, on the southeast coast of the main island of Puerto Rico. In addition, the study has included development of design parameters, schedules and budgets for the design, construction and operation of these plants. Seawater systems (intake and discharge pipes) were to be sized so that flow losses were equivalent to those expected with a platform-based OTEC power plant. The power module (components and general arrangement was established based on the TRW design. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  20. Photoprotection in Plants Optical Screening-based Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Solovchenko, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Optical screening of excessive and potentially harmful solar radiation is an important photoprotective mechanism, though it has received much less attention in comparison with other systems preventing photooxidative damage to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection in the form of screening appears to be especially important for juvenile and senescing plants as well as under environmental stresses—i.e. in situations where the efficiency of enzymatic ROS elimination, DNA repair and other ‘classical’ photoprotective systems could be impaired. This book represents an attempt to develop an integral view of optical screening-based photoprotection in microalgae and higher plants. Towards this end, the key groups of pigments involved in the screening of ultraviolet and visible components of solar radiation in microalgae and higher plants, and the patterns of their accumulation and distribution within plant cells and tissues, are described. Special attention is paid to the manifestations of screening pi...

  1. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  2. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  3. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  4. CHP biomass gasifier for the Zwarts Gerbera Nursery. Technical and economic feasibility; Biomassavergasser-WKK voor Gerberakwekerij Zwarts. Technische inpassing en economische haalbaarheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, S.; Hart, A. [Energy Matters, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    This report describes the feasibility of a CHP gasifier at the Zwarts gerbera nursery. Using the insights from this study, a picture has been sketched for energy production by means of gasification in the horticultural sector. Note, however, that each plant specie has its own specific growth requirements in terms of nutrients, heating-cooling, light, but also relative humidity and CO2. So a 'typical' horticulturer with an 'average' energy requirement is hard to define. The economic viability must be determined for each individual situation. The outcomes of this study can therefore not be automatically used for other projects. Technically, a lot is possible, so the submitted quotes show. Of the 16 suppliers, 3 offer CHP gasifiers which, subject to conditions, not only burn wood but also other low-grade residual waste such as road verge grass, reed and miscanthus. This low-grade residual waste has the advantage of being cheaper than wood. A low biomass price lowers the operating costs and improves the economic profitability of the relatively expensive installations. The investment for a complete CHP gasifier is 5 to 10 times higher than for a normal gas CHP installation. The CO2 consumption also influences the economic profitability. Buying CO2 is a costly business. The technical and economic feasibility of harvesting CO2 from flue gas was therefore explored. Two CO2 harvesting installations (of Procede and Knook) were examined for this purpose. According to Procede and Knook, CO2 harvesting is not economically profitable for a CHP gasifier with a relatively low power capacity (up to 800 kWe). CO2 procurement or generation by means of the existing gas-fired boiler therefore seems more viable. The technical-economic feasibility study shows that an investment in a CHP gasifier is not profitable due to the relatively high investment and maintenance costs. CO2 demand and the uncertain biomass prices are stumbling blocks. However, the picture changes

  5. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions; KWK-Ausbaustrategie in NRW. Eine Blaupause fuer andere Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Dominik [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Sabine [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  6. The effectiveness of absorption heat pumps application for the increase of economic efficiency of CHP operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of CHP operational efficiency in various working modes before and after the absorption heat pumps installation. The calculation was performed using a mathematical model of the extraction turbine PT- 80/100-130/13. Absorption heat pumps of LLC “OKB Teplosibmash” were used as AHP models for the analysis. The most effective way of absorption lithium-bromide heat pumps application as a part of the turbine PT-80/100-130/13 turned out to be their usage in a heat-producing mode during a non-heating season with a load of hot water supply. For this mode the dependence of the turbine heat efficiency on the heat load of the external consumer at a given throttle flow was analyzed.

  7. The effectiveness of heat pumps as part of CCGT-190/220 Tyumen CHP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyakova Polina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of increasing the energy efficiency of CCGT-190/220 Tyumen CHP-1 due to the utilization of low-grade heat given off in the condenser unit of the steam turbine. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, the indexes of thermal efficiency are given. As a result of a research the following conclusions are received: The heat-transfer agent heat pump, when heated uses low-grade heat TPP and increases heat output, but consumes the electricity. Using a heat pump is effective for a small temperature difference between the condenser and the evaporator. Good example is heating water before chemical treatment. This method is more efficient than using a replacement boiler and it is used in steam selection.

  8. FIREDATA, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Event Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean 'and' or 'or' logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name of calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information. 2 - Method of solution: The six database files used to store nuclear power plant fire event information, FIRE, DESC, SUM, OPEXPER, OPEXBWR, and EXPERPWR, are accessed by software to display information meeting user-specified criteria or to perform numerical calculations (e.g., to determine the operating experience of a nuclear plant). FIRE contains specific searchable data relating to each of 354 fire events. A keyword concept is used to search each of the 31 separate entries or fields. DESC contains written descriptions of each of the fire events. SUM holds basic plant information for all plants proposed, under construction, in operation, or decommissioned. This includes the initial criticality and commercial operation dates, the physical location of the plant, and its operating capacity. OPEXPER contains date information and data on how various plant locations are

  9. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  10. Total cost of ownership of CHP SOFC systems: Effect of installation context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduino, Francesco; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are one of the most interesting between the emerging technologies for energy production. Although some information about the production cost of these devices are already known, their operational cost has not been studied yet with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of CHP (combined heat and power) SOFC systems performed in hospitals located in various cities of the US and one in Italy. In this study the strong effects of the installation context will be analyzed using a customized use phase model for each location. The cost effectiveness of these devices has been proved without credits in Mondovi (IT), New York (NY) and Minneapolis (MN) where the payback time goes from 10 to 7 years. Considering the credits, it is possible to obtain economic feasibility also in Chicago (IL) and reduce the payback for other cities to values from 4 to 6 years. In other cities like Phoenix (AZ) and Houston (TX) the payback can’t be reached in any case. The life cycle impact assessment analysis has shown how, even in the cities with cleaner electricity grid, there is a reduction in the emissions of both greenhouse gases and pollutants. - Highlights: •Life cycle cost analysis has been performed for CHP SOFC systems. •The strong effects of the installation context have been analyzed. •Economic feasibility has been proven in new york, Minneapolis and Mondovi. •Economic feasibility can’t be reached in phoenix and Houston. •SOFC always provide a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutant.

  11. Combined heat and power production based on gas turbine operation with biomass by gasification or powder firing; Kraftvaermeproduktion baserad paa gasturbindrift med biobraensle genom foergasning alternativt pulvereldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technique is relatively less extended in the Swedish energy system. There is a production of 56,2 TWh in district heating meanwhile only 7,6 TWh electricity comes from CHP. This only corresponds to 6 % of all electricity produced in Sweden (132 TWh). Based on the existing district heating system the amount of electricity produced in CHP-plants could rise from today 7,6 to 20 TWh. The Swedish government has decided to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} released to atmosphere with 4 % by the year 2012. Furthermore there is a government decision that the nuclear power in a long time perspective will be phased out, so the amount of biofuelled heat and power plants has a huge potential to increase. To be competitive, the technique is to be efficient; hence the amount electricity produced should be as high as possible. Gasification of biofuel where the gas is used in a combined-cycle provides a higher efficiency compared to the traditional steam-cycle technique. To increase the electrical efficiency, an alternative method such as integration of a gas turbine with combustion of powder shape bio fuel in an external combustion chamber could be used. The concept is known as PFBC- technique in which the coal powder is combusted in a pressurised fluidised bed, the warm flue gases are cleaned up and expanded in a gas turbine. The objectives of this project have been to investigate the technical and economical conditions for gasification of bio fuel and for powder combustion in gas turbine for production of heat and power in different districts heat systems. Respectively technique has been studied in two different cases, Boraas Energi AB and ENA Energi AB. In Boraas the existing CHP-plant has been replaced by a bio fuelled gasification plant (IGCC) meanwhile at ENA Energi the existing CHP-plant has been complemented white a powder fuelled (bio) gas turbine. The task group for this report are decision makers of Energy Companies and the report will help

  12. Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V.K.; Shugam, R.A.; Ol'shevsky, Yu.N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-based control systems of nuclear power plants may be classified into those using computers for data acquisition only, those using computers for data acquisition and data processing, and those using computers for process control. In the present paper a brief review is given of the functions the systems above mentioned perform, their applications in different nuclear power plants, and some of their characteristics. The trend towards hierarchic systems using control computers with reserves already becomes clear when consideration is made of the control systems applied in the Canadian nuclear power plants that pertain to the first ones equipped with process computers. The control system being now under development for the large Soviet reactors of WWER type will also be based on the use of control computers. That part of the system concerned with controlling the reactor assembly is described in detail

  13. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  14. Trend of computer-based console for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Tsunetaka; Serizawa, Michiya

    1975-01-01

    The amount of informations to be watched by the operators in the central operation room increased with the increase of the capacity of nuclear power generation plants, and the necessity of computer-based consoles, in which the informations are compiled and the rationalization of the interface between the operators and the plants is intended by introducing CRT displays and process computers, became to be recognized. The integrated monitoring and controlling system is explained briefly by taking Dungeness B Nuclear Power Station in Britain as a typical example. This power station comprises two AGRs, and these two plants can be controlled in one central control room, each by one man. Three computers including stand-by one are installed. Each computer has the core memory of 16 K words (24 bits/word), and 4 magnetic drums of 256 K words are installed as the external memory. The peripheral equipments are 12 CRT displays, 6 typewriters, high speed tape reader and tape punch for each plant. The display and record of plant data, the analysis, display and record of alarms, the control of plants including reactors, and post incident record are assigned to the computers. In Hitachi Ltd. in Japan, the introduction of color CRTs, the developments of operating consoles, new data-accessing method, and the consoles for maintenance management are in progress. (Kako, I.)

  15. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    heat-to-power load ratio. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70m2...... demand. Numerical simulations are conducted in Matlab environment. System design trade-offs are discussed to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria...

  16. ChpK and MazF of the toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in the virulence of Leptospira interrogans during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Komi Koukoura; Ge, Yu-Mei; Xin, Xiao-Yang; Ojcius, David M; Sun, Dexter; Hu, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xu'ai; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules have been confirmed as stress-response elements that induce prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-growth arrest or death, but their role in the virulence of Leptospira has not been reported. Here, we confirmed that all the tested leptospiral strains had the chpIK and mazEF TA modules with highly-conserved sequences. The transcription and expression of the chpI, chpK, mazE, and mazF genes of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai were significantly increased during infection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced human THP-1 macrophages. The toxic ChpK and MazF but not the antitoxic ChpI and MazE proteins were detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction of leptospire-infected THP-1 cells, indicating the external secretion of ChpK and MazF during infection. Transfection of the chpK or mazF gene caused decreased viability and necrosis in THP-1 cells, whereas the chpI or mazE gene transfection did not affect the viability of THP-1 cells but blocked the ChpK or MazF-induced toxicity. Deletion of the chpK or mazF gene also decreased the late-apoptotic and/or necrotic ratios of THP-1 cells at the late stages of infection. The recombinant protein MazF (rMazF) cleaved the RNAs but not the DNAs from Leptospira and THP-1 cells, and this RNA cleavage was blocked by rMazE. However, the rChpK had no RNA or DNA-degrading activity. All these findings indicate that the ChpK and MazF proteins in TA modules are involved in the virulence of L. interrogans during infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important crop in Pakistan. It is affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Among these, Cucumber mosaic virus is the important disease with economic losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant based insecticides as a sustainable means to control the ...

  18. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) based on absorption heat pump applied in the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhenlin; Zhao, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presented a novel waste heat recovery method for Combined Heat and Power system. • Established models of the integrated system based on energy and exergy analysis. • Adopted both design and actual data ensuring the reliability of analysis results. - Abstract: A novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) which is equipped with an absorption heat pump (AHP) system to recover waste heat from exhaust steam of the steam turbines in coal-fired thermal power plants is proposed to reduce heating energy consumption and improve the utilization of the fossil fuels in existing CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems. According to the first and second thermodynamic law, the changes of the performance evaluation indicators are analyzed, and exergy analyses for key components of the system are carried out as well as changes of exergy indexes focusing on 135 MW direct air cooling units before and after modification. Compared with the conventional heating system, the output power increases by about 3.58 MW, gross coal consumption rate and total exergy loss respectively reduces by 11.50 g/kW h and 4.649 MW, while the total thermal and exergy efficiency increases by 1.26% and 1.45% in the EHCS when the heating load is 99,918 kJ at 75% THA condition. Meanwhile, the decrement of total exergy loss and increment of total exergy efficiency increase with the increasing of the heating load. The scheme cannot only bring great economic benefits but also save fossil resources, which has a promising market application potential.

  19. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, Heikki

    1993-02-01

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  20. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... fertility, the term “mobile green manures” is used for green-manure crops that are harvested in one field and then moved as a whole and used as fertilizer in other fields. To further investigate mobile-green-manure crops for use as efficient fertilizers, pot and field experiments were conducted...... with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...

  1. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  2. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  3. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-energy systems in Ireland modelled with biomass supply chain optimisation based on greenhouse gas emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Sosa, Amanda; McDonnell, Kevin; Devlin, Ger

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector is the major contributor to GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) in Ireland. Under EU Renewable energy targets, Ireland must achieve contributions of 40%, 12% and 10% from renewables to electricity, heat and transport respectively by 2020, in addition to a 20% reduction in GHG emissions. Life cycle assessment methodology was used to carry out a comprehensive, holistic evaluation of biomass-to-energy systems in 2020 based on indigenous biomass supply chains optimised to reduce production and transportation GHG emissions. Impact categories assessed include; global warming, acidification, eutrophication potentials, and energy demand. Two biomass energy conversion technologies are considered; co-firing with peat, and biomass CHP (combined heat and power) systems. Biomass is allocated to each plant according to a supply optimisation model which ensures minimal GHG emissions. The study shows that while CHP systems produce lower environmental impacts than co-firing systems in isolation, determining overall environmental impacts requires analysis of the reference energy systems which are displaced. In addition, if the aims of these systems are to increase renewable energy penetration in line with the renewable electricity and renewable heat targets, the optimal scenario may not be the one which achieves the greatest environmental impact reductions. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing and CHP systems in Ireland is carried out. • GWP, acidification and eutrophication potentials, and energy demand are assessed. • Biomass supply is optimised based on minimising GHG emissions. • CHP systems cause lower environmental impacts than biomass co-firing with peat. • Displacing peat achieves higher GHG emission reductions than replacing fossil heat.

  4. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  5. Users' guide for a personal-computer-based nuclear power plant fire data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Fire Data Base has been developed for use with an IBM XT (or with a compatible system). Nuclear power plant fire data is located in many diverse references, making it both costly and time-consuming to obtain. The purpose of this Fire Data Base is to collect and to make easily accessible nuclear power plant fire data. This users' guide discusses in depth the specific features and capabilities of the various options found in the data base. Capabilities include the ability to search several database fields simultaneously to meet user-defined conditions, display basic plant information, and determine the operating experience (in years) for several nuclear power plant locations. Step-by-step examples are included for each option to allow the user to learn how to access the data

  6. ORC power plant for electricity production from forest and agriculture biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A.; Wiśniewski, S.; Mocarski, S.; Bańkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass are presented. • Octamethyltrisiloxane, MDM, methanol and H 2 O working fluids was conducted in CHP. • CHP with internal regeneration and “dry” working fluid has the highest electric power. • Power output, drying heat and drying temperature depend on CHP variant and ORC fluid. - Abstract: The paper presents the calculation results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass. The plant shall produce electricity and heat for a drying chamber. An analysis of the system efficiency for four different working fluids was conducted: octamethyltrisiloxane, methylcyclohexane, methanol and water. The highest electric power was obtained for the system with internal regeneration and methylcyclohexane applied as the “dry” working fluid, the highest temperature to supply the drying chamber was obtained for the system with external regeneration and octamethyltrisiloxane applied as the working fluid. The results of the analysis indicate that, by proper choice of the working fluid and of the regeneration variant (internal or external), it is possible to “adjust” the work of the system to the needs and expectations of the plant investor (user)

  7. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  8. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  9. Risk-based management of invading plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt-Twynam, Samuel R; Parnell, Stephen; Stutt, Richard O J H; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-05-01

    Effective control of plant disease remains a key challenge. Eradication attempts often involve removal of host plants within a certain radius of detection, targeting asymptomatic infection. Here we develop and test potentially more effective, epidemiologically motivated, control strategies, using a mathematical model previously fitted to the spread of citrus canker in Florida. We test risk-based control, which preferentially removes hosts expected to cause a high number of infections in the remaining host population. Removals then depend on past patterns of pathogen spread and host removal, which might be nontransparent to affected stakeholders. This motivates a variable radius strategy, which approximates risk-based control via removal radii that vary by location, but which are fixed in advance of any epidemic. Risk-based control outperforms variable radius control, which in turn outperforms constant radius removal. This result is robust to changes in disease spread parameters and initial patterns of susceptible host plants. However, efficiency degrades if epidemiological parameters are incorrectly characterised. Risk-based control including additional epidemiology can be used to improve disease management, but it requires good prior knowledge for optimal performance. This focuses attention on gaining maximal information from past epidemics, on understanding model transferability between locations and on adaptive management strategies that change over time. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  11. Economic, energy and GHG emissions performance evaluation of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit in a domestic dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, G.; Duffy, A.; Ayompe, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a Stirling engine MK IV micro-CHP unit was evaluated in a domestic dwelling in Ireland. • The performance of the micro-CHP was compare to that of a condensing gas boiler. • The micro-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 compared to the condensing gas boiler. • Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. • The micro-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler during one year of operation. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the energy, economic and greenhouse gas emissions performances of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit for use in a conventional house in the Republic of Ireland. The energy performance data used in this study was obtained from a field trial carried out in Belfast, Northern Ireland during the period June 2004–July 2005 by Northern Ireland Electricity and Phoenix Gas working in collaboration with Whispertech UK. A comparative performance analysis between the μ-CHP unit and a condensing gas boiler revealed that the μ-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 with an incremental simple payback period of 13.8 years when compared to a condensing gas boiler. Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. The μ-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler

  12. Analyzing a self-managed CHP system for greenhouse cultivation as a profitable way to reduce CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compernolle, Tine; Witters, Nele; Van Passel, Steven; Thewys, Theo

    2011-01-01

    To counter global warming, a transition to a low-carbon economy is needed. The greenhouse sector can contribute by installing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, known for their excellent energy efficiency. Due to the recent European liberalization of the energy market, glass horticulturists have the opportunity to sell excess electricity to the market and by tailored policy and support measures, regional governments can fill the lack of technical and economic knowledge, causing initial resistance. This research investigates the economic and environmental opportunities using two detailed cases applying a self managed cogeneration system. The Net Present Value is calculated to investigate the economic feasibility. The Primary Energy Saving, the CO 2 Emission Reduction indicator and an Emission Balance are applied to quantify the environmental impact. The results demonstrate that a self-managed CHP system is economic viable and that CO 2 emissions are reduced.

  13. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  14. Applying computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V. de; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana], e-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, e-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, e-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, e-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br; Bruno, Diego S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Engenharia de Controle e Automacao], e-mail: diegosalomonebruno@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Plant operation procedures are used to guide operators in coping with normal, abnormal or emergency situations in a process control system. Historically, the plant procedures have been paper-based (PBP), with the digitalisation trend in these complex systems computer-based procedures (CBPs) are being developed to support procedure use. This work shows briefly the research on CBPs at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The emergency operation procedure EOP-0 of the LABIHS NPP simulator was implemented in the ImPRO CBP system. The ImPRO system was chosen for test because it is available for download in the Internet. A preliminary operation test using the implemented procedure in the CBP system was realized and the results were compared to the operation through PBP use. (author)

  15. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    be justified as compared to other micro-CHP system technologies. The most important findings of this research study indicate that in comparison to non-fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems, such as Stirling Engine-based systems, the proposed system has significantly higher efficiencies. Moreover, the lower heat...

  16. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  18. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  19. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud regi...

  1. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  2. Another Lesson from Plants: The Forward Osmosis-Based Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Argiolas, Alfredo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2–5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW). Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency) in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems. PMID:25020043

  3. Another lesson from plants: the forward osmosis-based actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Argiolas, Alfredo; Puleo, Gian Luigi; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2-5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW). Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency) in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems.

  4. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    Staff at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory have established a data base of information about current research that is likely to result in lower radiation doses to workers. The data base, concerned primarily with nuclear power generation, is part of a project that the ALARA Center is carrying out for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes its current status. A substantial amount of research on reducing occupational exposure is being done in the US and abroad. This research is beginning to have an impact on the collective dose expenditures at nuclear power plants. The collective radiation doses in Europe, Japan, and North America all show downward trends. A large part of the research in the US is either sponsored by the nuclear industry through joint industry organizations such as EPRI and ESEERCO or is done by individual corporations. There is also significant participation by smaller companies. The main emphasis of the research on dose reduction is on engineering approaches aimed at reducing radiation fields or keeping people out of high-exposure areas by using robotics. Effective ALARA programs are also underway at a large number of nuclear plants. Additional attention should be given to non-engineering approaches to dose reduction, which are potentially very useful and cost effective but require quantitative study and analysis based on data from nuclear power plants. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Another lesson from plants: the forward osmosis-based actuator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Sinibaldi

    Full Text Available Osmotic actuation is a ubiquitous plant-inspired actuation strategy that has a very low power consumption but is capable of generating effective movements in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In light of these features, we aimed to develop a novel, low-power-consumption actuator that is capable of generating suitable forces during a characteristic actuation time on the order of a few minutes. Based on the analysis of plant movements and on osmotic actuation modeling, we designed and fabricated a forward osmosis-based actuator with a typical size of 10 mm and a characteristic time of 2-5 minutes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest osmotic actuator developed so far. Moreover, the achieved timescale can be compared to that of a typical plant cell, thanks to the integrated strategy that we pursued by concurrently addressing and solving design and material issues, as paradigmatically explained by the bioinspired approach. Our osmotic actuator produces forces above 20 N, while containing the power consumption (on the order of 1 mW. Furthermore, based on the agreement between model predictions and experimental observations, we also discuss the actuator performance (including power consumption, maximum force, energy density and thermodynamic efficiency in relation to existing actuation technologies. In light of the achievements of the present study, the proposed osmotic actuator holds potential for effective exploitation in bioinspired robotics systems.

  6. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  7. Model-based plant-wide optimization of large-scale lignocellulosic bioethanol plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2017-01-01

    Second generation biorefineries transform lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals with higher added value following a conversion mechanism that consists of: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and purification. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal operational point...... with respect to maximum economic profit of a large scale biorefinery plant using a systematic model-based plantwide optimization methodology. The following key process parameters are identified as decision variables: pretreatment temperature, enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, and yeast loading per batch...... in fermentation. The plant is treated in an integrated manner taking into account the interactions and trade-offs between the conversion steps. A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis follows at the optimal solution considering both model and feed parameters. It is found that the optimal point is more sensitive...

  8. The development of base-isolated APWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Nitta, T.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows: The seismic design of nuclear power stations plays a critical role in the assurance of plant safety in Japan, and standardization of design is difficult to achieve because every site is subject to different seismic conditions. However, the introduction of seismic -isolation devices is one way to rationally achieve safety assurance and promote design standardization. Base-isolated APWR (advanced pressurized water reactor) plants were developed by applying seismic -isolation devices to APWR plants. The introduction of seismic -isolation devices, which are installed between the ground and buildings, largely decreases the effect of seismic force on buildings. Therefore, the limitation of building shape and eccentricity, which are undertaken in order to prevent the floating of buildings, could be eliminated. This permits the flexibility of building layouts, which result in a reduction of building volume. At the same time, the thickness of the buildings walls that are specific to nuclear power stations, can also be decreased except radiation shield. As for the base-isolated APWR equipment design, the rational design of support structures for equipment and pipings is possible, because the floor response acceleration is greatly reduced. For the cost reduction, it has been confirmed that the base-isolated APWR plants are more economical than traditional APWR plants even after the additionally required expenses for seismic-isolation devices are taken into account. This is primarily because of the rational design of the buildings and equipment which is possible as described above. Another advantage is that building standardization can be promoted because the seismic-isolation devices are able to control the seismic force transmitted to the buildings. This is accomplished by arranging the characteristics of the isolation devices according to the seismic conditions of each site. The introduction of these devices to nuclear power stations is nearly ready

  9. Application of condition based maintenance to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Nakano, Tomohito; Shimizu, Shunichi; Iida, Jun; Atomura, Masakazu; Abe, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Device Karte management system which supports application of condition based maintenance to nuclear power plants has been developed. The purpose of this system is to support maintenance personnel in device inspection scheduling based on operating condition monitoring and maintenance histories. There are four functions: field database, degradation estimation, inspection time decision and maintenance planning. The authors have been applying this system to dozens of devices of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 1 for one year. This paper represents the system concept and its application experiences. (author)

  10. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  11. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to

  12. Clinical review of supracricoid laryngectomy with CHEP and CHP. 50 patients treated in 11 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Meijin; Seino, Yutomo; Hayashi, Seiichi; Miyamoto, Shunsuke; Takeda, Masahiko; Masaki, Takashi; Yokobori, Satoru; Okamoto, Makito

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of clinical data on 50 patients undergoing supracricoid laryngectomy (SCL) between 1997 and 2008 id est (i.e.), cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) in 47 and cricohyoidopexy (CHP) in 3 cases showed that the number of SCL cases operated on within a year surpassed that of Total Laryngectomy after 2003. Selection criteria included performance status 0-1 and blood gas PO2>80 torr, especially in those patients over 70 years old. Postoperative wound infection occurred in 16 patients (32%), with four requiring additional surgical intervention (two ruptured pexis and two chondritis induced by C3-C4 osteophytes). A history of radiotherapy and systemic complications, i.e., diabetes and renal failure, added to the risk of wound infection. Introducing a clinical pathway shortened hospitalization. Vocal function was achieved in 96% and swallowing function in 89% of patients. Five-year crude survival in CHEP was 69% and in total laryngectomy (TL) 51%. Laryngeal preservation was 70%, increasing to 89% after the introduction of SCL. SCL-CHEP is thus indicated for unfavorable T2 (ASCO 2006), well-selected T3, T4, and rT1-4 (radiation failures). Effort should emphasize a good balance in prognosis and function in organ preservation for laryngeal cancer. (author)

  13. Generic Combined Heat and Power (CHP Model for the Concept Phase of Energy Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Gopisetty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro gas turbines (MGTs are regarded as combined heat and power (CHP units which offer high fuel utilization and low emissions. They are applied in decentralized energy generation. To facilitate the planning process of energy systems, namely in the context of the increasing application of optimization techniques, there is a need for easy-to-parametrize component models with sufficient accuracy which allow a fast computation. In this paper, a model is proposed where the non-linear part load characteristics of the MGT are linearized by means of physical insight of the working principles of turbomachinery. Further, it is shown that the model can be parametrized by the data usually available in spec sheets. With this model a uniform description of MGTs from several manufacturers covering an electrical power range from 30 k W to 333 k W can be obtained. The MGT model was implemented by means of Modelica/Dymola. The resulting MGT system model, comprising further heat exchangers and hydraulic components, was validated using the experimental data of a 65 k W MGT from a trigeneration energy system.

  14. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  15. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  17. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees

  18. Intelligent Growth Automaton of Virtual Plant Based on Physiological Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingsheng; Guo, Mingwei; Qu, Hongchun; Deng, Qingqing

    In this paper, a novel intelligent growth automaton of virtual plant is proposed. Initially, this intelligent growth automaton analyzes the branching pattern which is controlled by genes and then builds plant; moreover, it stores the information of plant growth, provides the interface between virtual plant and environment, and controls the growth and development of plant on the basis of environment and the function of plant organs. This intelligent growth automaton can simulate that the plant growth is controlled by genetic information system, and the information of environment and the function of plant organs. The experimental results show that the intelligent growth automaton can simulate the growth of plant conveniently and vividly.

  19. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-12-31

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Takeda, Soichi [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi [Structural Biophysics Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute at SPring-8, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mori, Hidezo [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Shigeo, E-mail: wak@ri.ncvc.go.jp [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å.

  1. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market; Anforderungen und Einsatz dezentraler Kraftwerke im veraenderten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  2. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  3. Stochastic Programming for Fuel Supply Planning of Combined Heat and Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guericke, Daniela; Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    The consumption of biomass to produce power and heat has increased due to the carbon neutral policies. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants often combine biomass with other fuels, e.g., natural gas. The negotiation process for supply contracts involves many uncertainties due to the long planning...... horizon. The demand for biomass is uncertain, and heat demand and electricity prices vary during the planning period. We propose a method using stochastic optimization to support the biomass and natural gas supply planning for CHP plants including short-term decisions for optimal market participation....

  4. PSA based plant modifications and back-fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of Principal Working Group No. 5 - Risk Assessment states that 'The group should deal with the technology and methods for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance, and appropriate exchanges of information on current research'. Since being formulated in 1982, along with this mandate, the group has also endeavored to develop a common understanding of the different approaches taken in risk assessment. The focus of this report is to provide knowledge to experts on the role Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has had in safety decision making. PSA is a powerful tool for improving Nuclear Power Plant safety by identifying weaknesses in design or operation and setting priorities for plant modifications and back-fits. While the use is well recognised, it is also true that any safety decision is generally based on several elements, both probabilistic and deterministic. This document provides a general overview of insights gained from the representative set of examples collected from Member countries (Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States). The report starts with basic types of plant modifications which were carried out (e.g. hardware or software, important or minor, etc.) and the characteristics of the PSAs used in the examples (e.g. level and scope, specific or generic, on-going or terminated, etc.). The insights gained from this small collection are then reviewed. The appendix gives a full text version of the Member country contributions

  5. A knowledge based method for nuclear plant loading pattern determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauboin, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a knowledge based system for solving an industrial problem which occurs in nuclear fuel management. The problem lies in determining satisfactory loading patterns for nuclear plants. Its primary feature consists in the huge search space involved. Conventional resolution processes are formally defined and analyzed: there is no general algorithm which guarantees to always provide a reasonable solution in each situation. We propose a new approach to solve this constrained search problem using domain-specific knowledge and general constraint-based heuristics. During a preprocessing step, a problem dependent search algorithm is designed. This procedure is then automatically implemented in FORTRAN. The generated routines have proved to be very efficient finding solutions which could not have been provided using logic programming. A prototype expert system has already been applied to actual reload pattern searches. While combining efficiency and flexibility, this knowledge based system enables human experts to rapidly match new constraints and requirements

  6. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    McMacken, Michelle; Shah, Sapana

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk ...

  7. Hypertext-based integration for nuclear plant maintenance and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.H.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented that uses fuzzy graphs in the emerging paradigm of hypertext for the purpose of integrating data, information and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in power plant operations and maintenance. A hypertext system is viewed as a set of nodes and links where with each link we associate membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria for navigating large information spaces. A general framework for navigation is outlined and graph-theory navigational tools are developed. A numerical example and a HyperCard-based prototype for monitoring special material in the MHTGR-NPR are included. 10 refs., 12 figs

  8. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  9. Convincing Conversations : Using a Computer-Based Dialogue System to Promote a Plant-Based Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Emma; Mills, Gregory; Hagen, Afke; Huisman, Carlijn; Hoeks, Jacobus

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a computer-based persuasive dialogue system designed to promote a plant-based diet. The production and consumption of meat and dairy has been shown to be a major cause of climate change and a threat to public health, bio-diversity, animal rights and

  10. ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype based on PXIe platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Sanz, D.; López, J.M.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Nieto, J.; Gonçalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.; Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Implementation of Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ► Efficient data acquisition and data movement using EPICS. ► Performance of PCIe technologies in the implementation of FPSC. - Abstract: The ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) is based on embedded technologies. The FPSC will be devoted to both data acquisition tasks (sampling rates higher than 1 kHz) and control purposes (feedback loop actuators). Some of the essential requirements of these systems are: (a) data acquisition and data preprocessing; (b) interfacing with different networks and high speed links (Plant Operation Network, timing network based on IEEE1588, synchronous data transference and streaming/archiving networks); and (c) system setup and operation using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) process variables. CIEMAT and UPM have implemented a prototype of FPSC using a PXIe (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) form factor in a R and D project developed in two phases. The paper presents the main features of the two prototypes developed that have been named alpha and beta. The former was implemented using LabVIEW development tools as it was focused on modeling the FPSC software modules, using the graphical features of LabVIEW applications, and measuring the basic performance in the system. The alpha version prototype implements data acquisition with time-stamping, EPICS monitoring using waveform process variables (PVs), and archiving. The beta version prototype is a complete IOC implemented using EPICS with different software functional blocks. These functional blocks are integrated and managed using an ASYN driver solution and provide the basic functionalities required by ITER FPSC such as data acquisition, data archiving, data pre-processing (using both CPU and GPU) and streaming.

  11. Virtual medical plant modeling based on L-system | Ding | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aid of graphics and PlantVR, we implemented the plant shape and 3-D structure's reconstruction. Conclusion: Three-dimensional structure virtual plant growth model based on time- controlled L-system has been successfully established. Keywords: Drug R&D, toxicity, medical plants, fractals; L-system; quasi binary-trees.

  12. National Accounts Energy Alliance : Field test and verification of CHP components and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweetser, R. [Exergy Partners Corporation, Herndon, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Exergy is a consulting firm which specializes in capitalizing on opportunities that result from the nexus of utility deregulation and global climate change in both the construction and energy industries. The firm offers assistance in technical business and market planning, product development and high impact marketing and technology transfer programs. The author discussed National Accounts Energy Alliance (NAEA) program on distributed energy resources (DER) and identified some advantageous areas such as homeland security (less possible terrorist targets to be protected), food safety (protection of food supply and delivery system), reliability, power quality, energy density, grid congestion and energy price. In the future, an essential role in moderating energy prices for commercial buildings will probably be played by distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP). The technical merits of these technologies is being investigated by national accounts and utilities partnering with non-profit organizations, the United States Department of Energy (US DOE), state governments and industry. In that light, in 2001 an Alliance program was developed, which allows investors to broaden their knowledge from the application and verification of Advanced Energy Technologies. This program was the result of a synergy between the American Gas Foundation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and it assists investors with their strategic planning. It was proven that a customer-led Energy Technology Test and Verification Program (TA and VP) could be cost-effective and successful. The NAEA activities in five locations were reviewed and discussed. They were: (1) Russell Development, Portland, Oregon; (2) A and P-Waldbaums, Hauppage, New York; (3) HEB, Southern, Texas; (4) Cinemark, Plano, Texas; and McDonald's, Tampa, Florida. 4 tabs., figs.

  13. Planning for rate base treatment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses two related areas of planning for inclusion in rate base of large generating stations. First, the paper discusses the range of options available as to how the plant is to go into rate base, e.g., phase-in plans. In this connection the process of generating the entire range of options that may be available is described and examined. Second, the paper examines innovative ways of using procedures (e.g., accounting proceedings, settlement procedures, cost caps, and other ideas short of a full-blown rate case) and the resources available in the ratemaking arena, to obtain, in the least painful way possible, the necessary ratemaking orders. The thesis is that there must be better alternatives to the many proceedings that have either begun as, or seem to be leading to, endless retrospective examinations of multiple questions (from load forecasting to construction management to continuation-of-construction decisions) under the label of prudence inquiries

  14. An assessment of the present and future opportunities for combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Scott; Pollitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As global fuel reserves are depleted, alternative and more efficient forms of energy generation and delivery will be required. Combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) provides an alternative energy production and delivery mechanism that is less resource intensive, more efficient and provides greater energy security than many popular alternatives. It will be shown that the economic viability of CHP-DH networks depends on several principles, namely (1) the optimisation of engineering and design principles; (2) organisational and regulatory frameworks; (3) financial and economic factors. It was found that in the long term DH is competitive with other energy supply and distribution technologies such as electricity and gas. However, in the short to medium term it is shown that economic risk, regulatory uncertainty and lock-in of existing technology are the most significant barriers to CHP-DH development. This research suggests that under the present regulatory and economic paradigm, the infrastructure required for DH networks remains financially prohibitive; the implementation of government policies are complicated and impose high transaction costs, while engineering solutions are frequently not implemented or economically optimised. If CHP-DH is going to play any part in meeting climate change targets then collaboration between public and private organisations will be required. It is clear from this analysis that strong local government involvement is therefore necessary for the co-ordination, leadership and infrastructural deployment of CHP-DH.

  15. On the Analysis and Fault-Diagnosis Tools for Small-Scale Heat and Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market drives utilities and independent power producers to operate heat and power plants as profit centers. In order to keep the economic margins on the credit side, the preferred measures have been to improve the electrical efficiency through changes in the hardware and boost the overall efficiency through e.g. combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The better understanding of global environmental issues is also pushing the development toward more advanced power plant technology that at the introduction stage may represent a risky option for the plant owner. Recently, there is a growing interest in improving the plant operation instead, and therefore the focus has been put on aspects related to the RAM (reliability-availability-maintenance) of the plants. Small- and mid-scale CHP plants, especially natural gas- and biomass-fueled, have been identified to be important to satisfy the needs of the energy market and help to mitigate the environmental factors in the short- and middle-term. One of the major challenges that these types of plants will face is attaining good RAM at the same time that they cannot support big O and M costs and a lot of personnel. Therefore the implementation of cheap and reliable IT-based tools that help to achieve this goal is essential. Most power plants today are equipped with modern distributed control systems that through a considerable number of sensors deliver large amounts of data to the control room. This paves the way to the introduction of intelligent tools - derived from the artificial intelligence technology - such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GA). ANNs have a learning ability that makes them useful for the construction of powerful non-physical models based on data from the process, while GA has shown to be a robust optimization method based on the principle of the 'survival-of-the-fittest'. Principally ANNs, but also to a lesser extent GA, have

  16. Power contracting between two different partners. Biogas combined heat and power plants; Energie-Contracting zweier unterschiedlicher Partner. Biogas-Blockheizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-06-15

    An agricultural consortium in the Eifel (Federal Republic of Germany) has adopted a comprehensive supply of a 7,000 m{sup 2} comprising hotel complex with combined heat and power. The old oil-fired central heating plant has been replaced by a biogas-powered combined heat and power plant (CHP). The hotel was directly connected to the CHP plant by means of a new, approximately 300 m long local heating network including buffer storage. Overall, the hotel operator saves approximately 300,000 L of heating oil annually. The energy demand of the hotel operator will be covered by more than 90 % by means of CHP plants. Thus 20 % of the heating costs is saved.

  17. Analysing Leontiev Tube Capabilities in the Space-based Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Shchegolev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications dedicated to the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device (the Leontief tube and shows main factors affecting its efficiency. Describes an experimental installation, which is used to obtain data on the value of energy separation in the air to prove this device the operability.The assumption that there is an optimal relationship between the flow velocities in the subsonic and supersonic channels of the gas-dynamic temperature stratification device is experimentally confirmed.The paper conducts analysis of possible ways to raise the efficiency of power plants of various (including space basing, and shows that, currently, a mainstream of increasing efficiency of their operation is to complicate design solutions.A scheme of the closed gas-turbine space-based plant using a mixture of inert gases (helium-xenon one for operation is proposed. What differs it from the simplest variants is a lack of the cooler-radiator and integration into gas-dynamic temperature stratification device and heat compressor.Based on the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics, it is shown that the total pressure restorability when removing heat in a thermal compressor determines operating capability of this scheme. The exploratory study of creating a heat compressor is performed, and it is shown that when operating on gases with a Prandtl number close to 1, the total pressure does not increase.The operating capability conditions of the heat compressor are operation on gases with a low value of the Prandtl number (helium-xenon mixture at high supersonic velocities and with a longitudinal pressure gradient available.It is shown that there is a region of the low values of the Prandtl number (Pr <0.3 for which, with the longitudinal pressure gradient available in the supersonic flows of a viscous gas, the total pressure can be restored.

  18. Extraction of Plant-based Capsules for Microencapsulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potroz, Michael G; Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Park, Jae Hyeon; Tan, Ee-Lin; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-11-09

    Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs. The current SEC isolation procedure has been recently optimized to significantly reduce the processing requirements which are conventionally used in SEC isolation, and to ensure the production of intact microcapsules. Natural L. clavatum spores are defatted with acetone, treated with phosphoric acid, and extensively washed to remove sporoplasmic contents. After acetone defatting, a single processing step using 85% phosphoric acid has been shown to remove all sporoplasmic contents. By limiting the acid processing time to 30 hr, it is possible to isolate clean SECs and avoid SEC fracturing, which has been shown to occur with prolonged processing time. Extensive washing with water, dilute acids, dilute bases, and solvents ensures that all sporoplasmic material and chemical residues are adequately removed. The vacuum loading technique is utilized to load a model protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a representative hydrophilic compound. Vacuum loading provides a simple technique to load various compounds without the need for harsh solvents or undesirable chemicals which are often required in other microencapsulation protocols. Based on these isolation and loading protocols, SECs provide a promising material for use in a diverse range of microencapsulation applications, such as, therapeutics, foods, cosmetics, and personal care products.

  19. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  20. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  1. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  2. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  3. Methods for planning and operating decentralized combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, H.

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, the number of decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP) plants, which are typically located in small communities, has grown rapidly. These relatively small plants are based on Danish energy resources, mainly natural gas, and constitute an increasing part of the total energy production in Denmark. The topic of this thesis is the analysis of DCHP plants, with the purpose to optimize the operation of such plants. This involves the modelling of district heating systems, which are frequently connected to DCHP plants, as well as the use of heat storage for balancing between heat and power production. Furthermore, the accumulated effect from increasing number of DCHP plants on the total power production is considered. Methods for calculating dynamic temperature response in district heating (DH) pipes have been reviewed and analyzed numerically. Furthermore, it has been shown that a tree-structured DH network consisting of about one thousand pipes can be reduced to a simple chain structure of ten equivalent pipes without loosing much accuracy when temperature dynamics are calculated. A computationally efficient optimization method based on stochastic dynamic programming has been designed to find an optimum start-stop strategy for a DCHP plant with a heat storage. The method focuses on how to utilize heat storage in connection with CHP production. A model for the total power production in Eastern Denmark has been applied to the accumulated DCHP production. Probability production simulations have been extended from the traditional power-only analysis to include one or several heat supply areas. (au)

  4. Role of land-based prototype plants in propulsion nuclear power plants engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, V.E.; Prokhorov, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype plants provide a powerful tool for accomplishing tasks of development and construction of newly designed new power plants (NPPs). Leaving aside momentary political or economical considerations, one should admit that the use of prototype plants in testing of new NPPs is quite a necessity. To make the most of prototype plant, its commissioning should precede lead plant construction by 2-3 years. To make good use of prototype plants, a set of basic requirements should be fulfilled: greatest possible identity beteen the facility under test and a new series NPP; provision of high performance data acquisitoin, processing and storage firmware and a modelling system using update computer technique; and developed science infrastructure, engineering support and adequate maintenance. Prototype plants should comply with safety requirements to meet environmental protection standards

  5. Exergetic comparison of two KRW-based IGCC power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Tawfik, T.; Lin, L.; Gallaspy, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    In studies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, several design configurations of Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW)-based Integrated Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants were developed. Two of these configurations are compared in this paper, from the exergetic viewpoint. The exergetic comparison identifies the causes of performance differences between the two cases: differences in the exergy destruction of the gasification system, the gas turbine system, and the gas cooling process, as well as differences in the exergy loss accompanying the solids to disposal stream. The potential for using oxygen-blown versus air-blown KRW gasifiers, and hot gas versus cold gas cleanup processes is evaluated

  6. Simulation-based biagnostics and control for nuclar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced simulation-based diagnostics and control guidance systems for the identification and management of off-normal transient events in nuclear power plants is currently under investigation. To date a great deal of progress has been made in effectively and efficiently combining information obtained through fuzzy pattern recognition and macroscopic mass and energy inventory analysis for use in multiple failure diagnostics. Work has also begun on the unique problem of diagnostics and surveillance methodologies for advanced passively-safe reactors systems utilizing both statistical and fuzzy information. Plans are also being formulated for the development of deterministic optimal control algorithms combined with Monte Carlo incremental learning algorithms to be used for the flexible and efficient control of reactor transients

  7. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  8. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  9. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...... of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70 m2 single-family apartment with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. A detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. System design trade-offs are discussed...

  10. A Web-Based Rice Plant Expert System Using Rule-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Setiawan Honggowibowo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants can be attacked by various kinds of diseases which are possible to be determined from their symptoms. However, it is to recognize that to find out the exact type of disease, an agricultural expert’s opinion is needed, meanwhile the numbers of agricultural experts are limited and there are too many problems to be solved at the same time. This makes a system with a capability as an expert is required. This system must contain the knowledge of the diseases and symptom of rice plants as an agricultural expert has to have. This research designs a web-based expert system using rule-based reasoning. The rule are modified from the method of forward chaining inference and backward chaining in order to to help farmers in the rice plant disease diagnosis. The web-based rice plants disease diagnosis expert system has the advantages to access and use easily. With web-based features inside, it is expected that the farmer can accesse the expert system everywhere to overcome the problem to diagnose rice diseases.

  11. Performance Based Failure Criteria of the Base Isolation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The realistic approach to evaluate the failure state of the base isolation system is necessary. From this point of view, several concerns are reviewed and discussed in this study. This is the preliminary study for the performance based risk assessment of a base isolated nuclear power plant. The items to evaluate the capacity and response of an individual base isolator and a base isolation system were briefly outlined. However, the methodology to evaluate the realistic fragility of a base isolation system still needs to be specified. For the quantification of the seismic risk for a nuclear power plant structure, the failure probabilities of the structural component for the various seismic intensity levels need to be calculated. The failure probability is evaluated as the probability when the seismic response of a structure exceeds the failure criteria. Accordingly, the failure mode of the structural system caused by an earthquake vibration should be defined first. The type of a base isolator appropriate for a nuclear power plant structure is regarded as an elastometric rubber bearing with a lead core. The failure limit of the lead-rubber bearing (LRB) is not easy to be predicted because of its high nonlinearity and a complex loading condition by an earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the failure mode of the LRB system installed below the nuclear island cannot be simply determined because the basemat can be sufficiently supported if the number of damaged isolator is not much

  12. Integrated HT-PEMFC and multi-fuel reformer for micro CHP. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    reformed both methane and biogas although the efficiency was low, on the order of 15% due to excessive slip and heat losses. The construction and test of an integrated micro CHP system revealed several problems with the core technology. Therefore, rather than working with the integrated system, individual system components were tested separately. In spite of the problems with the reformer and the fuel cell stack the system was successfully operated and an electric efficiency of 18%{sub LHV} was demonstrated. (Author)

  13. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In the Golm Plant Database System, we devised a data management system based on a classical Laboratory Information Management System combined with web-based user interfaces for data entry and retrieval to collect this information in an academic environment. Results The database system contains modules representing the genetic features of the germplasm, the experimental conditions and the sampling details. In the germplasm module, genetically identical lines of biological material are generated by defined workflows, starting with the import workflow, followed by further workflows like genetic modification (transformation, vegetative or sexual reproduction. The latter workflows link lines and thus create pedigrees. For experiments, plant objects are generated from plant lines and united in so-called cultures, to which the cultivation conditions are linked. Materials and methods for each cultivation step are stored in a separate ACCESS database of the plant cultivation unit. For all cultures and thus every plant object, each cultivation site and the culture's arrival time at a site are logged by a barcode-scanner based system. Thus, for each plant object, all site-related parameters, e.g. automatically logged climate data, are available. These life history data and genetic information for the plant objects are linked to analytical results by the sampling module, which links sample components to plant object identifiers. This workflow uses controlled vocabulary for organs and treatments. Unique

  14. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Ohresser, Sylvia; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    One of the major global challenges of the present time is the reduction of CO2 emissions. Provisions for integration of a CO2 capture plant are already required today in new power plant construction projects in order to enable current plants to also benefit from the possibilities of carbon capture systems to be developed in the future. These provisions for integration should account for the fact that the scrubbing processes are still in the optimization phase. Requisite process parameters may still change in the future. In the development of a plant interface, the paper describes a concept developed by Siemens which ensures maximum flexibility with simultaneous optimization of the plant for the capture process. Emphasis was placed on the following points in the development of this interface and the associated connection concepts: Maximum plant efficiency before and after modification; Maximum flexibility with regard to future process parameters; Optimization of customer investment cash flow; and, Applicability also to existing plants. According to the paper, Siemens can offer a concept which enables future conversion in accordance with the specified criteria. This concept requires no compromises with regard to plant efficiency in process optimization for either current power plant operation without carbon capture or for future operation with carbon capture. The concept also enables retrofitting of existing plants which are not yet capture-ready. However, retrofitting of power plants which are not prepared for operation with carbon capture is considerably more elaborate in most cases, as corridors must frequently still be cleared for the connecting piping.

  15. Review of European regulatory and tariff experience with the sale of heat and electricity from combined heat and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrelund, A.

    1991-12-01

    The Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation, Edmonton Power, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and the Canadian Electrical Association commissioned a study to understand how electrical power and district heat from combined heat and power (CHP) plants is priced in Europe. Four northern European countries were investigated, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Finland. These countries produce 45.8 TWh of power from combined heat and power plants, 7.1% of their annual consumption. In the case of Denmark, CHP accounts for 37.5% of its total power production. The energy situation in each country is reviewed using published statistics, and in particular the rapidly changing situation with regard to environmental and fuel taxes is examined. In order to obtain practical insights with regard to tariffs used by the various utilities, a series of generic examples were examined, supported by specific case studies. Technologies reviewed included: CHP from coal-fuelled extraction plant, CHP from coal-fuelled back pressure plant, waste heat from a municipal waste plant, and gas turbine with waste heat recovery. The benefits and risks associated with different tariff designs are discussed in detail including tariff formulae. This should enable interested parties to develop appropriate tariffs for combined heat and power plants in the context of current electrical utility policies. As a complement to the tariffs for combined heat and power plants, the design of district heating tariffs is also addressed. The typical concepts used in different countries are presented and discussed. 23 tabs

  16. Five-year outcomes for frontline brentuximab vedotin with CHP for CD30-expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Michelle A; Horwitz, Steven M; Forero-Torres, Andres; Bartlett, Nancy L; Advani, Ranjana H; Pro, Barbara; Chen, Robert W; Davies, Andrew; Illidge, Tim; Uttarwar, Mayur; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Ren, Hong; Kennedy, Dana A; Shustov, Andrei R

    2018-05-10

    This phase 1 study evaluated frontline brentuximab vedotin in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (BV+CHP; 6 cycles, then up to 10 cycles of brentuximab vedotin monotherapy) in 26 patients with CD30 + peripheral T-cell lymphoma, including 19 with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. All patients (100%) achieved an objective response, with a complete remission (CR) rate of 92%; none received a consolidative stem cell transplant. After a median observation period of 59.6 months (range, 4.6-66.0) from first dose, neither the median progression-free survival (PFS) nor the median overall survival (OS) was reached. No progression or death was observed beyond 35 months. The estimated 5-year PFS and OS rates were 52% and 80%, respectively. Eighteen of 19 patients (95%) with treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy (PN) reported resolution or improvement of symptoms. Thirteen patients (50%) remained in remission at the end of the study, with PFS ranging from 37.8+ to 66.0+ months. Eight of these 13 patients received the maximum 16 cycles of study treatment. These final results demonstrate durable remissions in 50% of patients treated with frontline BV+CHP, suggesting a potentially curative treatment option for some patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01309789. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  18. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Burd, Nicholas A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and consumer market interest is increasingly directed toward the use of plant-based proteins as dietary components aimed at preserving or increasing skeletal muscle mass. However, recent evidence suggests that the ingestion of the plant-based proteins in soy and wheat results in a lower muscle protein synthetic response when compared with several animal-based proteins. The possible lower anabolic properties of plant-based protein sources may be attributed to the lower digestibility of plant-based sources, in addition to greater splanchnic extraction and subsequent urea synthesis of plant protein-derived amino acids compared with animal-based proteins. The latter may be related to the relative lack of specific essential amino acids in plant- as opposed to animal-based proteins. Furthermore, most plant proteins have a relatively low leucine content, which may further reduce their anabolic properties when compared with animal proteins. However, few studies have actually assessed the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of plant proteins, with soy and wheat protein being the primary sources studied. Despite the proposed lower anabolic properties of plant vs. animal proteins, various strategies may be applied to augment the anabolic properties of plant proteins. These may include the following: 1) fortification of plant-based protein sources with the amino acids methionine, lysine, and/or leucine; 2) selective breeding of plant sources to improve amino acid profiles; 3) consumption of greater amounts of plant-based protein sources; or 4) ingesting multiple protein sources to provide a more balanced amino acid profile. However, the efficacy of such dietary strategies on postprandial muscle protein synthesis remains to be studied. Future research comparing the anabolic properties of a variety of plant-based proteins should define the preferred protein sources to be used in nutritional interventions to support skeletal muscle mass gain

  19. Scheduling of Multiple Chillers in Trigeneration Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of both absorption cycle and vapour compression cycle chillers in trigeneration plants is investigated in this work. Many trigeneration plants use absorption cycle chillers only but there are potential performance advantages to be gained by using a combination of absorption and compression chillers especially in situations where the building electrical demand to be met by the combined heat and power (CHP plant is variable. Simulation models of both types of chillers are developed together with a simple model of a variable-capacity CHP engine developed by curve-fitting to supplier’s data. The models are linked to form an optimisation problem in which the contribution of both chiller types is determined at a maximum value of operating cost (or carbon emission saving. Results show that an optimum operating condition arises at moderately high air conditioning demands and moderately low power demand when the air conditioning demand is shared between both chillers, all recovered heat is utilised, and the contribution arising from the compression chiller results in an increase in CHP power generation and, hence, engine efficiency.

  20. Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of the Agency's programme on nuclear safety a survey was carried out based on a questionnaire to collect information on computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants in Member States. The intention was to put together a state-of-the-art report where different systems under development or already implemented would be described. This activity was also supported by an INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) recommendation. Two consultant's meetings were convened and their work is reflected in the two sections of the technical document. The first section, produced during the first meeting, is devoted to provide some general background material on the overall usability of Computerized Operator Decision Aids (CODAs), their advantages and shortcomings. During this first meeting, the first draft of the questionnaire was also produced. The second section presents the evaluation of the 40 questionnaires received from 11 Member States and comprises a short description of each system and some statistical and comparative observations. The ultimate goal of this activity was to inform Member States, particularly those who are considering implementation of a CODA, on the status of related developments elsewhere. 8 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Piping support load data base for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Station Modifications are continuous through the life of a Nuclear Power Plant. The NSM often impacts an existing piping system and its supports. Prior to implementation of the NSM, the modified piping system is qualified and the qualification documented. This manual review process is tedious and an obvious bottleneck to engineering productivity. Collectively, over 100,000 piping supports exist at Duke Power Company's Nuclear Stations. Engineering support must maintain proper documentation of all data for each support. Duke Power Company has designed and developed a mainframe based system that: directly uses Support Load Summary data generated by a piping analysis computer program; streamlines the pipe support evaluation process; easily retrieves As-Built and NSM information for any pipe support from an NSM or AS-BUILT data base; and generated documentation for easy traceability of data to the information source. This paper discusses the design considerations for development of Support Loads Database System (SLDB) and reviews the program functionality through the user menus

  2. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen; Cheng Tsungchieh; Wang Jyhgang

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  3. Support Vector Machine Based Tool for Plant Species Taxonomic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Manimekalai .K; Vijaya.MS

    2014-01-01

    Plant species are living things and are generally categorized in terms of Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and name of Species in a hierarchical fashion. This paper formulates the taxonomic leaf categorization problem as the hierarchical classification task and provides a suitable solution using a supervised learning technique namely support vector machine. Features are extracted from scanned images of plant leaves and trained using SVM. Only class, order, family of plants...

  4. Modern control systems in the combined-cycle power plant `Salinenstrasse` of Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH; Einsatz moderner Kraftwerksleittechnik im GuD-Kraftwerk Salinenstrasse der Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuning, P [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH (Germany); Menschel, M [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH (Germany); Friedrich, G [IDS Gesellschaft fuer Informations-, Datenuebertragungs- und Steuerungssysteme mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Radtke, W [IDS Gesellschaft fuer Informations-, Datenuebertragungs- und Steuerungssysteme mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-11-14

    Run-of-river power plants, CHP systems and heating power stations produce much of the heat and power consumed in the supply area of the Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall. The most recent component is a modern combined-cycle power station based on a reconstructed steam power plant commissioned in 1935. Modern control systems supplied by IDS Karlsruhe ensure optimal grid and power plant operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Laufwasser-Kraftwerke, BHKW und Heizkraftwerke decken einen grossen Teil des Bedarfs an Waerme und Energie im Versorgungsgebiet der Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall. Vor kurzem ist hier als weitere Komponente ein modernes GuD-Kraftwerk in Betrieb genommen worden. Um ein bestehendes, bereits 1935 erbautes Dampfkraftwerk wirtschaftlicher nutzen zu koennen, haben die Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall den Umbau zum GuD-Kraftwerk vorgenommen. Durch den Einsatz der von IDS Karlsruhe gelieferten Kraftwerksleittechnik, verbunden mit einem modernen Netzleitsystem wird eine optimale Netz- und Kraftwerksfuehrung ermoeglicht. (orig.)

  5. Variance-based sensitivity analysis for wastewater treatment plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Alida; Mannina, Giorgio; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-02-01

    Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is a valuable tool to support the use of mathematical models that characterise technical or natural systems. In the field of wastewater modelling, most of the recent applications of GSA use either regression-based methods, which require close to linear relationships between the model outputs and model factors, or screening methods, which only yield qualitative results. However, due to the characteristics of membrane bioreactors (MBR) (non-linear kinetics, complexity, etc.) there is an interest to adequately quantify the effects of non-linearity and interactions. This can be achieved with variance-based sensitivity analysis methods. In this paper, the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (Extended-FAST) method is applied to an integrated activated sludge model (ASM2d) for an MBR system including microbial product formation and physical separation processes. Twenty-one model outputs located throughout the different sections of the bioreactor and 79 model factors are considered. Significant interactions among the model factors are found. Contrary to previous GSA studies for ASM models, we find the relationship between variables and factors to be non-linear and non-additive. By analysing the pattern of the variance decomposition along the plant, the model factors having the highest variance contributions were identified. This study demonstrates the usefulness of variance-based methods in membrane bioreactor modelling where, due to the presence of membranes and different operating conditions than those typically found in conventional activated sludge systems, several highly non-linear effects are present. Further, the obtained results highlight the relevant role played by the modelling approach for MBR taking into account simultaneously biological and physical processes. © 2013.

  6. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  7. Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo P.; Järvinen, Mika P.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: • Part load simulation of a cogeneration plant integrated with biomas fast pyrolysis. • Analysis of energetic and environmental performance. • Assessment of different uses of the pyrolysis products

  8. Survival and Growth of Cottonwood Clones After Angle Planting and Base Angle Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Randall; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1976-01-01

    Presently, commercial cottonwood plantations in the lower Mississippi Valley are established using vertically planted, unrooted cuttings with a flat (90°) base. Neither survival nor first-year growth of a group of six Stoneville clones was improved by angle planting or cutting base angles diagonally. For one clone, survival was significantly better when base angle was...

  9. Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants - A comparative life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, A.; Baky, A.; Bernesson, S.; Noren, O.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option.

  10. An efficient somatic embryogenesis based plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2010-03-05

    Mar 5, 2010 ... Fang Yuan, Quan Wang, Qifang Pan, Guofeng Wang, Jingya Zhao, Yuesheng Tian and. Kexuan Tang*. Plant Biotechnology Research Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology. R&D Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

  11. New approach for risk based inspection of H2S based Process Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Sharma, Pavan K.; Santosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study looks into improving the consequence evaluation in risk based inspection. • Ways to revise the quantity factors used in qualitative approach. • New approach based on computational fluid dynamics along with probit mathematics. • Demonstrated this methodology along with a suitable case study for the said issue. - Abstract: Recent trend in risk informed and risk based approaches in life management issues have certainly put the focus on developing estimation methods for real risk. Idea of employing risk as an optimising measure for in-service inspection, termed as risk based inspection, was accepted in principle from late 80s. While applying risk based inspection, consequence of failure from each component needs to be assessed. Consequence evaluation in a Process Plant is a crucial task. It may be noted that, in general, the number of components to be considered for life management is very large and hence the consequence evaluation resulting from their failures (individually) is a laborious task. Screening of critical components is usually carried out using simplified qualitative approach, which primarily uses influence factors for categorisation. This necessitates logical formulation of influence factors and their ranges with a suitable technical basis for acceptance from regulators. This paper describes application of risk based inspection for H 2 S based Process Plant along with the approach devised for handling the influence factor related to the quantity of H 2 S released

  12. Reliability research to nuclear power plant operators based on several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Li Fu; Zhao Bingquan

    2009-01-01

    The paper utilizes many kinds of international reliability research methods, and summarizes the review of reliability research of Chinese nuclear power plant operators in past over ten years based on the simulator platform of nuclear power plant. The paper shows the necessity and feasibility of the research to nuclear power plant operators from many angles including human cognition reliability, fuzzy mathematics model and psychological research model, etc. It will be good to the safe operation of nuclear power plant based on many kinds of research methods to the reliability research of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  13. Feed type based expert systems in mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamsa-Jounela, S.-L.; Laine, S.; Laurila, H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence includes excellent tools for the control and supervision of industrial processes. Several thousand industrial applications have been reported worldwide. Recently, the designers of the AI systems have begun to hybridize the intelligent techniques, expert systems, fuzzy logic and neural networks, to enhance the capability of the AI systems. Expert systems have proved to be ideal candidates especially for the control of mineral processes. As successful case projects, expert system based on on-line classification of the feed type is described in this paper. The essential feature of this expert system is the classification of different feed types and their distinct control strategies at the plant. In addition to the classification, the expert system has a database containing information about how to handle the determined feed type. This self-learning database scans historical process data to suggest the best treatment for the ore type under processing. The system has been tested in two concentrators, the Outokumpu Finnmines Oy, Hitura mine and Outokumpu Chrome Oy, Kemi mine. (author)

  14. Design of XML-based plant data model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preetha M.; Padmini, S.; Gaur, Swati; Diwakar, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    XML has emerged as an open standard for exchanging structured data on various platforms to handle rich, nested, complex data structures. XML with its flexible tree-like data structure allows a more natural representation as compared to traditional databases. In this paper we present data model for plant data acquisition systems captured using XML technologies. Plant data acquisition systems in a typical Nuclear Power Plant consists of embedded nodes at the first tier and operator consoles at the second tier for operator operation, interaction and display of Plant parameters. This paper discusses a generic data model that was designed to capture process, network architecture, communication/interface protocol and diagnostics aspects required for a Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  15. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  16. Quantitative assessment of energy and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants based on plant-wide simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Garrido, J M; Puig, S; Poch, M; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2017-07-01

    The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective. In order to demonstrate the potential of the library and the need to run simulation analyses, this paper carries out a comparative analysis of WWTPs, from a techno-economic point of view. The selected layouts were (1) a conventional WWTP based on a modified version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2, (2) an upgraded or retrofitted WWTP, and (3) a new Wastewater Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) concept denominated as C/N/P decoupling WWTP. The study was based on a preliminary analysis of the organic matter and nutrient energy use and recovery options, a comprehensive mass and energy flux distribution analysis in each configuration in order to compare and identify areas for improvement, and a cost analysis of each plant for different influent COD/TN/TP ratios. Analysing the plants from a standpoint of resources and energy utilization, a low utilization of the energy content of the components could be observed in all configurations. In the conventional plant, the COD used to produce biogas was around 29%, the upgraded plant was around 36%, and 34% in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP. With regard to the self-sufficiency of plants, achieving self-sufficiency was not possible in the conventional plant, in the upgraded plant it depended on the influent C/N ratio, and in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP layout self-sufficiency was feasible for almost all influents

  17. Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. PMID:26066012

  18. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiwan, C.; Yitao, W.; Yanfang, Z.; Xinsheng, P.; Jingjing, H.; Ping, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  19. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, H.K.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  20. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: Price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Fristrup, Peter; Munksgaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  1. In-plant reliability data base for nuclear plant components: a feasibility study on human error information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Schurman, D.L.; Johnson, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the procedure and final results of a feasibility study which examined the usefulness of nuclear plant maintenance work requests in the IPRDS as tools for understanding human error and its influence on component failure and repair. Developed in this study were (1) a set of criteria for judging the quality of a plant maintenance record set for studying human error; (2) a scheme for identifying human errors in the maintenance records; and (3) two taxonomies (engineering-based and psychology-based) for categorizing and coding human error-related events

  2. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  3. Technical and economical analyses of combined heat and power generation from distillers grains and corn stover in ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Hanna, Milford A.; Weller, Curtis L.; Jones, David D.

    2009-01-01

    The technical and economical feasibilities of a novel integrated biomass gasification and fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system were analyzed for supplying heat and power in an ethanol plant from distillers grains (DG) and corn stover. In a current dry-grind plant with an annual production capacity of 189 million liters (50 million gallons) of ethanol, the energy cost for ethanol production using natural gas at a price of 6.47 US$/GJ for processing heat and commercial grid at a price of 0.062 US$/kWh for electrical power supply was 0.094 US$/liter. If the integrated CHP system using wet DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis at 105 US$/dry tonne and corn stover with 20% moisture at 30 US$/dry tonne as feedstock was used to supply heat and power in the ethanol plant, the energy costs for ethanol production would be 0.101 US$/liter and 0.070 US$/liter, which are 107% and 75% of the current energy cost for ethanol production, respectively. To meet the demand of processing heat and power in the ethanol plant, the integrated CHP system required 22.1 dry tonnes of corn stover with 20% moisture or 14.5 dry tonnes of DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis per hour, compared with the available 18.8 dry tonnes of DG per hour in the ethanol plant. High-value chemicals such as policosanols, phytosterols and free fatty acids can be extracted out of the raw DG to reduce the cost of DG as a feedstock of the integrated CHP system. The energy cost for ethanol production using the integrated CHP system with corn stover and DG as the feedstock for supplying heat and power can be reduced further by increasing ethanol production scale, decreasing the moisture content of biomass feedstock, and decreasing thermal energy to electricity output ratio of the CHP system. In terms of the energy efficiency of the integrated CHP system and the energy cost for ethanol production, the moisture content of the feedstock going into the integrated CHP should be lower than 70% on a wet basis

  4. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  5. Legal bases for the installation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de

    1980-06-01

    The process of installation of nuclear power plants in the context of the Brazilian legal system is analysed. The structure of the political and administrative system related to the matter and the correspondent legislation are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  6. Legal bases for the installation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Barros, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the National Nuclear Energy Comission, the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy and the 'Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A.' for the installation of Nuclear Power Plants is presented. (A.L.) [pt

  7. Bio based cogeneration plants in Sweden; Biobaserte kraftvarmeverk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Cogeneration plants using bio fuel need a certificate in the Swedish electricity certificate system. Since the initiation of the system in 2003 the plants have taken advantage of the possibility of switching from fossil, to bio fuel. However, there is a potential for additional bio power production, provided that there is a market for the produced heating. The certificate system may contribute to an acceleration of investments in new capacities, and the facilitation of increased bio power production.

  8. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W.; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E.

    2004-01-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  9. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E

    2004-06-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  10. Production of lysosomal enzymes in plant-based expression systems

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to the production of enzymatically active recombinant human and animal lysosomal enzymes involving construction and expression of recombinant expression constructs comprising coding sequences of human or animal lysosomal enzymes in a plant expression system. The plant expression system provides for post-translational modification and processing to produce a recombinant gene product exhibiting enzymatic activity. The invention is demonstrated by working examples in which ...

  11. Plant response-based sensing for control starategies in sustainable greenhouse production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacira, M.; Sase, S.; Okushima, L.; Ling, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of environmental variability is one of the major concerns in experimental design for both research in plant systems and greenhouse plant production. Microclimates surrounding plants are not usually uniform. Therefore, many samples and sensors are required to obtain a true representation of the plant population. A plant monitoring system capable of reducing the required number of samples by reducing environmental variability would be more advantageous. To better understand plant-environment interaction, it is essential to study plants, microclimate surrounding the plants and the growth media. To achieve this, the monitoring system must be equipped with proper instrumentation. To achieve proper management practices and sustainable greenhouse production, it is essential first to understand plants and their interactions with their surroundings and then establish plant response-based sensing and control strategies for greenhouse processes. Therefore, an effort was conducted to review and discuss current sensing and control strategies in greenhouse research and plant production and provide recommendations on plant response-based sensing and control strategies for sustainable greenhouse production

  12. CHP: Combined Heat and Power: a vision of energy efficiency; Cogeracao: uma visao de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Osvaldo A.S.N. de; Abreu, Melissa E. de; Marcal, Roberto L.; Ferreira, Ademilson D.; Ferreira, Patricia E.; Monterio, Glauber J.R.; Silva, Ademir B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The installation of a cogeneration plant has been the subject of discussions on alternatives in the Brazilian energy matrix. Considered viable solution in the not too distant past, 2001, when Brazil was undergoing a process of the economic slowdown, lack of investments in the energy sector, unemployment and reaching the peak of the crisis with the rationing of electricity. The principle of the cogeneration system is designed primarily to meet electrical demand, so there is no surplus production of energy and do not need to buy with the concessionaire, except in cases of the system stops on account of maintenance. However, there is a recovery of waste heat produced in thermodynamic processes for generation of electricity within a model that 'conventional' would be wasted. In this case, the exploitation can be given in the form of steam, hot water and/or cold, for secondary application, or can not be linked to a process. Based on the results of the fieldwork, aims to show that, despite the limitations inherent in the process of cogeneration, is justified economically the installation of this system in relation to the growth of procedures developed in CENPES and its resident effective. (author)

  13. Energy versus economic effectiveness in CHP (combined heat and power) applications: Investigation on the critical role of commodities price, taxation and power grid mix efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Rossi, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Starting from PES (primary energy saving) and CSR (cost saving ratio) definitions the work pinpoints a “grey area” in which CHP (combined heat and power – cogeneration) units can operate with profit and negative PES. In this case, CHP can be profitably operated with lower efficiency with respect to separate production of electrical and thermal energy. The work defines the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. The optimal value of R-index for which CHP units operate with both environmental benefit (PES > 0) and economic profitability (CSR > 0) is the reference value of electrical efficiency, η_e_l_-_r_e_f, of separate production (national power grid mix). As a consequence, optimal R-index varies from Country to Country. The work demonstrates that the value of R corresponds to the minimum value of electrical efficiency for which any power generator operates with profit. The paper demonstrates that, with regard to the profitability of cogeneration, the ratio between the cost of commodities is more important than their absolute value so that different taxation of each commodity can be a good leverage for energy policy makers to promote high efficiency cogeneration, even in the absence of an incentive mechanism. The final part of the study presents an analysis on micro-CHP technologies payback times for different European Countries. - Highlights: • Investigation of the grey area where CHP profitably operates also with negative PES. • Study starts from definition of primary energy saving PES and cost saving ratio CSR. • Definition of the R-index as the ratio between the cost of fuel and electricity. • The optimal value of R for which the “grey area” disappears is R = η_e_l_-_r_e_f. • R is also the value of η_e_l for which any electric generator profitably operates.

  14. A logic flowgraph-based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of an automated decision support system for nuclear plant operators is presented and discussed. The system is based on the use of 'logic flowgraph' process models and is designed in a hierarchical fashion. Its functionality spans from 'function oriented' plant status and alternative success path information displayed to the plant operators at its higher access levels to 'process oriented' diagnostic and recovery information deduced and displayed at its lowest. The design basis for this architecture is the 'defense in depth' plant safety concept. The decision support system goal is to provide plant operators, in the presence of an unforeseen transient, with the best and safest alternative between plant stabilization after shutdown and recovery of normal operation based on early diagnosis. Examples of the system capability to interpret and diagnose abnormal plant conditions and of the information that it can supply to the operators at its three access levels are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Design and analysis of permanent magnet moving coil type generator used in a micro-CHP generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros Pop, Susana Teodora; Berinde, Ioan; Vadan, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a permanent magnet moving coil type generator driven by a free piston Stirling engine. This assemble free piston Stirling engine - permanent magnet moving coil type generator will be used in a combined heat and power (CHP) system for producing heat and power in residential area. The design procedure for moving coil type linear generator starts from the rated power imposed and finally uses the Faraday law of induction. The magneto-static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets is analyzed by means of Reluctance method and Finite Element Method in order to evaluate the magnetic flux density in the air gap, which is a design data imposed in the design stage, and the results are compared.

  16. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  17. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance

  18. Development of a knowledge-based information management system for plant maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Hyung Sang; Park, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Eun Chul; Lee, Byung Ine [Pohang Iron and Steel Company, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, the importance of Plant Maintenance(PM) was highly raised to provide efficient plant operation which highly affects the productivity. For this reason, a number of engineering methodologies, such as Risk-Based Inspection(RBI), Fitness For Service guidelines(FFS), Plant Lifecycle Management(PLM), have been applied to improve the plant operation efficiency. Also, a network-based business operation system, which is called ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning), has been introduced in the field of plant maintenance. However, there was no attempt to connect engineering methodologies to the ERP PM system. In this paper, a knowledge-based information system for the plant operation of steel making company has been proposed. This system, which is named as K-VRS(Knowledge-based Virtual Reality System), provides a connection between ERP plant maintenance module and knowledge-based engineering methodologies, and thus, enables network-based highly effective plant maintenance process. The developed system is expected to play a great role for more efficient and safer plant maintenance.

  19. Response of MV-connected Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines and CHP plants to Grid Disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaliolios, P.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the positive environmental impact, the increasing penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units connected to the distribution network raises new topics concerning the expected response of these during outages. Grid disturbances especially at the transmission level can cause the

  20. Fault-ride through behavior of MV-connected wind turbines and CHP-plants during transmission grid disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaliolios, P.; Coster, E.J.; Kling, W.L.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Apart from the positive technical consequences, the increasing penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units connected to the distribution network brings new requirements in the protection strategy. Grid disturbances at the transmission level can cause the unwanted disconnection of large amount

  1. Development and test of a Stirling engine driven by waste gases for the micro-CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tie; Tang Dawei; Li Zhigang; Du Jinglong; Zhou Tian; Jia Yu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, micro-CHP systems are attracting world attention. As one kind of external heating engines, Stirling engines could be applied to the micro-CHP systems driven by solar, biogas, mid-high temperature waste gases and many other heat sources. The development of a Stirling engine driven by mid-high temperature waste gases is presented first. The thermodynamic design method, the key parameters of the designed Stirling engine and its combustion chamber adapted for waste gases are described in detail. Then the performance test of the Stirling engine is carried out. During the test, the temperature of the heater head is monitored by thermocouples, and the pressure of the working fluid helium in the Stirling engine is monitored by pressure sensors. The relationships among the output shaft power, torque and speed are studied, and the pressure losses of the working fluid in the heat exchanger system are also analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the output shaft power could reach 3476 W at 1248 RPM, which is in good agreement with the predicted value of 3901 W at 1500 RPM. The test results confirm the fact that Stirling engines driven by mid-high temperature waste gases are able to achieve a valuable output power for engineering application. - Highlights: ► A β-type Stirling engine whose output power could reach about 3.5 kW is developed by ourselves. ► Waste gases are used as the heat source to drive the Stirling engine. ► Test on the relationship among the power, torque, and speed are presented. ► The pressure changing process of the working fluid in the heat exchanger system during the test is recorded and analyzed.

  2. Biomass and bio-fuel based poly-generation for off-grid and grid-connected operation. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of this project was to design and build a combined heat and power plant based on an updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine and further to test the flexibility of the plant with regards to fuel and application. In the project a containerized combined heat and power plant including a 200 kW updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine was designed, the specified components were procured, the plant was installed in the three containers and the plant was erected at Amagerforbraendingen ready for the COP15 in November 2009. The potential of operating the Stirling engine in island-mode (without grid connection) was investigated by mathematical modelling. Using an absorption cooling plant connected to the Stirling CHP plant was also investigated. A technical feasibility study was undertaken and it was concluded that from the two available technologies (water/LiBr and Ammonia/water) the appropriate choice is depending on the required cooling temperature. Test runs focussed on investigating the fuel flexibility of two different configurations of Stirling engine CHP plants were carried out - respectively the updraft gasifier plant (the containerized plant and the DTU plant) and the pyrolysis plant (the plant situated at Barritskov). In order to perform these test runs a stable operation is required. On both the containerized plant and the pyrolysis plant this proved to be more challenging than expected and therefore the number of fuels tested was limited to willow chips at the containerized plant and dry wood residues, wood pellets and straw pellets on the pyrolysis plant. For all tested fuels it was possible to operate the plants, however different issues mainly related to the quality of the fuels were encountered. And so it can be concluded that the quality of the fuel is critical for the operation of both the updraft gasifier plant and the pyrolysis plant. A comprehensive desktop evaluation of the feasibility

  3. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  4. INFORMATION SYSTEM SALES OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS-BASED ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutedi Sutedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants have fairly high commercial value and much sought after by various circles. The prospect is in the business of ornamental plants can be said very brilliant and profitable. Where is in the business of ornamental plants can bring about advantages not the least. The business struggled with ornamental plants can have very favorable prospects for the long term. There are an awful lot of various kinds of ornamental plants that we can choose to use as ornaments to beautify residential home. The ornamental plants can be used as indoor ornamental plants placed in homes or can also be used as outdoor ornamental plants grown in the garden. Ornamental plants while more popular community-wide information system for ornamental plant however is currently designed specifically and not many people who know the information on price and specs or type of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants so that the need for sales information system of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants-based online. With the sales information system of Indoor and Outdoor ornamental plants-based online is expected to facilitate the customers, business processes that occur in the company's units, unit – units that exist within the system a functioning production units as the unit working on/produce ornamental plants. With the utilization of the system marketing media, promoting, finding new customers, the sales process, recapitulation payment of ornamental plants, control the conditions of stock products, development and delivery of products to customers including convincing the product gets to the customer

  5. Promoter-Based Integration in Plant Defense Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Gaudinier, Allison; Tang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A key unanswered question in plant biology is how a plant regulates metabolism to maximize performance across an array of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. In this study, we addressed the potential breadth of transcriptional regulation that can alter accumulation of the defensive...... glucosinolate metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A systematic yeast one-hybrid study was used to identify hundreds of unique potential regulatory interactions with a nearly complete complement of 21 promoters for the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. Conducting high-throughput phenotypic...... validation, we showed that >75% of tested transcription factor (TF) mutants significantly altered the accumulation of the defensive glucosinolates. These glucosinolate phenotypes were conditional upon the environment and tissue type, suggesting that these TFs may allow the plant to tune its defenses...

  6. Nuclear Power Plants Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Data Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chunli; Liu Yongkuo; Xia Hong

    2009-01-01

    The data fusion is a method suit for complex system fault diagnosis such as nuclear power plants, which is multisource information processing technology. This paper uses data fusion information hierarchical thinking and divides nuclear power plants fault diagnosis into three levels. Data level adopts data mining method to handle data and reduction attributes. Feature level uses three parallel neural networks to deal with attributes of data level reduction and the outputs of three networks are as the basic probability assignment of Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. The improved D-S evidence theory synthesizes the outputs of neural networks in decision level, which conquer the traditional D-S evidence theory limitation which can't dispose conflict information. The diagnosis method was tested using correlation data of literature. The test results indicate that the data fusion diagnosis system can diagnose nuclear power plants faults accurately and the method has application value. (authors)

  7. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part I: An MILP based spatial optimization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of multi-biomass supply chains and biomass to biofuel processing technologies. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the representation of the relationships between the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps, and on the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems. After a description of state of the art and research trends in urban energy systems and bioenergy modelling, an application of the methodology to a generic case study is proposed. With the assumed techno-economic parameters, biomass based thermal energy generation results competitive with natural gas, while district heating network results the main option for urban areas with high thermal energy demand density. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  8. Involvement of thiol-based mechanisms in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Cerveau, Delphine; Couturier, Jérémy; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Rey, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Increasing knowledge has been recently gained regarding the redox regulation of plant developmental stages. The current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of glutathione, glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in plant development is reviewed. The control of the thiol redox status is mainly ensured by glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide and by reductases sharing redox-active cysteines, glutaredoxins (GRXs) and thioredoxins (TRXs). Indeed, thiol groups present in many regulatory proteins and metabolic enzymes are prone to oxidation, ultimately leading to post-translational modifications such as disulfide bond formation or glutathionylation. This review focuses on the involvement of GSH, GRXs and TRXs in plant development. Recent studies showed that the proper functioning of root and shoot apical meristems depends on glutathione content and redox status, which regulate, among others, cell cycle and hormone-related processes. A critical role of GRXs in the formation of floral organs has been uncovered, likely through the redox regulation of TGA transcription factor activity. TRXs fulfill many functions in plant development via the regulation of embryo formation, the control of cell-to-cell communication, the mobilization of seed reserves, the biogenesis of chloroplastic structures, the metabolism of carbon and the maintenance of cell redox homeostasis. This review also highlights the tight relationships between thiols, hormones and carbon metabolism, allowing a proper development of plants in relation with the varying environment and the energy availability. GSH, GRXs and TRXs play key roles during the whole plant developmental cycle via their antioxidant functions and the redox-regulation of signaling pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Redox regulation of differentiation and de-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, Ulrich; Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    The power generation sector is currently confronted with new challenges relating to the conservation of dwindling fuel reserves. At the same time we must reduce CO2 emissions in order to counteract global warming. This paper shows that power plant operation, which employs shutdowns during periods of low load demand coupled with the optimization of startup procedures are a key to reducing CO2 emissions and to conserving resources. The startup technology developed by Siemens also offers grid support in the event of naturally occurring failures of renewable energy sources. Additionally, plant profitability is improved due to the resulting savings in fuel.

  10. Design of the robust synchronous generator stator voltage regulator based on the interval plant model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel method for the stator voltage regulator of a synchronous generator based on the interval plant mode, is presented. Namely, it is shown in the literature that, in order to design a controller for the first-order compensator, the limited number of interval plants needs to be examined. Consequently, the intervals of the plant model parameter variations used to calculate the four extreme interval plants required for the sequential PI controller design are determined. The controller is designed using frequency-domain-based techniques, while its robust performance is examined using simulation tests.

  11. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  12. 3D visualization based customer experiences of nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tienlung; Chou Chinmei; Hung Tamin; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs virtual reality (VR) technology to develop an interactive virtual nuclear plant control room in which the general public could easily walk into the 'red zone' and play with the control buttons. The VR-based approach allows deeper and richer customer experiences that the real nuclear plant control room could not offer. When people know more about the serious process control procedures enforced in the nuclear plant control room, they will appropriate more about the safety efforts imposed by the nuclear plant and become more comfortable about the nuclear plant. The virtual nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. The 3D scene is connected to a nuclear plant simulation system through Windows API programs. To evaluate the usability of the virtual control room, an experiment will be conducted to see how much 'immersion' the users could feel when they played with the virtual control room. (author)

  13. "Founder crops" v. wild plants: Assessing the plant-based diet of the last hunter-gatherers in southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; González Carretero, Lara; Roe, Joe; Richter, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The Natufian culture (c. 14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP) represents the last hunter-gatherer society that inhabited southwest Asia before the development of plant food production. It has long been suggested that Natufians based their economy on the exploitation of the wild ancestors of the Neolithic "founder crops", and that these hunter-gatherers were therefore on the "threshold to agriculture". In this work we review the available data on Natufian plant exploitation and we report new archaeobotanical evidence from Shubayqa 1, a Natufian site located in northeastern Jordan (14.6-11.5 ka cal. BP). Shubayqa 1 has produced an exceptionally large plant assemblage, including direct evidence for the continuous exploitation of club-rush tubers (often regarded as "missing foods") and other wild plants, which were probably used as food, fuel and building materials. Taking together this data we evaluate the composition of archaeobotanical assemblages (plant macroremains) from the Natufian to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (EPPNB). Natufian assemblages comprise large proportions of non-founder plant species (>90% on average), amongst which sedges, small-seeded grasses and legumes, and fruits and nuts predominate. During the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, in particular the EPPNB, the presence of "founder crops" increases dramatically and constitute up to c. 42% of the archaeobotanical assemblages on average. Our results suggest that plant exploitation strategies during the Natufian were very different from those attested during subsequent Neolithic periods. We argue that historically driven interpretations of the archaeological record have over-emphasized the role of the wild ancestors of domesticated crops previous to the emergence of agriculture.

  14. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified

  15. Satellite-based annual evaporation estimates of invasive alien plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of densely-invaded riparian areas is likely more pronounced. We concluded that the clearing of IAPs by the WFW programme has a positive effect on the availability of water resources through a reduction in ET. Keywords: invasive alien plants; indigenous vegetation; remote sensing; water use; evapotranspiration; SEBAL; ...

  16. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  17. Evaluation of cable aging degradation based on plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog

    2005-01-01

    Extending the lifetime of nuclear power plant [(hereafter referred simply as ''NPP'')] is one of the most important concerns in the world nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long live items which have not been considered to be replaced during the design life of NPP. To extend the cable life beyond the design life, we need to prove that the design life is too conservative compared with the actual aging. Condition monitoring is one of the useful ways for evaluating the aging condition of cable. In order to simulate the natural aging in nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging needs to be conducted first. In this paper, evaluations of mechanical aging degradation for cable jacket were performed after accelerated aging under the continuous heating and intermittent heating. Contrary to general expectation, the intermittent heating to cable jacket showed low aging degradation, 50% break-elongation and 60% indenter modulus, compared with continuous heating. With the plant maintenance period of 1 month after every 12 or 18 months operation, we can easily deduce that the life time of cable jacket can be extended much longer than estimated through the general EQ (Environmental Qualification) test, which adopts continuous accelerated aging for determining cable life. Therefore, a systematic approach which considers the actual environment condition of nuclear power plant is required for determining the life of cables. (author)

  18. RAPD-based detection of genomic instability in cucumber plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... 2School of biology and Environmental Sciences, Belfield, Dublin 4, ... detectable differences between the somatic embryo derived plants compared to their F1 parents in the. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) test using five primers ... The mixture was allowed to thaw and ice-cold polyvinyl-.

  19. Decommissioning process of nuclear power plants and legislative base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovsky, J.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper contains some considerations about applicability and completeness of existing Regulation No. 10 in the field of decommissioning of nuclear power plants. No pretence exists for comprehensiveness, representativeness, or even applicability of these considerations. This paper presents personal views of the author and not official position of Risk Engineering Ltd

  20. Application of industrial wood residues for combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzycka, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from industrial wood residues. The system will be powered by wood residues generated during manufacturing process of wooden floor panels. Based on power and heat demands of the plant and wood residues potential, the CHP system was selected. Preliminary analysis of biomass conversion in CHP system and environmental impact was performed.

  1. Market drivers and challenges for gasification-based power plants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Karg; Frank Hannemann [Siemens Power Generation (PG) (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper begins by examining the present situation and future trends in the power generation market, before discussing existing IGCC plants and present market activities. IGCC plants in which Siemens are involved are given and coal-based IGCC applications are described. Finally improvement potential of IGCC, and technologies towards zero emission plants (including CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration) are discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. An innovative ORC power plant layout for heat and power generation from medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiaschi, Daniele; Lifshitz, Adi; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Tempesti, Duccio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Explotation of medium temperature geothermal resource with ORC–CHP is investigated. • A new CHP configuration to provide higher temperature to thermal user is proposed. • Several organic fluids and wide range of heat demand are studied. • The system produces higher power (almost 55%) in comparison to typical layouts. • Optimal working fluids vary with the characteristics of the heat demand. - Abstract: Medium temperature (up to 170 °C), water dominated geothermal resources are the most widespread in the world. The binary geothermal-ORC power plants are the most suitable energy conversion systems for this kind of resource. Specifically, combined heat and power (CHP) systems have the potential to improve the efficiency in exploiting the geothermal resources by cascading the geothermal fluid heat carrier to successively lower temperature users, thus increasing first and second law efficiency of the entire power plant. However, geothermal CHPs usually extract heat from the geofluid either in parallel or in series to the ORC, and usually provide only low temperature heat, which is seldom suitable for industrial use. In this paper, a new CHP configuration, called Cross Parallel CHP, has been proposed and analyzed. It aims to provide higher temperature heat suitable for industrial use, allowing the exploitation of geothermal resources even in areas where district heating is not needed. The proposed CHP allows the reduction of the irreversibilities in the heat exchangers and the loss to the environment related to the re-injection of geofluid, thus producing higher electric power output while satisfying, at the same time, the heat demand of the thermal utility for a wide range of temperatures and mass flow rates (80–140 °C; 3–13 kg/s). Several organic fluids are investigated and the related optimizing working conditions are found by a built in procedure making use of genetic algorithms. The results show that the optimal working fluids and

  3. Validation of Continuous CHP Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2006-01-01

    The Viking gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark was built to demonstrate a continuous combined heat and power operation of a two-stage gasifier fueled with wood chips. The nominal input of the gasifier is 75 kW thermal. To validate the continuous operation of the plant, a 9-day...... measurement campaign was performed. The campaign verified a stable operation of the plant, and the energy balance resulted in an overall fuel to gas efficiency of 93% and a wood to electricity efficiency of 25%. Very low tar content in the producer gas was observed: only 0.1 mg/Nm3 naphthalene could...... be measured in raw gas. A stable engine operation on the producer gas was observed, and very low emissions of aldehydes, N2O, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured....

  4. Satellite combined heat and power plants and their legal autonomy; Satelliten-BHKW und deren rechtliche Eigenstaendigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loibl, Helmut [Kanzlei Paluka Sobola Loibl und Partner, Regensburg (Germany). Abt. Erneuerbare Energien

    2014-04-15

    Since the landmark decision by the German Court of Justice concerning the term ''plant'' in the context of biogas plants it should be clear beyond doubt that satellite combined heat and power plants (CHPs) are legally autonomous plants pursuant to Para. 3 No. 1 of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). What has yet to be finally resolved are the conditions under which satellite CHPs are to be regarded as autonomous. This will be a question of distance on the one hand and of operation autonomy on the other. In the individual case both these factors will have to be assessed from the perspective of an average objective, informed citizen. To the extent that its heat and electricity are being utilised in a meaningful manner, the plant's autonomy will be beyond doubt, at least in operational terms. Regarding the remuneration to be paid for satellite CHPs the only case requiring special consideration is when a CHP falls under the EEG of 2012. In this case Para. 1 Section 1 Sentence 2 EEG provides that the remuneration for the CHP in question is to be calculated as if there was a single overall plant. To the extent that none of the CHPs fall under the EEG of 2012, the ruling remains that there is a separate entitlement to remuneration for each satellite CHP. This also holds in cases where satellite CHPs that were commissioned after 1 January 2012 are relocated. When a satellite CHP is replaced by a new one, the rate and duration of remuneration remain unchanged. However, when a new satellite CHP is added to an existing satellite CHP via a gas collector line it is to be treated according to the decisions of the Federal Court of Justice concerning biogas plant extensions: It falls under the law that applies to the existing CHP and has an entitlement to a new minimum remuneration period, albeit subject to the degression rate provided by the EEG version in question.

  5. Effect of the waste of a steel plant in granular bases and sub bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Ortiz, Oscar J; Camacho Tauta, Javier Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the objective, methodology, analysis and conclusions of several experimental studies carried out in the laboratories of the University Military New Granada to determine the viability of the use of the waste of high oven generated by the steel plant of Boyaca in the improvement of the mechanical properties of the bases and sub bases granular used for the construction of a structure of pavements, by means of the execution of the standard essays and modified proctor and C.B.R. of laboratory. The methodology used for the development of the investigations was made in first phase with of the optimal percentages of humidity and resistance of the virgin material and with substitution, concluding with the analyses and conclusions

  6. An analysis of the investment risk related to the integration of a supercritical coal-fired combined heat and power plant with an absorption installation for CO2 separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two variants of a CHP plant – with and without integration with CCS were analyzed. • For the CHP plant main investment risk factors were identified. • For two variants risk analyses based on Monte Carlo method have been carried out. • For evaluation of the investment risk four indices were defined and calculated. - Abstract: For two variants of a supercritical coal-fired combined heat and power plant a thermodynamic, economic and risk analyses were carried out. The first variant consists of a unit working without realization of CO 2 capture process. The second one is the unit integrated with a chemical absorption CO 2 capture installation. In this variant the heat required for the desorption process is supplied with steam extracted from the steam turbine. The developed model of the CHP plant allowed to obtain main operation characteristics for annual change of load. For the two analyzed variants the characteristics of the amount of produced electricity (gross and net), generated heat and consumed chemical energy of fuel, as a function of the cogeneration unit operation time per year, were determined. In the next stage of calculations these characteristics were required to carry out the economic and risk analysis. Economic performances were evaluated in terms of the break-even price of electricity. The performed analysis proves that both investment projects will achieve the same economic effect, i.e. 85.26 €/MW h, if the price of emissions allowances reaches the value of 47.88 €/MgCO 2 . In this case, the potentially better variant of the system may be indicated based on the result of the risk analysis. In order to perform the risk analysis the main technical and economic risk factors concerning implementation of this technology were identified. The risk analysis was conducted with the use of Monte Carlo method. Based on the determined cumulative probability curves of obtaining specified values of the break-even price of electricity, it

  7. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  8. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  9. IPE Data Base: Plant design, core damage frequency and containment performance information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Lin, C.C.; Pratt, W.T.; Su, T.; Danziger, L.

    1995-01-01

    This data base stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants have conducted in response to NRC's Generic Letter GL88-20. The IPE Data Base is a collection of linked files which store information about plant design, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. The information contined in the various files is based on data contained in the IPE submittals. The information extracted from the submittals and entered into the IPE Data Base can be maniulated so that queries regarding individual or groups of plants can be answered using the IPE Data Base. The IPE Data Base supports detailed inquiries into the characteristics of individual plants or classes of plants. Progress has been made on the IPE Data Base and it is largely complete. Recent focus has been the development of a user friendly version which is menu driven and allows the user to ask queries of varying complexity easily, without the need to become familiar with particular data base formats or conventions such as those of DBase IV or Microsoft Access. The user can obtain the information he desired by quickly moving through a series of on-screen menus and ''clicking'' on appropriate choices. In this way even a first time user can benefit from the large amount of information stored in the IPE Data Base without the need of a learning period

  10. SciLab Based Remote Control of Thermo-Optical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Jano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the web-based implementation of the control system of a thermo-optical plant. The control of the plant is based on the SciLab software which originally is not designed for web-based applications. The paper shows a possible way to circumvent this limitation. The ultimate goal is to enable remote controlled experiment using SciLab. The paper also describes possible tools for communication and control of the real plant and visualization of results.

  11. Passivity Enhancement in Renewable Energy Source Based Power Plant With Paralleled Grid-Connected VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic instability is threatening the operation of renewable energy based power plants where multiple gridconnected VSIs are connected in parallel. To analyze and improve the stability of the grid-connected VSIs, the real part of the output admittance of the VSIs is first investigated......-connected VSIs can improve the stability of the renewable power plant....

  12. Development and evaluation of a plant-based air filter system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated a novel plant-based air filter system for bacterial growth control. The volatile components released from the experimental plant (Cupressus macrocarpa) were used as the basis of the bacterial growth control and inhibition. We monitored the effect of light on the gas exhausted from the system, and we found ...

  13. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMacken, Michelle; Shah, Sapana

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Evidence from observational and interventional studies demonstrates the benefits of plant-based diets in treating type 2 diabetes and reducing key diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications. Optimal macronutrient ratios for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes are controversial; the focus should instead be on eating patterns and actual foods. However, the evidence does suggest that the type and source of carbohydrate (unrefined versus refined), fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated versus saturated and trans), and protein (plant versus animal) play a major role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron.

  14. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  15. Long-Acting Composite Systems Based on Powdered Medicinal Plants and Nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turov, V.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of water in the powdered plant materials (calendula, hibiscus and their composite systems with A-300 nanosilicas having different bulk density has been studied by low-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy method. The change in bulk density has been found to significantly affect the radius of inner cavities in fibrillar space of plant components. The composite systems based on wetting-drying compaction of nanosilica and plant powder have been showed to form a mix with high interaction energy of heterogeneous particles. This results in the effective retention of plant bioactive complex by composite, which enables the development of long-acting herbal drugs.

  16. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  17. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  18. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  19. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the idea