WorldWideScience

Sample records for chosa vietnam ban

  1. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  2. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Meanwhile, IDRC was gathering advice and insights from other donors (including United Nations agencies) already active in. Vietnam. The information gathering ... preparation of young scholars and researchers. It was cooperating with other donors — many of them network partners with IDRC in other countries. Its gov-.

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with Vietnam (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A coal mining engineer exchange project was implemented by Japan and Vietnam for improving on coal mining engineers' production and management technologies in the Asia-Pacific region. Six engineers were dispatched to Hon Cam Training School for mine workers, Hon Gai, where they taught in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. There were 18 trainees, to whom lectures were given on 16 subjects including the steep slope mining method, excavation technology, transportation technology, ventilation control technology, production control technology, quality control technology, cost and material control, risk control, and centralized monitoring technology. Discussion was also held on the subjects. Ten trainees were invited and received mainly by Taiheiyo Coal Mining Corporation for the period August 24 through September 9, 2000, where they were given lectures and underwent training in the mine. The trainees also visited Isoko Power Station, Coal Research Institute of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., and Kushiro Plant of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Survey of diffusion of fluidized bed cement kilns in Vietnam; 1999 nendo Vietnam koku ni okeru ryudosho cement kiln fukyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Possibility is assessed of energy saving and CO2 reduction through replacing shaft kilns with fluidized bed kilns at four cement plants in Vietnam. The effort will be associated with the clean development mechanism (CDM) ultimately. The fluidized bed kiln is one of the state-of-the-art technologies developed to meet social, economic, and technical demands involving global environments, enhancement of energy efficiency, effective use of resources, improvement in cost performance, increasingly diversified needs for cement, etc. Use of the technology will lead to an extensive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, solution of the problem of dust flying from calcinating facilities, production of clinkers high in stability and quality, utilization of inexpensive fuels such as low-grade coal, and production cost reduced thanks to the new equipment occupying less installation space. The conclusion of the study is that the energy to be consumed by the four plants will decrease by 6101-9551 tons/year in terms of oil and that energy saving rate will be 37-44%. The decrease in fuel and electricity for calcinating furnaces in turn decreases CO2 emissions, with the amount of reduction estimated at 24,393-38,794 tons/year in terms of CO2 and the rate of reduction estimated at 36-44%. As for payout in case environmental special yen credit is granted, it will realize in the 10-12th year, which means such financing will achieve a sufficient investment effect. Effect is also tentatively calculated in case of fluidized bed kilns diffused across the country. (NEDO)

  6. Report on projects of the basic survey of effective energy consumption in developing countries and the invitation of engineers of developing countries to Japan (Vietnam, the Philippine, Indonesia and Thailand) in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa to jigyo hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia Tai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Based on the significance of technological training for energy saving and environmental protection, NEDO has invited administrators and engineers of four countries in Southeast Asia. Pollution prevention technology, administrative methods and energy saving measures in Japan were lectured in the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The training curriculum included (1) basic law of environment and local administration from the viewpoint of criminal law concerning history of air pollution problems and countermeasures in Yokkaichi petroleum industrial complex, (2) prospect of new energy technology development in Japan relating to the energy saving law, (3) energy saving measures, air/exhaust gas/dust treatment for environmental protection, and actual waste treatment measures by typical individual industries, and (4) significance of common management technology for individual treatment measures. Policies of energy saving and environmental protection and technology information in Japan which can be transferred were provided to two administrators of energy saving in the industry sector of Management of Science, Technology and Environment of Vietnam. 12 figs.

  7. FY 1998 annual report on the project of basic survey for improving energy consumption efficiency in developing countries / invitation of engineer trainees from developing countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo / hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    NEDO is positively implementing the training programs, in view of importance of training experts on (energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies), by inviting administrators and engineers from developing countries to educate them with Japan's pollution preventive techniques, administration procedures, energy-saving measures, and so on. In FY 1998, NEDO commissioned the International Center for Environment Technology Transfer to train administrators and engineers from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar. This paper describes the proposals, based on the collected answers of the trainees to the questionnaires. The trainees were interested in all themes. About 40% of the trainees considered that the training period was short. Some trainees hoped the training course was held in summer. Difference in industrialization is reflected in difference in recognition and urgency of the environmental problems. Training was conducted by English and Vietnamese, but could be done without translators of Vietnamese. Preparation for the invitation needs a lot of works, and the course should be explained more thoroughly beforehand. It is regrettable that one trainee from Indonesia was late for the course. (NEDO)

  8. Potential for the development of a marketing option for the specialty local Ban pork of a Thai ethnic smallholder cooperative group in Northwest Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh Huyen; Muth, Philipp C; Markemann, André; Schöll, Kerstin; Zárate, Anne Valle

    2016-02-01

    Based on 12 years of research (SFB 564 "The Uplands Program"), a community-based breeding and marketing cooperative group was transferred to an ethnic farmer group. This study analyses the potential for developing a marketing channel for specialty local Ban pork as an alternative to supplying the local markets to ensure long-term sustainability of the communal local pig breeding and production system. Data on pig-keeping were investigated from 378 farmers who wanted to enroll in the cooperative group in 10 villages (near town, intermediate, and remote zones) in Son La province. The data on Ban pig marketing activities of the cooperative group were investigated for all of its 180 members. Information on the market demand for Ban pigs were collected by interviewing 57 traders in Hanoi city and Son La province. The results show a dominance of local Ban in remote areas, and a preference for crossbreds with exotics in closer-to-town areas. Before farmers joined the cooperative group, the commercialization of pigs in remote villages accounted for only 3.0 pigs/farm/year compared to 9.3 pigs/farm/year in the intermediate zone and 11.2 pigs/farm/year near town. Potential markets have been identified for each product category of the cooperative group. Pure Ban pigs with a weight of 10-15 kg were preferred most by customers in Hanoi city. The regular feedback of information on niche markets for different products has increased the awareness of farmers about the competitiveness of the local pig products, and the power of collective action in the market. Selected pure Ban pigs were increasingly sold to food stores in Hanoi with high prices. Farmers received an average of 9000 VND more compared to the local market price for each kg of live weight. The respective added value for the cooperative group amounted to 11,300 VND/kg live weight. The added value from selling specialty Ban pigs regularly to markets, encouraged farmers toward a market in local pig production and

  9. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Joint research on oil conservation (research report on the industrial basis of Socialist Republic of Vietnam); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo sekiyu shohi koritsuka kyoryoku chosa. Betonamu shakai shugi kyowakoku sangyo kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The field research of oil conservation was conducted in developing countries, in particular, Vietnam where a steep increase in oil consumption is anticipated in the future. Energy conservation is the most effective direct measures to control combustion of fossil fuels, and an important issue to be promoted by all countries in the world to prevent global warming and reserve energy resources. In fiscal 1994, main industries in the northern part of Vietnam were researched. In fiscal 1995, the report meeting of plant survey results in the northern part and the technical seminar of energy-saving in industrial field were held, and plants around Ho Chi Minh City in the southern part of Vietnam were researched. Although Vietnam has recently acquired membership in ASEAN and is undergoing dramatic economic growth, has many problems in environmental measures. Japan has top-ranking results on energy-saving in industrial field, and the transfer of such superior technologies and techniques will greatly contribute to resource and global warming problems as well as pollution control measures in Vietnam. 13 refs., 25 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Basic investigation project for energy consumption efficiency improvement in developing countries. Invitation of engineers from developing countries (Vietnam, Philippines, and India); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippines, Indo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The International Center of Environmental Technology Transfer has invited seven engineers from Vietnam, eight from Philippines and two from India for human resource education project for environmental preservation in developing countries. Those who were invited are administrative officials and engineers who work at administrative agents, research institutes and corporations related to energy conservation and environment preservation. In this invitation program, lecturers were invited from governmental offices, universities and corporations according to their expertise fields to carry out lectures and site training. With respect to energy conservation, lectures were given on a `summary of energy saving methods` by a lecturer invited from the Chubu Governmental Department of Trade and Industry, and on an `introduction to new energies` by Prof. Shimizu at the Engineering Faculty of the Mie University. Both lecturers emphasized the necessity of energy conservation, and importance of new energies as clean energies. The trainees showed strong interest when they visited a `cement factory` and a `coal burning thermal power plant` as the key industries. Their experience would be reflected strongly on guiding operations of factories in their own countries. 56 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  12. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...

  13. Voices of the Banned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2017-01-01

    In Western cities, public authorities are increasingly resorting to the use of patron banning orders as means of reducing alcohol and other drug-related harms in nightlife. While the use of banning orders is often hailed by authorities, due to their presumed deterrent and crime reduction effects...

  14. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  15. Welfare improving product bans

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanoğlu, Uğur Toker; Doganoglu, Ugur Toker; İnceoğlu, Fırat; Inceoglu, Firat

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a model of vertical differentiation to evaluate the welfare effects of removing a low quality product from the market. The mechanism through which a welfare improvement might arise is simple: Once the low quality low cost alternative is banned, entry into the high quality segment becomes more likely. This in turn may lead to a significant reduction in the price of the high quality product. We find that such a ban might improve aggregate welfare when consumers value the higher qua...

  16. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  17. Radiation survey ship banned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S. (Nuclear Free Zones Scotland, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    Nuclear Free local authorities in Scotland have set up an environmental pollution survey to determine the radioactivity levels in parts of coastal Britain. The monitoring was to be carried out by a Russian research ship, the 'Akademik Boris Petrov'. However, because the ship is Russian and memories of the cold war die hard, the ship was banned from entering British waters. The ship is capable of detecting the presence of military warheads and nuclear reactions and so could be considered as a spying threat. (UK).

  18. FY 1999 survey report on the cooperative basic project on the heightening of international energy consumption efficiency. Cooperative survey project in energy conservation/environmental protection fields in developing countries (Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru sho energy kankyo hozen bun'ya kyoryoku chosa jigyo (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Tai, Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the pollution preventive administration, clean energy technology, etc. in fields of energy conservation technology, clean energy technology and environment in Japan, administrative officials, researchers and engineers in the fields concerned in Asian countries were invited to Japan for training with the aim of the technology transfer/spread to developing countries. In FY 1999, a total of 15 administrative officials and engineers were invited from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and had training at International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The themes for training are as follows: tackles with energy conservation/environmental protection by the Japanese government administration, pollution preventive measures against automobile gas emissions, pollution preventive measures against industrial gas emissions/waste water, technology for energy conservation, technology for industrial waste disposal, technology for recycling of wastes, etc. Reports were also made public on the situations of the countries participated in the project. Moreover, the field training was made at Yokkaichi complex, Sakakibara wind power plant, Hekinan thermal power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Toyota Motor Corp., etc. (NEDO)

  19. Basic survey project of advanced efficiency of energy consumption in developing countries. Engineer invitation project from developing countries such as Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippine, Chugoku, Tai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For contributing to the promotion of energy saving and environmental conservation, eighteen officers and engineers were invited to Japan during the period between January 14th and 23rd in 1997, from Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand. This report summarizes the invitation project for training conducted under a theme `Energy saving and environmental conservation.` Lectures were given concerning activities of global environmental conservation by NEDO, history and measures of overcoming the Yokkaichi pollution, outline of new energy, outline of energy saving, outline of basic environment law, outline of final industrial waste treatment facilities, and global environmental issues. Site training was conducted at Hekinan Thermal Power Station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fujiwara Works of Onoda-Chichibu Cement Co., Ltd., and Yokkaichi Works of Kyowa Petroleum and Chemistry Co., Ltd. Questions and answers were exchanged. The new energy and energy saving were impressive, and were new concept for the trainees. This project was considered to be continued. The inspection of works was also well received, which was considered to be continued

  20. India bans female feticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Z

    1994-08-13

    About 70% of all abortions performed in Delhi, India, are terminations due to the fetus being female. Private clinics make a profit out of offering sex determination tests. The new bill (the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill) introduced in Lok Sabha by Deputy Health Minister Pawan Singh Ghatowatr would stop "sex determination shops" from helping parents and medical practitioners terminate female pregnancies. Prenatal diagnostic tests would be administered only to detect genetic and congenital abnormalities. Physicians would not be allowed to reveal the sex of the fetus unless it was linked to a sex disorder. Women's rights groups have campaigned for such a bill that forbids prenatal sex determination. Abortions based on the sex of the fetus are currently banned under Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution as a violation of women's rights. The new bill would punish doctors who offer to identify the sex of the fetus by taking their names off the official medical register and imprisoning them for 3 years and fining them 10,000 rupees or 200 pounds. Pregnant women who undergo tests would also be punished with the same fine and prison term. Dr. Geeta Dwivedi, a medical physician with the Lucknow branch of the India Family Planning Association, reported that few tests are conducted for the sake of the health and well-being of the fetus. Female feticide is practiced because girls are viewed as an economic burden due to dowry practices and male children are valued for old age support and carrying on the family trade. The sex ratio in India is 927 women to 1000 men. The problem with the new legislation is enforcement, which would require oversight of as many as 2000 clinics in Delhi alone. It is anticipated that clinics would be uncooperative in complying with such a law because their self-interest is at stake.

  1. EPA Collaboration with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietnam, one of Asia’s emerging economies, is an important environmental partner for EPA in Asia. EPA’s current cooperation with Vietnam primarily focuses on dioxin remediation and technical assistance to reduce methane emissions.

  2. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  3. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  4. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  5. Vietnam Urban Wastewater Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing the challenge of trying to keep pace with increasing environmental pollution associated with rapid urbanization, especially in the larger cities. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has made considerable effort to develop urban sanitation policies, legislations and regulations, and to invest in urban sanitation including wastewater treatment systems. This st...

  6. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  7. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Jones, V.M.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  8. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Omnibus Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-28

    THE CORPORATION Oct r DEN BIEN PHIU * HANOI C0 A Study of Ste ic Lessons Learned EXECUTIVE S MARY BAN METHUOT 0 ; I= T1"-: 1 document hc, been app ov...VIETNAM FORMALLY DIEN BIEN PHI) CONSTITUTIPW wII~~qE RETE SFAF9 PROMULGATED FRANCE TREATY DIEM’SP RECOGNIZES VN ASSUMES SIGNED FRENCH HIOH WINS PARL VIETNAM...NHU AND BEGINS COMUN q IN PARIS 1:(MC.UDF.. DECIDES TO ASSASSINATED REINFORCINGATAIOVR IR SUPPORT WAR NLFIPLAF.ATCKOE OF NAT’L LIBERATION DIRECTS

  9. Attempted suicide in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thanh, Huong

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...

  10. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's communes. December 16, 2010. Image. Michelle Hibler. In Vietnam, a .... The strategy, he says, is to concentrate assistance on vulnerable groups, like women-headed households, widows, and invalids. There are 41 such deprived households in Gia Son.

  11. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  13. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  15. Do Smoking Bans Improve Neonatal Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Scott; Tarasenko, Yelena

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the effects of smoking bans on neonatal health outcomes and maternal smoking behavior during pregnancy. Restricted-use 1991-2009 Natality Detail Files, a Clean Air Dates Table Report, and the Tax Burden of Tobacco. A quasi-experimental study using difference-in-differences estimation based on legislative history of smoking restrictions or bans by type/place/county/state level. Dependent variables included average monthly percentage of healthy neonates, of term neonates born with low and very low birth weight, of premature births, of maternal smokers, and average number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy. The analyses were restricted to singleton births and those that occurred in the same county as mother's county of residence. The data from three data sources were combined using Federal Information Processing Standard codes. Results of the overall and stratified by maternal smoking status, educational level, and age regression analyses suggested no appreciable effect of smoking bans on neonatal health. Smoking bans had also no effect on maternal smoking behavior. While there are health benefits to the general population from smoking bans, their effects on neonatal health outcomes and maternal smoking during pregnancy seem to be limited. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. VIETNAM: 'N BLOEDIGE LEERSKOOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 Apr 1975 ... The Republic of South Vietnam collapsed in a heap of chaos, and brought to an end a war that spanned three decades. It was also the United. States of America's first major defeat. This article provides insight into the reasons for the defeat. Inleiding. Die onvoorwaardelike oorgawe van Suid-Viet- nam op 30 ...

  17. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , began offering Internet and e-mail. Netnam thrives to this day as a private company run by the original. IDRC-supported team. In the early 2000s, Vietnam's Fisheries. College No. 4 and Canada's College of the North Atlantic created the ...

  18. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRCinternAtionAl DeveloPMent reSeArCh Centre. IDRC in Vietnam. IDRC support is helping: □ Disadvantaged groups, including women, access natural resources. □ Migrant women protect their rights. □ Small poultry producers reduce risk under new bird flu controls. □ Farmers find alternatives to growing tobacco.

  19. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  20. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, Vietnam evolved from `war after war' to an emerging economy with an attractive foreign investment policy and commitment to a liberalized economy. Although the GDP per capita is still considerably lower than in the Asian Tiger economies, and the institutional framework...

  1. Workplace smoking ban effects on unhappy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaisemartin, Clément; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; le Faou, Anne-Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Economists usually draw a distinction between smokers. They distinguish 'happy addicts' à la Becker-Murphy from 'unhappy addicts' who state that smoking is a mistake and call for some help to quit. When evaluating tobacco control policies, it might be important to distinguish their effects on those two types of population. Indeed, such policies are welfare improving only if they help unhappy addicts to quit. We investigate the effect of the French workplace smoking ban on a sample of presumably 'unhappy addicts', smokers who consult tobacco cessation services. We show that the ban caused an increase in the demand for such services, and that this increase was larger in cold and rainy areas. It also induced an increase in the percentage of successful attempts to quit. Workplace smoking bans might be welfare improving since they seem to help 'unhappy addicts' to reconcile their behavior with their preferences. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  3. Football Banning Orders, Proportionality and Public Order

    OpenAIRE

    Stott, Clifford; Pearson, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reductio...

  4. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  5. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...

  7. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    projects (the majority of them in South and South East Asia); focusing in Vietnam on climate change planning and carbon sequestration markets . 33...enhancement for dairy cattle. 21 In the parallel line of effort, MNRE’s priorities for adaptation programs are agriculture, forestry, coastal zone management...Climate change assistance,” AusAID, 13 June 2013, accessed 15 October 2013, http://www.ausaid.gov.au. 33 IFAD, “ Planning for Climate Change in

  8. Teaching in Vietnam

    CERN Multimedia

    Vitale,B

    1974-01-01

    Monsieur B.Vitale porte depuis plusieurs années un grand interêt aux questions d'enseignement dans les pays du tiers monde et a recemment eu l'occasion de faire un séjour dans la république démocratique du Vietnam. Il va nous faire part de ses impressions dans le domaine de l'enseignement, qu'il a vu, entrevu et essayé de comprendre

  9. DINAMIKA PERDAGANGAN BERAS VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Agus Dwi; Jamhari, Jamhari; Mulyo, Jangkung Handoyo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study is to analyze the performance of export-import, competitiveness and the factors affecting export-import of Vietnam rice. Type of data used is secondary data of 1980-2009. To determine the fluctuation of export-import trade were applied trend and trade specialization ratio. To find out the analysis of competitiveness were run revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and acceleration ratio (AR). To investigate the factors affecting the export and import used error correction ...

  10. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  11. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  12. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  13. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Pham Manh [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sebesvari, Zita [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany); Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Renaud, Fabrice G., E-mail: renaud@ehs.unu.edu [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: > Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. > Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. > Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. > Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. > Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  14. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  15. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  16. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  17. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  18. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  19. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  20. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Vietnam, a community-based monitoring system builds on existing official poverty surveys to better target the poor. The additional data has led to improvements in communities, and in the lives of women in particular.

  1. Asbestos: use, bans and disease burden in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Kim, Rokho; Jiang, Ying; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Park, Eun-Kee; Rantanen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse national data on asbestos use and related diseases in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods For each of the 53 countries, per capita asbestos use (kg/capita/year) and age-adjusted mortality rates (deaths/million persons/year) due to mesothelioma and asbestosis were calculated using the databases of the United States Geological Survey and WHO, respectively. Countries were further categorized by ban status: early-ban (ban adopted by 2000, n = 17), late-ban (ban adopted 2001–2013, n = 17), and no-ban (n = 19). Findings Between 1920–2012, the highest per capita asbestos use was found in the no-ban group. After 2000, early-ban and late-ban groups reduced their asbestos use levels to less than or equal to 0.1 kg/capita/year, respectively, while the no-ban group maintained a very high use at 2.2 kg/capita/year. Between 1994 and 2010, the European Region registered 106 180 deaths from mesothelioma and asbestosis, accounting for 60% of such deaths worldwide. In the early-ban and late-ban groups, 16/17 and 15/17 countries, respectively, reported mesothelioma data to WHO, while only 6/19 countries in the no-ban group reported such data. The age-adjusted mortality rates for mesothelioma for the early-ban, late-ban and no-ban groups were 9.4, 3.7 and 3.2 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Asbestosis rates for the groups were 0.8, 0.9 and 1.5 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Conclusion Within the European Region, the early-ban countries reported most of the current asbestos-related deaths. However, this might shift to the no-ban countries, since the disease burden will likely increase in these countries due the heavy use of asbestos. PMID:25378740

  2. Seismic methods for verifying nuclear test bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Evernden, Jack F.; Cifuentes, Inés

    1983-10-01

    Seismological research of the past 25 years related to verification of a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TIBT) indicates that a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in all environments, including underground explosions, can be monitored with high reliablility down to explosions of very small size (about one kiloton). There would be high probability of successful identification of explosions of that size even if elaborate measures were taken to evade detection. Seismology provides the principal means of detecting, locating and identifying underground explosions and of determining their yields. We discuss a number of methods for identifying detected seismic events as being either explosions or earthquakes including the event's location, depth and spectral character. The seismic waves generated by these two types of sources differ in a number of fundamental ways that can be utilized for identification or discrimination. All of the long-standing issues related to a comprehensive treaty were resolved in principle (and in may cases in detail) in negotiations between the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and Britian from 1977 to 1980. Those negotiations have not resumed since 1980. Inadequate seismic means of verifying a CTBT, Soviet cheating on the 150-kt limit of the Treshold Test Ban Treaty of 1976, and the need to develop and test new nuclear weapons were cited in 1982 by the U.S. government as reasons for not continuing negotiations for a CTBT. The first two reservations, which depend heavily on seismological information, are not supported scientifically. A CTBT could help to put a lid on the seemingly endless testing of new generations of nuclear weapons by both superpowers.

  3. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  4. Vietnam's population: current notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, S E

    1984-06-01

    In an effort to curb the population growth rate, currently estimated at 2.5%/year, the government of Vietnam has stepped up its campaign to implement a national family planning program. 1979 census figures indicate a population of 52.76 million. There is increasing government awareness of the interaction between population growth, employment, and manpower utilization. The demographic realities of Vietnam necessitate a drastic decrease in fertility rates and family size, a redistribution of the population either through internal migration to new economic zones or transborder migration, and a more efficient use of land and exploitation of natural and human resources to support the growing population. Assuming a natural increase rate of less than 2% by 1984-85, the government estimates a total population of nearly 60 million by the end of 1985. It is hoped that a natural growth rate of 1% can be attained in the early 1990s, to achieve a population size below 75 million by the year 2000. However, if the 3-child family remains the norm, the population will approach 80-85 million by 2000. Changes in shortterm fertility patterns seem unlikely without a carefully thought out and sensitively implemented policy involving a deliberate scheme of incentives and disincentives. The Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF) has recognized the need for a more regorous fertility control campaign and has requested that the Council of Ministers set up a coordinated population and family planning structure with direct linkages from Hanoi to provincial governments and communal administrations. Also recommended were regulations on birth control, population targets and norms, and a system of incentives and disincentives. Data from family planning services in Ho Chi Minh City for 1976-82 suggest a recent decline in IUD, condom, and pill users, largely as a result of procurement difficulties. The number of abortions has also declined because of successful family planning education. The ideal family

  5. Teacher Response to Superhero Play: To Ban or Not To Ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brenda J.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that banning superhero play is not most effective means of dealing with children's exposure to inappropriate television. Maintains that valid data on possible increases in classroom superhero play are not available, superhero play may fulfill some developmental functions, and superhero play may provide an opportunity to teach about values…

  6. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  7. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  8. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  9. 16 CFR 1302.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BAN OF EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE CONTACT ADHESIVES § 1302.4 Banned hazardous products. Any extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or semiliquid consumer product as defined in § 1302.3 (b... hazardous product. In addition, any other extremely flammable contact adhesive and similar liquid or...

  10. Relationships between University Professors and Students: Should They Be Banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether universities and colleges should attempt to ban all student-faculty relationships, as many have tried to do. It argues that, because adults have a fundamental right to engage in intimate relationships without interference, supporters of relationship bans must meet a high standard in defending them. But…

  11. BAN-Based m-health Services: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarda, Marianne; Jones, Valerie M.; Stemerding, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The University of Twente and partners are developing and prototyping Body Area networks (BANs) for healthcare. We define a BAN as a network of devices worn on or around the body which communicate amongst themselves and perform a set of services for the user. Our work began with the European

  12. Should Muslim Headscarves Be Banned in French Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    The recent ban of "conspicuous" religious symbols in French state schools has received international attention, especially the uncertainty of whether Muslims will comply with the ban. The issue, however, raises a number of philosophical dilemmas regarding toleration in a liberal democracy, the notion of a "neutral" public space…

  13. The readership for banned literature and its underground networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based primarily on a series of oral interviews with readers, this article examines the circulation of banned literature in apartheid South Africa, exploring how banned books were exchanged, stored, read and discussed in a multitude of unusual ways. This article argues that such modes of circulation can be understood as an ...

  14. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  15. Ospar ban tightens Gordian dumping knot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    1998-08-01

    Since the Ospar (Oslo-Paris convention) ruling which bans the dumping of large offshore steel structures at sea, the North Sea oil and gas industry is having to address the issue of how these extremely heavy and large structure can be brought ashore for recycling or final disposal, and how and by whom the estimated $20 billion cost of this route of decommissioning can be met. Of the existing 123 structures in the Ospar area, only 34 weigh more than the 10,000t cutoff criterion. Other decommissioning issues covered in this series of linked articles include an evaluation of abrasive cutting for severing conductors and piles and the possibility of reopening redundant shipyards as decommissioning centres for offshore platforms. (UK)

  16. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  17. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  18. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  19. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Sugio; Takahashi, Ken

    2017-10-20

    This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  20. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  1. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  2. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  3. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  4. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

        The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  5. A comprehensive ban on nuclear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, R; Ruina, J P

    1972-01-14

    Our foregoing analysis of the role of a comprehensive test ban leads us to the following conclusions. 1) A CTB by itself will have little direct effect on the arms race between the superpowers. It would not hinder their nuclear arms production and deployment nor would it necessarily present a significant obstacle to the development of new nuclear weapons systems, despite limiting the development of new nuclear warhead designs. It can hardly make a dent in the destructive capability of the superpowers or in their ability to step up the pace of the arms race. 2) The chief merits of a CTB reside in the political sphere. It would help promote detente and could help to escalate interest in arms control agreements of broader scope. But in neither of these effects would it be as significant as a successful SALT (strategic arms limitation talks) agreement. The CTB also lingers as a piece of unfinished business since the signing of the LTB in 1963. The question can be and has been raised, "If the superpowers are serious about arms control, why have they not accepted the CTB, which is simple in concept and in form and is also free of serious military risks?" Such doubts about the sincerity of the superpowers' willingness to limit their own arms development will persist as long as there is no CTB. Substantial agreement at SALT would lessen some of this effect too, but would not eliminate it completely. 3) Recent progress in seismic identification has been impressive, and other means of obtaining technical intelligence about nuclear testing have probably also improved greatly. In addition, research on the technical means of on-site inspection has demonstrated its limited effectiveness. Therefore, the role of on-site inspections as an added deterrent to cheating on a CTB has diminished substantially. This is not to say that detection and identification of all nuclear tests is possible now, or ever, but only that on-site inspection would add very little to the other technical

  6. South Africa Imposes Sweeping New Ban on Protest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Helen

    1987-01-01

    The South African government has effectively prohibited all meaningful activities by 17 anti-apartheid organizations, including the South African National Students Congress, the largest and most vocal Black-student organization. Student demonstrations against the ban are reported. (MLW)

  7. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B.; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global. PMID:29181443

  8. Toward an Asbestos Ban in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Lemen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developed countries have banned the use of asbestos, but not the United States. There have, however, been multiple efforts in the US to establish strict exposure standards, to limit asbestos use, and to seek compensation through the courts for asbestos-injured workers’ In consequence of these efforts, asbestos use has declined dramatically, despite the absence of a legally mandated ban. This manuscript presents a historical review of these efforts.

  9. The Effects of Smoking Ban Regulations on Individual Smoking Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Wilkins; David Black; Hielke Buddelmeyer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of smoking behaviour in Australia and investigates what impact smoking ban regulations have, if any, on individual smoking patterns. Such legislation receives a lot of press attention when announced and introduced, but its effect on individuals’ smoking behaviour has received little research attention. The main argument used to motivate the introduction of tougher smoking bans is reducing exposure of non-smokers to second hand smoke. From a public policy pers...

  10. Economics of Antipoaching Enforcement and the Ivory Trade Ban

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin H. Bulte; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    1999-01-01

    A model of elephant conservation that includes illegal poaching, enforcement effort, and legal culling is used to analyze enforcement and elephant populations for alternative policies, with and without legal trade in ivory. Consistent with previous theoretical models, banning trade may increase or decrease equilibrium stocks. As an empirical application, information for Zambia, along with sensitivity analysis, are used to show that the ivory trade ban is more effective in conserving the Afric...

  11. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in ventur...

  12. Launching Nuoc Phan Lan brand in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Huydong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...

  13. Mechanical systems versus smoking bans for secondhand smoke control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Amick, Benjamin C; Gimeno, David; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz M; Delclos, George L; Harrist, Ronald B; Kelder, Steven H; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Ávila, Mauricio

    2012-03-01

    Despite international efforts to implement smoking bans, several national legislations still allow smoking and recommend mechanical systems, such as ventilation and air extraction, to eliminate secondhand smoke (SHS) health-related risks. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of mechanical systems and smoking bans to SHS elimination. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected establishments from 4 Mexican cities (3 with no ban). SHS exposure was assessed using nicotine passive monitors. Establishment characteristics, presence of mechanical systems, and enforcement of smoking policies were obtained through direct observation and self-report. Multilevel models were used to assess relative contributions to SHS reduction. Compared with Mexico City, nicotine concentrations were 3.8 times higher in Colima, 5.4 in Cuernavaca, and 6.4 in Toluca. Mechanical systems were not associated with reduced nicotine concentrations. Concentration differences between cities were largely explained by the presence of smoking bans (69.1% difference reduction) but not by mechanical systems (-5.7% difference reduction). Smoking bans represent the only effective approach to reduce SHS. Tobacco control regulations should stop considering mechanical systems as advisable means for SHS reduction and opt for complete smoking bans in public places.

  14. Universal service policy in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Von Salakpi, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Universal service provision is a key to bridge the digital divide. This paper provides an empirical examination of the Vietnamese universal policy introduced in 2015 for implementation up to 2020. Using the framework of King et al. (1994) the paper analyses the universal services policy in Vietnam...... as well as the policies of broadband development in South Korea and Japan in order to clarify the types of universal service initiatives made in these countries. Furthermore, the paper compares the universal service policy in Vietnam with the broadband development policy in South Korea and in Japan...... in order to evaluate whether the Vietnamese universal policy is efficient. The paper concludes with a discussion of how an effective universal policy can be designed....

  15. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thai-Ha Le

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  16. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  17. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Contamination of persistent organochlorines in sediments from Mekong River Delta, South Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Minh Nguyen; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, A.; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Center for Marine Environmental Studies; Hung, Viet Pham [Hanoi National Univ., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cach, Tuyen Bui [Univ. for Agriculture and Forestry, Hochiminh (Viet Nam)

    2004-09-15

    Mekong River is the longest river in southeastern Asia, which flows a distance of almost 4800 km from China through Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The Mekong River basin with an area of nearly 800 thousand square kilometers is an important habitat for approximately 60 million people. Mekong River delta in South Vietnam, which is inhabited by about 20 million people, is one of the most highly productive agriculture lands in the world. Rice production is major economical sector in Mekong delta contributing half of the rice production in Vietnam - approximately 35 million tons annually. On the other hand, development of agriculture in Mekong delta raised some concern on environmental quality and disturbance on ecosystem. For example, intensive use of organochlorine (OC) insecticides such as DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs may lead to considerable residues in the agriculture land. Moreover, relative persistence of such chemicals together with natural processes like evaporation and run-off, might enhance their ubiquitous distribution in environment, food chains and eventually bio-accumulate in humans. In Vietnam, despite official ban on the usage of OCs on 1995, there have been evidences of recent uses of such chemicals, particularly DDT, throughout the country. It can be anticipated that similar situation may occur in Mekong River delta due to high population density and intensive agriculture activities in this region. Despite this fact, no comprehensive study, to evaluate the status of contamination by persistent OCs in this region, has been made in recent years. In this study, we collected sediments from different locations along Mekong River and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCB and PCBs in order to elucidate the recent contamination status, their usage pattern as well as to evaluate potential pollution sources of these chemicals to the river.

  19. Animal growth promoters: to ban or not to ban? A risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L; Smith, D L; Snary, E L; Johnson, J A; Harris, A D; Wooldridge, M; Morris, J G

    2004-09-01

    The use of antibiotics for animal growth promotion has been controversial because of the potential transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans. Such transfer could have severe public health implications in that treatment failures could result. We have followed a risk assessment approach to evaluate policy options for the streptogramin-class of antibiotics: virginiamycin, an animal growth promoter, and quinupristin/dalfopristin, a antibiotic used in humans. Under the assumption that resistance transfer is possible, models project a wide range of outcomes depending mainly on the basic reproductive number (R(0)) that determines the potential for person-to-person transmission. Counter-intuitively, the benefits of a ban on virginiamycin were highest for intermediate values of R(0), and lower for extremely high or low values of R(0).

  20. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  1. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, pcigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, pcigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking bans in secure psychiatric hospitals and prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Danny H; Rees, Megan A

    2014-09-01

    The proposal of complete smoking bans in closed institutions, such as prisons and psychiatric hospitals, creates a tension between individual "rights" and the health of all members of that community. Smokers in closed institutions generally smoke more, suffer more health consequences and are less likely to quit than smokers in other settings. Complete smoking bans do not cause an increase in behavioural problems, nor do bans cause worsening of mental illness or quality of life. Although infrequently tested, the responsibility of public institutions to protect others from second-hand smoke has usually outweighed any individual "right to smoke" in legal judgments. A substantial cultural shift may be required from considering smoking a "rare pleasure" during detention to the realisation that smoking is the most significant reversible health risk factor for this population. The implementation of complete smoking bans in closed institutions is challenging and requires careful and proactive planning by staff. As complete smoking bans are being considered in many institutions and jurisdictions, this column presents a review of the evidence base and ethical issues involved.

  3. Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo

    2010-05-01

    Negotiations to ban or at least restrict nuclear explosions began not long after the first test was conducted, in the Alamogordo desert of New Mexico on 16 July 1945. In August of that same year, the world witnessed the devastation of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the horrifically destructive power that these weapons are capable of unleashing. Almost 50 years later, the long and tortuous road to negotiating a treaty that comprehensively bans nuclear explosions, whether for alleged peaceful purposes or for weapons development, culminated on 24 September 1996 when the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature. In a surge of enthusiasm, that first day the treaty was signed by more than 70 nations, including the five acknowledged nuclear powers. Addressing the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Bill Clinton described the CTBT as “the longest-sought, hardest-fought prize in the history of arms control.”

  4. Senate follows House in banning funds for needle swaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    The U.S. Senate has approved anti-drug legislation which permanently bans Federal funding for needle-exchange programs. Senator Paul Coverdell of Georgia added the anti-drug legislation to a tobacco bill that is very important to many politicians. During the Senate approval process of this tobacco bill, needle exchange programs were hardly mentioned. If the combined bill reaches the President, it is believed that he will sign it because of the Administration's interest in tobacco legislation. If, however, the tobacco bill is not approved, the funding ban may be attached to other, less controversial legislation.

  5. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  6. The effects of smoking ban regulations on individual smoking rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Wilkins, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of smoking behaviour in Australia and investigates what role smoking ban regulation has, if any, on individual level smoking patterns. The main argument to motivate the introduction of tougher smoking bans is the effect of second hand smoke on non-smokers. From a public policy perspective it is important to know if these policies also affect if a person smokes, or if they only influence when and where people smoke. We use data that tracks individual smoking b...

  7. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Are Partial Workplace Smoking Bans as Effective as Complete Smoking Bans? A National Population-Based Study of Smoke-Free Policy Among Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-05-01

    Although complete workplace smoking bans are generally recommended rather than partial bans, the latter are widespread in many countries, especially Japan. Our objective was to compare complete workplace smoking bans and partial bans for associations with employee smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS)-related discomfort/ill-health. We also evaluated complete bans versus no ban and partial bans versus no ban. Eleven thousand ninety eligible employees (weighted number: 34 353 241) aged 20-64 years in 2011 (response rate: 62.5%) were analyzed using a nationally-representative, population-based cross-sectional study. Adjusted prevalence ratios for self-reported current smoking and SHS-related discomfort/ill-health according to workplace smoke-free policies were calculated, using conventional regression and propensity score (PS) weighting (targeting population of average treatment effect among both treated [TET] and untreated [TEU]). Both conventional regressions and PS weighting analyses showed complete bans were significantly associated with lower prevalence of current smoking and perceived SHS-related discomfort/ill-health among nonsmokers than partial or no ban. In contrast, partial bans were not significantly associated with either outcome compared with no ban. Using several PS trimming levels, we found interesting differences between TET and TEU in a comparison between partial and no ban: that is, significant associations in TET estimations, but none in TEU estimations. Although complete smoking bans were associated with lower levels of employee smoking and SHS-related discomfort/ill-health compared with no smoking ban, partial bans were not. Findings from PS weighting of TEU suggest that partial workplace bans may not be any more effective for Japanese employees than no ban. Therefore, complete bans may be strongly recommended for future implementation, but careful interpretation of the data is necessary because of the cross-sectional study design. © The Author

  9. Cancer incidence in Australian Vietnam veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Horsley, K. [Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (Australia); Hoek, R. van der [Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel participated in the Vietnam Conflict from 1962 to 1973, involving nearly 60,000 personnel, of whom over 500 died during service and 3131 were severely physically wounded. Service in the Vietnam conflict presented distinct health challenges. Besides the hazards of combat conditions for extended periods, herbicides and other toxic chemicals were used extensively. The United States military sprayed more than 76,000,000L of herbicide over Vietnam in their Air Force Ranch Hand and Operation Trail Dust programs. The most heavily used herbicide was Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Since the Vietnam conflict, ex-Service organisations (ESOs) have maintained that Vietnam service adversely affected the health of veterans. Initial studies showed no excess risk attributable to their service. However, more recent studies have shown that Vietnam veterans have excess incidence and mortality rates from several conditions such as cancers and heart disease. This paper describes the first cancer incidence study for all ADF Vietnam veterans.

  10. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  11. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  12. 2376-IJBCS-Article-Bansé Ouédraogo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Sourou, région Nord-Ouest Burkinabè. Bansé OUEDRAOGO1*, Bayala BALE², Sibiri Jean ZOUNDI1 et Laya SAWADOGO2. 1 Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA),. 04 BP 8645 Ouagadougou 04, Burkina Faso. 2Université de Ouagadougou, UFR/SVT, 01 BP 7029 Ouagadougou 01Burkina Faso.

  13. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report

  14. Potential consequences of the immigration ban on the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    On January 27, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order banning the citizens of 7 countries from obtaining US entry visas for the next 90 days. Since the announcement, the news media have devoted a large portion of their coverage to the ban and its political ramifications. There have been arguments made by both sides that the ban will make our country safer, while others have argued that this executive order will result in the weakening of our country and bolstering of our enemies. As a physician-scientist who was born in Iran and immigrated to the US, I will stay away from the politics of this executive order; rather, I want to discuss the impact of the immigration ban on scientific discourse, education, and research programs, and how it may influence the dissemination of knowledge to physicians and scientists in low- and middle-income countries. I will use my own experience as an example of how the educational and scientific systems in this country benefit those who strive to learn in a free and intellectually stimulating environment.

  15. Oral or Parenteral Paracetamol as a Substitute for Banned Dipyrone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) banned the sale and use of dipyronecontaining drugs on 31st December 2005 in Nigeria. This ought to bring about a change in prescription patterns of antipyretic agents and thus promote rational use of these drugs in Nigeria. This was a ...

  16. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the

  17. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  18. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Tolotti,Mariana Travassos; Filmalter, John David; Bach, Pascal; Travassos, Paulo; Seret, Bernard; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs) in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring ...

  19. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  20. Home smoking bans in Finland and the association with child smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, Susanna U; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2008-06-01

    Few studies in Europe have investigated home smoking bans and their association with child smoking. A nationwide survey of 12 to 18-year olds in 2005 (n = 6503, response rate 66%) was used to study home smoking bans in Finland. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study association of home smoking bans and child smoking. Of the respondents, 58% reported a total ban, 27% a partial ban, 4% reported no ban and 10% chose the option 'I cannot say'. The lack of total ban was strongly associated with living in non-intact families, parents' lower educational level, parental smoking and parents' permissive attitude towards child smoking. Moreover, partial or no ban increased the likelihood of being a daily smoker. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the odds ratios (ORs) for children's daily smoking, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, parental smoking and their permissive attitude, were OR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.6] for partial ban and OR 14.3 (8.6-23.7) for no ban. In families where both parents smoked, the adjusted ORs were correspondingly 1.5 (95% CI 0.7-3.0) and 2.9 (95% CI 1.1-7.8). Home smoking bans will contribute towards a reduced risk of child smoking even when parents smoke. Tobacco control legislation needs to be enhanced with measures promoting awareness of the benefits achievable through strict home smoking bans. Families characterized by lower socioeconomic status and smoking parents are particular target groups.

  1. Epidemiology and care of epilepsy in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is often considered the most common serious chronic neurological disorder estimated to affect 50 million people globally. Although the majority of these live in developing countries, data on the epidemiology of epilepsy from such countries are scarce. This is true also for Vietnam. The overall objective of this project, Epidemiology and Care of Epilepsy in Ba Vi (EPIBAVI), was therefore to provide essential epidemiological data on epilepsy in Vietnam as a basis for ...

  2. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Conflicts over Land in Vietnam’s Red River Delta," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, (2007): 317, accessed 6 September 2013, JSTOR . 5...Responsibility and No Rice,”: The Rise and Fall of Agricultural Collectivization in Vietnam,” Agricultural History: vol 82, no. 1, (2008), 54, JSTOR . 18...Performance and Communist Legitimacy,” World Politics, vol. 38 no. 3, (1986): 463, accessed 22 October 2013, JSTOR . 32 Ibid., 463. 33 Elliott

  3. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Vietnam: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.

  4. Tradition and Change in Marriage Payments in Vietnam, 1963-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Knodel, John

    2012-01-01

    Trends and determinants of marriage payments have rarely been examined at the population level despite their plausible implications for the welfare of family and the distribution of wealth across families and generations. In this study, we analyze population-based data from the Vietnam Study of Family Change to document prevalence and directions of marriage payments in Vietnam from 1963 to 2000. We investigate the extent to which structural and policy transformations (particularly market reform and the socialist policy that banned brideprice) influenced the practice of marriage payments as well as estimate how societal changes indirectly impacted payments via their effects on population characteristics. Results indicate that marriage payments surged following market reform but also reveal more nuanced trends and regional differences during earlier years. While the socialist attempts to eradicate brideprice appear to have been moderately successful in the North prior to economic renovation the evidence suggests they were largely unsuccessful in the South. Results suggest that structural and policy change explained most of the observed variations in marriage payments and that changing characteristics of the individuals who married mattered relatively little. We interpret the reemergence of marriage payments as attesting to resilience of traditional values and the unraveling of the socialist agenda, especially in the North, but also as a reflection of economic prosperity associated with market reform.

  5. Tradition and Change in Marriage Payments in Vietnam, 1963–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Knodel, John

    2013-01-01

    Trends and determinants of marriage payments have rarely been examined at the population level despite their plausible implications for the welfare of family and the distribution of wealth across families and generations. In this study, we analyze population-based data from the Vietnam Study of Family Change to document prevalence and directions of marriage payments in Vietnam from 1963 to 2000. We investigate the extent to which structural and policy transformations (particularly market reform and the socialist policy that banned brideprice) influenced the practice of marriage payments as well as estimate how societal changes indirectly impacted payments via their effects on population characteristics. Results indicate that marriage payments surged following market reform but also reveal more nuanced trends and regional differences during earlier years. While the socialist attempts to eradicate brideprice appear to have been moderately successful in the North prior to economic renovation the evidence suggests they were largely unsuccessful in the South. Results suggest that structural and policy change explained most of the observed variations in marriage payments and that changing characteristics of the individuals who married mattered relatively little. We interpret the reemergence of marriage payments as attesting to resilience of traditional values and the unraveling of the socialist agenda, especially in the North, but also as a reflection of economic prosperity associated with market reform. PMID:23833635

  6. Teacher Development: A Real Need for English Departments in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiep, Pham Hoa

    2001-01-01

    Examines English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher training and teacher development in Vietnam. Suggests ways to promote professional development among EFL teachers in Vietnam, which may be applicable to similar situations in other countries. (Author/VWL)

  7. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the world, with particular focus on three serious implications for the public: (a) uncertainty about the physician's interests, namely, that patients must trust the physician to put patient wellbeing ahead of possible gains when taking medical decisions; (b) uncertainty about alternative treatments, namely, that patients must trust in the physician's treatment decisions; and (c) uncertainty about the exclusive patient-physician relationship, namely, that patients must develop and maintain a good relationship with one physician. Physician advertising bans continue to tell the public in most of the modern world that these are irrelevant or inappropriate issues, meaning that they are effectively left to the public to resolve.

  8. Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor.

  9. Capability to Monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In September 1996, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement to ban all nuclear test explosions, now signed by 177 nations. The treaty is intended to impede the development of nuclear weapons as part of the international nonproliferation regime. The treaty is not yet in effect because it has not been ratified by enough countries-including the United States. As a result, many of its verification provisions have not yet been fully implemented. When implemented, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) are confident that the combined worldwide monitoring resources will meet the verification goals of the CTBT.

  10. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  11. Does Banning Carbonated Beverages in Schools Decrease Student Consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Shirlee Lichtman

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to combat childhood obesity, many schools have banned the sale of carbonated beverages on school grounds. I evaluate the effectiveness of these measures by investigating their impact on household carbonated beverage consumption. I match households in Nielsen Homescan Data to their school district’s carbonated beverage policies over the last 10 years. I use variation across school districts in whether the policy was implemented and the timing of the policy, as well as whether th...

  12. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  13. Psychological operations supporting counterinsurgency: 4th Psyop Group in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Vietnam COSVN Central Office for South Vietnam CTZ Corps Tactical Zone DMZ Demilitarized Zone DRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam...agencies in each CTZ due to lack of coordination and centralized control.”29 While these examples do not indicate widespread or egregious issues...commands equivalent to a Corps at the time of the ACTIV survey, III Marine Amphibious Force (MAF) in First Corps Tactical Zone (I CTZ ), First Field

  14. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  15. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  16. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless Kaiser, Anica; Kabat, Daniel H; Spiro, Avron; Davison, Eve H; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2017-12-01

    Relatively little has been written about the military women who served in Vietnam, and there is virtually no literature on deployed civilian women (non-military). We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories. We compare civilian women, primarily American Red Cross workers, to military women stratified by length of service, describe their demographic characteristics and warzone experiences (including working conditions, exposure to casualties and sexual harassment), and their homecoming following Vietnam. We assess current health and well-being and also compare the sample to age- and temporally-comparable women in the General Social Survey (GSS), with which our survey shared some measures. Short-term (Vietnam experience as "highly stressful" than were career (>20 years; 12%) and civilian women (13%). Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ 2 (8) = 643.72, p Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  17. The Determinants and Impact of Private Tutoring Classes in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hai-Anh

    2007-01-01

    Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for both primary students and lower secondary students, and the trend to…

  18. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission...

  19. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  20. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961...

  1. Online comments on smoking bans in psychiatric hospitals units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health concerns are disproportionately affected by and suffer the negative consequences of tobacco use disorder, perhaps because smoking has historically been part of psychiatry's culture. In the early 1990s, psychiatric inpatient facilities were exempted from U.S. hospital smoking bans, in response to public outcry with national media attention. Almost 2 decades later, the current study characterizes online conversation about psychiatric hospital smoking bans. Previous commenting studies have demonstrated commenting's negativity, documenting the "nasty effect" wherein negative comments color perceptions of neutral articles. Thus, we focused particular attention on cited barriers to implementing health-positive smoke-free policies. We collected online comments (N = 261) responding to popular media articles on smoking bans in inpatient psychiatry between 2013 and 2014 and conducted an inductive and exploratory qualitative content analysis. Verifying previous studies documenting the prevalence of negative commenting, of the comments explicitly supporting or refuting psychiatry smoking bans, there were over twice as many con comments (n = 44) than pro (n = 18). Many commenters argued for access to outdoor smoking areas and warned of patient agitation and risk posed to care workers. Identified content themes included psychiatric medication and negative side effects, broken mental health systems and institutions, denigration of the health risks of tobacco in the context of mental illness, typical pro-smoking arguments about "smokers' rights" and alternatives (including e-cigarettes), addiction, and stigma. The current findings provide a platform to begin to understand how people talk about mental health issues and smoking. Our analysis also raised complex issues concerning forces that impact U.S. patients with serious mental illness but over which they have little control, including medication, the U.S. health system, stigma, perceptions that

  2. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, VAN Lun; Pham, Xuan DA; Adler, Peter H

    2017-05-05

    The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country.      Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex

  3. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  4. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  5. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  6. Driver Cellphone and Texting Bans in the United States: Evidence of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T.; Kidd, David G.; Teoh, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all U.S. states have laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use. The evidence suggests that all-driver bans on hand-held phone conversations have resulted in long-term reductions in hand-held phone use, and drivers in ban states reported higher rates of hands-free phone use and lower overall phone use compared with drivers in non-ban states. Bans on all phone use by teenage drivers have not been shown to reduce their phone use. The effects of texting bans on the rates of drivers’ texting are unknown. With regard to the effects of bans on crashes, 11 peer-reviewed papers or technical reports of all-driver hand-held phone bans and texting bans were reviewed. Some were single-state studies examining crash measures before and after a state ban; other national or multi-state studies compared crashes in states with and without bans over time. The results varied widely. The lack of appropriate controls and other challenges in conducting strong evaluations limited the findings of some studies. Thus, despite the proliferation of laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use, it is unclear whether they are having the desired effects on safety. Priorities for future research are suggested. PMID:24776230

  7. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2017-10-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  8. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  9. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Short-term (20 years; 12% and civilian women (13%. Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ2 (8 = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were “very happy”, as compared to 38%. Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  10. Technique de lombriculture au Sud Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting technique in South Vietnam. Earthworms play a major role in organic matter transformation. The vermicomposting allows to combine several advantages: the management of diversified organic wastes, and the production of earthworms and vermicompost. Crop residues and other plant wastes mixed with animal manure from individual farms can be used. In South Vietnam, farmers are rearing some livestock and growing a few number of crop species. From several years, an increasing number of vermicomposting units were set in many farms from the Ho Chi Minh City region. Two kinds of infrastructure materials are used: baked clay blocks or bamboo stems with plastic covers. In South Vietnam, all conditions are pooled to ensure an efficient earthworm production: suitable climate, available organic wastes and materials to build the vermicomposting structures. Both field plot fertility and protein feed for livestock (pigs, poultry, etc. can be provided by rearing earthworms.

  11. The proving grounds: combat nursing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Jeanne J

    2003-01-01

    The profession of nursing has been greatly influenced by war, and the heroic nature of the work of nursing is often emphasized during war. The purpose of this research was to examine the stories of nurses' experiences during combat in Vietnam and identify themes that would corroborate, refute, or expand prior historical research. A content analysis to determine recurrent themes was performed on 18 oral histories of military nurses who served in Vietnam that were previously collected and published. Analysis of these collections of oral histories was conducted, and thick quotes contextualize and substantiate the thematic claims. This research confirms the analysis of prior historical research on nursing in Vietnam by finding similar experiences recorded in oral histories and further claims that an authentic professional identity is often forged during the hardships and heroic opportunities of war.

  12. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    This monograph documents the 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam. The initialization and calibration of the model is based on a financial 2003 SAM framework and an auxiliary 2002-3 data set. The recursive nature of the solution of the Merged Model is discussed with reference to the four main sectors...... domestic credit, private domestic credit, and private net foreign debt, are discussed with reference to historical time series data. Accordingly, the current monograph facilitates the future implementation of the Merged Model for Vietnam by going through the main considerations necessary...

  13. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  14. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Vietnam : Les communes du Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Les communes du Vietnam progressent grâce à l'information Au Vietnam, un système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté s'appuie sur des enquêtes officielles afin de mieux cibler les pauvres. Les données supplémentaires permettent d'améliorer la vie des collectivités, celle des femmes en particulier.

  15. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 2. South Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Republic of Vietnam, particularly the ancient capital of Hue, wnich has historic and psycho-sociological signifi- cance. The major land routes into the...of Southeast Asia. They did, however, change the topography to a remarkable extent. Rome plowing cleared vegetation from the sides of main supply...foreign aid bill which augured possible decreased resistance to :Nortl] Vietnam. 19/ As a sign of support for the military junta which replaced Diem

  16. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    OpenAIRE

    Montini, Theresa; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists wh...

  17. Doing minority justice through procedural fairness: face veil bans in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ouald Chaib, Saïla; Brems, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The French and Belgian bans on face veils in public places have been subjected to strong substantive human rights critiques. This article takes a complementary approach, examining the bans from the perspective of procedural fairness. Indeed, the French and Belgian bans are extreme examples of legislative processes taking place above the heads of the people concerned, neglecting the ban’s possible human rights impact. After exploring what the social psychology notion of procedural fairness ent...

  18. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  19. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  20. Perceptions of the solarium ban in Australia: 'Fake it, don't bake it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wilson, Carlene; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Rayner, Joanne; Makin, Jen

    2015-08-01

    The causal link between ultraviolet radiation from solarium use and skin cancer is well established. In 2012 and 2013, state governments across Australia announced plans to ban commercial solarium use from 31 December 2014. The present study examined the responses of solarium and non-solarium users to the ban on commercial solariums in Australia. Participants (n = 488; 388 females, 100 males; mean age = 26.02, s.d. = 9.95) completed an online questionnaire during the summer prior to the ban relating to solarium usage and their opinions about the ban. Overall, 49% (n = 237) of participants were aware of the impending ban; 17% (n = 83) had used a solarium at some point in their life. The response to the solarium ban was positive; however, some current solarium users intended post-ban to use privately owned sunbeds and or spend a greater amount of time sun-tanning. These findings indicate a high level of public support for the solarium ban, which has removed a risky source of ultraviolet radiation in Australia. SO WHAT? Further steps are now needed to monitor the tanning behaviours of previous solarium users post-ban and their access to private sunbed use and other potentially dangerous methods of tanning (e.g. tanning injections).

  1. The opinion of catering sector about the smoking ban and the evaluation of establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Çelik, Deniz; İnönü Köseoğlu, Handan; Etikan, Ilker; Çetin, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the knowledge and perspective of employees/employers in the catering sector in our city regarding the smoking ban, as well as to determine the changes in the number of customers and income after the bans implementation. In this two phased cross-sectional study 337 and 310 adults were evaluated respectively. Before the smoking ban was implemented we visited 84 workplaces in city center, after 18 months later 97 workplaces were visited in the same region. In both phases, the participants' opinions about the necessity/applicability of the ban were evaluated. In the second phase, they were also asked whether they had any changes in their income. In both phases, participants' general characteristics were similar. When all participants were evaluated, we determined that their knowledge and belief in the necessity/applicability of the ban did not change over time. It was determined that non-smokers more strongly believed in the necessity/applicability of the ban. Thirty-eight participants were included in both phases; 44.7% of them reported a decrease in the number of customers, and 60% of employers reported an increase in their income. The smokers were less convinced about the applicability/necessity of this ban than non-smokers. According to our results it could be said that smoking can also adversely affect implementation of the related ban. Employers should be informed that the ban will not affect their income.

  2. Support for indoor bans on electronic cigarettes among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Stephanie K; Rogers, Brooke G; Hooper, Monica Webb

    2014-11-25

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June-September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%). RESULTS demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  3. Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria F; Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N

    2008-06-01

    The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban.

  4. Seismology and the Test Ban: A new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Gregory E.

    1995-07-01

    As many nations push for an indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, international pressure for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is simultaneously increasing. Advocates of a CTBT argue that a complete ban on nuclear testing by all nations will prevent the development of more advanced nuclear weapons, de-emphasize the importance of nuclear weapons for national security, and reduce the discriminatory nature of the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime. While it is generally recognized that nuclear testing is not a technical requirement for developing at least a simple fissile weapon, many argue that a CTBT will provide an unambiguous context in which other, more direct, restrictions can be implemented. In negotiating a CTBT, however, provisions must be made to ensure that the benefits of the treaty are not outweighed by undiscovered violations, should they occur. Because the development of such provisions requires value judgments as to the benefits of the treaty and the costs of undetected violations, verification has always been a sensitive issue for a CTBT [van der Vink and Paine, 1992

  5. Egyptian government broadens ban on female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An estimated 70-90% of girls in Egypt are subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) before reaching puberty. Many Egyptians believe the practice to be ordained by Islam. Whether this is true, however, remains an issue of debate among Muslim scholars. Some Egyptian Christians also secure FGM for their girls. Egyptian law prohibits anyone without medical training from performing FGM, and any physician or health worker who causes permanent damage to a girl may face 3-10 years of hard labor. However, the law is frequently ignored, especially in rural areas, where village barbers and midwives perform the operations. In October 1995, Egyptian state hospitals were banned from performing FGM. Egypt has since broadened its ban to bar all health care workers in both state-run hospitals and private clinics from performing the procedure. No health care worker affiliated with the Ministry of Health is therefore allowed to perform FGM. Almost all Egyptian doctors are affiliated with the Ministry. While this recent move by the Health Minister is laudable, it remains to be seen whether he can enforce it. The secretary-general of the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights has urged parliament to enact legislation criminalizing FGM.

  6. [Laws that ban smoking in indoor places in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Avila-Tang, Erika; Stillman, Frances A; Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    Recently Mexico passed federal and state-level laws banning smoking in indoor spaces. These actions are totally in accordance with measures proposed in the WHO-FCTCs article 8, ratified by Mexico in 2004. This essay reviews scientific evidence that secondhand smoke causes both chronic and acute diseases among non smokers, children and adults. There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke, so the only effective intervention to protect Mexican people from such harmful exposure is by promoting 100% smoke free indoor air, as the two new laws do. Total banning of smoking is associated with reduction in smoking prevalence, amount of cigarette smoked per day, and an increase in cessation rates. Reductions in acute respiratory symptoms and hospitalization of acute myocardial infarction have been also reported. Well documented examples show that main tobacco industry arguments against smoke free policy: negative economic impact and lack of support from the public, are unjustified. These two laws strengthen the Mexican tobacco control program. Next steps include their implementation, evaluation, enforcement of compliance and encouragement for similar laws at state level.

  7. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  8. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  9. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  10. Which Vietnam Veterans Develop Posttraumatic Stress Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solkoff, Norman; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Vietnam combat veterans diagnosed as having Postraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) differed significantly in the intensity of their combat experiences and their perceptions of their homecoming experiences from controls who were also combat veterans. Neither early history nor immediate preservice factors differentiated the two groups. (Author/KS)

  11. Ecological Effects of the War in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orians, Gordon H.; Pfeiffer, E. W.

    1970-01-01

    Research report on the severe ecological consequences of the defoliation program by American military forces in Vietnam. A significant fraction of mature trees in most forests are killed by single application of herbicides and almost completely killed by repeated sprayings. AAAS is urged to set up an international research program on the…

  12. Looking at the Vietnam War through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lisa S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a lesson plan in which history students discuss the effects of the Vietnam War on individuals and society. Explains that the students compare their responses before and after hearing a reading of two different works on the war. Includes suggested readings and questions for students to use in interviewing people in the community. (DK)

  13. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  14. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  15. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  16. Development research in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC Communications. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION. Vietnam has embarked on a far-reaching transition of unusual character — an attempt to transform the country's economy, through market liberalization, without altering its centralized political structure. Doi Moi, (roughly, “reconstruction”), the term ...

  17. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  18. Vietnam : Export Performance in 1999 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Changes in trade policies have been an essential component of the "doi moi" policy implemented by the Government of Vietnam since 1986. Over the years, most export quotas have been lifted and export taxes have been reduced to generally low levels. In addition, export activities by the private sector (both domestic and foreign) have been increasingly encouraged, thus breaking the trade mono...

  19. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals

  20. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... ... (mobile health) program to reach these remote populations. Tested in eight communes in the mountainous Dinh Hoa district of Thai Nguyen province in northeastern Vietnam, mMOM has increased women's awareness, knowledge, and compliance with advice for a healthy pregnancy and newborn care.

  1. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  2. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  3. Journalism Training in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…

  4. Vietnam, 1964-1973: An American Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    1978. (E 183.8 .V5 B29 1978) Barrett, D. M. ’The Mythology Surrounding Lyndon Johnson, His Advisers, and the 1965 Decision to Escalate the Vietnam War...H. Th ater Offensive, Vitam, 1172. Novato: Presidio, 1985. (DS 557.8 .E23 T87 1985) Turley. G. B., and M. R. Wells. ’ Easter Invasion 1972.’ M ine

  5. Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chien, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam (Summary for the library) Effective conservation of threatened tree species requires information on natural dynamics and future prospects of populations of these species. Such information can be obtained from demographic studies. We investigated the

  6. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Networks at their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the logics of similarity and continuity are expressions of Vietnam's distance from global networks. Vietnam is currently in a period of rapid economic trans...

  8. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  9. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  10. 47 CFR 73.2090 - Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ban on discrimination in broadcast transactions. 73.2090 Section 73.2090 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2090 Ban on...

  11. The Effects of a Sunday Liquor Sales Ban on DUI Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Jan; Thyer, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined Sunday ban on sales of alcohol in terms of its effects on incidence of arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). Both visual and statistical analyses supported the contention that the sales ban was effective in reducing the incidence of DUIs. Findings illustrate further extension of behavior analysis to the evaluation of…

  12. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  13. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS...

  14. Coming This Fall to a School Library near You: The Challenged, the Banned, and the Filtered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Important happenings related to the concept of intellectual freedom (IF) coincide with the annual back-to-school ramp up. This article discusses how to use the summer hiatus to develop learning opportunities related to events such as Banned Books Week (BBW) and Banned Websites Awareness Day (BWAD). The author provides resource information to aid…

  15. 16 CFR 1305.4 - Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Artificial fireplace ash and embers as... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF ARTIFICIAL EMBERIZING MATERIALS (ASH AND EMBERS) CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1305.4 Artificial fireplace ash and embers as banned hazardous products. On...

  16. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  17. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  18. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  19. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Kim Chi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

  20. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  1. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The effects of a prison smoking ban on smoking behavior and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Kristeller, Jean L

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated symptoms of distress and nicotine dependence as predictors of nicotine withdrawal symptoms among 188 incarcerated male smokers during a mandated smoking ban. Participants completed a smoking history questionnaire and measures of nicotine dependence, withdrawal, cravings, and distress before the ban and two follow-up times. The majority of smokers (76%) continued to smoke following the smoking ban. Smokers after the ban were more nicotine dependent than were the participants who reported quitting. Smokers also reported more withdrawal symptoms than did participants who quit, even when accounting for nicotine dependence and baseline withdrawal scores. An interaction was found such that distressed smokers had the highest level of nicotine withdrawal. These results have implications for how smoking bans are instituted in prison settings.

  3. A holistic approach to assessing the impact of a smoke-free ban in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Brad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A smoke-free ban in full compliance with FCTC recommendations entered into force in Romania as of March 2016, after an intense advocacy effort and with strong argumentation support provided by international tobacco control organizations. The ban has been under heavy challenge from policy-makers and interest groups including a constitutional appeal and two attempts to relax its' provisions. As such, fundamentation of the benefits and direct impact of the smoke-free ban on health, economic and social indicators became a crucial defense pillar. As of September 2016, part of the 2035 Tobacco-Free Romania Initiative project, funded by a grant from Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, several research polls and studies have been conducted to assess the ban's impact. Subsequent external communication to decision makers and media increased the awareness of the positive impact of the ban and helped adress its' key critical challenge areas.

  4. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  5. The effects of eliminating alcohol in a college stadium: the Folsom Field beer ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, C A; Stone, M H

    2001-09-01

    In fall 1996, the University of Colorado at Boulder instituted a ban on beer sales at football games. To evaluate the effects of the ban, the authors collected two types of data: first, they examined the effects of the ban on game-day security incidents; second, they looked at survey data from season ticket holders and students. They administered the surveys after the first two postban seasons to assess ticket holders' attitudes about the new policy. The incident data they found indicated dramatic decreases in arrests, assaults, ejections from the stadium, and student referrals to the judicial affairs office following the ban. Survey data also indicated moderately negative attitudes about the ban among students and some season ticket holders. However, all fans were likely to renew their tickets regardless of their attitudes toward the policy. The study illustrates what can be achieved when alcohol is eliminated from a setting that frequently fosters disorderly and aggressive behaviors.

  6. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  7. Description of two new Calicnemia from Vietnam and central Laos with notes on their congeners in Vietnam (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom; Karube, Haruki

    2017-02-16

    Descriptions are given of two new species of Calicnemia: C. akahara sp. nov. from central and southern Vietnam and C. hamata sp. nov. from central Laos. C. soccifera Yu & Chen, 2013, and C. haksik Wilson & Reels, 2003, are recorded for the first time from Vietnam; C. uenoi Asahina, 1997, is redescribed with new illustrations provided of its anal appendages and genital ligula; and the occurrence of C. mortoni (Laidlaw, 1917) in Vietnam is discussed.

  8. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Hoang Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Thanh; Cazelles, Bernard; Boni, Maciej F.; Thai, Khoa T.D.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Quang, Luong Chan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Huu, Tran Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1–3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50–100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation. PMID:23735713

  10. Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    was so fl uent in Arabic that during interrogations he would frequently utilize diff erent regional dialects of Arabic to convince prisoners that he...Cary’s success was due in large part to his ability to communicate with the natives using Japanese slang as opposed to the more formal dialect ...Tourison form the corpus of literature pertaining to interrogation in Vietnam. Th ey off er a nuanced and comprehensive depiction of counterinsurgency

  11. Determinants of Elderly Poverty in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Thanh Long; Pfau, Wade Donald

    2008-01-01

    By using household data in 2004, this paper identifies the determinants of the elderly poverty in Vietnam. We find that urban and rural elderly are substantially different, and thus they should be analyzed separately. The results for urban areas generally show that higher ages, unmarried status, residential regions, and working status have significant impacts on the likelihood of poverty for the elderly. In rural areas, higher ages, female, unmarried status, ethnic minorities, residential reg...

  12. Vietnam: A Failure of Strategy and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    boundaries set by civilian leadership . Likewise, it also presents a case study in the absolute necessity for military leaders to address policy limitations ...but was within limitations set by civilian leadership . Likewise it would have been incumbent upon General Westmoreland to analyze what he was... limited approach by communist leadership in Hanoi where the stated objected was a unified Vietnam. Nixon and his team immediately initiated planning to

  13. Planning Joint Vietnam Ocean Circulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    We intend to make new Lagrangian and Eulerian observations to measure the seasonal circulation 1) in the coastal waters of Vietnam and 2) in the SCS...circulation models of the SCS and its coastal waters . Raise interest amongst Vietnamese scientists on Lagrangian circulation studies through multiple...an inexpensive micro-controller unit (MCU) was designed with support circuitry for onboard GPS, 5 SST, drogue detection, external barometer

  14. Land governance of suburban areas of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    After the Doi Moi (‘renovation’) reforms in Vietnam from 1986, land ownership rules were adjusted, effectively terminating former land collectivisation efforts. While land ownership remained fully under the control of the state, a 1993 land law conferred 20-year leaseholds to most farmers. They could now utilize farm land individually, and sell, swap and mortgage the land in a situation similar to private ownership. These leaseholds are now expiring and a new 2013 land law is in the making. T...

  15. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  16. Flexibility, Reach, and the Vietnam Fire Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Zone MAAG Military Assistance Advisory Group MACV Military Assistance Command Vietnam NVA North Vietnamese Army PB Patrol Base SEATO Southeast...Fire Support Base, Patrol Base ( PB ), Fire Support Patrol Base, Landing Zone (LZ), Camp, and Basecamp. These terms are often interchanged because...significant influence because each base needed a LOC that was reliable. Bases located in wetlands operated differently than those in remote jungle

  17. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  18. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Hoa, H T; Lap, N T; Diwan, V; Eriksson, B

    1996-06-01

    Vietnam's population policy since the 1980s had stipulated a limit on family size to two children, born 3-5 years apart, and recommends a minimum age of 19 for the mother of a first child. We analysed trends in the timing of marriages and births, and in fertility and abortion rates, among women born between 1945 and 1970, to assess the impact of these policies on reproductive patterns. Reproductive histories were recorded in a random sample of 1432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in northern Vietnam. Mean age at marriage and at birth of the first child, birth intervals, fertility, and abortion rates were examined in relation to the woman's year of birth. Later-born women married and had their first child at a younger age than women born earlier. Birth intervals had increased among later-born women but 25% still had only a 1-year interval between first and second child. Fertility had gradually decreased while abortion ratios had increased rapidly. Childbearing patterns had become "earlier, longer, and fewer" rather than "later, longer, and fewer" as stipulated by the policies. The results also show that women with more schooling married and had their first child later. Women involved in farming had shorter spacing between children. There are signs that Vietnam's population policy has focused too strongly on contraception and abortion while ignoring the connection between fertility and women's opportunities for education and employment. In these respects, rural women are at particular risk.

  19. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: the limits of local discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montini, Theresa; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-12-08

    In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  20. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  1. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  2. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  3. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions of...

  4. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  5. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Jean-Paul; Garin, Nicolas; Gerstel, Eric; Carballo, Sebastian; Carballo, David; Keller, Pierre-Frédéric; Guessous, Idris

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]). We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]). Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  6. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  7. Fostering Response to Vietnam War Literature through the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a unit on the literature of the Vietnam War (part of a college course called "Twentieth Century War Literature") which uses the arts to enhance student learning. Discusses activities and assignments in which students create visual representations, conduct research, and prepare oral reports on the Vietnam War literature they…

  8. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  9. Regional year-round sypply of vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,

    2008-01-01

    A discussion is presented about the patterns in the present year-round supply of vegetables to large cities in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam. Especially during the hot summer season, vegetables are supplied from Dalat in South Vietnam or from Kunming Province in China. Generally speaking,

  10. Education and Inequalities in Rural Vietnam in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of children's schooling during the 1990s in rural areas of Vietnam. It focuses on the impact of family attributes on the likelihood of children remaining in school or leaving during the primary and secondary school years. Using data from the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) of 1992-93 and 1997-98, the…

  11. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has…

  12. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  13. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  14. A Map Exercise for Teaching About the War in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Douglas E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a two-part exercise exploring Vietnam's ethnic and political geography as a way for college geography students to examine the lessons of Vietnam. Students analyze maps for geographic factors affecting nationalism and political changes between 1946-68. (AM)

  15. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  16. Explaining the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam, 1965 Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-05

    time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, Eisenhower referred to the situation in the often to be repeated "falling dminoes" vein. Indeed, Ho Chi Minh’s...Secret History in Vietnam War Literature." ConteMporarv Literature, 22 (Spring 1981), 187--204. Morris, S.J. "Vietnam Under Comunism ." _g stgrj, 74 (Sept

  17. Corporate governance in Vietnam : a system in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Hai, Bui Xuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the development of company law and corporate governance in Vietnam – a transitional economy in South East Asia. It argues that corporate governance is a newly introduced concept but has become increasingly important in Vietnam, especially by the introduction of the new company legislation in 2005.

  18. Masculinity and Punishment: Men's Upbringing of Boys in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines men's use of physical punishment when interacting with their sons or grandsons in rural Vietnam. By drawing on two periods of anthropological fieldwork in a northern Vietnamese commune, the article analyses the ways in which violence is informed by, while also perpetually reinforcing, a masculine discourse. Vietnam has…

  19. High tuberculosis prevalence in a psychiatric hospital in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duc, L.; Vree, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Phuc, L. T.; Sy, D. N.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in psychiatric hospitals in Vietnam, but prevalence may be higher than in the general population. We assessed the TB prevalence among in-patients of a psychiatric hospital in 2005 in Danang City, Vietnam. Of 300 in-patients, 70 had an abnormal X-ray

  20. Strategies for Long Term Economic Growth in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Report Vietnam," EBSCO Host, April 4, 2013, Accessed September 6, 2013, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=86710391&-site...IHS Global Insight. "Country Report Vietnam." EBSCO Host. April 4, 2013. Accessed September 6, 2013. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct

  1. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the

  2. Latent Classes of PTSD Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M.; Nickerson, Angela; Maguen, Shira; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Nash, William P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom presentation among veterans (n = 335) participating in the clinical interview subsample of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinically homogeneous subgroups of Vietnam War combat veterans. Consistent with…

  3. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  4. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  5. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Methods/Design Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants’ experience with their health and nicotine addiction. Discussion We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction. PMID:23067295

  6. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  7. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  8. Beyond regulations: industry voluntary ban in arsenic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Lily

    2013-12-15

    Firms play a key role in pollution abatement and control by engaging in beyond-compliance actions without the force of law in voluntary programs. This study examines the effectiveness of a bilateral voluntary agreement, one type of voluntary programs, negotiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the pressure-treated wood industry to phase-out the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a poisonous arsenic compound. Arsenic is ranked number one on the EPA's priority list of hazardous substances. Unlike a majority of earlier studies on voluntary programs, dynamic panel estimation and structural break analysis show that while a technological innovation in semiconductors is associated with arsenic use increases, the CCA voluntary agreement is associated with a reduction in arsenic use to levels not seen since the 1920s. A voluntary ban in arsenic acid by pesticide manufacturers in the agriculture sector has also contributed to arsenic reductions. Furthermore, the results suggest that environmental activism has played a role in curbing arsenic use. Increasing stakeholder pressures, as measured by membership in the Sierra Club, improves voluntary agreement effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  10. Fatwa bans abortion of AIDS-affected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    For the first time Muslim scholars took a stand on AIDS and issued draft fatwas. The fatwas ban abortion for mothers suffering from AIDS and decree that AIDS carriers who knowingly transmit the disease should be killed if their victims die. After four days of discussion in Abu Dhabi, some 150 Muslim scholars and sheikhs, who form the Council of Islamic Jurisprudence, took a unanimous stand on AIDS and issued draft fatwas. "Abortion is totally forbidden by Islam", they said, and added that mothers who have AIDS should not be separated from their children and should breast feed and bring up their children, unless a medical report advises against it. The scholars, who represent the Islamic ministries of the Organization of Islamic States decreed that AIDS carriers who knowingly transmit the deadly disease must be given punishments for premeditated murder if the recipient dies. Draft fatwas become law in countries applying the Shariat law and must be issued by the Islamic authorities in the countries concerned. One very important element of the decree was that they stressed that it is unacceptable to isolate AIDS victims. full text

  11. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  12. Implications of the Federal Abortion Ban for Women's Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Tracy A; Yanow, Susan

    2008-05-01

    In 2007, the US Supreme Court upheld the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, also known as the Federal Abortion Ban or "the Ban." The decision undermines decades of established US abortion law that had recognised the preservation of the health of women as a paramount consideration. The Ban asserts that the state's interests in how an abortion is performed and in fetal life override women's rights. It thus further erodes access to safe and legal abortion care. The new law negatively affects evidence-based clinical practice, the training of new providers and clinical innovation. It may also lead to additional legal restrictions on abortion access in the US and has implications for abortion service delivery internationally. Advocates must develop strategies that focus on women's right to control their fertility throughout the trajectory of an unwanted pregnancy.

  13. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ...?" I argue that the competitive, distributive negotiation strategies and tactics used by the United States and pro-ban advocates during the campaign ensured that a negotiated agreement was not reached...

  14. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  15. Public perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Lisa A; Corelli, Robin L; Roth, Andrew P; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2013-11-01

    In October, 2008, legislation was implemented in the city and county of San Francisco, California, prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. To characterise public awareness and perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco community pharmacies. A brief, anonymous survey was used to assess public awareness and perceptions of a ban on tobacco sales approximately 1 year after implementation. Individuals were approached by researchers outside of chain pharmacies in San Francisco. Smokers and non-smokers were included, and participants did not have to be patrons of the pharmacy. Of 198 participants, 56% were in favor of the ban, 27% opposed it and 17% were undecided. A greater proportion of current tobacco users (81%) than former/never users (48%) were aware of the ban (pshopping behaviour at retail pharmacies. In the city and county of San Francisco, public support exists for prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies.

  16. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  17. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  18. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  19. Tobacco industry response to a ban on lights descriptors on cigarette packaging and population outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Daniel; Connolly, Gregory N

    2017-08-04

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its Guidelines recommend nations ban the use of misleading terms, such as 'light' and 'mild' on tobacco product advertising, packaging and labelling. Many nations, including the USA, have implemented such bans and some have introduced or passed legislation requiring plain packaging on tobacco products. We previously reported that manufacturers in the USA responded by replacing lights terms with colour terms and related colour-coding of packages. This study examines population outcomes and public health impact of the US ban. We examined available data regarding a) per cent filter ventilation strata used to designate lights subbrand categories; b) market share per tar yield; c) initiation and use of cigarettes by lights categories and d) overall cigarette consumption to identify changes from before to after the ban. We used interrupted time series multivariable logistic regression and joinpoint regression models to test for changes in rates and temporal trends associated with the ban. The per cent filter ventilation strata used to designate lights subbrand categories were maintained in the colour named subbrands. No change was observed following the ban in lights market share, relative prevalence of lights versus non-lights smoking or relative smoking initiation on lights versus non-lights among all ages or among youth in particular. The rate of decline in per capita cigarette consumption slowed by 37% from the period 2007-2010 to 2010-2014. This study strongly suggests that manufacturers' circumvention prevented the lights descriptor ban from succeeding as intended, most likely perpetuating the misleading consumer perceptions about relative risks, while failing to increase smoking cessation and reduce initiation. Laws requiring generic (plain) and elimination of subbrand descriptors should prevent evasion of legislation banning the use of specific terms through marketing, regulatory and legal challenges. © Article

  20. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  2. First time compliance inspections to evaluate an artificial trans fat ban in Nassau County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rishi K; Torroella Carney, Maria; Buchman, Tavora; Cabello, Celina S; Lynch, John F; Frank, Scott H; Trapl, Erika S

    2014-03-01

    In 2007, Nassau County, New York, restricted the use of artificial trans fats in food establishments licensed by the Nassau County Department of Health (NCDH). The regulation took effect April 1, 2008. This study assesses first-time inspection compliance rates with the trans fat ban and examines barriers to enforcement. A sample of food service establishments was inspected by an NCDH employee for labels documenting trans fat. Surveys that examined operator awareness and attitudes toward the ban were administered. A separate survey was conducted among the NCDH Office of Food Protection public health sanitarians to determine organizational barriers to enforcement. All inspections and surveys were conducted in Nassau County from June to September 2010. A total of 360 food service establishments were randomly selected for inspection; 328 completed the operator surveys. Compliance was 81%, even though 52% of operators were not aware of the ban. Of those who were aware, 57% heard about the regulation from the media, and almost all (92%) reported that compliance with the ban was easy. Of noncompliant respondents, 59% cited lack of knowledge regarding the ban as the primary reason for noncompliance. Of those who indicated they had received any customer feedback (9%), almost all reported the feedback to be positive. Knowledge of trans fats was not associated with compliance, but owners who were aware of the ban were more likely to be in compliance. Among the 23 participating sanitarians, 96% believed the ban was effective; language barriers were cited as the primary obstacle to enforcement. As assessed through surveys and inspections, the trans fat ban in Nassau County yielded relatively high compliance rates within 2 years and was accepted by sanitarians, establishment operators, and consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer Demand for a Ban on Antibiotic Drug Use in Pork Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; Norwood, F. Bailey; Pruitt, J. Ross

    2006-01-01

    Consumer demand for a ban on subtherapeutic antibiotic use in pork production is measured using non-hypothetical choice experiments in a grocery store setting. Consumers are asked to choose between a regular pork chop plus a grocery coupon and an antibiotic-friendly pork chop without a coupon. Other consumers are asked to choose between a donation towards reducing antibiotic resistance and grocery coupons. These experiments reveal the private and public value consumers place on a ban, which i...

  4. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the Clear River) and the Song Da (also called the Black River or Rivi~re Noire ), contribute to its high water volume, which averages 500 million cubic...Dawson, Alan. "Eye on Indochina: Vietnam’s Money Trou - bles Pile Up," Bangkok Post [Bangkok], August 4, 1982. (FBIS-APA-82-150.) August 4, 1982, J1...River; Riviere Noire ), 85 revenue, 178 Song dynasty (China), 14-15 Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), Song Hong (Red River), 85 298-99 Song Lo (Clear

  6. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  7. A Ban on Menthol Cigarettes: Impact on Public Opinion and Smokers' Intention to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, David B.; Niaura, Raymond S.; Richardson, Amanda; Vallone, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed support for a ban by the Food and Drug Administration on menthol in cigarettes and behavioral intentions among menthol smokers in the event of such a ban. Methods. We surveyed 2649 never, former, and current smokers and used ordinal logistic regression to calculate weighted point estimates and predictors of support for a menthol ban among the adult population and menthol smokers only. For menthol smokers, we also calculated weighted point estimates and predictors of behavioral intentions. Results. Overall, 28.2% of adults opposed, 20.0% supported, and 51.9% lacked a strong opinion about a menthol ban. Support was highest among Hispanics (36.4%), African Americans (29.0%), never smokers (26.8%), and respondents with less than a high school education (28.8%). Nearly 40% of menthol smokers said they would quit if menthol cigarettes were no longer available, 12.5% would switch to a nonmenthol brand, and 25.2% would both switch and try to quit. Conclusions. Support for a menthol ban is strongest among populations with the highest prevalence of menthol cigarette use. A menthol ban might motivate many menthol smokers to quit. PMID:22994173

  8. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  9. Sequence-dependent cleavage of mismatched DNA by Ban I restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Zhu, Dan; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2017-10-01

    Restriction enzymes have previously shown the ability to cleave DNA substrates with mismatched base(s) in recognition sequences; in this study, Ban I endonuclease demonstrated this same ability. Single base substitutions were introduced, and fragments containing various types of unpaired base(s) (heteroduplex fragments) within the Ban I endonuclease recognition sequence, 5'-G|GPyPuCC-3', were generated. Each of the heteroduplex fragments was treated with Ban I endonuclease and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that heteroduplex fragments containing mismatched bases at either the first or third position of the Ban I recognition sequence or, because of the symmetrical structure of the sequence, the sixth or fourth position on the opposite strand were cleaved by the enzyme. Furthermore, these cleaved fragments contained at least one strand corresponding to the original Ban I recognition sequence. Fragments with mismatches formed by an A (noncanonical, nc) opposite a purine (canonical, ca) or a T (nc) opposite a pyrimidine (ca) were cleaved more efficiently than other types of mismatched bases. These results may help elucidate the mechanisms by which DNA and protein interact during the process of DNA cleavage by Ban I endonuclease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  11. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  12. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  13. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... in the above mentioned classes by the researcher are offered in this paper. In the "Learning Situations" (LS) observed in Denmark, the interaction is interpreted as arranged in agreement with basic constructivist principles, whereas the interaction in Vietnam is predominantly student-teacher centered......, and the LS observed in Egypt is predominantly student-materials centered...

  14. The Consequences of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoguchi, Nobuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the demographic and socioeconomic consequences of wars, using the case of the Vietnam War and its effects on the Vietnamese population. Using mainly the 1989 and 1999 census microdata, it focuses on the effects of the last ten years of the Vietnam War (or the "American War") from 1965 to 1975, characterized by the escalation of the war with a large presence of American troops in Vietnam and extensive aerial bombings by the United States. The dis...

  15. Does Microcredit Have an Impact on Children? Evidences from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Cuong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Pham, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has been successful in economic growth and poverty reduction. One of important antipoverty program is micro-credit for the poor. Although there are a large number of studies on the impact of micro-credit programs on income and poverty reduction, there is little evidence on its impact of children. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of micro-credit on child labor and education in Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) 2006 and 2008. Overall, this study does n...

  16. A novel strain of porcine deltacoronavirus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Song, Sok; An, Byung-Hyun; Park, Gyu-Nam; Pham, Ngoc Thach; Le, Dinh Quyen; Nguyen, Van Tam; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Kim, Ki-Sun; Choe, SeEun; An, Dong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strains (Binh21 and HaNoi6) were isolated from two pig farms in North Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes and the Spike and Membrane genes revealed that the two Vietnam PDCoVs belong to the same lineage as PDCoVs from Thailand and Laos; however, the N genes belonged to the same lineage as PDCoVs from the USA, Korea, China, and Hong Kong. The recombination detection program subsequently identified the major parent (S5011 strain) and minor parent (HKU15-44 strain) of the two Vietnam PDCoV strains (p < 0.01).

  17. Malaysian Investment in Vietnam : The Case of Three Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le Thuy Ngan

    2011-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has made a substantial contribution to the economic growth in Vietnam since its opening in the early of 1990s. Among five top investors in Vietnam in the period of 1990-2010, Malaysia has emerged as a potential investor which is in ASEAN group and at adjacent level of development. In the light of that fact, this dissertation examines the influencing factors to Malaysian investment in Vietnam and the justification for their entry mode choice in this market. A case stu...

  18. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, p<0.001), fewer reported making spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, p<0.05) and fewer claimed the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, p<0.05; cued recall 22.1% vs 3.8%, p<0.001). Before the ban, spontaneous purchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, p<0.05; cued recall 40.0% vs 17.9%, p<0.01). After the ban, spontaneous purchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, p<0.01) as it did for planned purchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, p<0.05; cued recall 17.9% vs 2.1%, p<0.01). We observed a 30% reduction in smokers making spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Communication ambivalence toward elders: data from North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert M; Cargile, Aaron C; Giles, Howard; Bui, Cuong T

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated young adults' beliefs about their intra- and intergenerational communications in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the U.S.A. Respondents perceived their interactions with older people as simultaneously more problematic (e.g., older people seen as more nonaccommodative) and more pleasing (e.g., older adults seen as more accommodative) than their interactions with other young adults. Young adults also strongly felt more of an obligation to be respectful, and to a lesser degree avoidant, in their communication with older adults than to those in their peer age group. Large-scale linguistic, historical, political, and cultural differences notwithstanding, a similar intergenerational communication profile emerged among the North Vietnamese, South Vietnamese, and American respondents in their reports of their communication with people of different ages. Intergroup, cultural, identity, and modernity issues were invoked to account for these findings.

  20. Effects of a provincial ban of two toxic organophosphorus insecticides on pesticide poisoning hospital admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pesticide self-poisoning causes one third of global suicides. Sri Lanka halved its suicide rate by banning WHO Class I organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and then endosulfan. However, poisoning with Class II toxicity OPs, particularly dimethoate and fenthion, remains a problem. We aimed to determine the effect and feasibility of a ban of the two insecticides in one Sri Lankan district. Methods. Sale was banned in June 2003 in most of Polonnaruwa District, but not Anuradhapura District. Admissions with pesticide poisoning to the district general hospitals was prospectively recorded from 2002. Results. Hospital admissions for dimethoate and fenthion poisoning fell by 43% after the ban in Polonnaruwa, while increasing by 23% in Anuradhapura. The pesticide case fatality fell from 14.4% to 9.0% in Polonnaruwa (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41–0.84) and 11.3% to 10.6% in Anuradhapura (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.70–1.25; p = 0.051). This reduction was not sustained, with case fatality in Polonnaruwa rising to 12.1% in 2006–2007. Further data analysis indicated that the fall in case fatality had actually been due to a coincidental reduction in case fatality for pesticide poisoning overall, in particular for paraquat poisoning. Conclusions. We found that the insecticides could be effectively banned from agricultural practice, as shown by the fall in hospital admissions, with few negative consequences. However, the ban had only a minor effect on pesticide poisoning deaths because it was too narrow. A study assessing the agricultural and health effects of a more comprehensive ban of highly toxic pesticides is necessary to determine the balance between increased costs of agriculture and reduced health care costs and fewer deaths. PMID:22372788

  1. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking.

  2. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aditi; Kudtarkar, Priyanka; Dhaware, Dhanashri; Chowgule, Rohini

    2010-07-01

    This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2(nd) October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM(2.5)) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. The average PM(2.5) level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 μg/m(3) in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM(2.5) level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 μg/m(3). The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM(2.5) levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM(2.5) particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  3. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  4. Effects of a provincial ban of two toxic organophosphorus insecticides on pesticide poisoning hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Adhikari, Sriyantha; Egodage, Samitha; Ranganath, Hasantha; Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Azher, Shifa; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Juzczak, Edmund; Sheriff, Mh Rezvi; Dawson, Andrew H; Buckley, Nick A

    2012-03-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning causes one third of global suicides. Sri Lanka halved its suicide rate by banning WHO Class I organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and then endosulfan. However, poisoning with Class II toxicity OPs, particularly dimethoate and fenthion, remains a problem. We aimed to determine the effect and feasibility of a ban of the two insecticides in one Sri Lankan district. Sale was banned in June 2003 in most of Polonnaruwa District, but not Anuradhapura District. Admissions with pesticide poisoning to the district general hospitals was prospectively recorded from 2002. Hospital admissions for dimethoate and fenthion poisoning fell by 43% after the ban in Polonnaruwa, while increasing by 23% in Anuradhapura. The pesticide case fatality fell from 14.4% to 9.0% in Polonnaruwa (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.84) and 11.3% to 10.6% in Anuradhapura (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.70-1.25; p = 0.051). This reduction was not sustained, with case fatality in Polonnaruwa rising to 12.1% in 2006-2007. Further data analysis indicated that the fall in case fatality had actually been due to a coincidental reduction in case fatality for pesticide poisoning overall, in particular for paraquat poisoning. We found that the insecticides could be effectively banned from agricultural practice, as shown by the fall in hospital admissions, with few negative consequences. However, the ban had only a minor effect on pesticide poisoning deaths because it was too narrow. A study assessing the agricultural and health effects of a more comprehensive ban of highly toxic pesticides is necessary to determine the balance between increased costs of agriculture and reduced health care costs and fewer deaths.

  5. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    pursuing a sustainable development that closely and harmoniously combines economic growth and social development, natural resource and environment...the central factor in the development of the country. Vietnam will focus on education, training, healthcare, and other social areas to enhance the...Vietnamese merchandise may be subject to the standards of the WTO Agreement on Anti- Dumping . The existence of the non-market designation is due to existing

  6. Green trade barriers and Vietnam''s agricultural and fishery export

    OpenAIRE

    Khoi, Nguyen; THUY LE THI THANH

    2014-01-01

    Green barriers can produce both positive and negative impact on international trade. However, the number of these barriers keeps growing without any monitoring system. This research will analyse the impacts of green trade barriers on Vietnam and European Union trade relationship. The study presents an important observation: the requirements to upgrade technology to meet exactly the technical regulations and expenditure for conformity assessment actually increase the production costs for small...

  7. Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arouri, Mohamed; Nguyen, Cuong; Youssef, Adel Ben

    2015-01-01

    The study uses commune fixed-effects regressions to estimate the effect of natural disasters on welfare and poverty of rural households in Vietnam, and subsequently examines household and community...

  8. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  9. Coeliccia mientrung spec. nov. from Central Vietnam (Odonata: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompier, Tom; Phan, Quoc Toan

    2017-03-27

    Coeliccia mientrung spec. nov. is described from central Vietnam. Detailed differences from the very similar C. pyriformis Laidlaw, 1932, are provided. The female of C. pyriformis is described for the first time.

  10. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and

  11. Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta, Tenthredinidae) from Vietnam and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haris, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nine new species are described from Vietnam: Beleses sapaensis spec. nov., Brykella tamdaoensis spec. nov., Caliroa vietnamensis spec. nov., Darjilingia bicoloricornis spec. nov., Mallachiella achterbergiana spec. nov., Clypea hogenesi spec. nov., Neothrinax dejongei spec. nov., Neothrinax

  12. Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Tenthredinidae) from Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Four new species are described from Vietnam: Pristiphora lamdongensis spec. nov., Athlophorus vietnamensis spec. nov., Heptamelus devriesi spec. nov., and Ferna lamdongensis spec. nov. They are compared to Athlophorus jacobsoni Enslin, 1912, Heptamelus ruficinctus Malaise, 1961, and Ferna

  13. Exploring Vietnam: A Multiple Intelligence Portfolio of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Linda A.; Taylor, Randall

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidelines for implementing portfolios in the social studies classroom that focus on the Vietnam era and incorporate Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences. Outlines the portfolio project, lists eleven portfolio components, and addresses the intelligence of each. (CMK)

  14. Women's Land Rights and Children's Human Capital in Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, Nidhiya

    2014-01-01

    .... Using a matched household sample from Vietnam's 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Survey, this study analyzes whether land titling for women led to improvements in child health and education...

  15. Dendrobium roseiodorum (Orchidaceae): a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathapattayanon, A.; Yukawa, T.; Seelanan, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of revisionary work of Dendrobium section Formosae, we found some misinterpretations of Dendrobium kontumense. Dendrobium schildhaueri is placed as a synonym of D. kontumense and D. roseiodorum, a new species from Vietnam, is described.

  16. Drinking amid abundant illicit drugs. The Vietnam case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D W; Davis, D H; Robins, L N

    1975-02-01

    We studied drinking patterns and problems of 451 US Army enlisted men after their return from Vietnam. Before Vietnam, nearly half were regular drinkers and one quarter had drinking problems. Problem drinking declined in Vietnam as opiate use rose sharply; half had tried opiates and 20% were opiate dependent. After Vietnam, opiate use decreased (now less than 2% opiate dependent) and problem drinking again became ascendant. At time of interview, 17% had drunk in an alcoholic pattern at some period in their lives and another 41% had had problems from drinking. The younger men were more likely to have had problems. Alcholism predictors included:becoming intoxicated at an early age; dropping out of school; truancy and expulsion from school; and having a father with a history of alcoholism or arrests.

  17. Understanding Presidential Rhetoric: The Vietnam Statements of Lyndon Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Lee; Miller, Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    Focuses on Lyndon Johnson's public statements about Vietnam during the final eighteen months of his presidency in an attempt to gain a perspective on the factors which shape presidential rhetoric. (MH)

  18. Gillnet and trammel net ban and buyback in St. Croix, USVI: This dataset contains data fishermen and other stakeholders views about the performance of the gillnet and trammel net buyback and ban in St. Croix, USVI (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics and fishermens perceptions about the efficacy of St. Croix gillnet ban and buyback

  19. Contributions to the genus Hetaeria (Orchidaceae: Goodyerinae) in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ponert, Jan; Vuong, T. B.; Hanh, N.; Thanh, T.T.; Vy, N. T.; Rybková, R.; Tam, T. Q.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of Hon Ba nature reserve survey, Hetaeria finlaysoniana, previously recorded from Thailand, Myanmar and southern China, is newly recorded from Vietnam. Description of studied plants is presented together with notes on ecology and photographic documentation. These plants were collected in southern Vietnam (Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Khanh Hoa), which is located quite far from other known localities and thus a larger distribution of this possibly overlooked species could be expected. Ad...

  20. Students' expectation toward service of recruiment agencies in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to explore the expectations of students studying abroad to recruitment agencies in Vietnam. The study aims at recommend the right service for recruit-ment agencies offer to students to find a job and explore the culture obstacles for their career development when return home. The study originated from author’s own experience when finding an internship in Vietnam. The theoretical framework is based on relevant areas of theories of recruitment process, na-...

  1. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management: Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would be interesting to evaluate how well water resources plans are adhering to the principles of IWRM, to learn and further tailor these principles to the Vietnamese situation. Practical approaches on h...

  2. Dioxin in Vietnam: fighting a legacy of war.

    OpenAIRE

    Booker, S M

    2001-01-01

    Singapore was the site of an East-West convergence over the week of 27 November-1 December 2000. At the behest of their respective governments, scientists from the United States and Vietnam came together for what promises to be the first of many meetings. Their mission: to explore the possibility of launching a joint research program to study the human and environmental health effects resulting from spraying Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War.

  3. Dioxin in Vietnam: fighting a legacy of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, S M

    2001-03-01

    Singapore was the site of an East-West convergence over the week of 27 November-1 December 2000. At the behest of their respective governments, scientists from the United States and Vietnam came together for what promises to be the first of many meetings. Their mission: to explore the possibility of launching a joint research program to study the human and environmental health effects resulting from spraying Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War.

  4. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  5. MNEs vertical linkages: The experience of Vietnam after Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Giroud, Axèle

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge transfer from multinational corporations to local suppliers in host developing countries have been shown to be substantial and a strong contributor to the competitive upgrading of firms in host economies. Using data provided by multinational subsidiaries, this paper compares the activities of multinationals in both Malaysia and Vietnam. Malaysia is considered because its experience with foreign direct investment is long standing (compared to Vietnam) and useful recommendations can b...

  6. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans un contexte de décentralisation dans le centre du Vietnam. Le projet ...

  7. International Export Flows of Vietnam :A Gravity Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi Hanh

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT:What determines export pattern of Vietnam with its trading partners? The author has employedthe gravity model showing one-way exports of Vietnam to the world between 1997 and 2009.Since no proof was found of a possible endogeneity problem, the Hausman-Taylor methodologyis therefore an inappropriate solution and the fixed effect model is consequently preferable. Therole of the economic size indicator reaffirms its high relevance to export trade. Thegeographical distance gives an insig...

  8. Vietnam's Export Performance in the Face of China's Competitive Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Anh-Dao

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnam's export performance in the face of China's emergence as a major competitor in global markets. We first use Constant Market Share analysis to investigate the influence of the factors determining ex-post export performance of Vietnam and China for the years 1997–2004. External trade indicators are then calculated in order to examine their specialization profiles. The paper suggests that, although China has become a huge competitor for the developing economies, this ...

  9. Potential of developing and using mobile banking apps in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nhat

    2014-01-01

    Banking services have been a part of society for hundreds of years. Traditional banking services require physical interactions between customers and banks. However, mobile technology has brought banking services to another stage. Banking services have developed from cash in the bank to internet banking and now mobile banking. In recent years, the number of people using banking services in Vietnam has shown a dramatic increase. Instead of storing and using cash in every transaction, Vietname...

  10. The Contributions of the American Military Working Dog in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    percent were for physical rejections such as hip dysplasia and heartworm disease, and the remaining 20 percent were temperament rejections.8 The most...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Contributions of the American Military Working Dog in Vietnam REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-01B8...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This study investigates the contributions of the Military Working Dogs in Vietnam to determine their

  11. Supplement to Vietnam 1964-1973: An American Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    and technical reports. Newspaper articles, works of fiction, collections of poetry , and most personal narratives are not included. The Clark Special...An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Pr, 1988. (Z 6724.C5 H38 1988) Hidalgo, Stephen P. "A Selected Bibliography of Vietnam War Poetry ...T4 T47 1996) Glenn, Russell W. Reading Athena’s Dance Card: Men Against Fire in Vietnam. Annapolis: Naval Inst Pr, 2000. (DS 558 .G6 2000) Hackworth

  12. Dioxin in Vietnam: fighting a legacy of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, S M

    2001-01-01

    Singapore was the site of an East-West convergence over the week of 27 November-1 December 2000. At the behest of their respective governments, scientists from the United States and Vietnam came together for what promises to be the first of many meetings. Their mission: to explore the possibility of launching a joint research program to study the human and environmental health effects resulting from spraying Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War. PMID:11333203

  13. Towards improving perinatal maternal mental health in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is increasing world-wide, and is the third leading cause of the global disease burden. In Vietnam, perinatal depression is underdiagnosed and under-treated, leading to severe consequences for the pregnant mother, her child and surroundings. AIMS: The overall aim was to improve knowledge about perinatal depression to contribute to evidence based development of prevention and treatment strategies in Vietnam. The specific aims were: To generate a report of the mental health prio...

  14. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Vietnam War, marking a milestone in breaking freezing ice in the two erstwhile adversaries’ rapprochement. Since the diplomatic normalization in 1995...marking a milestone in breaking freezing ice in the two erstwhile adversaries’ rapprochement. Since the diplomatic normalization in 1995, the Vietnam...Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. On a map, the country is an S-shaped strip of land , stretching from 23°23’ to 8°27’ north latitude. The country’s

  15. The Army and the Strategic Military Legacy of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    told the students of his two tour experiences in Vietnam during the 1968 TET offensive and again during the 1972 " Easter Offensive." His experiences...attacked the then popular Vietnam mythology which portrayed the war as immoral and unjust. 2 3 This rebuttal also included a rejection of the notion that...Platoon Leader; Into Laos; Tet, The Easter Offensive; Battle for Hue; Headhunters; Chickenhawk; The Rise and Fall of an American Army; Hamburger

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  17. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  18. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  19. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  20. ATTITUDE OF ADULT POPULATION OF THE KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY TO SMOKING BAN AT WORKPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Olegovich Trufanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an opinion survey among representative sample of working population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (1000 persons aged from 18 to 60 to study their attitude to the introduction of smoking ban at workplaces. Data was collected from questionnaires and telephone interviews.The collected data suggests, that 32,7% of respondents smoke on a regular basis, 45,2% are exposed to cigarette smoke at workplaces, 67,2% of nonsmokers are passive smokers. 64,8% of respondents support the idea of smoking ban at indoor workplaces;  46,3% of respondents support imposing sanctions for violation of the ban; 52,6% of smokers are ready to smoke only outdoors or in specially allotted places. After the introduction of smoking ban at cafes, restaurants and bars 90,8% of working population will still continue visiting them or visit more often, and 16,9% of those who did  not attend them before because of cigarette smoke present in the air. In the view of the working population introduction of smoking ban at indoor workplaces is essential for the preservation of the population’s health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-3

  1. Public Support for a Ban on Headscarves: A Cross-National Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda van der Noll

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper compares a psychological explanation of support for a ban on headscarves in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the Netherlands. This study examines how perceptions of threat posed by Muslims and Islam and the overall attitude towards Muslims explain support for a ban on headscarves. In addition, cross-national comparisons are made to study how these relations are affected by contextual differences. Analyses are based on the 2005 survey on Islamic extremism by the Pew Research Center. Results show that the countries have a large influence on whether someone supports the ban on headscarves, indicating that contextual differences matter. In addition, having a negative attitude towards Muslims makes it more likely to support a ban on headscarves. In general, perceived threat contributes to stronger support, although there are slight differences in effect between the countries. Finally, perceived threat equally influences support for the ban on headscarves among prejudiced and non-prejudiced people.

  2. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  4. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles....

  5. Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu

    2017-01-01

    Whilst a range of studies address the aquaculture livelihoods in southern Vietnam’s Mekong Delta, the role of aquaculture in northern Vietnam remains less described. We, therefore, conducted interviews with 199 households in the two northern provinces Quang Ninh and Nghe An in 2014 to analyse...... the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies...... a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish...

  6. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  7. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  8. Vertical distribution of dioxins in soil of Bien Hoa airbase, Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huyen, Dang Thuong; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Shiraiwa, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Bien Hoa airbase is a known dioxin-contaminated hotspot in Vietnam. The contamination occurred during the Vietnam War at the site where dioxins were transported, stored, sprayed, and spilled in the area...

  9. An Analysis of Operational Art: Field Force Synchronization in Vietnam from 1965-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    the administration. A particularly strained relationship between Ambassador to Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge and the first MACV commander, General... Cabot Lodge, the US Ambassador to South Vietnam, further confused a common understanding of the political, military and social operational variables

  10. 77 FR 55186 - Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission...-Led Indonesia Vietnam Infrastructure Business Development Mission Statement, 77 FR, No. 131, July 9...

  11. The Russian Chursh Abroad and Vietnam war according to emigre ecclesiastical periodicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anashkin Dmitrii

    2015-01-01

    .... The most violent was certainly the war in Vietnam. For the Russian Church Abroad, which comprised the most conservative elements of the Russian emigration, the war in Vietnam was a war with the evil power of this world: communism...

  12. Occurrence and species distribution of fishborne zoonotic trematodes in wastewater‐fed aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hop, Nguyen Thi; De, Nguyen Van; Murrell, Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    ...‐urban areas of northern Vietnam. Methods  We collected 1200 fish from aquaculture systems receiving wastewater from the cities of Hanoi and Nam Dinh in northern Vietnam and examined them for zoonotic metacercariae...

  13. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S; Webster, D W; Hepburn, L M

    1999-12-01

    To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals.

  14. Change in indoor particle levels after a smoking ban in Minnesota bars and restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, David L; Hewett, Martha J; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Grimsrud, David T; Apte, Michael G; Gundel, Lara A

    2010-12-01

    Smoking bans in bars and restaurants have been shown to improve worker health and reduce hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction. Several studies have also reported improved indoor air quality, although these studies generally used single visits before and after a ban for a convenience sample of venues. The primary objective of this study was to provide detailed time-of-day and day-of-week secondhand smoke-exposure data for representative bars and restaurants in Minnesota. This study improved on previous approaches by using a statistically representative sample of three venue types (drinking places, limited-service restaurants, and full-service restaurants), conducting repeat visits to the same venue prior to the ban, and matching the day of week and time of day for the before- and after-ban monitoring. The repeat visits included laser photometer fine particulate (PM₂.₅) concentration measurements, lit cigarette counts, and customer counts for 19 drinking places, eight limited-service restaurants, and 35 full-service restaurants in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. The more rigorous design of this study provides improved confidence in the findings and reduces the likelihood of systematic bias. The median reduction in PM₂.₅ was greater than 95% for all three venue types. Examination of data from repeated visits shows that making only one pre-ban visit to each venue would greatly increase the range of computed percentage reductions and lower the statistical power of pre-post tests. Variations in PM₂.₅ concentrations were found based on time of day and day of week when monitoring occurred. These comprehensive measurements confirm that smoking bans provide significant reductions in SHS constituents, protecting customers and workers from PM₂.₅ in bars and restaurants. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Local responses to the Maharashtra gutka and pan masala ban: a report from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S; Schensul, J J; Bilgi, S; Kadam, V; D'Mello, S; Donta, B

    2012-01-01

    The Maharashtra government has banned the production, sale, distribution and storage of gutka, and pan masala in the Maharashtra State due to the increasing burden of cancer and reproductive health problems attributable to the use of these products. In view of this, it is important to understand the way producers', sellers' and users' are adapting to the ban. During the two months following the ban (July 19 th through Sept 30, 2012), a research team studying smokeless tobacco use and promotion in a low income community of Mumbai conducted rapid surveillance to assess the impact of the ban in the study community. Assessment involved documenting new points of sale, informal observations of tobacco use, and interviews with thirteen shop owners and eight gutka users'. Overall changes in accessibility, availability, patterns of use of tobacco products, perception of ban, social norms and surveillance activities were assessed. Tobacco companies were marketing new products that resembled gutka, under similar brand logos. Surveillance, financial and social cost of selling gutka or using it in public have had an immediate effect on reducing local supply, demand and use and increasing stigma associated with its use. There was an increased recognition of ill-effects of gutka on cancer among sellers' but not overall. To reduce the overall consumption of tobacco in the community, it is critical to include programs that create awareness about effects of smokeless tobacco on health and sustain surveillance levels. This would maintain requirements of the ban, and sustain limits on accessibility, availability and use of these products in the community and other similar communities.

  16. Socioeconomic differentials in the immediate mortality effects of the national Irish smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings-Smith, Sericea; Goodman, Pat; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke; Zeka, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    Consistent evidence has demonstrated that smoking ban policies save lives, but impacts on health inequalities are uncertain as few studies have assessed post-ban effects by socioeconomic status (SES) and findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the national Irish smoking ban on ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality by discrete and composite SES indicators to determine impacts on inequalities. Census data were used to assign frequencies of structural and material SES indicators to 34 local authorities across Ireland with a 2000-2010 study period. Discrete indicators were jointly analysed through principal component analysis to generate a composite index, with sensitivity analyses conducted by varying the included indicators. Poisson regression with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine monthly age and gender-standardised mortality rates in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years, stratified by tertiles of SES indicators. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. Post-ban mortality reductions by structural SES indicators were concentrated in the most deprived tertile for all causes of death, while reductions by material SES indicators were more equitable across SES tertiles. The composite indices mirrored the results of the discrete indicators, demonstrating that post-ban mortality decreases were either greater or similar in the most deprived when compared to the least deprived for all causes of death. Overall findings indicated that the national Irish smoking ban reduced inequalities in smoking-related mortality. Due to the higher rates of smoking-related mortality in the most deprived group, even equitable reductions across SES tertiles resulted in decreases in inequalities. The choice of SES indicator was influential in the measurement of effects, underscoring that a differentiated analytical approach

  17. Socioeconomic differentials in the immediate mortality effects of the national Irish smoking ban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consistent evidence has demonstrated that smoking ban policies save lives, but impacts on health inequalities are uncertain as few studies have assessed post-ban effects by socioeconomic status (SES and findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the national Irish smoking ban on ischemic heart disease (IHD, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mortality by discrete and composite SES indicators to determine impacts on inequalities. METHODS: Census data were used to assign frequencies of structural and material SES indicators to 34 local authorities across Ireland with a 2000-2010 study period. Discrete indicators were jointly analysed through principal component analysis to generate a composite index, with sensitivity analyses conducted by varying the included indicators. Poisson regression with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine monthly age and gender-standardised mortality rates in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years, stratified by tertiles of SES indicators. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Post-ban mortality reductions by structural SES indicators were concentrated in the most deprived tertile for all causes of death, while reductions by material SES indicators were more equitable across SES tertiles. The composite indices mirrored the results of the discrete indicators, demonstrating that post-ban mortality decreases were either greater or similar in the most deprived when compared to the least deprived for all causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Overall findings indicated that the national Irish smoking ban reduced inequalities in smoking-related mortality. Due to the higher rates of smoking-related mortality in the most deprived group, even equitable reductions across SES tertiles resulted in decreases in inequalities. The choice of SES indicator was influential in the measurement of

  18. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well. Setting—Baltimore, Maryland, and 15 other US cities participating in a crime gun tracing project. Methods—Cross sectional comparison of the proportion of crime guns that are banned by the Maryland law, comparing Baltimore, MD with 15 other cities outside of Maryland. Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine if observed differences between Baltimore and 15 other cities are explained by demographic or regional differences among the cities rather than Maryland's law. Results—Among crime guns, a gun banned by Maryland's law is more than twice as likely (relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 2.5) to be the subject of a crime gun trace request in 15 other cities combined, than in Baltimore. Among homicide guns, a crime especially relevant for public safety, a comparable difference (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) was observed. The proportion of Baltimore's crime guns that are banned is 12 percentage points lower than would be expected based on its demographic and regional characteristics alone. Among crime guns purchased after 1990, a much smaller proportion in Baltimore are banned models than in 15 other cities. Conclusions—Maryland's law has reduced the use of banned Saturday night specials by criminals in Baltimore. Contrary to the claims of some opponents of gun control laws, regulation of the lawful market for firearms can also affect criminals. PMID:10628912

  19. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    August 2007.Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the Danish SB on hospital admissions for AMI.Methods: Poisson regression models were used to analyse changes over time in AMI-admissions in Denmark. We investigated a seven year period: five years before and two years after implementation of the SB. We......Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Living Arrangements for the Elderly in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Thanh Long; Pfau, Wade Donald

    2007-01-01

    By using the Vietnam Living Standard Surveys in 1992/93 and 1997/98, and the Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2002 and 2004, this paper describes the patterns of living arrangements for the elderly in Vietnam and examines the determinants of such arrangements during the past decade. We apply multinomial analysis techniques for these research purposes. The estimated results show that family structures in Vietnam have generally been maintained despite profound social and economic ch...

  1. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    renovation ”), loosened many domestic political controls, and began to seek ways to extract itself from Cambodia. U.S.- Vietnam cooperation on the POW/MIA...government officials. Indeed, corruption related to inappropriate land use is one of the most sensitive and problematic issues for Vietnam . In Vietnam , the...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications

  2. Contested Nationalism: Ethnic Identity and State Power in the Republic of Vietnam, 1954-1963

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nu-Anh

    2012-01-01

    The conventional scholarship depicts noncommunist nationalism in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam, 1954-1963) as weak or inauthentic, especially when compared to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV, or North Vietnam). But such arguments assume that Vietnamese nationalism was singular and unitary. This essay reinterprets wartime nationalism by proposing the concept of contested nationalism. Specifically, it examines how the Republican government combined anticommunism with Vi...

  3. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  4. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that are...

  5. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless...

  6. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  7. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Dong, Le Than; Loi, Mai Anh; Ménard, Didier; Tarning, Joel; Bustos, Dorina; Ringwald, Pascal; Galappaththy, Gawrie Loku; Thieu, Nguyen Quang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process. PMID:28322709

  8. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that are...

  9. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES... sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of steel wire garment hangers from...

  10. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to...

  11. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided... of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam. Commissioner Dean A. Pinkert...

  12. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... implementing a program to strengthen compliance with international labor standards in Vietnam, focusing... has the recognized authority and capacity to fulfill the intent of the IRRP Phase II in Vietnam. DAI...

  13. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  14. 31 CFR 500.576 - Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. 500.576 Section 500.576 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.576 Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam. (a) All... in Vietnam formally proposed or approved for execution, funding or sponsorship by the international...

  15. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews pursuant to... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be...

  16. 77 FR 9700 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... with material injury by reason of imports from Vietnam of utility scale wind towers, provided for in... wind towers from China and Vietnam. Accordingly, effective December 29, 2011, the Commission instituted...

  17. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... Commerce (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of Vietnam.\\2\\ The Commission further determines...

  18. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  19. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  20. 77 FR 39613 - Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...--Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export-Import Bank Transaction With Vietnam #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Presidential Determination on a U.S. Export Import Bank Transaction with Vietnam Memorandum for the Secretary... States to extend a loan in the amount of approximately $125,870,890 to the Vietnam Post and...

  1. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  2. 31 CFR 500.413 - Participation in certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... projects in Vietnam. 500.413 Section 500.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 500.413 Participation in certain development projects in Vietnam. The following examples illustrate the scope of the authorization in § 500.576 for dealings in property in which Vietnam...

  3. Spatial Variation in Transpiration Within a Small Forest Patch in Hoa Binh, Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Ziegler, A. D.; Nullet, M. A.; Dao, T. M.

    2001-12-01

    We conducted measurements of small-scale variations in microclimate and sapflow within and near a small forest patch in Ban Tat Hamlet, Hoa Binh, northern Vietnam. Our observations provide evidence of the influences of surrounding clearings on forest patch microclimate and transpiration. The effects of proximity to the forest edge can be seen in the gradients in temperature, humidity, wind, and soil moisture content. Sapflow measurements in sample trees strongly indicate that transpiration rates are higher near the edge of the patch (edge effect). This effect is seen in the averages for the whole study period, despite infrequent wind flow into the instrumented edge of the patch. Edge effect is observed during both dry and wet periods, but is most apparent on days when solar and net radiation are high, relative humidity is low, or wind direction is from the clearing into the forest edge. These conditions are conducive to high positive heat advection from the clearing to the forest edge. Transpiration in both edge and interior trees is highly correlated with conditions in the clearing. Our results suggest that greater land-cover fragmentation tends to increase regional evaporative flux, i.e. fragmentation of remaining forested areas partly reverses the reduction in regional evaporation due to deforestation. We can infer from the distance-to-edge dependency of transpiration that the magnitude of this regional effect depends on the size, shape, and spatial distribution of landscape patches. It is also likely that the replacement land cover and moisture status of the clearings affect this process. Although we found slightly greater edge effect during the dry period of our observations, it is possible that under more prolonged or severe dry conditions, the soil moisture storage at the forest edge would become depleted leading to a reversal the transpiration pattern. >http://webdata.soc.hawaii.edu/climate/Frags/Frags.html

  4. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  5. Is Nonsmoking Dangerous to the Health of Restaurants? The Effect of California's Indoor Smoking Ban on Restaurant Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    The state of California passed the Smoke-Free Workplace Act on January 1, 1995. This legislation effectively banned indoor smoking in all public and private workplaces including restaurants. Many restaurant owners, especially owners of restaurants that served alcohol, opposed the ban for fear that their businesses would be affected adversely…

  6. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Järvholm; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the

  7. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  8. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES... duty investigation of certain steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam.\\1\\ On January 28, 2013, the ITC...

  9. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  10. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  11. Biliary atresia in Vietnam: Management and the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Max Bolun; Huong, Thuy Bui; Hoang, Xuyen; Doan, Lan; Trinh, Shauna; Anh Nguyen, Hoa Pham; Thanh Le, Hai; Holterman, Ai-Xuan

    2017-02-01

    Biliary atresia is an idiopathic, neonatal liver disease of the bile ducts. The natural evolution of biliary atresia is known in developed countries. This study describes the clinical course of biliary atresia in Vietnam, a developing country. Chart reviews were undertaken of patients treated with or without the Kasai procedure between January 2010 and July 2013 at a children's hospital in Vietnam. Of 287 children with biliary atresia, 149 (52%) were treated without the Kasai procedure and 138 (48%) were treated with the Kasai procedure. Median age at diagnosis was 2.4 months for children treated without the Kasai procedure vs 2.3 months for those treated with the procedure. The percentages of patients in the group treated without the Kasai procedure presenting at 6 months of age were 31%, 35%, 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, compared to those treated with the Kasai procedure at 36% (P = .38), 44% (P = .12), 16% (P = 1.0), 4% (P = .037), and 0% (P Vietnam. The majority of biliary atresia in Vietnam remains untreated despite early presentation and reasonable outcomes after a Kasai procedure relative to Western countries. These data illustrate the high health care burden for biliary atresia in Vietnam and the need to improve education about biliary atresia and its treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  14. Chiqui-traca-ban-tau: Movements and Creativity Expression without Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar-Vega, Vilmarie; Kozub, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Chiqui-traca-ban-tau is a creative dance activity that can be enjoyed by a wide range of children. It is also a game that provides teachers with a physical activity option that promotes higher-order thinking and remembering skills necessary to support learning in the Common Core. The game involves each child taking a turn leading a four-beat…

  15. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  16. SISTEM INFORMASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFOKAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ainul Yaqin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Standar sarana dan prasarana adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.2. Pengelolaan sarana dan prasarana sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data-data usulan pengadaan, penerimaan, distribusi, penggunaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.2. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci : standar 6.2. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  17. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  18. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Bryan, Bumpers , Feinstein, Murray, Harkin, Metzenbaum, Bradley, Daschle, 62 Mr. Leahy - Mr. President, many of us have seen photographs like...called on nations to move beyond paying lip service to that objective and to establish a timetable for banning those insidious weapons. He called on

  19. Job satisfaction and attitudes of restaurant staff regarding the smoking ban – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudevit Pranić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While extant research on the impacts of smoke-free legislation on hospitality employees and industries has centered on developed countries, the research on the effects of smoking bans in transition countries has received very little attention. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research empirically explores the relationships among restaurant employees’ attitudes, demographics, work-related variables (WRV, and job satisfaction after the introduction of a smoke-free legislation in one transition economy, i.e. Croatia. Results revealed that gender, education, age, restaurant seating allocation, hospitality work experience, smoking status, average weekly workload, and the restaurant area served were for the most part not significant in explaining different perceptions toward a smoking ban. However, the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy somewhat influenced how respondents view the smoking ban. In terms of the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy, results revealed no significant differences in regards to demographics and WRV. With regard to job satisfaction, staff with more positive post-implementation attitudes towards the ban exhibit somewhat higher levels of satisfaction with the current job. Overall, respondents appear willing to make concessions for both pro- and anti-smoking patrons, staff, and owners/managers. Therefore, lawmakers should consider population characteristics, seating allocation, and the combination thereof when devising restaurant smoking policies.

  20. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  1. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... produce audible effects, if the audible effect is produced by a charge of not more than 50 milligrams... to operate in a guided fashion so that they will not strike the operator or bystanders. (b) ... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.85 Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. (a) The term...

  2. The ban on blood donation on men who have sex with men: time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 1980s the HIV/AIDS epidemic outbreak occurred. Due to the high prevalence of the disease on men who had sex with men (MSM) a lifetime ban on blood donations on men who had sex with men (MSM) was implemented. In the recent years, organizations like the European Union (EU) and the World Health ...

  3. Ethical issues raised by a ban on the sale of electronic nicotine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral; Forlini, Cynthia

    2015-07-01

    Some countries have banned the sale of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). We analyse the ethical issues raised by this ban and various ways in which the sale of ENDS could be permitted. We examine the ban and alternative policies in terms of the degree to which they respect ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, as follows. Respect for autonomy: prohibiting ENDS infringes on smokers' autonomy to use a less harmful nicotine product while inconsistently allowing individuals to begin and continue smoking cigarettes. Non-maleficence: prohibition is supposed to prevent ENDS recruiting new smokers and discouraging smokers from quitting, but it has not prevented uptake of ENDS. It also perpetuates harm by preventing addicted smokers from using a less harmful nicotine product. Beneficence: ENDS could benefit addicted smokers by reducing their health risks if they use them to quit and do not engage in dual use. Distributive justice: lack of access to ENDS disadvantages smokers who want to reduce their health risks. Different national policies create inequalities in the availability of products to smokers internationally. We do not have to choose between a ban and an unregulated free market. We can ethically allow ENDS to be sold in ways that allow smokers to reduce the harms of smoking while minimizing the risks of deterring quitting and increasing smoking among youth. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Motivational factors related to quitting smoking among prisoners during a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Kristeller, Jean L

    2003-08-01

    Motivational factors and initial stages of change (precontemplation vs. contemplation) were investigated among incarcerated male smokers forced to quit smoking due to a statewide smoking ban. All smokers completed a baseline questionnaire, which assessed smoking history, nicotine dependence [Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)], nicotine withdrawal [Hughes-Hatsukami Withdrawal Scale (HHWS)], and depression [Center for Epidemiological Studies on Depression (CES-D)]. These measures were given again 4 days (Time 2) and 1 month (Time 3) following the smoking ban. At baseline (n=314), 31.2% of smokers were contemplating quitting within 6 months (contemplators), while the majority of smokers (68.8%) indicated they had not considered quitting (precontemplators). Contemplators at Time 2 reported more success with quitting smoking than precontemplators, although this was no longer significant by Time 3. Logistic regression was used to determine the probability of determining initial stages of change based on demographic and smoking history variables. Smokers in precontemplation scored higher on the FTND, reported less agreement with the smoking policy at baseline, reported more difficulty with their previous quit attempts, and reported increased smoking in anticipation of the smoking ban. The risk of being a precontemplator was over twice as high for smokers who reported increasing the amount they smoked prior to the smoking ban (odds ratio=2.42). Overall, this model correctly classified 70.7% of the smokers. This suggests that initial stages of change plays an important role in eventual quitting even in environments in which smoking has been recently prohibited.

  5. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  6. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools : A mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A. D.; Mathijssen, J. J. P.; Jansen, M. W. J.; Van Oers, J. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of

  7. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents...

  8. Effects of Maryland's law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns

    OpenAIRE

    Vernick, J.; Webster, D.; Hepburn, L.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the effects of a 1988 Maryland law that banned "Saturday night special" handguns on the types of guns used in crime. To determine if controls on the lawful market for handguns affect the illegal market as well.

  9. FDA's proposed ban on trans fats: How do the costs and benefits stack up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua T

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this commentary was to compare the benefits and costs of the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed ban on artificial trans fats in US food versus other public health risks and interventions. This analysis assessed the remaining risk posed by artificial trans fats versus other risks, comparing them in terms of: (1) population disease burden (prevention of lost life-years and decreased quality of life, aggregated and expressed as quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]); (2) individual mortality risks for other "voluntary" activities; and (3) cost-effectiveness, which is the unit cost incurred by an intervention per QALY gained. The population impact of remaining trans fats is small compared with many other risks. Conversely, lifetime individual risks are comparable to other individual risks that might be considered notable. Finally, the ban achieves public health gains at low to no cost. The US Food and Drug Administration's ban on trans fats is sensible from the perspective of economic efficiency. Comparing the health risk addressed and the efficiency of the ban with other benchmarks can help decision makers and the population to better evaluate it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Mark; Friis, Christian; Marco, Enric; McMullin, Paul; Phillips, Ian

    2003-08-01

    Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Europe, probably related to the increased in usage of vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The ban of growth promoters has, however, revealed that these agents had important prophylactic activity and their withdrawal is now associated with a deterioration in animal health, including increased diarrhoea, weight loss and mortality due to Escherichia coli and Lawsonia intracellularis in early post-weaning pigs, and clostridial necrotic enteritis in broilers. A directly attributable effect of these infections is the increase in usage of therapeutic antibiotics in food animals, including that of tetracycline, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim/sulphonamide, macrolides and lincosamides, all of which are of direct importance in human medicine. The theoretical and political benefit of the widespread ban of growth promoters needs to be more carefully weighed against the increasingly apparent adverse consequences.

  11. Before You Ban: Law Students' In-Class Laptop Usage and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kimberly Ann

    2016-01-01

    Legal educators are routinely banning students' laptops or wireless connectivity in law classes. Faculty assumes students are significantly off-task and in-class laptops are harmful to learning. Current research focuses almost exclusively on undergraduate students technology uses in- and out of the classroom. Only a handful of studies objectively…

  12. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty...

  13. PEMANFAATAN SERUTAN KARET BAN BEKAS SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI PASIR SILIKA PADA CLC (CELLULAR LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Budiarto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available CLC adalah jenis beton ringan ramah lingkungan karena proses pembuatannya menggunakan energi yang lebih sedikit daripada bata merah. Namun sebagai salah satu turunan beton, CLC juga memiliki sifat getas. Mempertimbangkan cara untuk memperbaiki sifat-sifat CLC yang getas, maka diperlukan substitusi bahan yang dapat menggantikan material dasar beton. Salah satu substitusi material beton adalah dengan menggunakan limbah karet dari ban bekas yang diserut (panjang ± 2-3 cm, dia. ± 2-4 mm. Ban karet dapat memberikan sifat elastis dan mencegah retak karena memiliki modulus elastisitas 0,77-1,33 MPa, dan memiliki berat isi antara 1,08-1,27 t/m³.Dalam percobaan ini, dibuat 6 formulasi bahan baku beton ringan dan memperoleh 2 formula dengan potensi untuk dimodifikasi. Sampel P10 memiliki berat isi yang paling ringan sekitar 903 kg/m³ dengan perbandingan PS:PC:KP:Al:Air sebesar 63%:12%:2,7%:0.14%: 23% dan formula P12 yang memiliki kuat tekan tertinggi mencapai 6 N/mm² dengan perbandingan PS:PC:KP:Al:Air:PFA sebesar 63%:6%:2,7%:0.14%:23%:6%. Modifikasi dibuat dari P10 dan P12 mengganti komposisi pasir silika dengan serutan ban karet mulai dari 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, sampai dengan 50%. Pemakaian limbah karet ban bekas yang diserut dapat meningkatkan kuat tekan bata ringan tersebut hingga substitusi 50% limbah dengan densitas antara 1.160 – 1.330 kg/m³

  14. 77 FR 35263 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers: Ban on Third-Party Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-Party Solicitation; Extension of Compliance Date AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION...'' or ``SEC'') is extending the date by which advisers must comply with the ban on third-party...-party solicitors as well as to provide additional time for them to adjust compliance policies and...

  15. Understanding the Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Different Graduate Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of affirmative action bans in four states (California, Florida, Texas, and Washington) on the enrollment of underrepresented students of color within six different graduate fields of study: the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, business, education, and humanities. Findings show that affirmative action…

  16. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  17. Three years of banning neonicotinoid insecticides based on sub-lethal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Steen, van der Sjef

    2017-01-01

    The 2013 EU ban of three neonicotinoids used in seed coating of pollinator attractive crops was put in place because of concern about declining wild pollinator populations and numbers of honeybee colonies. It was also concluded that there is an urgent need for good field data to fill knowledge gaps.

  18. Insights into the construction of cultural realities: Foreign newspaper discourses about the burkini ban in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommier, M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burkini ban introduced by several French coastal cities in August 2016 caused a great stir in France and abroad. Discussions were mostly articulated around the topics of secularism, religion, and national identity and values. This study examines foreign perspectives on the burkini

  19. Import Bans as an Element of Nigerian Trade Policy, a Failed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    decision and implementation mechanism of import prohibitions is beyond the scope of this analysis, there is considerable merit in a brief discussion...stable and prosperous Nigeria. Actions promoting import ban removal from the World Trade Organization and its US representative are ongoing. With...capsules and syrups [except special formulations] g. Aspirin tablets [except modified released formulation and soluble aspirin ] h. Magnesium

  20. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Esther N; Chaloupka, Milani; Heymans, Johanna J; Skilleter, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS) modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1) gradual reduction, or 2) an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i) modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii) increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii) modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  1. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  2. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Aims The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes. Design Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel. Setting United States, 2010. Participants 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers. Measurements Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes across a range of prices. Findings Overall, 36% respondents said they always or usually smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would ‘find a way to buy a menthol brand.’ Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit (OR=4.46), while those who reported they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for individual demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = .0051) and nonmenthol (α = .0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender, or age. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the US would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. PMID:22471735

  3. PELAKSANAAN PEMBANGUNAN BERTERASKAN ISLAM: KAJIAN KES KOMUNITI ISLAM BAN NUA, HATYAI, THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohd Shukri Hanapi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ban Nua Muslim community is a Muslim community that is smack in themiddle of the non-Muslim community (Buddhist in Hatyai, Thailand. Althoughthey are a small community and are is such a predicament, they are still able toimplement Islamic-based development (IbD. In other words, they are able todevelop an Islamic community complete with numerous infrastructures such as amosque, not only as a place for prayer but it has a clinic, a library, a conferencehall, a cooperative and a Zakat Centre (Baitul Zakat. Besides that, this Islamiccommunity has a school that adheres to the Islamic education system. They notonly have worked hard to develop the physical aspects but also the spiritualaspects. The physical aspects were developed through general religious servitudesuch as employment, seeking knowledge, stimulating the community’s economy, business and homestay services, while the spiritual aspects were developed through specific religious servitudes such as prayers, fasting, running the Zakat Centre, reciting the al-Qur’an, devotional recitations (zikr and giving alms (sadaqah. The question is what tasawwur (worldview was used to design their development? and how was the tasawwur formed? To answer both thesequestions, this article has two objectives. First, to identify the tasawwur that has designed the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community; and second, to analyse the developmental worldview of the Ban Nua Islamic community. Thefindings from the qualitative research had found that the development of the Ban Nua Islamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was designed according to altasawwur al-Islamiy (Islamic worldview. It has three main elements such asibadah (religious servitude, imarah (general or social leadership and khalifah(religious leadership. Based on this tasawwur the development of the Ban NuaIslamic community in Hatyai, Thailand was implemented.

  4. Complying with the smoking ban by students before and after introducing legislative intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rzeźnicki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.

  5. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  7. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  8. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  9. Dioxin contamination in soils of Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Doan, Thanh Vu; Tarradellas, Joseph; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Dioxin is the common name for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and is abbreviated as PCDD/Fs. In the case of Southern Vietnam, is of high concern dioxin contamination in the areas affected by past-use chemical defoliants. Our study related to the zone considered as a "hot spot"--Bien Hoa Airbase and surrounding areas (Bien Hung Lake). Although the war ended over 30 years ago, the adverse effects on this territory still continue. Soil and sediment were selected for our research as they act as a sink for PCDD/Fs. The samples were taken and analyzed in CECOTOX laboratory following certified procedures. The total amounts of PCDD/Fs (2,3,7,8 related congeners) in the samples were converted into WHO-TEQ and compared with standard values proposed by Canadian environmental quality guidelines. The obtained data shows a relatively high risk (up to 20.4 times higher than (probable effect level) PEL value for sediment and 46 times higher than standard value for soil). The research is continuing on the assessment of dioxin transport in food chain. Moreover, considering the obtained data a complete solution should be found urgently to solve the problem of dioxin contamination in the studied areas.

  10. Cancer in the population of Hanoi, Vietnam, 1988-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Anh, P.T.; Parkin, D M; Hanh, N. T.; Duc, N. B.

    1993-01-01

    The first results from the population-based cancer registry for the city of Hanoi, in northern Vietnam, are presented. In men, incidence rates are moderate-low with the most common cancers being lung, stomach and liver. Cancer of the penis, reportedly very common in early case series from Vietnam, is now rarely seen. In women, incidence rates are low with the most common cancer, breast cancer, having a recorded incidence similar to that in China. Cervix cancer incidence is very low, which con...

  11. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...... smoothening. The determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A 'one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate...

  12. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the roles played by parents living in Hanoi, Vietnam, in shaping the subjectivities of children who are categorized as physically or intellectually impaired. In an effort to comprehend disability in terms of an active and embodied engagement with the world, I employ...... a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...

  13. Yo ban? Rape rap and limits of free speech in India : An argument analysis of the debate about banning the artist Honey Singh

    OpenAIRE

    Bergdahl, Becky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of an argument analysis of three columns published in the Indian newspaper The Indian Express in the aftermath of the gangrape and murder of a young woman in Delhi in December 2012, and the following debate about glorification of rape in Indian popular culture. One of the columnists is arguing in favour of including gender as a category in the Indian law on hate speech, thereby banning an artist called Honey Singh and his lyrics about rape. The two other columnists are ar...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  15. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban. METHODS: Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed. RESULTS: The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  16. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Katherine; Sanford, Carolyn J; Cheverie, Connie; McClure, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI) enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban. Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed. The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04) immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01) in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant. A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  17. Banning alcohol in a major college stadium: impact on the incidence and patterns of injury and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaite, D W; Meislin, H W; Valenzuela, T D; Criss, E A; Smith, R; Nelson, A

    1990-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of banning alcohol on the incidence of injuries and illness among spectators, we reviewed 4 years (1983 to 1986) of medical incident reports from a major collegiate football stadium. At no time had alcoholic beverages been sold inside the stadium, but before 1985, fans were allowed to bring alcohol into the stadium. In 1985, this practice was banned. During the study period, 340 medical incidents (M = 12.6/game) were reported. Several alterations of specific injury/illness patterns were noted after initiation of the ban: heat-related illness occurred more frequently before initiation of the ban, whereas extremity injuries and syncope (fainting from coronary insufficiency) occurred with greater frequency afterwards. The injury/illness rates per 10,000 fans were 2.95 in 1983, 2.45 in 1984, 1.92 in 1985, and 3.48 in 1986. There was no significant change in the overall incident rate after the ban. Evaluation of medical incidents revealed an alteration in specific injury/illness patterns but no change in overall incidence after institution of the ban. Future investigations are needed to elucidate more clearly the impact of banning alcohol on injury/illness rates and patterns at mass gatherings.

  18. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of pviolation was the display of more than one pack/one carton of a cigarette brand. Violation of bans on tobacco advertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  19. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravara Sofia B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010. Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate. Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8% approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p  Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong policies.

  20. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  1. Challenging censorship through creativity:responses to the ban on Sputnik in the GDR

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, Erich Honecker’s decision to ban the Soviet magazine Sputnik sent shockwaves through the GDR. Reiner Bredemeyer set the announcement of the ban to music in ‘Post – modern’, using musical quotations to provide a critical commentary. Meanwhile, Kito Lorenc took the ban as the starting point for his Kleiner Weggefährte durch den Winter. This cycle of poems trains the reader to dissect and subvert GDR media discourse, and it culminates in an act of literary cannibalism against Honecker. ...

  2. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  3. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…

  4. Networks at Their Limits: Software, Similarity, and Continuity in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lilly Uyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the social worlds of pirated software discs and free/open source software in Vietnam to describe the practices of copying, evangelizing, and translation. This dissertation also reveals the cultural logics of similarity and continuity that sustain these social worlds. Taken together, this dissertation argues that the…

  5. Aerides phongii (Orchidaceae), a new species from Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Averyanov; Loc, P. K.; C. X. Canh

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides illustrated description of a new orchid species, Aerides phongii, discovered in heavily disturbed primary seasonal tropical broad-leaved woodland of southern Vietnam. Terete subulate leaves and verruculose lip with large verrucose calli on the lip disc define isolated taxonomic position of the species. Discovered plant is assessed preliminarily as critically endangered species.

  6. Canada improving child nutrition in Vietnam | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 déc. 2015 ... IDRC and Global Affairs Canada, through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), are contributing $1.16 million to support researchers from Vietnam's National Institute of Nutrition and Canada's Ryerson University to implement proven methods to improve children's health.

  7. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  8. Constraints on agricultural production in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Tan, Y.; Visser, S.M.; Hoanh, C.T.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Uplands of Vietnam form one of the largest ecological regions in the country, characterized by complex biophysical conditions and a high diversity in ethnic minorities, cultures, and farming systems. The Doi moi (“renovation”) program has, since the early 1980s, resulted in significant

  9. The Feminist Sophistic Enterprise: From Euripides to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Audrey

    1992-01-01

    Uses feminist sophistic historiography to open the doors of two distant historical movements onto each other, reading tensions between masculinity and femininity in Athens during the Peloponnesian war and in the United States during the Vietnam War. Foregrounds the possibility of forestalling arbitrary closure on gender questions which determined…

  10. Using and Misusing Media Resources in Teaching on Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braestrup, Peter; Hiraoka, Leona

    1985-01-01

    Vietnam War film can provoke responses among students, and it is easy for them and the teacher to move on to the subjective, and unsubstantiated, conclusion that emotive images had an unprecedented effect on U.S. public opinion, and, hence, on the shaping of war policy. The government press-problem is discussed. (RM)

  11. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis. The...

  12. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers fr...

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling of tidal inlets in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Application of an one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamic simulation of a complex lagooninlet system in Vietnam is presented. Model results help to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the system. Based on the numerical model results and analytic solutions, stability of tidal

  14. Importation of Zika Virus from Vietnam to Japan, November 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takehiro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Nakayama, Eri; Maeki, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Katanami, Yuichi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of Zika virus infection that was imported to Japan by a traveler returning from Vietnam. We detected Zika virus RNA in the patient's saliva, urine, and whole blood. In the Zika virus strain isolated from the urine, we found clearly smaller plaques than in previous strains.

  15. Comparing land use planning approaches in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and comparison of three land-use planning (LUP) approaches in the coastal area of the Mekong Delta,Vietnam. The land use of the studied area is diverse, quickly shifting and

  16. Short notes and reviews Amphibians and reptiles of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vences, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Considered as one of the worldwide hotspots for biodiversity conservation (Myers et al., 2001), Vietnam has been the aim of recent expeditions of several major European research institutes, such as the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris (Ohler et al., 2000), the Russian Academy of

  17. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  18. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Nga, Tran T. T.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  19. Field research opens new vistas in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    “As I got to know different people from Vietnam and learned more about the culture, my research changed and improved, and my questions became more relevant and precise,” she says. “Connecting with people and asking questions was the most enriching part of my experience.” Of her year at IDRC, Le Barbenchon says ...

  20. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  1. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... mission members of local cultural, political and economic factors in Indonesia and Vietnam that will... institutions. However, the emphasis will be on community colleges, intensive English language programs, and... Training); community colleges and undergraduate programs seeking to participate should be accredited by one...

  2. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  3. Vietnam seeks optimal size for emerging businesses | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... Switching the focus from state-owned firms to the emerging small business sector represents a major shift in Vietnam's reform process. The National Assembly is considering introducing legislation to support small businesses in 2016. Read the 2014-15 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report

  4. After Access: Divergent Learning Profiles in Vietnam and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolleston, Caine; James, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both India and Vietnam have successfully expanded access to schooling to near-universal levels and have shifted their focus to quality-oriented policy reform. Yet, international and national evidence shows strongly contrasting learning profiles for children within the two systems. Simple indicators of numeracy suggest similar…

  5. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  6. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  7. Genetic diversity of Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib in Vietnam based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib is not only an endangered species in Vietnam, but also around the world. The wood of this tree species is very valuable as it is used to construct houses and high quality furniture. Habitat loss and exploitation of A. xylocarpa by man have threatened the population to such an extent that the ...

  8. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  9. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three…

  10. Youth Transition to Employment in Vietnam: A Vulnerable Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that educational attainment is one of the significant factors affecting youth transition to work. The process of capital accumulation through education is suggested as the key marker of social inclusion and exclusion. This paper compares the educational attainment among youth in Vietnam with their status in employment. It uses…

  11. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  12. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vietnam has established 1.1 million ha of acacia plantations for wood production, managed on 5- to 10-year rotation cycles. Nearly 50% of the resource is managed by small growers holding 1–5 ha woodlots. Acacia plantations have emerged as an important resource for supporting the rural economy and national export ...

  13. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  14. General Lewis Walt: Operational Art in Vietnam, 1965-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Dragon Embattled. New York, NY: Frederick A. Praeger 95 Publishers, 1967. Clifford , Kenneth. Progress and Purpose: A Developmental History of the...accessed January 19, 2013). Sharp, U.S. Grant. Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978. Shaw , Henry I

  15. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from

  16. Living with autism spectrum disorder in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vu Song; Whittaker, Andrea; Whittaker, Maxine; Rodger, Sylvia

    2014-11-01

    There is limited understanding of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Vietnam. This ethnographic study aimed to explore how ASD is represented and managed in the cultural, social and economic contexts of Vietnam, and describe the experiences of families with children with ASD in Hanoi, Vietnam. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in Hanoi and employed a range of methods, including participant observation, in-depth interviews with 27 parents of children with ASD and 17 key informants, and online survey. This study found that within Hanoi, Vietnam, ASD has been culturally and socially constructed as a 'disease', 'karmic demerit' and 'family problem' rather than a life-long developmental disorder that needs support from government. Children with ASD and their families experience various forms of stigma and discrimination. There are limitations in assessment and diagnosis of ASD. Parents of children with ASD have little access to services for their children, and the limited political and economic supports exacerbate their difficulties. This study highlights some of the ways in which the understandings and management of ASD vary cross culturally. It also suggests further attention is required to the provision of appropriate public education, low cost interventions and support for family advocacy groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  18. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  19. Dilemmas in Examining Understanding of Nature of Science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley-Greene, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing "ancient" and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates,…

  20. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species. PMID:25698899

  1. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  2. The organization of the liberalized rice market in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, L.T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Gedurende de eerste tien jaar na afloop van de oorlog stond de rijstmarkt in Vietnam onder sterke controle van de overheid en werd de handel gedomineerd door overheidsbedrijven. Ongeveer 20 jaar geleden is een proces van liberalisering in gang gezet. De rijstproductie is sterk gestegen. In de 80er

  3. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae from northwestern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Pham

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincella devorator, S. monticola, S. ochracea, Sphenomorphus cryptotis and S. indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species.

  4. New provincial records of skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) from northwestern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Van; Le, Dzung Trung; Nguyen, Son Lan Hung; Ziegler, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2015-01-01

    We report six new records of skinks from northwestern Vietnam: Eutropis macularius, Scincelladevorator , S.monticola, S.ochracea, Sphenomorphuscryptotis and S.indicus. Our new findings increase the species number of skinks (Scincidae) to nine in Dien Bien Province and to 14 in Son La Province. We also provide additional natural history data of aforementioned species.

  5. The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

  6. Review of Palaemoninae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Vietnam, Macrobrachium excepted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, Van N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is presented of the species of Palaemoninae known from Vietnam, the genus Macrobrachium excluded. Of each species a description or descriptive notes are provided, and the habitat and economic importance are discussed. Illustrations of each species, two of which are new to science, are

  7. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam : Key considerations and a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam mangrove rehabilitation has a long history and gained momentum after the war that destroyed huge forested areas, especially in the Mekong Delta. In addition, in various places mangrove have been and still are being planted specifically as a way to protect shorelines and sea-dykes from

  8. Witness for the Innocent: Children's Literature and the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of treatment of the Vietnam war in children's literature. Found that there have not been a large number of books published on subject. Those dealing with subject witness the horrors of the war while treating the conflict as an isolated incident, without a past, and having only a tenuous relationship to our national…

  9. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Vietnam has made impressive strides in recent years in improving the health of mothers and children and in reducing deaths linked to pregnancy and childbirth. But in remote regions, maternal mortality rates are almost four times higher among ethnic minority groups. Census data shows that minority groups ...

  10. Carbon emissions from land cover change in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avitabile, Valerio; Schultz, Michael; Herold, Nadine; Bruin, De Sytze; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Manh, Cuong Pham; Quang, Hien Vu; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The carbon emissions and removals due to land cover changes between 2001 and 2010 in the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin, Central Vietnam, were estimated using Landsat satellite images and 3083 forest inventory plots. The net emissions from above- and belowground vegetation biomass were equal to 1.76 ±

  11. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  12. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is

  13. Rewriting the Vietnam Narrative: Strategic Partnership Opportunities in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    growing dragon to the North that is China will always carry a sword unsheathed ready to strike its smaller neighbor to the South. This eternal threat...include the Chinese, Japanese, French, and arguably the United States. “In Vietnam today, you’re apt to see ball caps on the heads of the middle-aged and

  14. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  15. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  16. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  17. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  18. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  19. Spin states of multielectron systems and the action of multi-spin bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifullin, M. R.; Berdinskii, V. L.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic and spin effects in chemical reactions are caused by the effect of spin bans, which control the elementary acts of radical and ion-radical reactions involving, as a rule, two paramagnetic particles. Any description of spin bans acting in chemical and enzymatic reactions, which is accompanied by transfer of several electrons, as well as in the reactions of high spin molecules, requires knowledge of spin states. It is shown that spin states of multi-electron states should be described by a spin density matrix; rules for their construction are given and their properties are described. As a first step, the construction of four-density matrix is described in detail. The application of four- and three-spin density matrixes is shown for analyzing the formation of superoxide anion in respiratory chains of mitochondria.

  20. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  1. Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Dee; Graham, John W.; Johnson, C. Anderson; UUTELA, ANTTI; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children’s exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco adve...

  2. 16 for the price of 10: effects of a ban on multi-buy alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Multi-buy is one method by which retailers discount alcoholic beverage sales. It is common in the UK. A Scottish ban on multi-buys had an immediate impact on sales. Because other methods for lowering price as a marketing tool will be used, the longer-term impact is unknown. Legislating a minimum price per unit of alcohol may have a longer lasting effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  3. Contribution to the discussion on the banning of corporal punishment of children

    OpenAIRE

    Simović Darko Z.; Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the arguments pro et contra banning of corporal punishment of children, in light of existing comparative legal solutions, experience from foreign countries and results of scientific research on the effects of this method of child discipline. According to the current state of knowledge, the fact that corporal punishment of children does not produce long-lasting positive changes in behavior, but likely produces several detrimental consequences; implies that this child disci...

  4. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: A Perspective from the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    A brief history of the de facto and formal treaties pertaining to nuclear weapons will be reviewed leading to a broader discussion of the recent Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The role of the National Laboratories (primarily Livermore and Los Alamos) in both the technical and policy aspects of those treaties will be described. The debates within the Laboratories as well as the framework for testimony of individual Laboratory staff and other members of the scientific community will also be discussed.

  5. Key issues in the emerging U.S. debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes both sides of the U.S. debate concerning the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was rejected by the U.S. Senate in 1999, and which has attracted renewed interest under the Barack Obama administration. Significant events in international politics have changed the prospects of nuclear proliferation since 1999. Scientists and engineers have improved methods for verifying treaty compliance and ensuring the safety...

  6. Tobacco Taxes and Smoking Bans Impact Differently on Obesity and Eating Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Manaresi, Francesco; Savorelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Policy interventions aimed at affecting a specific behavior may also indirectly affect individual choices in other domains. In this paper we study the direct effect of tobacco excise taxes and smoking bans on smoking behavior, and the indirect effect on eating behavior and body weight. Using very detailed clinical data on individual health, smoking, and dietary habits, we show that antismoking policies are effective in reducing smoking, but their consequences on eating behavior dramatically d...

  7. PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT SEKITAR DALAM RITUAL DI KELENTENG BAN ENG BIO ADIWERNA

    OpenAIRE

    Titin Listiyani

    2013-01-01

    Keberadaan Kelenteng Ban Eng Bio yang terletak di tengah-tengah pemukiman penduduk Tionghoa dan non Tionghoa yang berbeda agama banyak membawa pengaruh. Salah satunya adalah dalam pelaksanaan ritual yang dilakukan di Kelenteng. Pelaksanaan ritual di Kelenteng tidak hanya melibatkan masyarakat Tionghoa yang berada di sekitar Kelenteng, tetapi juga masyarakat non Tionghoa yang berada di sekitarnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji bagaimana pelaksanaan ritual yang dilakukan di Kelenteng Ba...

  8. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  9. Effect of a ban on extracurricular sports activities by secondary school teachers on physical activity levels of adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gauvin, Lise; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2006-10-01

    To study the effect of a teachers' ban on supervising sports-related extracurricular physical activities (ECAs), levels of physical activity among 979 grade 7 students (mean age=12.7 [0.5] years at baseline) were compared during and after the ban in seven schools that fully implemented the ban, and three schools that did not implement the ban fully. On average, schools offered 18.0 (SD=5.1) ECAs during a no-ban school year. Students attending full implementation schools were significantly more likely than students in nonimplementation schools to be active after the ban ended (odds ratio for being active=1.89 [95% confidence interval: 1.39, 2.58]). They also increased the number of physical activities in which they participated (coefficient=4.04; SE=1.01). Ending a teachers' ban on sports-related ECAs was associated with increased involvement in physical activity among secondary school students.

  10. Gender and Power Dynamics in Transnational Marriage Brokerage: The Ban on Commercial Matchmaking in Taiwan Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Hui Tseng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan attracted a considerable number of marriage migrants from Southeast Asia and China through brokers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. With widely circulated, sensational news stories about foreign spouses being abused and advertisements of foreign brides as objects for sale, women involved in the business were gradually seen by the public as victims of transnational marriage brokerage. Under pressure from some women’s groups in Taiwan and the anti-trafficking campaign in the international community, the Taiwanese government eventually banned transnational commercial matchmaking in 2008. This article examines the gender politics behind the ban by reviewing the debate over this policy. It also provides an ethnographic study of women’s power relationships with other parties involved in the marriage business. By exposing the market and cultural logic that made this business blossom, this article challenges the binaries of perpetrator/victim and exploitation/freedom in the dominant representations of the transnational marriage market. It calls for a transnational and transclass perspective to understand these women’s “active submission” to the market and concludes that, without this consideration, the enforcement of the 2008 ban ends up serving only to save the international reputation of the host country and fulfill the liberal middle-class imaginary of moral order of the host society, rather than solving women’s problems per se.

  11. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  12. Banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Bachynski, Kathleen E

    2013-07-01

    Campaigns to limit tobacco use started in the 1970s and have led to bans on public smoking, which have been extended to parks and beaches. A review of state and local statutes shows that during 1993-2011, smoking was banned in 843 parks and on 150 beaches across the United States. Three justifications for these restrictions have been invoked: the risk of passive smoke to nonsmokers, the pollution caused by cigarette butts, and the long-term risks to children from seeing smoking in public. Our analysis of the evidence for these claims found it far from definitive and in some cases weak. What, then, accounts for the efforts to impose such bans? We conclude that the impetus is the imperative to denormalize smoking as part of a broader public health campaign to reduce tobacco-related illness and death. Although invoking limited evidence may prove effective in the short run, it is hazardous for public health policy makers, for whom public trust is essential.

  13. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future.

  14. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  15. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA.

  16. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  17. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  18. Continuity and change in premarital sex in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Sharon; Loi, Vu Manh; Huy, Vu Tuan; Knodel, John

    2006-12-01

    Premarital sexual activity is thought to be rising in Vietnam. However, there is little evidence documenting such an increase, and it is unknown whether levels of premarital sex differ between northern and southern Vietnam and whether premarital sex occurs primarily with a future spouse. Surveys conducted in northern Vietnam (Red River Delta) and southern Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and surrounding environs) in 2003-2004 among individuals married during one of three important periods in Vietnamese history (1963-1971, 1977-1985 or 1992-2000) were used to assess trends and regional differences in the prevalence and context of premarital sex. In both regional samples, 31% of men who married in 1992-2000 reported having had premarital sex. The proportion was much lower among women (8% in the South, 12% in the North). The prevalence of premarital sex rose markedly across cohorts in the North but only modestly in the South. Relatively few men had premarital sex with someone other than a future spouse (3-23%). The proportion of the rise in the prevalence of premarital sex that was due to sex exclusively with a future spouse was greater in the North (42%) than in the South (25%). These results suggest that premarital sex is becoming more common in Vietnam but is still not widespread. Better information about the sexual networks of men in the general population and their contacts with high-risk groups (e.g., commercial sex workers) is needed to ascertain the likelihood that HIV/AIDS will spread to the general population.

  19. Women’s education in Vietnam and the changes of socio-economic environment. Comparative thoughts based on cases from Vietnam and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Tendensen til at kvinder i stigende grad vinder ind på mænd i uddannelsessystemet og har overhalet dem på selv de høejeste niveauer i forhold til antal i Danmark er ikke uden parelleller i Vietnam. Kvinderne i Vietnam er ikke så ligestillede i Danmark, men der er sket store forbedringer inden for...

  20. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.