WorldWideScience

Sample records for chosa hokokusho asia

  1. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Report on the survey made under the research contract with NEDO, `The International Work Division/Energy Demand Effect Survey.`. Influence of the economic growth in Asia on the energy demand; 1996 nendo `kokusai suihei bungyo energy juyo eikyo chosa` itaku chosa kekka hokokusho. Asia no keizai hatten ga energy juyo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes surveys on the following: (1) the progress situation of the Asian information society, (2) changes of corporate network, business flow, material flow and money flow in association with the information society, (3) the present situation of the industry-accumulated region in Asia and inter-region network, (4) impacts of the above-mentioned changes on the trade and investment structure in Japan, (5) how to tackle the energy issue in Asia in the future. First, effects of the advance of the information society on energy supply/demand were studied. Next, an analysis was made of effects of the progress of the high-grade information society in Asia on economy, industry and corporate action. The degree of the progress of the information society in Asian countries was made clear from the infrastructure arrangement and the developmental status of application. Contribution of the financial network to the economic growth in Asia and the development were clarified. The organization of corporate networks in Asia where paradigms are converting was made clear to consider industrial clusters in Asia. Last, in the light of the economic relationship between Japan and Asia, a study was made on the future policy of Japan for Asia. 238 refs., 77 figs., 89 tabs.

  3. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Report on the analytical survey of the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Arrangement, investigation and analysis of an energy information exchange system were conducted, with the aim of coping with the development in the whole Asia/Pacific area, the stabilization of energy supply/demand, and the environmental problem and of realizing effective cooperation of every country in the area. Concerning the trend of the domestic primary energy supply/demand, there are some patterns. Countries which show high growth rates are developing countries such as Thailand and China, and NIES such as Korea and Taiwan. Countries where growth rates are slowing down and lowering are developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan and the U.S. Countries where energy supply/demand is not stabilized are Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Chile which are suffering from variations in import/export. The ultimate energy consumption is the domestic primary energy supply from which the conversion loss in the conversion sector was deducted, and indicates almost the same trend as the primary energy supply. It is divided into a stabilized type of developed countries and a rapidly increasing type and a stagnant type. However, there are some exceptions. Total data in the quarter of the year cannot be the yearly data by itself, but requires a year-end tax arrangement. 40 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility study of international joint researches in the Asian region; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa (4)hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is thought that the energy consumption in Asian countries with ASEAN and China as center will a marked growth also in future together with a rapid economic growth, but harmony with environmental problems and economic growth is being taken as a serious problem. This is an important issue also to Japan from viewpoints of secure energy supply and regional response to the environmental issue. Accordingly, strongly desired is positive response to global environmental issues and promotion in development/spread of new energy/energy conservation in these countries. For the spread of the technologies, actual construction/operation of plants by joint researches with Japan are effective from aspects of personnel raising, technical improvement, PR effects, etc. This is also helpful for Japan in terms of technological development because Japan can also get the unobtainable data from the operation under appropriate conditions. This is a report on the studies of the trends of global environmental problems in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India and China. 3 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the state of studying the measures against global warming in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and made analyses of the trends of preventive measures for global warming in other countries, aiming at presenting data for studying the future enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region. In the U.S., a report was taken up from Executive Office of the President which is entitled `the federal government R and D of energy for solution to problems in the 21st century.` The report made analyses of the federal government R and D of energy and at the same time recommended an increase in R and D budget and reinforcement of the organization of the Department of Energy. In Europe, the carbon tax, CO2 tax, energy tax, etc. are introduced or studied for reduction of CO2 emissions. OECD made public a report approved in May 1997 which is entitled `the environmental tax and green tax reform.` Also studied were the introduction and effects of the carbon tax aiming at reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries. More attention is being paid to economic effects predicted in case developed countries reinforce various kinds of measures for targeted reduction of greenhouse gases. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Report on a feasibility study of making an international joint research on energy in the Asia region; Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted on the energy situation in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and India, and a possibility of making an international joint research. Thailand has sharply increased investments from Europe and the U.S. since 1985, and has been making a rapid industrialization. As to the energy policy, it is important to secure the stable supply and stabilize the price. Indonesia has been rapidly increasing energy consumption in accordance with the recent economic growth, and is fear of becoming a net oil importing country in the near future. They are taking a policy for securing as much domestic oil and gas as possible. Malaysia has been keeping a high growth of over 8% per year for the past 8 years and rapidly increased energy demand. It is expected that they will maintain a high level of the development of energy resources. In the Philippines, the industrial energy is mostly coal, but electricity expected in future is from the oil-fueled power generation. The stable import of oil is a problem. 45 figs., 51 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  11. View of the LP gas supply/demand in Asia and a survey of the Middle East trend; Asia no LP gas jukyu tenbo to Chuto doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    A study was made on the LP gas supply/demand in Asia including an outlook for 2000. Eleven countries in Asia including NIES countries, ASEAN countries, China and India have been continuing their rapid growth of economy and have rapidly been increasing their energy consumption. There, LP gas spreads as a home use fuel, and countries excluding some LP gas producing countries depend considerably upon the import from the Middle East. The LP gas consumption quantity is steadily increasing in China and India having huge population, etc., and dependence of LP gas is increasing upon LP gas producing countries of the Middle East. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, the domestic consumption of LP gas, mostly butane, is increasing. Namely, butane is used as raw material of MTBE, and LP gas as that of petroleum chemicals. The Middle East has a lot of plant projects of a sizable size in the future, which predicts that LP gas export from LP gas producing countries of the Middle East is decreasing. 2 refs., 62 figs., 57 tabs.

  12. Survey report 1998. Survey on actual condition of science parks and similar facilities in Asian countries; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia shokoku chiiki ni okeru science park nado no jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Implemented at NEDO, on such technical development issues peculiar to developing nations as are difficult to solve by their research and development ability alone, has been a consistent research cooperation with countries in question, such as installation of plants and research facilities, joint research operation, and training of researchers, while Japanese technological skill and research and development know how are utilized, as the international cooperation projects. In this survey, an actual condition was investigated including potential of science parks and similar facilities in Asian countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and India), for the purpose of unearthing the needs, seeds, etc., of the future international research cooperation projects. The parks and facilities selected for the survey are as follows. The Thai technology/science parks are the Thai Science Park and four other parks; the Indonesian technology parks are Bukit Indah Industrial City and eleven other parks; the major Malaysian technology parks are Technology Park Malaysia and fourteen other parks; the major Indian technology parks are Electronics City and fifteen other parks. (NEDO)

  13. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  14. Report on projects of the basic survey of effective energy consumption in developing countries and the invitation of engineers of developing countries to Japan (Vietnam, the Philippine, Indonesia and Thailand) in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa to jigyo hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia Tai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Based on the significance of technological training for energy saving and environmental protection, NEDO has invited administrators and engineers of four countries in Southeast Asia. Pollution prevention technology, administrative methods and energy saving measures in Japan were lectured in the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer. The training curriculum included (1) basic law of environment and local administration from the viewpoint of criminal law concerning history of air pollution problems and countermeasures in Yokkaichi petroleum industrial complex, (2) prospect of new energy technology development in Japan relating to the energy saving law, (3) energy saving measures, air/exhaust gas/dust treatment for environmental protection, and actual waste treatment measures by typical individual industries, and (4) significance of common management technology for individual treatment measures. Policies of energy saving and environmental protection and technology information in Japan which can be transferred were provided to two administrators of energy saving in the industry sector of Management of Science, Technology and Environment of Vietnam. 12 figs.

  15. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report. Popularization project of the proper treatment technology of industrial wastes in Asian regions; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia chiiki sangyo haikibutsu tekiseika shori gijutsu nado fukyu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on popularization of the proper treatment technology of industrial wastes in Asian regions. In principle, industrial wastes should be recycled in a country concerned, however, because of a difference in technology and industrial location, treatment of all industrial wastes in a country concerned is impossible. International cooperation is thus indispensable to promote proper efficient practical measures for environment. For studying the possibility of the international cooperation between Japan and Asian countries concerned for further recognition and solution of industrial waste problems, 'International Symposium on the Asian Industrial Waste Issue' have been held in Tokyo since 1997 for governmental staffs. In fiscal 1998, Malaysia was invited in addition to China, Philippines and Thailand for popularization of the proper treatment and recycling of industrial wastes in Asian regions. In every Asian countries, poor collection of discharge, treatment and disposal data is an obstacle to effective treatment. Technical cooperation and financial support by developed countries are demanded. (NEDO)

  17. Report on fiscal 1995 project to promote an exchange of researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1995 nendo itakujigyo (Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of solving environmental problems caused in association with the increasing industrial activities in the Asia-Pacific region, the construction of a research network is being advanced aiming at promoting exchanges with researchers of other countries and activating information exchanges. Investigators were sent overseas to grasp the present situation, and researchers participated in a symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation for mutual understanding and personal interchange. In the overseas survey, visits were paid mainly to national research institutes and universities in India and Thailand. Positive approval was obtained on the construction of the ETERNET APR (Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region). In the symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation held in Nagoya, researchers participated mostly in the second session and made earnest discussions with researchers from other countries. The necessity and importance of the network was emphasized. Countries which participated the symposium have problems common to each, and it was greatly significant to meet together and discuss together. The environmental problem is on a global scale, and it is necessary to make close exchange/interchange of information/opinion on a long term basis and to tackle it in the whole Asia-Pacific region. 3 tabs.

  18. Research report of fiscal 1997. Feasibility research on domestic wind farms; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokunai wind farm kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made on large-scale wind power generation projects under planning or construction. Issues of the following 5 areas were arranged considering topographic, geographic and meteorological conditions, and the type of municipal corporations: Tomamae town, Hokkaido, Tachikawa town, Yamagata prefecture (third-sector), Hisai city, Mie prefecture, Otoyo town, Kochi prefecture, and Kishuku town, Nagasaki prefecture (third-sector). These projects are supported by MITI`s local new energy introduction promotion project subsidy started in fiscal 1997 covering a half of construction cost (within 200 million yen/year). Requirements for this subsidy are that an applicant is either a municipal corporation or a third-sector, and that a total generating capacity is not less than 1200kW. Another subsidy system covering 1/3 of construction cost and a debt guarantee system are prepared for large-scale private projects not less than 800kW. Hearing was made on some private projects in Esashi town, Akita city and Hasaki town. Technical requirements, specifications, guideline and some examples for system interconnection are also summarized. 10 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1995 geothermal development promotion survey. Natural environment survey report; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In Candidate C area for the geothermal development survey, the natural environment was surveyed and `the secondary landscape assessment` was summed up in which places proposed for drilling of large-size wells and for construction of power generation facilities are extracted and a simulation of the landscape is conducted. The area for survey is the Shiramizu-gawa region in the south of Lake Akan, Akan-cho, Akan-gun, Hokkaido. The field survey was carried out about three items of landscape, plants and animals during the June-November period, 1995. As to the flora, diverse florae including vegetation unique to alpine areas, wetlands, and fumarole surrounding areas were found in the region, which is covered with summer-green broad-leaved forests or mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. As to the fauna, faunae inhabitant of the highly natural forests were found including black woodpeckers and mountain hawk eagles. As a result of studying the places proposed for geothermal development from the above-mentioned survey, two places were picked up in the west of the survey area, where geothermal development is comparatively less influential in the natural environment and landscape and there is a high locational adaptability. 19 refs., 56 figs., 49 tabs.

  20. Model operation to improve energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Demonstration study (investigation project) on material preheating equipment for an electric furnace (using reduced iron as a raw material); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Denkiro no genryo yonetsu sochi (kangen tetsu genryo) ni kakawaru jissho kenkyu (chosa jigyo) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Investigations were given on a device technology that can obtain energy saving and environment preserving effects in electric furnace iron making using reduced iron as a raw material. The effects can be obtained by continuously charging into an electric furnace the reduced iron supplied from an iron ore reducing plant while the iron is kept hot. The investigations were carried by sending survey groups to India and Mexico who are producing reduced iron, and Egypt and Malaysia who possess iron reducing technologies, and by analyzing the actual conditions of reduced iron manufacturing equipment and electric furnace facilities. In addition, retrieval, collection and analysis were performed on technical data and information on reduced iron available inside and outside the country. As a result, a proposal was made to select India as a site to execute the demonstration study on the hot reduced iron insertion technology. The reasons for the selection are: India has a large number of steel mills that have iron reducing facilities and electric furnaces; the country is geographically convenient for Japanese research institutes to implement the demonstration study; the country`s DRI production is the largest in the south-eastern Asia; and electric power cost is high. 92 refs., 49 figs., 30 tabs.

  1. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on research and development and its staff training. Towards cooperation among Japan, Australia and developing nations in Asia; Kenkyu kaihatsu to sono jinzai ikusei 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon, Australia oyobi Asia no hatten tojokoku no kyodo wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the characteristics of R and D concerning Australia, one of the core nations in the cooperation, on the basis of the idea that 'establishment of new comparative superiority through cooperation' can be realized by joint work among Japan, Australia and Asian nations. In Australia, it was found that R and D was often promoted through a new idea obtained by recruiting heterogeneous persons and communicating mutually internally. It was also found that in Australia an affinity exists to such persons of different nature. Accordingly, Australia was presumably quite suitable for the place to bring up the persons of developing nations. On the basis of these analytical results, proposal was made to promote three programs; namely, preparation of a data base for R and D organizations and the staff, commencement of a partnership program, and opening of a needs searching conference. (NEDO)

  2. Research report on human media; Human media no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The human multimedia technology corresponding to users` subjective characteristics was researched to realize information environment producing a sense of unity with human. The human media technology realizes a human sensitive information processing model and a common database easily acceptable sensitively by various users. This technology also should be able to fairly accept and transmit individual`s information and knowledge as multimedia information, and in addition it is required to supply a virtual space with presence. In fiscal 1995, the research committee studied the concrete developmental issue for integrating these advanced fundamental technologies, and as practical images planned the prototype systems such as human media interactive plant operation, supply of environment supporting personal intelligent activities, and virtual medical center. The research committee also discussed development of space mobile media to secure energy-saving and safety of automobiles, and an environment simulation system with participation of many people. 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Investigational report on the trend of measures for global warming; Chikyu ondanka taisaku doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To know the trend of measures taken for global warming, conducted were overseas surveys, participation in academic society meetings, and literature surveys. The phaseout time of all ozone depleting substances responsible for the ozonospherial destruction was determined for both developed and developing countries in the 7th Meeting of countries which concluded the Montreal Protocol. As information on measures for protecting the ozonosphere, introduced was activities under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). New fluorine containing ethers were introduced as cleaning solvent which causes no ozonospherial destruction and is low in global warming index. Toxicity data were obtained on HFC-236ea and HFC-236fa which are promising substitutes in HCFC foaming and refrigerant fields. The paper introduced an outline of the 1st Meeting of countries which concluded the Framework Convention on Climate Change held in 1995. According to the report on the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection of the Netherlands, the amount of emission of fluorine containing greenhouse effect gas (in CO2 conversion) reached 8-14% of all the amount of greenhouse effect gas emitted in 1990 unless the control is reinforced. An outline of the TEWI-3 project was introduced which is useful for comparing effects of substitution technologies on global warming. 14 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Report on the project for spread/promotion of technology for the industrial waste optimized treatment in the Asian region; Asia chiiki sangyo haikibutsu tekiseika shori gijutsu nado fukyu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The International Symposium `98 on the industrial waste problem in the Asian region was held in Tokyo on February 18, 1998. MITI commented on the present situation of the industrial waste problem in Japan and Japan`s environmental tackling toward the Asian region, and also Asian countries (China, the Philippines, Thailand and Korea) made reports. Japan reported on environmental preservation measures taken in the industrial circle, the industrial waste problem at companies which advanced into Asian countries, effects of the Basel Convention (which restricts border-crossing movement of harmful wastes) on recycle activities, Japan`s role in Asia, etc. In the panel discussion, discussions were made on human interchange in the informatization, recycling technology, shortage of personnel concerned with environmental protection, construction of a network in the Asian region and Japan` s role, etc. As to the treatment system for waste, the necessity was recognized of studying systems which meet with actual states of each country. It is also necessary to go on with discussing how the system should be for cooperation between governments and private companies. Importance of the recycle and information exchange was emphasized. 10 refs., 14 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Report on the project for spread/promotion of technology for the industrial waste optimized treatment in the Asian region (International Symposium `98); Asia chiiki sangyo haikibutsu tekiseika shori gijutsu nado fukyu sokushin jigyo (symposium kaisai) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In Japan and Asian countries, the optimized treatment of industrial waste is the problem with the economic growth. Border-crossing movement of the waste for promotion of the renewable use is also a problem. Therefore, the International Symposium `98 on the industrial waste problem in the Asian region was held. China, Thailand, the Philippines and Korea were invited to Japan to give lectures. MITI of Japan reported on the present situation of Japan and the cooperation with Asian countries. The industrial circle reported on efforts for environmental protection measures to be taken, the industrial waste problem at companies which advanced into Asian countries, effects of the Basel Convention on recycling activities, Japan`s role in Asia, etc. In the panel discussion, promotion of cooperation for recycling technology and Japan`s support for formulating strategy on the industrial waste were requested to Japan, and the construction of an Asian area network was proposed. Concerning the cooperative system between governments and private companies, it was concluded that it was necessary to discuss it considering the actual state of each country. Importance of recycle and information exchange was realized again. 10 refs., 15 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey of overseas coal import base arrangement and promotion. Effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on the supply/demand of general coal in Asia; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. IPP ni yoru sekitan boeki no kakudai ga Asia no ippantan jukyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In consideration of the coal situation in the Asia/Pacific region, a study was made of effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on supply/demand of general coal in Asia. When aggregating increases in demand of general coal for electric power use in ten Asian counties, they will be an increase of 130.75 million tons in 2005 over 1997. Fifty nine percent of it is equivalent to the increase by IPP and exceeds the demand expanded by electric utilities operators. Further, a possibility is predicted of contracts and coal quality being different from until now. However, there will be a lot of cases in which plans of constructing power plants in Asia are not so developed as expected except Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and also the effect of the currency crisis starting in Thailand largely affects. In terms of the coal supply, countries which export general coal are only China and Indonesia. Indonesian coal is expanding its production and export rapidly and remarkably. The environmental control in Asia has been tightening, and the fuel selected by IPP is mainly coal rather than natural gas. 40 refs., 94 figs., 179 tabs.

  7. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  9. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business for Yumesu district, Osaka Port; Osakawan Yumesu chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A study is conducted on an energy supply infrastructure for introducing a cogeneration system into the Yumesu district, which is a key point for the development of Osaka City, so that environments suitable for the 21st century will be formed and sustained. In the study, plural heat supply systems are discussed for the district. Taken up also are the possible utilization of heat from the waste incineration plant to be constructed on the neighboring Maisu island and of hitherto-unexploited energy sources such as seawater and the sewage treatment plant whose construction is now under consideration. Findings are that every method under study achieves an energy-saving rate of 5% and that the introduction of an urban type power plant will obtain the best result marking an approximately 22% energy-saving rate when its exhaust heat is effectively utilized. The order remains the same when their environmental features are surveyed, with the urban type cogeneration system holding first place with a NOx reduction rate of 37.7%. When it comes to economy, however, the method of effectively utilizing the exhaust heat from cogeneration power plants installed at consumers' marks the best result, this attributed to the low cost of pipe laying in the district. (NEDO)

  10. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on joint implementation for preventing global climate changes; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kyodo jisshi kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made to promote Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program. Joint Implementation (JI) is the methodology for preventing global climate changes by collaboration of countries. The countries take cooperative actions for reduction, absorption and fixation of greenhouse gases, and effectively distribute the reduction credits among relevant parties. This was decided in the first session of the Conference of Parties (COP) held in March, 1995. In COP3, Japan`s assigned reduction amount in 2008-2012 was determined as 6% of the emission level in 1990. The protocol defines JI between parties as dealings of emission reduction units, and JI between developing countries as clean development mechanism. The rules for a base line and credit distribution are necessary before full-scale implementation. Although JI is regarded as an important cost-effective project, it is important to decide where and how the JI projects should been promoted. The present state and issues of the primary approved project of Japan Program are arranged. In particular, various terms related to developing countries remain to be solved. 21 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Survey report on a new energy vision establishment in Gushikawa City (a survey on the initial phase); Gushikawashi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho (shoki dankai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on the new energy vision at Gushikawa City in Okinawa Prefecture. The energy demand in Gushikawa City is estimated as 829.3 billion 73 million kcal, which is about half of the national average per population. By departments, the consumer department has a very large demand of about two times as much as the national average, while the demand in the industrial department is as low as about 38% of the national average. The energy demand by kind is in the order of electric power, gasoline and heavy oil. With respect to energy supply, the Okinawa Electric Power Company Gushikawa Power Plant supplies 561.60 billion kcal. The expected new energy availability is estimated as 47087 x 10{sup 3} kWh/year by solar energy power generation, 7174 x 10{sup 3} kWh/year by wind power generation, 1662 kWh/year by ocean wave power generation. Wastes energy availability is estimated as 74990 x 10{sup 6} kcal/year in the sum of general and stockbreeding wastes energy. Specific plans discussed introduction of solar energy power generation and small wind power generation systems to primary and middle schools, gymnasiums, urban area redevelopment projects, coastal parks, street lights, low-temperature warehouses, prefectural hospitals, and multi-purpose welfare centers. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on energy consumption in a residential sector; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    On energy consumption in a residential sector, the report reports the document survey result including new documents, and the result of the systematic national questionnaire survey carried out in small and medium cities to prepare the basic data for future development and introduction of petroleum substituting energy. The electric power consumption rate of detached houses (A) is larger by 0.6- 1.6Gcal/household/year than that of apartment houses (B) in every district. The gas consumption rate of A is smaller than that of B in Hokkaido, Kanto and Kyushu. The LPG consumption rate of Kinki district is largest in both A and B. The kerosene consumption rate of A is larger than that of B. In Hokkaido, the kerosene consumption is extremely large in heating, showing a ratio of 60% or more in A. In the other districts, the kerosene consumption is largest in hot water supply, showing 30% or more. Every consumption rate increases with annual household income. The average consumption rate of 4 districts is 11,137Mcal/household/year. (NEDO)

  13. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business (Minami-guchi District, Sapporo Railway Station); Sapporoeki minamiguchi chiku chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility of commercialization is discussed of an environmentally friendly heat supply system for the above-named district. The research centers on the configuration and optimum dimensions of heat source equipment for a large-scale cogeneration-aided district heat supply system to be selected for introduction into the district. Discussion is made about the energy efficiency and environment preserving features of a system selected for employment. A study is then conducted on a plant consisting of two high-efficiency 4800kW gas turbine cogeneration systems and heat storing water tanks. Such when introduced will contribute to the levelling-off of urban power loads and to the enhancement of power peak cut through the utilization of cogeneration system-generated power and midnight power. When the exhaust heat from the cogeneration system is fully exploited, the system will achieve an energy saving effect approximately 9% higher than that exhibited by separately functioning heat source systems. Furthermore, CO2 will be reduced by 20% or more, NOx by 45% or more, and SOx by 46% or more, as compared with separately functioning heat source systems. The conclusive evaluation is that the above-selected system will sufficiently contribute to the preservation of environments. (NEDO)

  14. Basic research report on regional new energy vision drawn up for Saga Prefecture; Sagaken chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho (kiso chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The need of new energy introduction is found in matters relating to energy security, resources depletion, environmental problems, and the construction of distributed energy sources. The total amount of new energy in the prefecture is 4,859,052Gcal (525,301kl in terms of crude oil), which occupies approximately 30% of the energy that the prefecture demanded in fiscal 1996. Out of the said new energy, those from the sun, wind, ocean, and small- and medium-scale water systems may be acquired in the form of electric power, and they add up to 3,615,424MWh (3,109,265Gcal in terms of calorific value, 336,137kl in terms of crude oil) and occupy 64% (including industrial wastes) of the whole amount. As for the percentage of each type of new energy, solar energy is the highest, its amount of 2,973,679Gcal (321,479kl) occupying 61.2% of the whole, followed by the energy from wastes whose amount in total is 695,131Gcal (75149kl) occupying 14.3%. The possibility of introduction of new energy is studied and the conclusion is described for each energy type, district, and sector (residential and commercial, industrial, transportation). The respects on which prudence should be exercised in introducing new energy are also discussed. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kakushinteki energy gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research result in fiscal 1997 from the basic research results on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies. The target of a photovoltaic power generation market includes isolated power sources (several kWp) for distant places or developing countries, and those (several tens kWp) for personal residences or public facilities. Although the former is mainly promoted in the West, while the latter over the world, their profitability is unsolved. Power plants over several hundreds kWp are in demonstration test. Solar heat power generation of several tens to hundreds MWp is most profitable, however, small-scale one is poor in feasibility. Australia takes an interest in distributed photovoltaic power generation directly connected with actual lives of residents, and has a dominant opinion that desert is useless as large-scale site. This country lays emphasis on protection and maintenance rather than positive use of desert based on a basic cognition that desert is easily changed and broken. The Australian government announced power company`s obligation to use renewable energy by 2%, and a strong organization is scheduled to be newly established. 59 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Leading research and study report for fiscal 1998. Report on leading research and study on intelligent fiber; 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Inteligent fiber sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches were conducted with a view to organizing projects for developing intelligent fibers, equipped with environmental friendliness and amenity without being deprived of their original properties as structural and clothing materials, the ultimate goal of the effort being the creation of harbingers of next-generation fibers which would contribute to the advance of industries related to environments, medicine and welfare, and information. What were learned from fiscal 1998 researches are mentioned below. The strength that the general-purpose fibers currently in use exhibit is so small as to be but several percent of what is theoretically predicted for them. Demand will increase a great deal if the actual strength is doubled, for which new technologies have to be developed including those involving super-fiber texture control. For providing the fiber with such functions as environment-friendliness, amenity, etc., it is necessary to develop phasal structure control technologies with regard to fiber morphology, surface texture, etc. For success in practical application in the future of such super-fiber materials, each specimen needs to be manufactured in the order of kilogram by way of trial. Moreover, fiber evaluation techniques have to be developed in the three domains of software, hardware, and interface. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the trend of global warming protection measures of substituting freons; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (daitai freon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The trend survey was conducted of global warming protection measures by participation in international conferences, scientific society meetings and lecture meetings, and by literature surveys. We participated in the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures. In the 9th meeting of the nations which concluded the Montreal Protocol, the strengthening of restrictions on methyl bromide was decided on. In the UNEP solvent technology selection conference and the OORG conference of the World Bank, reports were made on substituting solvents in Japan, activities supporting developing countries, and the developmental trend of urethane use foaming agent. In the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures, introduced were the present status of Japan`s ODA for developing countries and examples of success of the substitution in the solvent field. The paper included nine reports on CFC destruction technology related literature made public in the past one year. The paper also introduced a comparative study of de-HCFC substituting technology at U.S. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. EPA`s prediction of emission of fluorine 3 gas, the predicted value of HFC emission and trial calculation of contributing rate in all greenhouse gases by IIR, Green Peace and Elf Atochem, and NOAA`s measured data on SF6 in the atmosphere. 49 refs., 46 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Basic research report on new energy vision drawn up for Mie Prefecture; Mieken shin energy vision kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Use and existence of new energy in Mie Prefecture are investigated. Described in this report is the use of photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, RDF (refuse derived fuel)-fired power generation, and wave power generation; evaluated in this report is the existence of solar energy, wind energy, temperature difference energy, biomass energy, and refuse energy. As for solar energy, the residential house is expected to be the highest in the amount of solar energy collection, to be followed by the factory and mill, warehouse, business office, retail store and department store, school house, and the government office, named in the descending order. As for wind energy, wind characteristics are excellent across one third of the prefecture, with a annual average wind speed of not less than 5m/s recorded at places totaling 1900km{sup 2}. As for temperature difference energy, although sea water and river water are available in abundance, yet this energy will require heat consuming parties in presence at the site of water intake. In relation with the use of biomass energy, there is a promising use of methane produced out of excrements of hogs which are found in a great number in the prefecture. As for the production of energy out of refuse which is preferred to be carried out at a refuse treatment-dedicated plant, its adoption will be considered when a new plant is to be built in the future. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1995 investigation on biological fixation of carbon dioxide; 1995 nendo seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To cope with the global warming caused by CO2, an investigation was conducted into biological fixation. It is necessary to make a many-sided and comprehensive study on the mechanism of CO2 fixation, the scale (area and carbon holding density), the rate and the environmental impact of the introduction of the technology and the technical problems, and to make a quantitative evaluation of each of the methods in order to make them practical proposals. The global ecosystem is classified into the land biota and ocean biota, and each typical ecosystem was surveyed in terms of the surface area, the carbon holding amount (presently existing amount), the net primary production amount, the required nutrient salt amount, the transpiration rate, etc. Next, a discussion was made on the increasing effect of the carbon fixation amount by changing the present ecosystem from the aspect of scale and rate. At the same time, a study was carried out of energy efficiency, economical efficiency and problems. Last, elementary technology was taken up which seems to be important for implementing measures for the biological carbon fixation. As to the ocean, it is necessary to obtain information, which is not sufficient to utilize marine biota for CO2 fixation, especially on the mechanism of depth-direction transfer of organism and its quantitative grasp. As to the land, one of the measures is conversion of the ecosystem where the amount of carbon fixed is small to the ecosystem where the amount is large. 249 refs., 58 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.A-1. Haneyama area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Haneyama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The result and evaluation of the geothermal development promotion survey in the Haneyama area were summed up. The geothermal development promotion survey in the Haneyama area was conducted in the area of approximately 300km{sup 2} of Kujuu-machi, Oita prefecture to make extracts through the ground survey and well survey of the high earth temperature abnormal zone in the north of the Houhi geothermal zone. The ground survey included the geology/alteration zone survey, density survey, geochemical survey, and electromagnetic survey. From the result of drilling six holes for the heat flow rate examination and the existing test boring data, the earth temperature distribution within this survey area was outlined. In the structural test boring survey, a maximum temperature of 140.6{degree}C was recorded at a depth of 1045m. The result of this survey indicated that the CL-SO4 type hydrothermal system in the Noya-Mizuwaketouge area probably extends near the south of Fukumayama. However, since the storage temperature is estimated at approximately 140-195{degree}C, the hydrothermal system is not expected to be used as resource for the steam power generation, but for the binary power generation. 98 refs., 144 figs., 92 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research project on energy saving in developing countries (cooperative research on oil saving / basic research on the industry of Thailand); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo sekiyu shohi koritsuka kyoryoku chosa (Taikoku sangyo kiso chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field research was made for oil saving in Thailand. To promote energy saving in a textile industry as main export industry, its motivation for production stuff is essential in business improvement. Proposal for work improvement, supply system of bonuses, and small-group activity are effective. Management of an energy consumption rate is essential in business management. Use of efficient waste water treatment equipment is also one of the issues. In food factories, various scopes for improvement are still found by mass/heat balance analysis in production process. As an example, a large amount of water is consumed in vain for washing raw rice in a rice powder factory, and separation of SS precipitate from waste water should be improved. Because of lagoon treatment, an effluent standard is not achieved in spite of consumption of wasteful aeration power. This treatment is reasonable because of its scale and site, although the standard can be achieved by activated sludge method. Reconsideration of the standard is also necessary based on a local total BOD load capacity. The profitability of a methane fermentation method should be examined. 72 figs., 95 tabs.

  6. Report on the FY 1995 basic survey for industrialization related to the survey of overseas geological structure (Pondok Labu East area, Indonesia); 1995 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa (Indonesia Pondok Labu higashi chiku) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The survey was conducted based on 'Scope of work for detailed coal exploration in the Pondok Labu East area of East Kalimantan Province, Kalimantan, Indonesia' concluded on June 16, 1995 between NEDO and P.T. Tanito Harum which owns the mining right. The area for survey is approximately 10km west of Tenggarong city, the capital of Kabupaten Kutai, East Kalimantan Province which is northeast part of Kalimantan island of Indonesia. The field survey was divided into the geological/boring survey and the survey of conditions for underground mining development and the infrastructure. This survey made it clear that in the underground mining of PDL7A seam, assuming the minable coal reserve to be 6.81 million tons, it is possible to produce raw coal of 0.5 million tons/year by adopting the longwall pick mining. The raw coal is all prepared, and the yield is 80%. Accordingly, the production of product coal is 0.4 million tons/year. Attached were the boring log (JN9-94-0855), physical log (JN9940856), and BIP survey report (JN9940857). (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1996 report on the investigational research on the construction of a database of physical functions; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (shintai kino database no kochiku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing `the affluence` sought in the Japanese economic society, the supply and preparation of products, service and environments friendly to human beings seem to be important. In the future, the development of products which are fully considered also of aged and handicapped people is more expected than the conventional manufacturing of products added with value. Especially in accordance with the rapid aging, from a viewpoint that the lowering of physical functions caused by aging has an exactly close relation with the response to products and the environment, development of the database of physical functions for the aged which is useful for the design is urgently promoted. First, the data to be supplied for database were selected. As to the selection method, the data required for database were defined by collection/analysis of the existing data, examination of the needs of enterprise designers, and analysis of daily activities. In the study of the database, the structure by which data can be effectively supplied was studied and verified by pilot database for extraction of the subjects and solution to the problems. 6 refs., 57 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of biological CO2 fixation using arid land and oligotrophic waters; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kansochi, hin`eiyo kaiiki wo riyoshita seibutsuteki CO2 kotei ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey is aimed to investigate various measures to be taken for biological CO2 fixation, to synthetically study feasibilities of the measures from various aspects of CO2 fixation mechanism, scale, speed, and environmental effects and technical problems in case of introducing those, and to assess the measures quantitatively. In this fiscal year, a study was proceeded with of possibilities of carbon fixation by afforestation and that by fertilization into ocean. The paper defined significance of afforestation in arid land, and especially advantages in conducting researches in West Australia. Relationships were examined among afforestation, precipitation and topography. The result of the survey was described of water- and salt-transfer simulation methods. Studies of arid land were made in terms of photosynthetic speed, transpiration speed, soil characteristics, measuring methods for precipitation and vaporization amount, and the examples. Seven places of Leonora where water source and water quality were examined were selected, and the measuring results were described. The paper summed up the state of utilization of biomass energy obtained from forest and commented on a scenario on tree-planting. Finally, a possibility was stated of the carbon fixation by fermentation into ocean. 178 refs., 121 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on data collection for development of new energy technology (fuel cell); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (nenryo denchi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report is composed of Part 1: the development trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, and Part 2: the collected data and appendices. Part 1 includes 4 chapters, (1) The outline of the development trend, (2) Stationary fuel cell, (3) The development trend of fuel cell vehicles, and (4) The development trend of small transportable fuel cells. The report newly includes the development trend of small-capacity fuel cells and the report on 1998 Fuel Cell Seminar notable as an international conference on fuel cell summarizing the trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, as compared with the fiscal 1997 report. Part 2 is the collected data on domestic and foreign demonstration operation results of fuel cells, and technical development of every fuel cell. In addition to various collected data on the whole of fuel cells and their use techniques, Part 2 includes the principle, features, system configuration, performance simulation technique, application and market analysis of fuel cells, and the national policy and concerned laws on a subsidy system for introduction of fuel cells, for example. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the FY 1992 basic survey for industrialization related to the survey of overseas geological structure (Tebulan West area, Malaysia); 1992 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa Malaysia Tebulan nishi chiku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The survey was conducted based on 'Scope of work for detailed coal exploration in the Tebulan West block of the Merit Pila coal field, Sarawak, Malaysia' concluded on June 18, 1992 between NEDO and Global Mineral which owns the mining right. The field survey was for the geological survey, survey of conditions of open pit mining, and infrastructure survey. The confirmed/estimated coal amount totaled 25,80 million tons in the main 4 coal seams. The all sulfur content is low, approximately 0.12%. The heating value is 5,820 kcal/kg. As to the infrastructure, various conditions are good for transportation, shipping facilities, coal yard, etc. from mine site to truck transport/barge transport/external route shipping. The drilling was planned to be made by open pit mining by the truck and shovel system, and the scale of the planned production was 0.3 million tons. The ash is low in amount, and clean coal is produced by crushing, sieving and washing. Attached were the borehole log (JN9940833), route map(JN9940834), and trench sketch (JN9940835). (NEDO)

  11. Leading research report for fiscal 1998. Research and study of 3-dimensional cell structure module engineering; 1998 nendo sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. Sanjigen saibo soshiki module kogaku chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the formation of cellular tissues to replace bionic tissues, researches were conducted about technologies of forming bionic tissue modules by culturing various kinds of cells. As for the materials and methods for constructing cellular tissues, researches were conducted about the trends of research and development of 3-dimensional tissue culturing matrices and materials for micromanipulation. As for the development of technologies for the functionalization of 3-dimensionally structured cells, research and study were conducted about the technology of 3-dimensional cell structure organization through application of physical stimulation, the biochemical technology of differentiation inducing, and the differentiation inducing technology for hetero tissue culturing. As for the development of technologies for evaluation using 3-dimensionally structured cells, light CT (computer tomography), analysis and evaluation using spectroscopy and the like, feasibility of the biochemical analysis of the cell state using biosensors, technologies for measuring the secretion of carcinogenic and toxic substances, etc., were studied. In addition, the development of organic models to replace test animals, industrial evolution of 3-dimensional tissue module engineering, etc., were investigated. (NEDO)

  12. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  14. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Survey report of FY 1997 on the trends of novel CO2 fixation technology using bacteria and microalgae; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For this survey, the latest technology trends relating to microbial functions are summarized to recover and effectively utilize CO2, typical greenhouse effect gas, using microbial functions. Systematic survey and analysis are conducted concerning the microorganisms useful for fixing CO2, CO2 uptake mechanism during the microbial reactions, utilization methods of solar light and useful energy sources except solar light, highly efficient production of useful materials, and usage of produced useful materials. Research has concentrated on use of biological activities for this purpose through design of bioreactors using microorganisms (bacteria and microalgae) for efficient CO2 fixation. For the process to have net CO2 fixation as assessed by its life cycle and to make the process economically feasible, it is essential not only to fix CO2 merely in the form of biomass but in addition to convert it to useful materials by the catalytic activities of the organisms. Three categories were set for the survey, i.e., microorganisms with CO2 fixation ability, available energy for CO2 fixation, and target CO2 fixation products. 169 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Survey report of FY 1997 on the feasibility of microbial biotechnology for reuse of environmental pollutants; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology no riyo kanosei chi kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was conducted with the aim of elucidating the foundations for effective utilization of environmental pollutants or unused resources which are likely to be causal substances of environmental pollutants, as resources, using biotechnology. Composting of agricultural waste, production of microbial mycelium proteins and microbial fermentation materials were suggested as main examples of effective utilization of unused resources by microorganisms. Selection of active microorganisms in the livestock waste, clarification of the mechanism of action and the establishment of treatment conditions are essential to new developments in this field. In the field of marine products industry, it was pointed out that the recycling of waste using microorganisms and enzyme treatment is the most promising approach to the effective utilization of resources. In the field of food industry, applications as the culture media for mushrooms, for enzyme production and for the production of physiologically active materials as well as fuel were clarified. Was also pointed out the significance of studies on the microorganisms and enzymes in resources containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and the waste from these resources, lignocellulose. Were also proposed the composting of household waste, methane fermentation, and fermentative production of organic acid and hydrogen from waste. Possibility and significance of fermentative production of organic acid from sewage sludge were suggested. 314 refs., 46 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of trends of new CO{sub 2} fixation technology using bacteria and algae (II); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trend of technology is surveyed from a standpoint that, in the process of CO2 fixation using microbes for the production of useful substances, it is essential, in view of income/outgo balance and economy, to utilize their catalytic function. The survey centers about the feasibility of the utilization of organic wastes, cellulose wastes in particular, as an energy source. Special attention is paid to the energy of artificial light and laser beams. From a point of view that it is important to suppress cell multiplication and to effectively utilize only catalytic activity for the production of useful substances, the cell division mechanism of the Corynebacterium is analyzed, and the findings are compiled to facilitate the study as to whether the division may be controlled. A report is also prepared on the metabolic mechanism of a photosynthesizing bacterium that is judged to be the most promising species. Reference is made to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Shown are the organic compounds that are formed by CO2 gas fixation thanks to microbial or enzymatic reactions. To emphasize their importance as an energy source and to explain the conversion of biomass into useful substances, the technology and economy of conversion into fuel compounds are surveyed. The production of ethanol out of organic wastes is evaluated in the way of LCA (life cycle assessment). (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey project on planning to execute `The New Earth 21`; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (`chikyu saisei keikaku` no jisshi keikaku sakusei ni kansuru chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Japan proposed in the Houston Summit the New Earth 21 to be carried out with technology development and technology transfer, and to make a concrete development of the project, Japan also proposed in the Tokyo Summit a TREE Plan for working out comprehensive strategies of the innovative technology development. In the CO3 Kyoto Conference in 1997, numerical targets for developed countries were determined which have legal binding force for control/reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the term of 2008-2012. It was agreed to urge developing countries also to play a certain part in the project through the clean development. Therefore, the paper made quantitative analysis of important CO2 prevention technologies, technology transfer costs, and economical assessment by energy conservation. As a model, the DNE 21 model was upgraded and used into which CO2 prevention technologies, energy, economy and climate changes were integrated. In fiscal 1997, the following were carried out: collection of data on important CO2 prevention technologies and systems and analytical assessment using the DNE 21 model, CO2 reduction and selection of energy technology, assessment of energy system costs, construction of the unified DNE 21 model, and opening of the international workshop. 62 refs., 98 figs., 34 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the analysis of spread effect of technologies approved as international standards. Value web analysis and research; 1998 nendo kokusai hyojun ni ninteisareta gijutsu no hakyu koka bunseki chosa hokokusho. Value wave bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For contributing to the formulation of technology development programs, an analysis is conducted based on the concept of value web into which the economic spread effect is incorporated. As information technology plays an important role in the fields of automobiles and chemical materials, there are various fields the research and development efforts exerted in which are common to many others. As to what additional values are created when such separately developed technologies cross each other, a discussion is conducted using techniques of industry-oriented analyses. Findings obtained are mentioned below. When the numbers of essays relative to the respective industries are compared, it is found that 63% of the total number of biotechnological essays fall on agriculture, the drug industry, and the food industry. On the other hand, when it comes to the produce, related industries larger in marketing scale is more strongly influenced by the spread effect. The spread effect of biotechnology is distinguished in the drug industry, and that of information/communication technology in the information industry, electric and electronic industries, and in the semiconductor industry. (NEDO)

  3. Survey report on the environment harmonizing type energy community survey project for the Izumizawa area in Chitose City; Chitoseshi Izumizawa chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A large-scale cogeneration system will be introduced into the air-front industrial complex in the Izumizawa area having large energy demand within the city of Chitose well blessed with natural environment. The system will utilize natural gas locally produced in the Tomakomai Yubarai area (the utilization produces 20% reduction effect of carbon dioxide emission even only from conversion from petroleum oil). At the same time, heat supply operation will be carried out meeting the heat demand in diversified consumer applications, such as air conditioning of ancillary facilities, hot water supply, hot bathing facilities, and snow melting. Business feasibility has been investigated and discussed. Discussions were given on gas engine, gas turbine, combined cycle, and steam jetting systems. Although the combined system was found most superior, other cases present no large difference excepting the turbine system. The system is a highly efficient energy saving facility (annually saving 3000 kiloliters of crude oil, worth for annual kerosene consumption by 1500 ordinary households in Hokkaido). It can largely reduce emission of carbon dioxide. Each case has large economic effect with the simply calculated number of years of return of investment being six to eight years. (NEDO)

  4. Report on survey of international cooperation possibility on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kagakuteki CO2 koteika yuko riyo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey focused on the end of the more promising companion and promoting the international cooperation on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology. As a result, the way of the carrying-forward of the international cooperation with more than one companion could be arranged beforehand. It led to getting an arrangement about a secrecy agreement respectively with Lurgi company and ABB company in Europe, and to providing a catalyst sample developed by RITE to implement an examination by the other party and to show related technical information. In addition, it concluded a cooperation agreement about a total system of the chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology and methanol synthesis with ZSW. In Australia, negotiation about international cooperation with CSIRO which is a federal research organization and CRC (Cooperative Research Centre) for renewable energy has been started. The ideal circumstances are being ready for the chemical CO2 fixation project for which the international cooperation with the country where the natural energy is rich like Australia is essential when coming to practical use. To do alternating current with further high density in the following year it is desired to build a concrete study cooperation system. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. FY 1997 report on the research for construction of NEDO`s vision. Regional environment and international collaboration; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Chiiki kankyo to kokusai kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary for NEDO to transfer the energy technology to developing countries and conduct collaborations with them efficiently. First of all, environments of the community were analyzed from a viewpoint of natural environment, social and cultural environment, and industrial and economic environment. Then, this report outlines the organizations of domestic and international aid agencies which have potentials to conduct alliance and collaboration with NEDO, and also illustrates their activities including financing and technology exchange, regional activities, and progress of activities. Alliances and collaborations with NGOs of each international organization were analyzed on the aspect of the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs, and some case studies were taken. Organization, purposes and activities of NGOs in Asian countries are introduced, and their current situations are illustrated. Finally, some proposals were offered to make alliances and collaborations with aid agencies and NGOs. They are concerned about the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs. 44 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Survey report on the environment harmonizing type energy community survey project for the coastal area in the Kawasaki ward in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo Kawasakiku rinkaibu chiiki kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In energy utilization in the 'Kawasaki Zero Emission Industrial Complex', optimal regional heat supply systems were discussed. The discussion was made from the viewpoints of introduction of saving-type energies, new energies and renewable energies, and environment preservation performance. The coastal area in the Kawasaki ward is planned of developing an industrial complex with an area of 8.4 ha for operation of about twenty companies. In the assumption of heat demand, four companies only were taken up as the object of the discussion, who utilize heat supply from steam as process heat source for their factories. The total heat demand quantity and heat demand pattern used for the discussion were assumed by hearing and actual record submitted from each company. Optimal systems were discussed on heat supply systems utilizing steam produced by steel mills, with the discussion made on waste heat recovered steam in processes and steam extracted from thermal electric power plants in the steel mills. As a result of the discussion, heat supply utilizing the steel mill steam was found capable of being provided with much lower price level as the estimated unit price than general direct steam supply, leading to a judgement that the system has business feasibility. (NEDO)

  7. Survey report for fiscal 1997. Survey on publicity measures for promotion of new energy introduction in Tohoku region; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Tohoku chiiki ni okeru shin energy donyu sokushin koho taisaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to discuss mainly on publicity measures for how to promote new energy introduction in the Tohoku region, items of information were collected and put into order for the state of utilization of new energies in this region, and fundamental materials were prepared. Facilities having introduced new energies by public bodies in the Tohoku area include the prefectural office buildings, town and village office buildings, schools, community centers, welfare facilities such as aged people's centers and hospitals, sports facilities, parks, sewage treatment plants, and refuse incineration plants. The actual record of the introduction in the Tohoku region shows greater number of cases utilizing natural energies. Utilization of recycled energy and high-efficiency energy such as regional heat supply is less because of fewer number of areas built up densely with buildings and factories, with exception of some cases of utilization by the consumer sector. Introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles is little excepting electric vehicles used by the electric power company. Number of natural gas fueled automobiles that have been introduced is few because the infrastructural build-up has not been advanced in the natural gas supply network. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1997 report on the research study for preparation of NEDO`s vision. Biomass energy; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Biomass energy ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research study was made on the current usage, technological development and future subjects of biomass energy. The current use of biomass energy over the world estimated to be nearly a billion t/y oil equivalent. This value is estimated to be only a part of a pure primary biomass yield of 73 billion t/y oil equivalent showing a large supply potential. The evaluation result of a biomass energy potential in the world by GLUE (Global Land Use and Energy Model) considering worldwide biomass flow and competition of land use showed that no change of land use form in advanced areas is predicted, and no production of new biomass energy from forests in advancing areas is also expected. Production of biomass energy from farm products is promising in advanced areas, while the potential of biomass residue is high in advancing areas showing the possibility of energy development. Development of new biotechnologies such as molecular control of bio-production functions is expected to increase biomass resources. 76 refs., 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on the survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (wind power generation ); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (furyoku hatsuden) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a result of heightening consciousness on assurance of energy security and global environment problems in recent years, it is urged in Japan to promote development of technologies to introduce and proliferate new energies, and work on acceleration of the introduction. On the other hand, in order to move forward effectively the introduction promoting project intended of proliferation and enlightenment, it is necessary to put into order comprehensively and systematically the different data on the new energies, and summarize them as the basic data. This report, focusing on a wind power generation system, collects and puts into order the latest published data on the wind power generation system, placing in the center the introduction examples in Japan and other countries, supporting measures, wind power generation system markets, and the specifications of major windmills. The major contents may be summarized as follows: significance of introducing the wind power generation system, the current status of the market, policies in different countries, status of introducing the system in other countries, subsidy institutions for the introduction, the introduction flow, efforts made by government related organizations and local governments, a list of window offices of the related corporations, the fundamental knowledge, and the movements in 1998. (NEDO)

  10. Outline of investigation on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry. 1999.1-1999.3; 1998 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO2 hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations were conducted into the above in some leading OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member states. Green chemistry is a new concept in which clean technology, environment-friendly chemistry, and the like are combined, and is a chemical solution for reducing or stopping the use or generation of materials, products, by-products, solvents, reagents, etc., which are dangerous to health and environments, throughout the whole life cycle of chemicals covering the processes of their designing, manufacturing, dumping, and recycling. In this fiscal year, the actual state of the generation of biomass, regarded as representative of reproducible materials, and its feasibility as chemical resources were investigated. In an effort at finding out chemical reactions safer to health and causing less environmental impact, investigations were also conducted into the recent trends of catalysts, novel reactions for organic syntheses, use of supercritical fluids, photocatalysts, biomimetic processes, etc. The development of substitutes for plastic additives was also studied. Since acceptance by the citizenry is quite important for green chemistry to take effect, educating and enlightening activities in the U.S., Britain, France, and Germany were inquired into. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report on technology to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from automobiles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (jidosha kara no onshitsu koka gas haishutsuryo teigen gijutsu no chosa). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to intelligent transport systems (ITS), the paper views the outline of the R and D and diffusion in Europe, the U.S. and Japan and trially estimated the effect of reduction in greenhouse gas, and worked out visions/scenario for diffusion of ITS. As developmental fields contributing to reduction in greenhouse gas, the following were taken up: 1) AVCS (advanced vehicle control system), 2) automatic rates receiving system, 3) traffic management, 4) plans of operation management/allocation of commercial cars, 5) modal shift of the material flow, and 6) public traffic in passenger transportation. As effects by developmental field, 1) and 5) are especially effective. 4) is promising because of its easiness in introduction, and 2) is also a promising technology as a tool to introduce an electronic road pricing system on general roads in future in addition to the effect of reducing heavy traffic by its introduction to expressways. However, the higher the service level on the facility side becomes, the more the traffic demand amount becomes. By how to introduce ITS, it possibly occurs that improvement of the situation will not be made at all on the future vehicle traffic system. 38 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 2000 survey report on the survey and research on green technology industry; 2000 nendo green technology industry ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The approaches of the Government and local autonomies to green technologies are surveyed toward the construction of a green technology industry. The present activities and future outlook of environmental industries interested in green technologies are surveyed and examined, the green technologies here including (1) energy conservation measures and development of non-fossil fuels, (2) energy-related and environmental measures for countering global warming, (3) waste treatment measures for countering dioxins and endocrine disrupters. A survey is conducted of the outlines and future trends of green technology related important studies now under way at laboratories and research institutes of universities, the Government, and private-sector corporations. Based on the results of the surveys, important subjects of technical development in green technologies are extracted and studied for the possibility and outlook of their practical application. Tasks to discharge and problems to occur before they are introduced to the market are also evaluated and confirmed. Based on the results of the research and development of green technologies, actualities of environmental industries are taken up, and the problems and tasks to be settled before environmental technologies are introduced to the market are investigated and studied. (NEDO)

  14. Report on the FY 1989 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Indonesia; 1989 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Indonesia kyowakoku kaku tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    This survey is aimed at acquiring the basic data required for judging a possibility of development/import of steam coal in Indonesia (west of Java, north of Sumatra and west of Sumatra). Areas for survey are Meulaboh coal field in north Sumatra, Ombilin III area in West Sumatra, and Bayah coal field in West Java. The survey includes the field survey to grasp the situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, etc. and activities for collecting the related data and information from the organizations concerned. The Meulaboh coal field has a technical possibility of open pit mining of medium scale. However, the heating value is extremely low, around 4,300 kcal/kg. Judging from this coal quality, there is no possibility of exporting it. It can be said that Ombilin coal is the world's top class steam coal. Accordingly, the demand can be expected both in export use and domestic use. As to Bayah coal, Bemmelen (1949) concluded that the coal was extremely excellent in quality, but had great disadvantages such as thin coal seam, discontinuity, and complicated geological structure. To date, the conclusion has been unchanged. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1996 report on the committee for international collaborative research of medical and welfare apparatus; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    From a viewpoint that cancer, cerebral hemorrhage, heart disease, etc. caused by the progress in aging are problems not only to Japan but to all developed countries, a possibility of Japan`s joint study with other countries was examined to promote efficiently and effectively research/development of the apparatus required. Moreover, from a viewpoint of being the same Asian countries, a possibility of the joint study was examined also with developing countries which are largely different in disease structure and environment of the use of apparatus from developed countries. In the examination on medical/welfare apparatus technology of China, before the site examination, a book of data was arranged on the actual state of population and disease structure and the R and D situation of medical/welfare apparatus in Japan, and at the same time, celebrated persons in China were introduced by the scientific society side as widely as possible. By this preliminary study, the original objective of the examination could be achieved. In the examination with the U.S. and Europe, Japan held meetings with engineers of the U.K., France and the U.S. Japan`s `load control type walking supporting apparatus,` of which the development was finished, was very highly evaluated by each organ of the countries

  16. Report on preceding researches in fiscal 1998 on the survey and research on conjugate materials; 1998 nendo conjugate material no chosa kenkyu sendo kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development has been made on the 'conjugate materials (CM)' , the innovative materials in which ultra fine inorganic and organic structural units of molecular levels are introduced to be oriented regularly in glass matrix to respond to external force conjugately. The current fiscal year reported items having been made clear by further surveys and researches on CM as proposed by the fundamental surveys having been done as the second year. Section 1 summarizes significance of the research and development; Section 2 reports the result of the CM research and survey and the subjects related to application areas of CM; Section 3 reports the result of the CM market research performed newly in the current fiscal year; Section 4 reports the contents and result of the questionnaire survey to glass related small enterprises as to what interest these enterprises will have upon assuming that these CM products have been realized; Section 5 reports the result of surveys on patents and literatures related to photonics; and Section 6 states future problems in the CM research and development, and summarizes the future prospects of CM. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the fiscal 1996 research cooperation promotion project, `the research cooperation diagnosis survey`; 1996 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo `kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa` hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A diagnosis survey was conducted for Japan to cooperate in researching subjects on technical development in developing countries. In fiscal 1996, surveys were made on the following: (1) establishment of the industrial base (Vietnam), (2) preservation of biological diversification and the continuous utilization (Brazil), (3) fostering of the industry of automobile parts (Thailand), (4) finding out of items on environment related fields (India), (5) environmental response type system for effective use of water resource (the Philippines), (6) small size geothermal exploration in remote islands (Indonesia). (1) is research cooperation for welding technology, powder metallurgy technology, hypoid gear manufacturing technology, and iron making technology by the direct reduction method. In (2), research/development are conducted in cooperation with research institutes in Brazil on survey/identification/utilization of bioactive substances from biological resources in Brazil. In (4), an examination was made of the seeds for research cooperation in technical fields such as environment and energy. Having a strong relation with the industrial circle, SCIR is carrying out researches on aerospace, petrochemical, biology, electronics, medicines/drug, etc., which indicated fulfillment of intellectual infrastructure in India. 52 figs.

  18. Survey report on the development/utilization of petroleum substitution energy in the Pacific region; Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected/analyzed data on petroleum substitution energy in the Pacific region. In fiscal 1996, in addition to collection of the existing energy data, conducted were collection of energy data made retroactive from 1971, and time-series collection of the energy related expanded data including energy related production statistics/social statistics, energy consumption amount by industry, power generation facilities, oil production facilities, and environmental data. As to petroleum substitution energy, the paper took up new energy such as hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, photovoltaic, and wind power generation, and commercial-base renewable energy. As a result of the analysis, the supply of petroleum substitution energy in the whole Pacific region has been stable, 6.6% during 1980-1990, 7.4% in the first half of the 1990s, largely over the primary energy supply. The supply of nuclear power was overwhelmingly large, followed by hydroelectric energy and geothermal/new energy. 15 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the verification survey of a new load leveling method; Fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa (1997 nendo seika hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted of a practical applicability of the electric double layer capacitor as a new electric power storage technique. In the study, a comparison was made between the capacitor system and the NAS battery which is most commercialized as one for power storage of all the secondary batteries. The capacitor system is excellent in cycle life, system efficiency, and safety/environment, but in energy density it is approximately a tenth of that of the NAS battery so far. The capacitor system, however, is high in filling rate in modules and enables compact design. As to the 35 fabricated electric double layer capacitor cells, the following tests were carried out: charge and discharge, internal resistance measurement, energy density measurement, characteristics of charge/discharge efficiency, self-discharge characteristics, and characteristics of circumferential temperature. As a result of the tests, the cell with volume energy density of 16.4-16.8 Wh/L was fixed to the module with a filling rate of about 93% and achieved an energy density of 15 Wh/L. 26 refs., 175 figs., 75 tabs.

  20. Research report for fiscal 1998 on regional new energy vision drawn up for Tokushima Prefecture; 1998 nendo Tokushimaken shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The amount of energy in existence is theoretically the amount of energy that exists in a given region while the available amount is an amount of energy worked out with technological, economic, and social conditions taken into consideration. The total of the amount in existence and that of the available amount are mentioned in a table, and the available amount is further shown in terms of calorie. It totals 11,120Tcal per year, which is equivalent to approximately 55% of the whole amount of energy that Tokushima Prefecture demands. The availability of each type of new energy and the state of development of related technologies are studied to determine what priority is to be given to what energy. The group that is given the highest priority consists of photovoltaic power generation, passive solar systems, refuse fueled power generation, and heat from wastes (this group occupying more than 80% of the available amount in Tokushima Prefecture). The second group consists of wind power generation, clean energy vehicles, cogeneration, and small and medium scale hydroelectric power generation. The third group consists of fuel cells, ocean energy, biomass, and temperature difference energy. Natural conditions surrounding new energy in existence in Tokushima Prefecture are rather favorable, but social conditions are not. (NEDO)

  1. Report for fiscal 1998 on the international joint research project of medical welfare equipment; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In connection with the international joint research project of medical welfare, a report was made on the results of the investigation conducted in 1998 concerning the technology of overseas medical welfare equipment. In the investigation of china, observation was made on the actual state of the representative medial institutions, with opinions exchanged. Obsolete equipment and old technology are the present state in China, which is strongly desirous of exchanging information with Japan. In Taiwan, being full of venture spirit, an ultrasonic thermal treatment apparatus and an ultrasonic echo device have been produced for example. In Europe, an observation tour was conducted on a German manipulator and process robot while an investigative visit and exchange of opinions were made on the living environment and facilities in Italian training center for physically handicapped persons. Japan's self-supporting and assisting system for excretion attracted many questions and comments. In the investigation in the U.S., views were exchanged concerning '{sup 13}C-MRS device for non-invasion brain metabolic measurement' in research institutions such as universities. A machine developed in Japan received a high evaluation in that {sup 13}C spectrum was obtained from a substantial depth. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  3. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on profitability evaluation technique for waste power generation; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu hatsuden ni kansuru keizaisei hyoka shuho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For diffusion of waste power generation, cost reduction is important. As the profitability evaluation technique for conventional waste power systems, a simple recovery year method, total waste treatment cost method, generation cost method, and evaluation method by accumulated balance sheet are presented along with their principles. For the generation cost method, trial calculation results are presented based on documents reported. From methods for the study in Institute of Applied Energy, some estimation methods of construction cost are presented, and generation cost and profitability evaluation were studied by parametric accumulation method. The profitability was calculated for RDF power systems, and it was clarified that although as a whole this system is more efficient than a simple refuse incineration system, the balance sheet of local governments is dependent on a responsibility range for the facility. In a combined type (super refuse power generation), generally municipalities bear a combustor and boiler, while a prefecture bears generation facilities. Because of large scale generation, the profitability is dependent on a selling price of electricity. 37 refs., 36 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Report on surveys about the effects of introduction of CGT vehicles and eco-motors; CGT sha oyobi eco-motor donyu koka chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Studies and discussion are made about the environmentally-friendly vehicle (eco-motor) which will be the typical next-generation automobile. The surveys cover the electric vehicle, fuel cell-powered vehicle, hybrid vehicle, methanol-powered vehicle, natural gas-powered vehicle, CGT (ceramic gas turbine) vehicle, hydrogen-powered vehicle, gasoline-powered vehicle, direct injection type gasoline-powered vehicle, and the diesel vehicle. Fuel consumption rates are determined with the aid of the latest technological information, etc., and the CO2 emission rates and heat generation rates are calculated. In addition, the effect on reduction in CO2 emission is predicted in case of eco-motor introduction in the future. Furthermore, a surveys is conducted about national projects for the development of eco-motors, and the intention of automobile manufactures, in Japan, the U.S., and Europe. As the result of the survey and studies that follow, it is found that a large-scale introduction of eco-motors will achieve a great reduction in CO2 emission because the electric vehicle, fuel cell-powered vehicle, and the hybrid vehicle emit less CO2 than the gasoline-powered type now in service. 17 refs., 13 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the trends of low-carbon automotive fuel manufacturing technologies; 1998 nendo jidoshayo teitanso nenryo no seizo gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made of optimum materials and methods for manufacturing low-carbon fuels for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When their thermal dynamic limits and the technological maturity are considered, it is inferred that no extensive improvement will be achieved by merely improving on the efficiency of the existing fuels. The use of various high-efficiency driving power sources utterly different in mechanism from the conventional ones, such as those for fuel cell-powered automobiles, and the promotion of the use of low-carbon fuels such as methanol and methane for all kinds of driving power sources including those for the said fuel cell-powered automobiles, will become necessary. The use will also be necessary of recyclable materials. The biomass resources, in particular, since they absorb CO2 gas in their growing process by virtue of photosynthesis, may be said to be free of CO2 gas emissions. They have their own problems, however, which involve the economy of energy consumed for their production, harvesting, transportation, and conversion into fuels. It is therefore required that their whole life cycle be studied before their greenhouse gas reduction effect may be correctly assessed. The quantities of resources available for the production of automotive low-carbon fuels, manufacturing technologies, etc., are first of all put in order for easy perusal. An effective way is assessed for the whole including the life cycle. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey report on international cooperation for the energy use rationalization method; 1997 nendo jigyo hokokusho (energy shiyo gorika shuho kokusai kyoryoku chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To carry out LCA in ISO-14040, inventory analysis (IA) is the basic. For studying arrangement of public data to carry out IA, collection work was done of background data which are indirectly concerned with copying machine. First, methods to make inventory data (ID) which are thinkable in the present situation were prepared, and items of emitted matters to be collected were set up in relation to the impact assessment method. Secondly, scenarios of each stage of life cycle of copying machine were set up, and virtual data on the material/energy consumption amount were arranged. Based on this, a method was further studied for making ID of the parts used in electric power, iron/steel, plastics, and copying machine. Third, based on the above-mentioned study results, ID was actually made, and a possibility was studied of making inventory in life cycle of copying machine. Moreover, the state of the automobile LCA carried out at Stuttgart University was examined. At last, the paper summed up subjects of and future study methods for the inventory making method. 2 refs., 25 figs., 77 tabs.

  7. Survey report on an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products; Kankyo chowagata kagaku seihin seizo system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As part of establishing an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products, study and survey were made on PET bottles. Using the life cycle analysis method (LCA), a study was made for proposing a material recycle (MR) method which is environmentally and economically excellent in the stage of recycling waste PET bottles. The total cost of recycling can be reduced by 34% supported by a decrease in equipment cost and improvement in yield if there is no mixture of foreign substances such as aluminum caps and PVC bottles. However, the ratio of the amount obtained from the reduction to the total production cost is small, and it is necessary to take measures from a viewpoint of the cost in a total production process and environmental loads. In a survey in Kawaguchi city, PET bottles discharged from the business sector occupied 41% of all the discharge amount. In a survey in Yokohama city, very important data were obtained on PET bottles appointed as the second type under the recycle law. The quality of PET bottles to be brought to the recycling plant is important for effectively processing PET bottles in MR method. For achievement of MR which is low in cost and small in environmental load, needed were cooperation by citizens, the shipping management system in autonomous government, and changes in design and material quality to be made by the industrial circle. 8 refs., 64 figs., 68 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on development, study and evaluation of tribo-materials; 1998 nendo tribo material no kaihatsu chosa hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Recently, needs for tribo-materials are on the increase for further energy saving and improvement of various functions and durability in various field such as less-fuel consumption car, new type Shinkansen, linear motor car, high-speed motor boat, various machines and tools, electronics, medical equipment and vitally adaptable material. This project researches and studies various properties required for tribo- materials for surface treated materials by ceramic and other material films, and clarifies the guidance and direction of the technology for creating tribo-materials by surface treatment and surface modification, through clarifying a friction/abrasion mechanism by collection of basic characteristic data and analysis of abrasion powders. This project is studying the marginal condition of film destruction for ceramic system vapor-phase deposited films, through studying the effect of mechanical properties of substrates, film surface treatment methods and film surface shapes on the marginal condition. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report on new recycling technology for waste lube oil; 1998 nendo haijunkatsuyu no recycle no shingijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For effective use of resources and environment conservation, R and D was made on recycling technology for recovered waste lube oil. On the R and D on removal of ash and chlorine contents in waste lube oil, iron oxide-carbon composite was found as adsorbent which can reduce ash content and chlorine content to 0.02wt% and 5ppm, respectively. On the research on the applicability of waste lube oil as melting furnace fuel for bottom ash and fly ash, as the melting experiment result at a real plant, the recycled heavy oil obtained by simple treatment of waste lube oil showed dioxin decomposition rates more than 99.9% and dioxin concentrations less than 0.6ngTEQ/Nm{sup 3} in waste gas, achieving the targets regulated by Air Pollution Control Law. The applicability of waste lube oil as fuel was thus confirmed. On the research on the applicability of waste lube oil as fuel for power generation in oil refineries, both waste lube oil alone and mixed oil with residual oil were available as gasification fuel through design considering ash content removal, and reasonable selection of equipment and piping materials considering chlorine. (NEDO)

  10. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the EU in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The EU is one of the most advanced places of petroleum substituting energy development. The EU is highly aware of environmental issues. For the COP3 held at Kyoto in December 1997, The EU gave more severe regulation of CO2 emission than the other advanced countries. The EU takes efforts in the development and introduction of energy effective for global environmental protection. In addition, research and development of geothermal, biomass and wave force energy are actively promoted in this place. Energy situations in this place are significant for predicting and analyzing the future trends of energy development and consumption in the other countries. Firstly, this report looks back toward energy demand held in check to a head at the beginning of the 1990`s. Secondly, supply of energy and cover of energy trend are described for recent years from the point of view. Thirdly, competitiveness of energy in EU countries are discussed from a position of energy density. Fourthly, circumstances about environmental issues are considered. Fifthly, the world market of energy is also considered. Finally, development of new energy and a trend of introduction with a sample of Sweden are introduced. 13 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  12. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the USA in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the last twenty-five years, the level of social recognition for the importance of energy conservation grew progressively from a total nonexistence of concern to the driving force that ensures the future environmental health of the nation and the world. Executive Order 12003, relating to energy policy and conservation, was signed by President Jimmy Carter and dated July 20, 1977. In 1992, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12759 - federal Energy Management. Each agency will prescribe policies under which its industrial facilities in the aggregate increase energy efficiency by at least 20% in fiscal 2000 in comparison to fiscal 1985. Current Federal programs for building efficiency are estimated to result in 31.5 billion dollars in annual energy saving for consumers by 2010. Future trends attract attention. The major programs currently in force to implement these policies and directives include Rebuild America, Million Solar Roofs Initiative, Home Energy Rating Systems, and Weatherization Assistance Program. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Report on the fiscal 1995 research cooperation promotion project, `the research cooperation diagnosis survey`; 1995 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo `kenkyu kyoryoku shindan chosa` hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A diagnosis survey was conducted for Japan to cooperate in researching subjects on technical development in developing countries. In fiscal 1995, surveys were made on the following: (1) recycling technology of biomass industrial waste in the tropical region, (2) small size geothermal exploration in remote islands, (3) waste water recycling system using activated carbon, etc., (4) upgrading of proofreading technology of measuring standards, (5) technology to simply set up conditions for forming engineering plastics, (6) assessment of safety of chemical substances. In (1), energy and useful matters are recovered from oil palm of Indonesia by thermal decomposition technology. In (2), a system is constructed which can effectively explore geothermal energy in remote islands in the east Indonesia. As to (3), a survey is conducted in the Philippines. (4) contributes to upgrading of length measuring standards in Thailand. (5) attempts to improve technology of forming engineering plastics. In (6), research cooperation is made for preventing environmental pollution and health damage by chemical substances from happening in Thailand and for technology for assessing safety of chemical substances which contributes to the proper use of the hazardous material law in Thailand. 28 figs.

  14. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of energy supply/demand structure sophistication and global environmental impact; 1994 nendo energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Outlines of various energy supply/demand analytical models are surveyed. With environmental problems gathering importance, a number of models are being introduced in which energy supply/demand structures, long-term climate changes, and impacts of policy options on social economy are linked to each other. Some socioeconomic impact models cover a single country and others the whole world. They are various in type, ranging from dynamic optimization models to static balance models. Twenty-four models are chosen, and grouped into two types respectively covering Japan and the whole world from a geographical viewpoint and into three groups in view of their structures. Under an optimization model, such optimization is accomplished as economic growth maximization and energy cost minimization and so forth under given energy supply restrictions. Under a general balance type econometric model, an adjustment process in which capital and labor and production are coordinated across multiple departments is expressly stated. Under a partial balance type econometric model, a demand function for goods is given and optimum behavior such as consumption maximization is indirectly described. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the survey for working out the new energy vision of the Neba village area; 2001 nendo Neba mura chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Neba Village, Nagano Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of characteristics of the natural environment/characteristics of social economy of the village, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. Neba Village is surrounded by 1,000m class height mountains and wedge valleys with a lot of undulations and has a key road running through the village. The population was 1,532 as of April 1996, which continues decreasing. The problem on the decrease in number of child is conspicuous. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to city/farm village interchange facilities (Nebaland), introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to kindergarten/elementary school/junior high school for educational purposes, introduction of small wind power generation facilities to pottery facilities and lodging facilities, introduction of mini-hydroelectric power generation along the Neba River and electric power supply to wood processing facilities, methane gas fermentation cogeneration using stockbreeding waste and garbage, ligneous biomass cogeneration using waste wood, etc. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the survey for working out the new energy vision of the Urugi village area; 2001 nendo Urugi mura chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it at Urugi Village, Nagano Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of characteristics of the natural environment/characteristics of social economy of the village, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. Urugi Village is 800 meters above sea level and in the riches of the Nature being surrounded by mountains on all sides. The population of the village was 734 as of March 1993, which is decreasing by 14-15/y. The aging rate was very high, 32.3%. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: 10kW class photovoltaic power generation facilities to be installed at Furusato-kan and by the road of Hiraya Pass, 2.5kW class wind power generation facilities to be installed at Hiraya Pass for education of new energy, installation of a 10kW class mini hydroelectric power plant supplying power to the auto-camping site, stockbreeding biomass cogeneration which conducts fermentation of the methane from animal feces and garbage generated in Urugi Village, ligneous biomass cogeneration, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on information networks for environment technology transfer; 1997 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ICETT is one of the member organizations of APEC environment technology virtual center which established in Osaka in 1996 for active environment technology exchange between APEC countries based on a survey result obtained in fiscal 1995. ICETT began its information service in April, 1997, and completed useful prototype home pages which include the database composed of practical useful information on environment preservation technology of domestic factories and offices, and training information and local governments` approach cases to pollution control. In fiscal 1997, further survey was made, and the simulation software of a model process was also developed for training. Clean technology and energy saving technology strongly demanded by developing countries were surveyed to prepare a database including useful information for developing countries. A basic design software for bio-treatment of waste water was also prepared. The total number of home page accesses exceeded a predicted number for the first half year. 5 refs., 25 figs.

  19. 1998 Annual Study Report. New industry supporting type international standard development program (Comprehensive survey); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo (sogo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are results of the survey on a total of 13 themes for international standardization. These themes are for standardization of (1) color control, (2) securing interoperability between optical disk systems, (3) digital image processing for home digital electronic appliances, (4) securing interconnectability between home electronic information appliances, (5) production process systems, (6) testing and evaluation methods for fine ceramic materials for communications, (7) evaluation methods for high-temperature properties of new glass melts, (8) corrosion testing and evaluation methods for surface-treated steel plates, (9) testing and evaluation methods for high-purity titanium, (10) testing and evaluation methods for plastic optical fibers, (11) evaluation methods for high-strength, large-size steel pipe characteristics for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines, (12) methods for measuring mileage of hybrid electric vehicles, and (13) methods for determining recycle ratios of automobile components. This comprehensive survey also includes overseas trends for the standardization, establishment/expansion of the international standardization processes, and standardization for determining recycle ratios of home electric appliances. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on an environment technology transfer information network; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes a survey on an environment technology transfer information network. Based on the achievements obtained by the surveys in fiscal 1995 and 1996, the ICETT has participated as one organization constituting the APEC environment technology exchange virtual center, and begun providing information since April 1997. As the environment technology information, those items actually employed by factories and operation sites in Japan are put into a data base, and into a home page including training information centering around those contained in the data base, and examples of works done by local governments for prevention of pollution. Furthermore in fiscal 1997, a simulation software for a model process has been developed. Fiscal 1998 strengthened the data base for environment preservation technology information, investigated environment preserving model companies and summarized them including even their management aspect. Investigations were carried out in developing countries on application of cleaner technologies. Gaps far exceeding anticipation exist in every field between these developing countries and Japan. Environment protection measures applied and succeeded in the developing countries as the means to narrow the gaps were collected, and compiled as the specific examples. (NEDO)

  1. Report on investigation of initial stage of energy-saving vision in Ikeda City region; Ikedashi sho energy vision shoki dankai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigation was conducted for the purpose of deciding energy-saving vision in the region of Ikeda City, Osaka Prefecture. Ikeda City is lower in the use of electric lights per household than Osaka Prefecture or the whole country, and is higher in the consumption of city gas. The carbon dioxide exhaust of the City is less compared with that of Osaka Prefecture or the whole country. As to new energy, there is a good possibility of the use of solar energy. As a result of energy conservation diagnosis, about 25% energy saving was found possible in the government office building jointly used by the City and the Prefecture, and 21% in Kitateshima Junior High School. From these investigative results, proposals were made for the basic policy of the energy saving vision; they were, for example, to enrich one's life style by promoting efficient use of energy, to build an urban structure having less energy load, to enhance all citizens' consciousness about energy, to change the way of living by the community unit, to take the lead in energy conservation as the city administration to set an example for the whole city, to foster the environmental industry by dealing with energy problems, and to have a long-term outlook and tackle the issue with stress placed on feasible projects. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1995 report of feasibility study of a model project on energy saving equipment for Fe-alloy electric furnaces in China. Independent theme survey of rationalization of energy consumption; 1995 nendo chosa hokokusho Chugoku no gokintetsu denkiro ni okeru sho energy ka setsubi model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa. Energy shiyo gorika taisaku kobetsu tema chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A feasibility study of a model project was conducted on energy conservation and introduction of technology against pollution for Fe-alloy electric furnaces in China. The total production of Fe-alloy was 4.32 million tons in 1995, which recorded the maximum production. Out of which ferro-Cr occupied 9.5%. Production of high carbon ferro-Cr in 2000 is estimated to be 600,000 tons. China`s electric furnaces for ferro-Cr using carbon as heat source do not have covers and gas recovery systems. The gas from furnaces is burnt and wasted, which results in air pollution. To cover the furnaces, grading of powder materials is indispensable for improving the ventilation in furnaces. In Japan, sintering and pelletizing methods were developed. In China, the covering and gas recovery are performed for furnaces using expensive massive ores. In most cases, they are not performed. For three works at Jilin, Lioyang and Jinzhou surveyed in this project, recovered gas can be effectively utilized, which would provide energy saving and environment improving effects. They have enough site areas and workshops in the sites. Construction works can be conducted by China themselves. 6 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Research report of fiscal 1997. Research on the projects on Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program (feasibility research on energy saving by improving heat management for hot blast stoves and heating furnaces); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. `Kyodo jisshi katsudo Japan Program` ni kakawaru project chosa (neppuro, kanetsuro no netsukanri kaizen ni yoru sho energy kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research was made on joint implementation (JI) for preventing global climate changes in China. Since such the stove and furnace consume a large amount of energy, their improvement and energy saving are important for integrated iron plants. Maanshan iron plant was selected for the research. All the furnaces were manually operated without combustion control systems, and oxygen meters for exhaust gas frequently troubled. As measures for the stoves, operation at a proper air fuel ratio, improvement of over heat storage combustion, and dust cleaning for waste heat recovery gas heaters were proposed. For the furnaces, a proper oxygen content at the end of furnaces (reduction of invasion air) was proposed to improve exhaust gas loss up to that in Japan. For this target, reinforced instrument management and standardized combustion control are essential. JI of software improvement for operation and management can reduce annual greenhouse effect gas emission to 45,900t and 6,300t in carbon equivalent for the stove and furnace, respectively. CO2 reduction is also estimated to be 1,173,000t and 205,000t in China of 107,570,000t in raw steel production, respectively. 28 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  5. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey in Malaysia and Vietnam (Malaysia); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In this survey, the coal utilization status in individual consumption sectors and coal distribution status in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of environmentally acceptable coal utilization systems. In this fiscal year, the status of existing coal utilization technology and environmental issues in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of above-mentioned systems on the basis of data and information collected by basic research and site survey in FY 1996. Malaysia is one of the rich countries producing the primary resources with crude petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power, and coal. The coal demand will be realized after saturating LNG development since 2000. The major coal consumption industries are power generation sector and cement industry sector. As expected increase in the future coal consumption, efficiency of coal utilization and environmental issues are problems in the future. Based on the FS results of this survey, the survey will be continued for planning and conducting the model project required from Malaysia. 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1996 survey for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the coal infrastructure propagation in Indonesia; 1996 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan infura seibi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Phase 1 survey in fiscal 1996 was conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In the survey, conducted were collection of data on coal fields and site surveys, collection of data on inland transportation and site surveys, collection of data on harbors and site surveys, and worked out were a simplified database and a coal transportation plan by optimization of the coal chain system. The area for survey is the periphery of the Musi River of South Sumatra. The results of the simulation by LP models were as follows: When the coal of Bukit Asam coal mine is $25/t in price, only coal of 5500Kcal/kg is profitable, and when $27/t in price, coal of 4500Kcal/kg also becomes profitable. This shows that if the coal is of good quality, it can pay arriving at Suralaya, independent of the distance of transportation. 47 figs., 63 tabs.

  8. ASIAS - Some History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASIAS effort builds on demonstrations that an open exchange of information contributes to improved aviation safety. ASIAS is a comprehensive effort, covering...

  9. Mobile payments in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Samia Y.

    2013-01-01

    This Asia Focus report explores the use of m-payments in Asia and evaluates the challenges it faces regarding wider adoption. Specifically, this report clarifies what an m-payment is, identifies which factors are facilitating and hindering the use of m-payments by consumers in certain economies of Asia, and summarizes key issues this new payment technology presents to government regulators.

  10. Report on Asian Environment Information Network; 'Asia kankyo joho network' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The goal is the construction of Asian Environment Information Network (AEInet) in accordance with a contract signed between Indonesia's LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO under NEDO's Research Cooperation Project Concerning the Development of Environment Measuring Laser Radar (LR). The network is so designed and constituted as to operate on a private line between Indonesia and Japan via IP (Internet protocol) and to enable the exchange on the Internet network of the data collected/analyzed by the Indonesian LR system and of articles of e-mail between scientists of the two countries. The AEInet will be utilized for the collection/analysis of LR-collected data; exchange of observed data and the result of processing; provision of support to environment information scientists in exchanging e-mail and information; and the search of databases for the implementation of the project. In this paper, the outline and functions of the system, network system design, WWW server construction, network operating status, joint researches with Indonesia, etc., are described. (NEDO)

  11. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  12. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  13. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  14. Haemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee

    2011-01-01

    In Southeast Asia α-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin (Hb) E and Hb Constant Spring (CS) are prevalent. The abnormal genes in different combinations lead to over 60 different thalassaemia syndromes, making Southeast Asia the locality with the most complex thalassaemia genotypes. The four major thalassaemic diseases are Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (homozygous α-thalassaemia 1), homozygous β-thalassaemia, β-thalassaemia/Hb E and Hb H diseases. α-Thalassaemia, most often, occurs from gene ...

  15. East Asia's Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Hojzáková, Věra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the master thesis is to characterize and evaluate the current security system in East Asia, to show the security strategies of the system actors and the existing friction points, and to assess the future development of the security system in place. For this purpose the author first defines the East Asia's security system using the conceptual tools of three international relations theories, namely neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and constructivism. In the following section, the securit...

  16. World review: Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Asia in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Australia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkmenistan and Vietnam. It is expected that soon after 2000, oil demand in Southeast Asia will resume growth at 4-5% per annum and demand for petroleum products in China will more than double by 2010

  17. Asia electricity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demand in Asia has grown and continues to grow rapidly. Over 40 per cent of the world's growth in electricity output up to 2010 is expected to come from China and East and South Asia. The need to build the additional production capacity to meet demand is the driving force behind the major structural and institutional changes that are presently transforming the electricity sectors throughout the region. The Asia Electricity Study looks in detail at the current and future role of the electricity sectors in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It analyses existing and planned electricity policies in areas such as financing regulation, environment and end-use efficiency. To build the region's power infrastructure will require large investments, well beyond what governments or multilateral lending institutions can provide. Consequently, mobilizing private sector participation in the process is vital. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are being allowed to enter what has, until recently, been a government-dominated field. State-owned utilities are being corporatized and/or privatized to improve their competitiveness. Developing the regulatory environment to match the changes taking place is a key challenge. The significant expansion of generation capacity in Asia will have implications well beyond the region. Changes in energy trade volumes and patterns, caused by the need to obtain fuel for power stations, will have an impact on the energy security of Asia and the world as a whole Similarly, fuel and technology choices will have important consequences for both the regional and global environment. (author)

  18. FY 2000 Project report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Ginan. Preliminary survey; 2000 nendo Ginan-cho chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho. Shoki dankai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Actual situations of energy consumption and potentially saved energy are surveyed among others for introduction of concrete energy-saving measures in Town of Ginan, Gifu Pref., to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The problems pointed out by the survey on the actual situations of energy consumption include insufficient measures for avoiding waste in houses relative to the nation-wide tendencies, although improved to some extent, difficulty in spreading energy-saving conception throughout the employees in industrial areas, and insufficient limitation of use of private cars and alternative transportation systems. The energy-saving measures studied include setting temperature for air conditioners, and efficient use of home electric appliances, e.g., TV sets, refrigerators and washing machines. The measures studied for the transportation sector include spreading/promotion of clean cars, wider utilization of public transportation systems, promotion of telework systems aided by information communications, and promotion of eco-driving. The energy-saving target, to be realized in FY 2010 by these measures, is set at 67,646 times 10{sup 7}Kcal for the town. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic study on the effect of microgravity on living individuals; Bisho juryoku no seibutsu kotai ni taisuru eikyo no kiso kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the effect of microgravity on vital functions and organisms at a cell level, this research studies the molecular biological response function of higher animals, the gravity acceptable mechanism of single-cell organisms, the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects, measurement of monoamine system neurotransmitters of rat hippocampus by dialysis in a brain and the effect of microgravity on it, the effect of microgravity on water and bone metabolism functions and immunity function, and the analysis of BZ reaction as a simple model of vital reaction. The themes of the research are as follows: the effect of microgravity environment on cell fusion, the analysis of gravity acceptable mechanisms of single-cell organisms, the effect of oriental medical treatment on bone metabolism anomaly of mouses under microgravity environment, the effect of oriental medical treatment on change in physiological function under microgravity environment, the effect of microgravity environment on immunity systems, the effect of gravity on cell activities, the effect of a gravity field on chemical oscillation reaction, and the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1998 research report on the production of bio-affinity materials by using microgravity environment; Bisho juryoku kankyo riyo seitai shinwa zairyo no sosei kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Experiment was made on production of bio-affinity materials under a microgravity condition by using the drop experiment facility of the underground a gravity experiment center. The experiment includes fast polymerization of polymer grains, protein orientation control and protein thin film formation, organic thin film formation, O/W emulsion preparation, and crystallization of protein under a microgravity condition. In polymerization of fine pyrrole grains under the existence of fine latex grains, production of fiber polypyrrole is remarkable, and fiber growth from latex surfaces was confirmed. The obtained thin bacteriorhodopsin film shows a photoelectric response, and as the AFM observation result, it is mainly composed of violet single-layer electrodeposited films. The wetting rise of acrylic monomer at the interface between solid and liquid is largely dependent on viscosity. The oil droplet size distribution of O/W emulsion is narrower than that in ground experiment, and is close to a normal distribution. Easy imaging of products was achieved by tracing cytochrome crystals with change in turbidity. The crystallization phase diagram of black mold acid protease A, and basic data in crystallization process were obtained. (NEDO)

  1. Report on a survey in fiscal 1998 for petroleum substituting energy development and utilization in the Pacific Ocean region; 1998 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was carried out to make available the information base that can collect, put into order and provide quickly and accurately the energy related information based on global environment problems in the Pacific Ocean region. Fiscal 1998 has performed a substituting energy demand and supply analysis in the Pacific Ocean region by adding the 1996 data, in addition to collection of the normal energy data. For the purpose of analyzing the petroleum substituting energy demand and supply in the Pacific Ocean region, data were collected from 17 countries for fiscal 1997 and the quarterly data for 1998. Retroactive data collection was also continued. The growth rate of primary energy supply in the Pacific Ocean region is 1.8% in average in the 1980's, and 3.8% in the 1990's. In contrast, the growth rate of petroleum substituting energies is 6.4% in the 80's and 6.2% in the former half of the 90's, being far higher than the growth rate of the primary energy supply. The share of the petroleum substituting energies accounting for in the primary energy supply has increased from 6.7% in 1980 to 12.1% in 1996. As the breakdown, nuclear power accounts for overwhelmingly large, followed by geothermal energy and new energies. (NEDO)

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Evaluation by industrial circles of the COP3 outcome and their future response (America); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Response in America to COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is investigated. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) of America's Department of Energy conducts activities designed to protect environments and supports America's economic competitiveness. The scope of EE activities is quite wide, covering efforts at energy efficiency improvement and renewal energy utilization for all energy consuming sectors involving construction work and equipment for buildings, various industries and public utility works, and transportation. EE also supports and promotes the development of advanced industrial materials, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, fuel cells, etc. In the field of renewable energy, it deals with the exploitation of sunlight, biomass, wind force, water power, geothermal energy, etc. It also supports efficiency improvement efforts being undertaken through studies of advanced power transmission and distribution, high-temperature superconduction, energy storage, etc. The said supports are provided not only by Federal Government but also by state governments, and include financial aids. A number of programs are under way, worked out and promoted by the respective bureaus and departments. They are evaluated, protected, and implemented through the partnership of official and civilian organizations. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the FY 1999 research survey on the industrial utilization/development of the biofilm formation mechanism and antifouling substances; 1999 nendo bio film keisei kiko oyobi sogai busshitsu no sangyoteki riyo kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 1999 research on the fouling by marine aufwuchs. The survey is aimed at searching the nature world for active substances for biological antifouling. The fouling mechanism in the ocean is as follows. The adsorption of organisms called the conditioning film first occurs on the surface, and next, bacteria and diatom around the surface form biofilm and cover. After that, biological fouling by large aufwuchs occurs. Therefore, the control of biofilm formation was regarded as most important, and with this as a guidepost, the search was conducted. Using biofilm anti-formation activity and periphytic bacteria anti-growth activity as guideposts, some compounds were searched for. Being aimed at Porifera, in particular, new compounds were isolated from it. Since few of other organisms attaches on the surface of sponge, there is a great possibility of Porifera's producing any anti-fouling substances. Further, it is thought that symbiotic microorganisms of sponge (40% of the total weight) produce various biologically active substances. Synthetic phenethyl amine derivatives were also studied. (NEDO)

  4. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (modification of heating furnaces of three refineries at Kuiibyshev, Syzran, and Novokuibyshev); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kuiibyshev, Syzran, Novokuibyshev 3 seiyusho kanetsuro kaizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A study is conducted about the CO2 reduction effect to be achieved by modernizing the 130 tube-type heating furnaces of the above-named three refineries in Russia. Chosen especially for the study are 39 heating furnaces which are the essential refinery facilities that require urgent energy related measures. Based on the outcome of the study, modification plans are formulated and rough designs are drawn, which involve the replacement of antiquated furnaces by high-performance new-design furnaces, installation of waste heat recovery facilities such as preheating convection sections and air preheaters, reinforcement of furnace wall insulation materials, installation of optimal control systems for furnace operation, modification of fuel supply systems for higher efficiency, installation of decoking systems, etc. After the modification, the heating furnace thermal efficiency will be secure at 90% at the lowest. After the application of this energy efficiency enhancement project, CO2 emission will be reduced by approximately 480,000 tons/year for the 39 chosen furnaces or by approximately 1,200,000 tons/year for all the 130 heating furnaces. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Welfare equipment (Development of human friendly care support intelligent equipment / Development of home welfare equipment system); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki (human friendly kaigo shien chino kiki kaihatsu / zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since disabled persons increase with a progress of an aging society, while a care power decreases with a decrease in birth rate, development and practical use of the welfare equipment contributing to self-support of aged and handicapped persons, reduction of doctors' or therapists' burdens, and as a result, reduction of medical care costs are desirable. Among them, R and D and practical use are expected of the advanced welfare equipment and system based on human engineering technology contributing to improvement of lives of aged and handicapped persons, and support of nurses and cares of disabled persons. In fiscal 1998, on both human friendly care support intelligent equipment and home welfare equipment system, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. For the former, 'heart disease diagnosis and treatment total support system,' and for the latter, 'body function rehabilitation support system' were surveyed. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report. Study on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants. Pt. 2; 1998 nendochosa hokokusho. Kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants and unused resources. Microorganisms and microorganism enzymes for decomposing lignocellulose were viewed, and uses of hydrolysis products were summarized. Production of microorganisms applicable to fodder, composting, and production of energy sources (methane, hydrogen, ethanol) were studied. Use of vegetable fiber residues such as beer lees as fungus cultivation medium and conversion to valuable substances were also studied. Microorganisms treatment (MT) of wastes in fats and oils industry was summarized. Effective use of MT of protein waste from marine products was studied. MT of manures with the greatest impact on environment as livestock waste was summarized. The necessity of separate collection of domestic wastes, and composting and methane fermentation of kitchen garbage were reported. The feasibility of MT of plastic wastes, and decomposition of halogenated methane with high toxicity were also studied. (NEDO)

  7. Report on achievement in developing an ultra low loss power element technology. Survey on practical application of the next generation power semiconductor devices; 1998 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jisedai power handotai device jitsuyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Trends were surveyed for development of an ultra low loss power element. Performance improvement has been progressed on power semiconductor elements by using Si as the raw material, but loss reduction has come close to the physical limit. SiC is expected of possibility to go beyond this limit. SiC is so very excellent that its band gap is two to three times greater, insulation breakdown electric field is 7.5 times higher, temperature to become a true semiconductor is three to four times higher than those of Si. The wide gap can reduce high temperature leaking current in p-n junctions, and the increased authenticity temperature can increase the upper limit for operation temperature. The insulation breakdown strength being higher by one digit can reduce the drift layer thickness, and is expected to dramatically reduce the loss. The problem is that high quality crystals have not been obtained to date. One of the promising application fields is electric vehicle. The device currently using the power element in the largest scale is used in frequency converting stations to link the 50-Hz power network in the eastern part of Japan to the 60-Hz network in the western part of Japan. Surveys were carried out on the Sakuma frequency converting station and the New Shinano substation. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1995 report on verification of geothermal exploration technology. Development of fracture reservoir exploration technology (development of seismic exploration); 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsunado kensho chosa. Danretsugata choryuso tansaho kaihatsu (danseiha riyo tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report provides the development of new exploration technology using elastic waves, such as reflection seismic survey, VSP, and seismic tomography, for precisely characterizing subsurface fractures in geothermal reservoirs. In order to investigate and improve the effective data acquisition and analysis methods for detecting a fault type of fractures, an experiment of a seismic tomography method was conducted using wells drilled in the Ogiri geothermal field, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. An experiment of propagation characteristics of piezo type underground seismic source in the volcanic field was also conducted as a trend survey of underground seismic sources. The fracture type in the model field was systematically analyzed by measuring the core samples obtained in the demonstration test field through remanence measurement, fluid inclusion measurement, and zircon measurement using test equipment, and by analyzing results obtained from cores and results of seismic tomography obtained from the wells. Based on these results, the effectiveness and practical application of exploration methods using elastic waves were investigated. 80 refs., 250 figs., 49 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey report. Data processing (No. B-5 - Musadake region - Phase 3); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted into the results of a survey on the state of existence of geothermal energy resources in the Musadake region, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido. The region was volcanically active in the period from the Neogene period into the quaternary, with some volcanos still active even today. The geological structure on the whole is characterized by the Musadake/Mt. Shitabanupuri fault which is the major structure running NNE-SSW and having a folding structure. It is inferred that Musadake is the heat source responsible for the underground temperature distribution in this region. The maximum temperature of 274 degrees C is recorded at borehole N11-MD-3 in the northeastern part of Musadake, and the temperature falls rapidly as the distance from the borehole increases. Ejection of geothermal fluids is observed at boreholes N11-MD-3 and N11-MD-4. It is inferred that the deep-seated geothermal water is of the neutral Cl type with Cl concentration estimated at approximately 12,000 mg/liter. Steam composition is characterized by a gas concentration level that is as high as 3-4 vol.%. The gas is composedly mainly of CO2 and contains some hydrocarbons. Fluids in this region are classified into water mixing into deep-seated geothermal water and groundwater originating in meteoric water. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1995 survey of promotion of the geothermal development. Report on a usage feasibility test of a small scale geothermal binary cycle power generation system; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chusho chinetsu binary hatsuden system jissho shiken hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In this survey, studies for popularization and practical utilization of small and medium size geothermal binary cycle power systems which assesses low and medium temperature geothermal resources were conducted, and studies for development of the system to be introduced for practical use and for promotion of the popularization were made. A study was carried out of preconditions and various conditions of a demonstrative test plant (100kW class, 500kW class) in view of the initial cost of the actual plant, and an analysis was made of the power generation cost. Acceptability of the demonstrative test plant (100kW class) was examined to analyze problems on the introduction. A thermodynamic analysis was made of the output of geothermal binary cycle power generation. Analysis/evaluation of the results of the 100kW demonstrative test plant were carried out in view of the operation results of the plant of the same kind, and checks/reviews were conducted of performance and reliability of the system, equipment simplification, etc. Inspection of the system was made in the stage of design/manufacture of the 500kW demonstrative test plant. Concerning the spread/expansion of the system, studied were multiple stage geothermal utilization and PR promotion method. 14 refs., 62 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 research result report. Research on improvement of boiling heat transfer characteristics by photocatalyst wall; 1999 nendo hikari shokubai hekimen ni yoru futto netsu dentatsu tokusei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research was made on improvement of the wettability and boiling heat transfer characteristics of a photocatalyst wall. Measurement experiment of the wettability was made for anatase type titan oxide-coated Al, SUS and Pb plates, rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, raw plate, and oxide-plasma coated titan plate. In the ground experiment, the contact angles of distilled water and oil on specimen surfaces were measured. In the microgravity experiment, falling droplet images were recorded by using the facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). For obtaining the effect of radioactive emission, UV irradiation, {gamma} ray and neutron beam irradiation by nuclear reactor, and {gamma} ray irradiation by Co-60 were carried out. As the experiment result, the rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, nonconductor-coated titan plate, and zircaloy plate showed large improvement of the wettability by {gamma} ray irradiation with Co-60. It was also confirmed that in particular, titan shows the large effect of radioactive emission, and the wettability deteriorates rapidly after {gamma} ray irradiation. (NEDO)

  12. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for gas turbine power plant in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran gas turbine hatsuden plant no koritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1997 report on the study on solidification process of high-temperature melt of heat resistant metals; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (tainetsu kinzoku koon yueki no gyoko katei no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Study was made on a solidification process of metal melt under micro-gravity condition in an underground non-gravity experiment center, considering that improvement of the heat resistance of turbine blades for jet engines and power generation gas turbines contributes to prevention of global warming through improvement of thermal engine efficiencies and consumption reduction of precious fossil fuel. Study was made on a simulation program and precise measurement of thermal properties for precision casting of heat-resistant alloy members. Study was also made on Al and Zn alloys and their welding for production and evaluation technologies of new metal textures by supercooling solidification. Some issues for strongly desired improvement of a simulation program for precision casting were clarified. In addition, since thermal property data of practical heat-resistant polyalloy members are poor, data and measurement method for precision casting were clarified. It was also suggested that basic elucidation of the solidification process under micro- gravity condition is possible. 34 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Research report of FY 1997 on the influence of insulation materials on global warming; 1997 nendo jigyo hokokusho (chikyu ondanka ni taisuru dannetsuzai no oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the influence of insulation materials on global warming. In this study, extrusion polystyrene foam and rigid foam urethane have been selected for review. These were reviewed with both discharge of foaming agent and CO2 reduction produced by energy conservation as a result of the application of insulation material to houses by assuming what conditions would be applied for future foaming agent and thermal insulation. Discharge of CO2 was also considered through manufacturing process of insulation materials. The result was used for judgment of applicability of foamed plastic type insulation materials from the global warming viewpoint. In this study, the influence of insulation materials on the global warming was calculated in each district through their life cycle. It was found that the extruded polystyrene foam second-b and rigid foam urethane are effective to reduce the global warming in Sapporo, Morioka and Sendai in case of a detached house, except a detached house located in the southern district where requires less heat load. In case of a multiple dwelling house, any insulation material reviewed in the study showed that they could reduce CO2 in all districts. 10 refs., 52 figs., 64 tabs.

  15. Research report of fiscal 1997. Joint research project on petroleum substituting energy between Japan and the EU; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Four researchers were invited from EU countries to promote R & D of petroleum substituting energy in Japan, and the joint research was made in institutes of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology related to each theme for 50 days. On the research on deep geothermal prospecting based on volcanic halocarbon group, it was showed that halocarbon discharged from volcanic or hydrothermal system is an important window to survey activities within the earth. On the research on catalyst for hydrogenation of coal-derived liquid, XPS data was reported, and some preliminary conclusions were obtained. On the research on oxide system anode material for Li secondary cells, a method for improving the state of host to ion moving in 1-D to 3-D networks by diffraction method was showed. In particular, the method was effective to offer electronically sensitive environment to moving ion system. On the research on hydro-dechlorination of hydrocarbon halide, the theme related to environmental measures against waste hydrocarbon halide (depletion of the ozone layer) was studied. 83 refs., 32 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. FY 1999 report on the results of the survey of the utilization of knowledge management technology to NEDO's information system infrastructure; 1999 nendo NEDO knowledge management kankyo no kochiku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of exercising the integrated management of various kinds of information produced by NEDO as intellectual assets and of making a plan, evaluation, spread/promotion, etc. of effective/efficient research and development, survey was conducted. As a result of the survey, the following were pointed out: The circulation and reutilization of electronic information are not promoted and the productivity is low because there is not much cooperation between the electronic information (documents) and the application conducting the making/distribution/keeping of the information under the present circumstances; PDF of NEDO's achievement reports costs a lot because there is no cooperation between internal documents and WWW documents. As the future course, the following were indicated: adoption of the Internet standard technology to the application handling the electronic information for compatibility; introduction of the application to make/manage WWW contents, groupware, intranet, etc. for integration of end user application; making each phase of formation/distribution/keeping of the electronic information compatible including the format study of NEDO's achievement reports. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the study on development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators; 1998 nendo gomi shori shisetsuyo taishoku ceramics zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1988 results of development of corrosion-resistant ceramic materials for garbage incinerators. Residue released when porcelain stocks are collected is selected as the inexpensive stock for SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based refractory materials. It is incorporated with carbon black and reduced at 1,200 to 1,500 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Synthesis of the target Si-Al-C-N-O-based compound succeeds in the presence of a solid catalyst, but it is a fine powder, and hence that of the massive compound fails. The commercial ceramic materials and new refractory materials, made on a trial basis, are evaluated for their resistance to corrosion using fry ashes collected from a commercial incinerator. These ashes are higher in melting point, more viscous, holding a larger quantity of attached slag and more corrosive than synthetic ashes. These materials are corroded acceleratedly as temperature increases to 1,200 degrees C or higher, more noted with the ceramic materials than with the refractory materials. Oxidation and melting characteristics of the molten slag affect corrosion of some materials. Use of the graphite-based material shall be limited to a section below the slag surface, where graphite is oxidized to a smaller extent. The MgO-based material is promising. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based material is more promising than any other material developed in this study. Their bending strength before and after the corrosion test is measured at normal temperature to 1,700 degrees C, to investigate their deterioration by high temperature and corrosion. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on development, introduction and promotion of urban type multipurpose geothermal utilization techniques; 1998 nendo toshigata tamokuteki chinetsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu, donyu, sokushin ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Introduction of geothermal heat pump systems, which depend on temperature differential, is investigated for urban areas, which have large energy demands. Results of the surveys on the current situations of geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems indicate that they have already numbered 300,000 units in USA and totaled more than 50,000 units in Switzerland and Northern European countries, and that they are increasing at an annual rate of higher than 10%. The results also indicate that introduction of these systems are well feasible in Japan, which generally has better topographical conditions than American and European countries, and the GHP system with vertical ground heat exchanger is investigated for its topographical and environmental considerations. These systems could annually abate approximately 52 million tons of CO2 (4.3% decrease), if disseminated to all households. They are also expected to help control the heat island phenomenon, and reduce peak power consumption. The technological problems to be solved before these systems are massively disseminated including development of small scale drilling rigs and preparation of drilling manuals. System standardization and introduction of subsidy systems are also needed to massively disseminate these systems. (NEDO)

  19. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the investigational research on the influence and effect of the fiscal 1994 packaging regulations on the industrial activities; 1994 nendo hoso kisei ga sangyo katsudo ni ataeru koka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper studies a desirable way of developing recycling and simplification of the packaging materials and analyzes its effects on the industrial activities and the conditions for location of local industrial sites to make future proposals for the issue. The research and development of biodegradable plastics as new packaging materials have been advanced in general enterprises, some of which have already become products. This is a technology which attracts attention as one of the methods for solving the waste problem. The development of packaging technology which can cope with the packaging waste issue has been promoted. The methods are divided into shape changes to bags, cups, BIB (bag in box) and refill containers; material changes to paper, dechlorination and simple material; reuse of used paper, etc. Part of the methods is practically applied. The packaging method in Germany has an effect on the distribution in Japan. Recently the economic growth has been in the doldrums, and the waste problem has become conspicuous. In the movement for the global environmental preservation, another look is obliged to be taken at the packaging industry circle. 11 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. FY 1997 report on the survey of fundamental technologies in the field of brain neuro-biotechnology; 1997 nendo Sendo kenkyu hokokusho (noshinkei saibo kogaku kiban gijutsu no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In Japan with its rapidly aging society, fundamental technologies are required for the development of artificial nerves substituting for or supporting damaged ones, and ultimately constituting artificial neurons based on the knowledge of the brain functions at the molecular and cellular levels. This study defines the fundamental technologies which would be required for the development in the area, and further, evaluates the potential of the technologies to develop the novel industry. The brain function is closely related to the activity in neuronal circuits. In order to repair injured nerves and to develop the advanced technologies of electronics for helping impaired neuronal functions, the most important and urgent is to understand how to work the neuronal circuit system in the brain. Based on these viewpoints, new methodological approaches would make it possible to relieve neural impairment in the sensory input system and the motor system by the use of electronic circuits. They also would improve rehabilitation after injury, and treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson`s disease. These advances surely create the new types of industry seeds in near future. 77 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Report on fiscal 1992 geothermal development promotion survey data. No.A-1 Mannenyama area (first); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-1 Mannenyama chiiki (daiichiji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    A synthetic analysis was made of the results of the fiscal 1992 survey on geothermal resource existing in the Mannenyama area. The area surveyed is located at the central-west part of Oita prefecture, belonging to an administrative division of Kusu-machi and Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-county, Oita pref. The area surveyed was approximately 280 km{sup 2}. As signs of existence of geothermal energy, there are seen hot springs and alteration zones there. In the Takigami district neighboring the south-east part of the area, construction of a geothermal power plant is being planned. From a synthetic consideration of various investigations, the region round the Inomuta sedimentation zone is considered to be a district satisfying conditions for existence of geothermal resource and a promising geothermal district, where Takigami, Otake, Hachoubaru and Okuni are widely included. In the area surveyed this time, the area around Noya-Mizuwaketouge seems to be the most potential for geothermal resource, judging from the alteration status, abnormal mercury concentration, fault state structure and spread of the low resistivity zone. Also in the south and the north-east of the area, geothermal activities can be estimated. 99 refs., 194 figs., 52 tabs.

  3. 1998 investigation report. Basic investigation for promotion of joint projects, 'Investigation on Russian CO2 reduction conditions'; 1998 nendo Roshiakoku CO{sub 2} sakugen anken chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a project assuming modernization of a manufacturing plant and improvement of power generation facilities in Russia, with the aim of 'joint implementation' in reducing the greenhouse effect gas by utilizing technologies mutually between advanced nations. The project is to replace obsolete an open hearth furnace and cupola with electric furnaces in connection with the cast steel and forged steel production facilities of Uralmash, a largest-scale Russian heavy machinery manufacturer, to change surface hardening equipment for rolling roll products from a combustion method to a low frequency induction heating method, and to enhance efficiency of the power generation equipment of a public corporation which supplies electric power to Uralmash. Through a field study and a technological investigation, the social background of the project was examined such as the situation of the Russian Federation, its environment and the present state of Sveldorv province; then, examined were the specifications of the facilities, project cost, cost performance, CO2 reduction expected, environmental influence, etc., in the case where the modernization project of Uralmash was implemented. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1993 investigational study of a model of international cooperation for an environmentally harmony type green technosystem; 1993 nendo Oshu ni okeru haikibutsu shori oyobi recycle no doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the natural environment preservation, effective utilization of resources, and maintenance of the ecosystem, an international cooperation model was proposed for the environmental harmony type green technosystem. A comprehensive evaluating analysis of a green forest resource, etc. as the global resource, and an intensive extraction of subjects and needs was made. The analysis was conducted of technical possibility and abstract business development effects toward the industrialization with high values added which is in harmony with the environment. As a case study, the Papua New Guinea area, Malaysia was selected and re-evaluated. For this typical tropical forest area, a new technical system was studied based on the natural environment, industry/economy, social/cultural assessment, etc., and a model for industrializing new international cooperation was proposed. For the model making for industrialization, various steps to be taken and conditions to be prepared were studied and arranged for the realization. Upon going ahead with the international technical cooperation, Japan, a large lumber consuming country, needs to always consider the fostering and effective use of lumber resource in particular. 27 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  6. FY1998 Report of surveys on network possibility involved with proliferation and transfer of environmental technologies (Europe, Australia and New Zealand); 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu no fukyu iten ni kakawaru network kanosei chosa hokokusho . Oshu Goshu New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (COP3) held in December 1997, the industrialized nations have agreed on development and proliferation of innovative technologies under international cooperation and transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries by expanding and strengthening CTI being the framework to be progressed spontaneously. Under the international strategic research project for global environment, NEDO has been promoting positively the research and development, whose support is urged to be expanded further in the future upon receiving the present agreement. Therefore, NEDO has performed the present survey in order to propose frameworks and measures for strengthening and expanding CTI. From among the policies and measures to be taken by the related countries based on the COP3 protocol, fiscal 1997 has performed review and new establishment of plans involved with execution of the items related to technology development, and surveys on action movements such as review and expansion of the measures, as the first stage. Fiscal 1998 has executed surveys focusing on the network for technology proliferation and transfer to developing countries as the second stage. (NEDO)

  7. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy conservation measure project for Ahwaz Steel Complex in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran Ahwaz seitetsusho ni okeru sho energy taisaku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emission, a project has been discussed to introduce a gas turbine combined cycle power generation system for effective waste heat utilization and a pellet coating facility into the direct reduction steel making plant of Ahwaz Steel Complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The project will have a waste heat boiler installed at the outlet of the MIDREX plant waste heat recovery device to link it with a gas turbine combined cycle power plant to structure a 42-MW power generation system. In addition, productivity enhancement was attempted by applying the raw material pellets with coating to raise the reduction gas blow-in temperature. The energy saving effect expected from this project would be saving of 63,140 tons of crude oil equivalent annually, and the greenhouse effect gas reducing effect would reduce 173,790 t-CO2 annually. Although the investment will require about 3.16 billion yen, the cost reduction amount in association with power generation is small because of the power purchase unit cost being as very low as 1.9 yen/kWh, making the investment recovery period 10.2 years. Therefore, the project will not be realizable economically. (NEDO)

  8. Survey report of FY 1997 on the global environmental industry technology development promotion project. International research exchange project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo (kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Exchange of personnel among foreign research organizations is significant for promoting research and development to create new research fields and to build new technological systems for the purpose of solving global environmental problems. For this purpose, researchers were sent/invited to/from international conferences and international symposiums related to global environmental technology and exchange of personnel with major foreign research organizations and universities was conducted under the cooperation of RITE and RITE-related researchers and related academic societies. Based on short-term invitation and sending of researchers as well as the feasibility study of researcher exchange, researchers were sent/invited on long- and mid-terms. As a result, exchange of personnel engaged in the latest research in Japan and overseas could be promoted. It was found that various researches are being conducted abroad in basic areas of global environmental technology. Since they are closely related to the research and development of industrial technology contributing to global environmental preservation promoted by RITE, it is important to establish a more efficient exchange system of researchers in the future. 91 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Survey on technological trend concerning in si-tu remediation technology of contaminated soil; 2000 nendo osen dojo no gen'ichi joka gijutsu ni kakawaru gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In connection with contamination of soil and ground water, a survey was made on domestic patent information and existing literature or the like, in view of remediation technologies capable of in si-tu or on-site treatment, with arrangement and classification carried out by the method of cleaning contaminants. Arranged and classified were 209 pieces in the patent information, and 145 pieces in the literature from Geo-Environmental Protection Center, an incorporated body. In the methods of extracting contaminants from under the ground, the majority was the methods of pumping up ground water and those of excavating and removing. In the methods of cleaning contaminants, those of 'separation by heat', 'separation/decomposition method using water' and 'suction of gases' are found roughly in equal numbers. In the trend of the patent information, remediation technologies have started in 1990's, while bio-remediation as well as technologies of separation/decomposition through water is still increasing in the number of applications. Meantime, solidification technologies reached a peak around 1998 and have been decreasing in recent years. In the technologies of late, combinations of plural cleaning methods are also seen for the purpose of dealing with contamination with high to low concentration and compound contamination including organo-chloric compounds, heavy metals, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Study on energy saving and CO2 reduction at Balikpapan refinery; 1999 nendo Balikpapan seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the embodiment of clean development mechanisms (CDMs) in Indonesia, a survey is conducted about energy saving and CO2 reduction at its Balikpapan refinery. At the refinery, a crude-oil atmospheric distillation unit operates at 200,000 BPSD (barrels per stream day) and a vacuum distillation unit at 81,000 BPSD, with the fuel consumed by the two units discharging approximately 470,000 tons/year of CO2. The result of the survey discloses that there is need for some improvement in relation with heat recovery and that the great distance between the two distillation units presents a problem in relation with heat efficiency. To settle the problems, heat recovery will be enhanced and the fuel to be burned in the heating furnace will be reduced. A plan to modify the heat exchanger system is worked out using JGC Corporation's energy-saving technology, and a rough design is drafted for the modification. When the modification is carried out, there will be a CO2 reduction of 18,636-61,597 tons/year. The Pertamina also wants the plan to be realized, wishing that technical and financial aids will be available. The plan when realized will serve as a stimulus to the local community and to the industry as a whole. (NEDO)

  11. Report on results 1998. Research and development on high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage (investigation on system introduction); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (system donyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    In introducing high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage equipment to an electrical power system, adaptability is examined and evaluated concerning secondary effect that can be expected while a load leveling function is maintained. The 1998 plan is such that the functions and usages other than the load leveling are put in order for such equipment, and that the effect/adaptability in the case of the introduction into the power system is evaluated by means of simulation and literature studies. The high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage equipment may be used for such purposes as energy adjustment for a short time, system voltage adjustment and emergency power source, other than the load leveling, on the basis of the characteristics that enable high speed control of active/reactive power and storage/release of energy. Enumerated, as the effects obtainable in introducing these uses into the power system, are enhancement in system stability, improvement in voltage stability, improvement in instantaneous voltage drop, maintenance of system frequency, compensation of fluctuating load, countermeasures against power outrage, and output leveling of intermittent power sources, and these effects were examined. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1997 report on the study on the formation condition of hetero-structure of single-crystalline semiconductor thin films; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (tankessho no handotai usumaku hetero kozo no keisei joken ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Since ion implantation causes material degradation by formation of crystalline defects, and hydrogen embrittlement deteriorates material strength, reduction of such defects has been positively studied. Study was made on a new active application of hydrogen separation into ion implantation defects. After H ion implantation of a proper depth into single-crystalline Si and SiC and successive annealing, single-crystalline films of sub-micron to several micron thick were obtained by hydrogen-induced delamination at the implantation depth due to hydrogen embrittlement in crystalline defects. The implantation depth is dependent on implantation energy. H atom forms (111) face defect through connection with dangling bond of crystalline defects. This crystal face defect forms a delamination plane through (100) face cleavage. This hydrogen embrittlement delamination by ion implantation is applicable to production of light-weight high-efficiency single-crystalline Si solar cells, and large single-crystalline SiC wafers as new resource saving process. 33 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. FY1990 research report on the support for promotion of distributed new power source technology introduction and measures for their popularization and lightenment; 1990 nendo bunsangata shinhatsuden gijutsu donyu sokushin shien to fukyu keimo no arikata ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    To avoid economic and technological risks upon initial introduction of distributed new power source technology, methods for reduction in the initial investment burden under the lease system and methods for risk reduction under the insurance system are discussed, and each is evaluated for their applicability to the new technology. Methods for popularizing and enlightening the technology are also discussed using the result of a 'survey for promoting the introduction of new energies' conducted into local autonomies assuming the role of diffusing the new technology into the residential and commercial sectors. Through the review of the current status of initial investment burden reduction methods mainly under the lease system and through some case studies, the applicability of such methods to the new technology is discussed. Similar studies are also made by investigating the current status of risk reduction methods and by conducting case studies, these centering on various kinds of machinery insurance. Questionnaires are sent to local autonomies, who play an important part in the initial introduction into and popularization in the residential and commercial sectors, to learn their consciousness of energy problems and of distributed new power source technology introduction. The result is used to review how popularization and enlightenment activities should be conducted. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1997 report on the study on development of corrosion-resistant ceramics for refuse incinerators; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (gomi shokyakuroyo taishoku ceramics zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes development of structural materials for municipal refuse incinerators, in particular, high- temperature corrosion-resistant ceramics for inner walls. Unlike boiler tubes of which inner walls are cooled by water or water vapor, refractory for inner walls is subjected to high-temperature flame over 1000degC, corrosive gases such as HCl and SO2. and low-melting point corrosive dust such as chloride, sulfate and oxide under strong corrosive environment. Experiment was made on 14 kinds of ceramics including commercially available oxide system, non-oxide system and refractory system ceramics. Except graphite system ones, every ceramics, in particular, Al2O3, ZrO2, B4C-doped SiC and CVD-SiO showed superior properties. Commercially available ceramics, in particular, non-oxide system ones are very expensive. Since inner wall materials for refuse incinerators are heat-/corrosion-resistant consumption articles, it is suggested that improvement of reasonable oxide system ceramics or conventional SiC system ones is better. 73 refs., 89 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Research on bone-forming dental material capable of reducing plaque adhesion; 2000 nendo shiko fuchaku boshigata hone keisei shika zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development efforts are exerted to produce advanced dental materials equipped with such functions as plaque reduction, bactericidal effect, and early formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In the study of fluorine ion implantation for plaque reduction, it is found that in a specimen implanted with fluorine ions the adhesion of carius streptococci is reduced to 1/3-1/10 for the achievement of remarkable improvement. In particular, carious streptococcus multiplication is suppressed when the metal shield layer is replaced with a titanium mesh. For the realization of a thin film formation method for osteoblast multiplication through reforming the material surface in the study of bone-forming dental materials, film formation conditions under which a P/Ca rate which is quite near that of ameloblast are achieved by use of a high frequency magnetron sputtering device. A titanium plate coated with a thus-formed film is annealed for a great increase in its wet contact angle, and then adhesion of bacteria is reduced and an osteoblast multiplication rate is increased by 20% or more, as compared with the case of no treatment in a petri dish. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1997 report on the modification of dental materials with Ag for improvement of antibacterial activity; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (gin ion ni yoru shikayo zairyo no kokinsei fuyo ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Improvement of an antibacterial activity is one of the issues in modification of artificial teeth for an aged society. Study was made on improvement technique of an antibacterial activity with Ag ion as secondary corrosion measures. Partial gaps of dental materials themselves and gaps between materials and peripheral tissues causes bad breath or bad teeth through propagation of disease germs. Ag ion is harmless and has an antibacterial activity for bio-tissues from a macro-viewpoint, however, only corrosion germ causing bad teeth in mouths should be sterilized by controlling an elution rate of Ag properly. The antibacterial activity was controlled by controlling Ag ion implantation depth and rate, and Ag elution rate for dental materials. Experiment was made on an IMZ twinplus specimen implanted with Ag ion and an Ag thin film-coated specimen using beagle dog in comparison with an unmodified specimen. As a result, the very favorable antibacterial activity was obtained. Ag ion is effective for prevention of endogenous infectious disease due to mouth germs in dental surgery. 3 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O.  & DUYFJES, BRIGITTA E.E. 2004. Kedrostis Medik. in Asia. Reinwardtia 12(2:129 – 133. — Kedrostis (Cucurbitaceae occurs in Africa and Madagascar and comprises 4 (5 species in Asia. Of these 2 species are found in India and Sri Lanka and 2 (3 species in western Malesia. One Malesian species is for the first time included in Kedrostis here, Kedrostis bennettii (Miq. W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, and one species is described as new here, Kedrostis hirta W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. One more Malesian species is insufficiently known to be formally described.  Keywords: Kedrostis, Cucurbitaceae, SE Asia, taxonomy

  19. Pacific Asia and the Asia Pacific: The Choices for APEC

    OpenAIRE

    C Fred Bergsten

    2009-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, which set out to achieve "free and open trade and investment in the region" and led highly significant liberalization initiatives in the 1990s, has been stagnating for the past decade. The main cause of APEC's marginalization was clearly the decision of key Asian countries to prioritize economic cooperation within East Asia itself rather than across the broader APEC construct: a focus on Pacific Asia rather than the Asia Pacific. Bergsten ar...

  20. HEALTHY AGEING POLICY IN ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark L Wahlqvist

    2008-01-01

    @@ Populations in Asia are experiencing significant gains in life expectancy,especially in North East Asia and amongst Orientals throughout the region,with Japan,HongKong,Singapore and Macau having amongst the world's best life expectancies.

  1. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  2. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  3. Looking to Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Review:You said foreign policy under the Barack Obama administration is a policy of confrontation and containment of China.So do you think the expanded U.S.presence in Asia is mainly targeting China? If so,what are the consequences in terms of diplomatic relations between the two countries?

  4. Report on a commercialization fundamental investigation (in Loajanan South Area, East Kalimantan, Indonesia) in relation to FY 1997 investigations on geological structures in overseas countries; 1997 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa (Indonesia Higashi Kalimantan Loajanan Minami chiku) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A fundamental coal mine development investigation was carried out in Loajanan South Area, East Kalimantan, the Republic of Indonesia. The investigation included geological and trial drilling investigations, and investigations on open-cut mining development conditions and infrastructures. The geological investigation covered an area of about 10 km {sup 2}, with 20 trial drillings for a total drilling length of about 1800 meters. Thirty-three trial drilling core samples were analyzed. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: coals exist in the north and south areas, whereas the open-cut mining sites in the north area produces limited quantity of coal economically viable; the south area has well grown S1 bed and S2 bed, which are used as the main mining beds, with minable quantity of 12.73 million tons; quality of coal in the north area falls under the sub-bituminous coal B in the ASTM classification, while that in the south area falls under the sub-bituminous coal C; the south area is blessed with coal reserve and infrastructure, and expected of low cost mining requiring less amount of initial investment; and low-sulfur and low-nitrogen coal available in this area are precious when future environmental problems are taken into consideration. 36 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1997 basic research on coal resource development (total demonstration test). Report on R and D of new exploration technology (exploration of medium-depth coal deposits in water areas); 1997 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa (sogo jissho shikenhen) hokokusho. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (suiiki chushindoso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the research result on development of new coal exploration technology. For high-precision and high- resolution reflective seismic exploration system, development and improvement were made on hypocenter and receiver to secure a dominant frequency of nearly 150Hz necessary to obtain high resolutions within several meters in analysis precision at coal deposit depths of 700-800m. For development of a hypocenter system, the hypocenter with driving pressure of 210kg/cm{sup 2} composed of 6 GI guns was prepared, and its performance was confirmed through demonstration tests. As for a receiver, a high-sensitivity and high resolution of 34V/bar were attained by grouping 4 piezoelectric devices to improve the performance of an American BC-5 receiver. For a positioning system, the system using GPS was adopted in place of radio surveying. For a trial drilling system, the in-bore trouble prevention system was constructed for quantitative analysis of drilling conditions, and the bit selection manual for high-speed drilling was prepared. (NEDO)

  6. Report on a commercialization fundamental investigation (in Palakan Area, East Kalimantan, Indonesia) in relation to FY 1997 investigations on geological structures in overseas countries; 1997 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa (Indonesia Higashi Kalimantan shu Palakan chiku) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A fundamental investigation was carried out on coal mine development in Palakan Area, East Kalimantan, the Republic of Indonesia. Based on the existing information available from geological investigations having been performed to date, including trial drilling, the present investigation carried out mapping surveys for new access roads to each trial drilling location and coal bed investigations on the existing open-cut mining sites. The trial drilling investigations were conducted by using grids with about 500 meter interval to identify existence status of coal beds and coal quality. Seven drillings to depths of 170 to 230 m resulted in a total drilling length of 1350 meters. Trial drilling samples were collected from all beds in major coal beds, and analyzed in Japan according to JIS standard. Overall geological analysis including coal quantity calculation by coal beds, open-cut sites and underground mining sites was executed from available geological sketches, geological histograms, coal bed histograms and other existing items of information. Evaluation was given on potentiality of the investigated areas for coal development based on the above analytical results. In addition, infrastructure related investigations were also performed. 29 refs., 114 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (hot spring/water level/spring water, No. C-3 Akinomiya area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen suii yusui, No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    As a part of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the results were summed up of the environmental effect survey conducted at the Akinomiya area of Ogachi-gun, Akita prefecture. In the survey, the drilling of N9-AY-4 exploration well and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 were carried out in the area. The survey was made aiming at grasping the effects on hot spring/ground water level/spring water in the area. The methods used for survey were surveys of hot spring variation, ground water level variation, precipitation, rivers, all spring sources, and analyses of hot spring water/spring water in the Akinomiya area. As a result of the survey, in hot spring/ground water level/spring water, no variations were recognized which were caused by the drilling of N9-AY-3/N9-AY-4/N9-AY-5 exploration wells and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 exploration wells. Moreover, since few changes of spring water quality were seen also in the result of the survey of all spring sources, it was judged that the drilling and short-term injection tests of the exploration wells described above have no effects on the hot spring, ground water level and spring water in the Akinomiya area. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 2000 technology trend survey. Survey and study report on the development of high-frequency devices to support IT revolution leading to energy use rationalization; 2000 nendo gijutsu doko to chosa. Energy shiyo gorika ni kakawaru IT kakumei wo support suru koshuha device no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted for the development of technologies basic to the construction of an ultrahigh-speed huge-capacity high-frequency radio access and communication network, especially the network infrastructure, in the several 10 to several 100 GHz band. Some surveys covered the positioning of high-frequency high-output device modules as the key component, needs for their use in radio communication equipment, devices to be needed for their construction, technologies for their manufacture, process technologies for their embodiment, basic technologies for their materials, and so forth. Some others covered research on the marketability of high-frequency devices in the future, development of relevant technologies abroad, and so forth. The mainstream of high-frequency devices these days rests on the secondary electron gas system based on GaAs and InP, and therefore it is intrinsically difficult for them to yield high outputs. It is deemed to be important to develop technologies based on novel semiconductor materials, such as nitride semiconductors which have excellent properties as materials, toward the construction of a network infrastructure for the next generation. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the project on the researcher dispatch type international joint research survey. Survey of the internationalization of research on the effective utilization technology for energy resources; 2000 nendo kenkyusha hakengata kokusai kyodo kenkyu chosa jigyo hokokusho. Energy shigen yukoriyo gijutsu kenkyu kokusaika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to themes of the research survey which contribute to upgrading/diversification of the effective utilization of energy resources and are important in increasing cooperative relations with overseas countries, survey research was conducted by dispatching investigators. Relating to long-life Si solar cells, research survey was made on the reduction in deterioration of solar cell. Concerning the hydrogen carbonless energy system, the economical efficiency of a natural energy/hydrogen combined system was studied for all areas of Aomori prefecture. About the development of the multiple chamber type artificial pancreas for patients with serious diabetes, study using model dogs was investigated. As to the processing of PVC waste, the mechano-chemical method was discussed in the U.S. The paper further surveyed the following: PDE application to the aerospace field, joint developmental study of the reuse type space transport system by Japan and Russia, treatment/recycling of the electric/electronic equipment waste including toxic substances, technology of the manufacture of nano-particles and evaluation of optical characteristics of nano-structures, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Investigations on modification and improvement project for Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Romania koku Potoshani chiiki danbo netsukyokyu setsubi no kaishu oyobi kaizen keikaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on the improvement and modification project intended of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission in the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities in Romania. Thirty years have elapsed since the building of the Potoshani district heating and heat supplying facilities, whereas noticeable energy loss has occurred due to aged deterioration, such as thermal efficiency decrease, performance decrease, and hot water leakage due to piping corrosion. The present project is intended to improve the heat production and power generation facility efficiencies, and reduce the heat loss in heat transportation and distribution to less than 5%. The improvements will be implemented by replacing and rehabilitating the existing boilers, replacing the turbine generators, and replacing the transportation and distribution pipelines and heat exchangers. As a result of the discussions, the present project is estimated to result in annual fuel conservation of 35,820 tons of crude oil equivalent, and annual reduction of the greenhouse gas emission of 110,835 t-CO2. The total amount of the initial investment for the project would be 11.369 billion yen, and the payback period would be 12 years. The project will produce profit of 31.358 billion yen in 20 years, thus the project is financially feasible. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Improvement project of low-grade coals in Chongqing City, China for CO{sub 2} reduction (Feasibility study on the production business of coal- biomass briquette); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. CO{sub 2} sakugen no tame no Chuka Jinmin Kyowakoku Jukei chokkatsushi no teihin'i sekitanshitsu no kaizen project (Bio briquette seizo jigyo no chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on the effect of introduction of production technology of coal-biomass briquette (Japanese coal improvement technology) in Chongqing City on reduction of greenhouse effect gases and acid rain causative substances, and sustainable economic growth. The study result on the feasibility of this project and reduction of greenhouse effect gases was summarized. In this feasibility study, Japan-China joint field survey, and both proximate and ultimate analyses of obtained raw materials were carried out. Based on the experimental result in the pilot briquette plant in Chongqing City, study was made on the necessary of the 1 Mtons/y class pilot plant in the pilot area including Nantong coal mine in Chongqing City, and the location, investment, production cost and distribution means of the plant. Based on the evaluation result on CO{sub 2} reduction effect, economical efficiency, environment effect and social effect, its urgency and effectiveness as international cooperation project by yen credit were also confirmed. It is extremely important to promote localization of the plant in the future. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey for improvement of the district heating plant (No. 48) in the Didi-Digomi section; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Didi-Digomi chiku chiiki danbo plant (No.48) kaizen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on the project for energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission at the existing district heating plant in Tbilisi City, Georgia. In the project, the following are conducted for the district heating plants in the Didi-Digomi section and Saburtalo section: renewal/higher efficiency of boiler equipment, adoption of cogeneration using gas turbine, improvement of hot water pipeline and improvement of equipment at heat users. As a result of the study, one plan for cogeneration of 2 units x 6MW class in each section was good in terms of economical efficiency and expenses vs. effects, and the other plan for cogeneration of 17 units (8 units and 9 units) x 6MW class was good in terms of the generated output and regional needs. The amount of energy conservation to be made by the former plan totaled 22,678 toe/y in both sections. The amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction is 70,170 t-CO2/y. The internal earning rate is 1.707% in the Didi-Digomi section and 2.249% in the Saburtalo section. The project profit is lower than the initial investment cost, and therefore, it is necessary to consider the profit from the CO2 emission right. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the project of basic survey for improving energy consumption efficiency in developing countries / invitation of engineer trainees from developing countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo / hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    NEDO is positively implementing the training programs, in view of importance of training experts on (energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies), by inviting administrators and engineers from developing countries to educate them with Japan's pollution preventive techniques, administration procedures, energy-saving measures, and so on. In FY 1998, NEDO commissioned the International Center for Environment Technology Transfer to train administrators and engineers from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar. This paper describes the proposals, based on the collected answers of the trainees to the questionnaires. The trainees were interested in all themes. About 40% of the trainees considered that the training period was short. Some trainees hoped the training course was held in summer. Difference in industrialization is reflected in difference in recognition and urgency of the environmental problems. Training was conducted by English and Vietnamese, but could be done without translators of Vietnamese. Preparation for the invitation needs a lot of works, and the course should be explained more thoroughly beforehand. It is regrettable that one trainee from Indonesia was late for the course. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 basic research on coal resource development (equipment development). Report on R and D of new exploration technology (exploration of medium-depth coal deposits in water areas); 1997 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa (kiki kaihatsu hen) hokokusho. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (suiiki chushindoso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the research result on development of new coal exploration technology. For a high-precision and high-resolution reflective seismic exploration system, R and D was made on the exploration technology of several meter in resolution for medium-depth (800m) coal deposits under a lake of 2m deep. As a result, the high-frequency and high-power source (150-200Hz in dominant frequency, 700-800m in penetrability) and the high-frequency and high sensitivity receiver (10-1000Hz in frequency band, 35V/PA in sensitivity) were developed successfully, and the positioning system was improved. The final evaluation of these elementary technologies was carried out through demonstration tests, resulting in satisfactory results. For a high-efficiency trial drilling system, the in-bore trouble prevention system for measurement, processing and analysis of drilling data (drilling length, drilling rate, revolution, bit load, torque) and drilling mud data (charge water pressure, charge/discharge water, density, pH, viscosity) was constructed. The outlook for low-cost measurement and a safety during drilling was thus obtained. (NEDO)

  16. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Joint research on oil conservation (research report on the industrial basis of Socialist Republic of Vietnam); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo sekiyu shohi koritsuka kyoryoku chosa. Betonamu shakai shugi kyowakoku sangyo kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The field research of oil conservation was conducted in developing countries, in particular, Vietnam where a steep increase in oil consumption is anticipated in the future. Energy conservation is the most effective direct measures to control combustion of fossil fuels, and an important issue to be promoted by all countries in the world to prevent global warming and reserve energy resources. In fiscal 1994, main industries in the northern part of Vietnam were researched. In fiscal 1995, the report meeting of plant survey results in the northern part and the technical seminar of energy-saving in industrial field were held, and plants around Ho Chi Minh City in the southern part of Vietnam were researched. Although Vietnam has recently acquired membership in ASEAN and is undergoing dramatic economic growth, has many problems in environmental measures. Japan has top-ranking results on energy-saving in industrial field, and the transfer of such superior technologies and techniques will greatly contribute to resource and global warming problems as well as pollution control measures in Vietnam. 13 refs., 25 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  18. Report on a project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey on business feasibility of electric power generation utilizing combustible wastes solidified fuel in the Kishu and Kumano living area; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kishu Kumano seikatsuken'iki ni okeru kanensei haikibutsu kokeika nenryo riyo hatsuden jigyo no jigyoka kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on business feasibility of a wide area RDF power generation system in the Kishu and Kumano living area. The discussions dealt with as wide area as transcending prefectural borders and including the southern parts of Mie and Nara Prefectures with the city of Shingu as the central part. Wastes generation amount is estimated to be about 70,000 tons at the present as wastes that can be turned into RDF, and to be decreased to 67,000 tons in 2018. The manufactured RDF has calorific power of 3500 to 4500 kcal/kg, two to three times greater than that of wastes. The RDF manufacturing facilities installed in cities, towns and villages have capacity of 30 to 50 tons a day, with that in the city of Shingu being the largest at about 78 tons a day. Transportation can be implemented most efficiently when road transportation is used. The RDF power generation system will consist of a fluid bed furnace, a plasma type ash melting furnace, and a bag filter plus activated carbon absorbing tower. The RDF manufacturing cost will be 27,900 yen per ton of wastes in the case of the city of Shingu. In terms of business profitability, the RDF power generation must find sources to pay 21,400 yen per ton of RDF even if the power sale revenue is considered. (NEDO)

  19. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation for CO{sub 2} reduction at Keio University; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Keio Gijuku Daigaku ni yoru CO{sub 2} sakugen no tame no kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A research is conducted into China's current problems of energy-related environments, and studies are made for the assessment of its potentials for greenhouse gas reduction, such as CO2 from coal, and for the prevention of environmental pollution in urban areas. By the survey of the current states of the supply and demand of energy and heat in China, and in Beijin, it is found that fuel conversion, which means the disuse of coal in this case, is necessary for a success in SO2 measures in the heat supply department. Since the rate of concentrated heat supply undertaken by heat supply businesses is low, it is inferred that potentials for CO2 reduction are quite high in this department. Concerning technological problems about conversion from coal to natural gas and heat supply, deliberation is made on a scenario covering how to approach the energy demand model, combustion in the natural gas boiler, and the home heating fuel. In discussing air pollution in China, the difficulty known as transboundary air pollution is taken up. It is concluded that conversion from coal to natural gas or coal disuse will serve effectively the purposes of energy saving, SO2 reduction, and CO2 reduction. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey of the effective use of wastes at palm oil refineries; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Palm oil seisei kojo ni okeru haikibutsu yuko riyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to empty fruit bunches (EFB) which are wasted at the Lahad Datu plant of Felda Vegetable Oil Products Co. in Malaysia, a project was studied for energy substitution and greenhouse effect gas reduction by fluidized bed cogeneration facilities using this as fuel. In the project, studied was the introduction of on-site cogenerator of 7,800kW in generating-end output, and that of IPP cogenerator of 16,000kW as reference. As a result of the study, the energy substitution amount in toe in 20 years was approximately 376 k tons in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and approximately 695 k tons in case of IPP and fluidized bed boiler. The amount of greenhouse effect gas emission in toe in 20 years was approximately 5,757 k tons and 11,654 k tons, respectively. Concerning the profitability, the internal earning rate was 3.32-8.47% in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and 9.13-14.65% in case of IPP/fluidized bed boiler. It indicated the materialization of the project. (NEDO)

  1. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As the global economy transforms from a developed countrycentric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent’s own sake, and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow

  2. Securitization in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lejot, Paul; Arner, Douglas; Schou-Zibell, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Securitization offers a range of benefits for Asia's financial systems and economies as a mechanism to assist funding and investment. As a form of structured finance, reliable and efficient securitization can assist development by enabling financial systems to deepen and strengthen - thus contributing to overall economic growth and stability. It must be recognized, however, that there are both overt and more subtle risks in certain uses of securitization. The credit and liquidity crisis that ...

  3. Asia at the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the global economy transforms from a developed country centric to a more developing-focused model in the post-crisis world,Asia is emerging as a new economic powerhouse.Its policy choices are important for the continent's own sake,and also for the global economy as a whole.Dominique Strauss-Kahn,Managing Director of the IMF,noted this shift in a recent speech in Shanghai.Edited excerpts follow:

  4. CENTRAL ASIA'S POWER DILEMMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Budkin, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...

  5. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  6. Fiscal 1996 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system`; 1996 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Oil demand is expected to substantially grow in the future, and the use of oil with combustibles such as hull, baggase and waste is considered from an effective use of energy. A regional model survey was conducted as measures to reduce environmental loads where the fuel mixing combustion with coal and other energy is made the core. The domestic production amount of hull is 2.4-3.0 tons/year, which have a heating value of 3,500 kcal/kg. If hull can be formed into the one storable for a the long term (the one mixed with low grade coal, etc.), it can be a fuel for stable supply. Bagasse is produced 100 million tons/year, which have a heating value of 2,500 kcal/kg. Among wastes, waste tire, plastics, waste, sludge, etc. have a lot of problems in terms of price and environment, but each of them has a heating value during 3,000-10,000 kcal/kg. As to the coal combustion, the pollutional regulation on it is strict, and much higher processing technology is needed. The technology of coal fuel mixing combustion with other energy has not risen higher than the developmental level. Though the technology is a little bit higher in price than the coal fuel single combustion, it is viable. 38 refs., 32 figs., 65 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the jointly executed/promoted basic survey project (the jointly executed activity Japan Program). Feasibility survey for CO2 reduction by deregulating heavy traffic at specified crossings in Bangkok, Thailand; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa jigyo (kyodo jisshi katsudo Japan program)). Taikoku Bangkok no tokutei kosaten ni okeru kotsu jutai kanwa ni yoru CO2 sakugen kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The monetary crisis in Thailand with the baht drop in July 1997 as a beginning rapidly worsened the Thai economy. With it, the number of automobiles sold sharply declined, and automobile manufacturers were also heavily damaged as seen in the temporary discontinued production, etc. Under such economic situation, a discussion was made on execution of the project with the Thai Automotive Industry Association (TAIA), a partner at the Thai side. As a result, agreement was made on the positioning of the project, role sharing, and selection of measures against heavy traffic as follows: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) conducts a feasibility study, proposal of a construction plan and confirmation of effects, and bears the costs. TAIA bears the execution and cost of construction (Due to the worsened Thai economy, JAMA paid almost all the construction expenses). In the light of the economic situation in Thailand, `improvement of the signal control system` was selected as an execution candidate, which has the highest cost effect among the measures against heavy traffic. In the future, the application, registration and execution are done for joint activities for the project. 49 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  9. Liberal Peace and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhumitra Chakma

    2014-01-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, South Asia has been in transition in a number of ways. Based on the Kantian tripod of democracy, economic interdependence and institution, this article assesses whether liberal peace has taken root in South Asia. It concludes that although an incipient liberal order may be discerned in the region, South Asia has yet to change fundamentally to become a zone of liberal peace. Particularly the Indo-Pakistani relationship remains frosty which constrains the buil...

  10. Re-Centring Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grenet, Frantz

    2015-01-01

    The “golden peaches” of Samarkand in the days of Sogdian trade As a cultural area Central Asia was recognized at a late stage, since its emergence as a geographical reality was very slow. The term Central Asia was coined in around 1825, simultaneously in Russia and in France, by the diplomat Georges de Meyendorff and by Julius Klaproth, respectively. It soon gained currency, along with its variant Middle Asia, sometimes preferred in Russia. Reading this nineteenth-century geographic literat...

  11. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  12. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  13. Mortality in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  14. Filipinas, plataforma hacia Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizalde Pérez-Grueso, María Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Ene ste trabajo se plantea un análisis de la significación que Filipinas ha tenido para España como plataforma hacia Asia, revisando distintas etapas: la función que desempeñó el archipiélago, en los primeros tiempos, como base desde la que introducirse en el comercio asiático y desde la que extender la empresa evanlizadora; el papel que adoptó en el XVII como eje del comercio transpacífico del Galeón que unía Manila y Acapulco; las reformas introducidas en el siglo XVIII para reforzar el sis...

  15. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  16. Snakebite nephrotoxicity in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Sitprija, Visith

    2008-07-01

    Snakebites have the highest incidence in Asia and represent an important health problem. Clinical renal manifestations include proteinuria, hematuria, pigmenturia, and renal failure. Nephropathy usually is caused by bites by snakes with hemotoxic or myotoxic venoms. These snakes are Russell's viper, saw-scaled viper, hump-nosed pit viper, green pit viper, and sea-snake. Renal pathologic changes include tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. Hemodynamic alterations caused by vasoactive mediators and cytokines and direct nephrotoxicity account significantly for the development of nephropathy. Hemorrhage, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, intravascular hemolysis, and rhabdomyolysis enhance renal ischemia leading to renal failure. Enzymatic activities of snake venoms account for direct nephrotoxicity. Immunologic mechanism plays a minor role. PMID:18620959

  17. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal, and......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises the...

  18. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xu; Zhi-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population.Data Sources:Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014.All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages,with the terms of Asia/Asian,HD,genotype,epidemiology,phenotype,and treatment used for the literature search.Study Selection:From the PubMed database,we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients' data from Asian countries.From the CNKI,we excluded the papers which were not original research.Due to the language's restrictions,those data published in other languages were not included.Results:In total,50 papers were cited in this review,authors of which were from the mainland of China,Japan,India,Thailand,Taiwan (China),Korea,and western countries.Conclusions:The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats,different haplotypes,and CCG polymorphisms.For the physicians,atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia,movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism,dystonia,or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary.Moreover,some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments.The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation,palliative care,and offer comfort of patients and their families.The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  19. Benchmarking Developing Asia's Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, Jesus; Gemma ESTRADA

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of developing Asia's manufacturing sector during the last three decades and benchmarks its share in GDP with respect to the international regression line by estimating a logistic regression.

  20. Social Protection in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah; Kwon, Huck-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Social Protection in East Asia (Cook, Sarah) (Kwon, Huck-Ju) University of Sussex - UNITED KINGDOM (Cook, Sarah) Sung Kyun Kwan University - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (Kwon, Huck-Ju) KOREA, REPUBLIC OF UNITED KINGDOM

  1. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  2. Asia. Vancouver Conference Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    1997-02-01

    The 1997 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver gave relatively little attention to the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in most of the developing world. The popular press reported mainly prevention success stories from Thailand and Uganda, and the successes realized in reducing viral loads with combination drug therapies using protease inhibitors. Societal efforts in Thailand have dramatically reduced the rate of new infections, slowing the growth of the epidemic substantially. Few heard from the conference about how the HIV/AIDS epidemic is spreading rapidly and largely unchecked in much of the world, especially in Asia. Thailand, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia are the most heavily affected countries. Thailand and India, as well as Japan, were therefore heavily represented in the scientific program, while most other countries presented far fewer reports. With the exception of one report on a training course in Fiji, the Pacific Island nations were absent from the program. Vietnam, Malaysia, China, and Hong Kong have rapidly-evolving situations, while Japan, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Singapore, Indonesia, Taiwan, Laos, South Korea, Mongolia, and Pakistan should be watched closely. The Asian epidemics are constantly evolving over time. PMID:9155914

  3. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  4. Nature, Wealth and Power (Asia)

    OpenAIRE

    International Resources Group; USAID

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record Asia, particularly South Asia, has the highest number of poor people in the world today. Many of these people are rural and depend on natural resources for their livelihoods and growth. If the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals are to be achieved in the region urgent action is needed on rural poverty. The critical linkages between natural resources, growth and poverty alleviation, and governance and democracy are becoming more evident every day. And these lin...

  5. Peritoneal dialysis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I K

    1996-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of Asian countries is diverse, and government reimbursement policies for treatment of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vary greatly from one country to another. Both of these factors have a major impact not only on the choice of treatment for ESRD but also on the utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this region. Based on the data collected from 11 representative Asian countries, several observations can be made. First, the treatment rates for ESRD in these countries correlated closely with their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita income. Second, the PD utilization rate appeared to have a biphasic relationship with the GDP per capita income and treatment rate, in that countries with the highest and the lowest treatment rates tended to have lower PD utilization rates, whereas countries with modest treatment rates tended to have higher PD utilization rates. The reason for low PD utilization in countries with the highest treatment rates differs from that in countries with low treatment rates. In the former, because of full government reimbursement, there is little physician incentive to introduce PD as an alternative form of ESRD treatment to in-center hemodialysis (HD), whereas in the latter, the complete lack of government reimbursement prevents the introduction of PD as a form of treatment. This pattern is likely to change in the future because, of the 11 countries surveyed, all except Thailand have recorded a growth rate which is higher for PD than HD over the last three years. The rate of utilization of different PD systems varies greatly among different Asian countries. Automated PD has yet to gain popularity in Asia. Conventional straight-line systems remain the dominant PD systems in use in Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines, while in Malaysia and Singapore UV germicidal connection devices are most popular. However, in all these countries there has been a progressive shift over the last

  6. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  7. Commercial Power of Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Sincai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, based on a detailed analysis of the main statistical foreign trade indicators of the emerging economies of the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, outlines a series of characteristics of the foreign trade flows of the analysed economies from the ’50 up to the present. The accent is set on the period 1995-2006, which emphasizes two moments of crisis of the Asian trade: 1997-1998 and 2001. At the level of the analysed economies, it can be remarked a tendency of continuous growth of the share of the intra-regional trade flows in the total trade flows, mainly due to their participation in regional trade agreements, to the strenghtening of the regional production networks, to the role of China as engine of economic growth in the whole region and even at global level. On product category, the manufactures have the greatest share in the merchandise exports of the Asian emerging economies (especially office and telecom equipment, integrated circuits, automotive products, textiles and clothing, etc.. While China surpassed the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in the world trade in 2001 and that of Japan in 2004, the scenario presented in this paper indicates the surpass in 2007 of the share of Germany (second place in the world trade in 2005, the surpass of the share of the Asian tigers of the first generation in 2009, and the surpass of the share of the group of the 8 Asian tigers and that of the USA as well in 2012. In the following decades, China might become the strongest world economy at the global level, but only if the sustainable development and the eradication of the social inequities will become de facto priorities of the Chinese officials. The actual negative externalities (costs of the Chinese economic growth, transferred on the environment and the society, will be object to another analyse.

  8. Energy challenges in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-07-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation

  9. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  10. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M., (compiler); Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  11. Investigation studies on renewable energy resources in Asia. Wind and solar energies in Vietnam, Malaysia; Asia ni okeru saiseigata shizen energy kaihatsu shuho to fusonryo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. Vietnam oyobi Malaysia ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.; Takada, M.; Ono, H. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Loc, N.; Khan, N. [Hanoi Institute of Technology (Viet Nam); Bardaie, M.; Ismail, W.; Yahya, A. [University of Pertanian (Malaysia)

    1996-06-01

    Wind and solar energy in Vietnam and wind energy in Malaysia were calculated for their amounts available in respective areas based on meteorological data. Annual average wind velocity 30 m above the ground in Vietnam is 4 to 5 m/s in many points of coastal areas, and a little lower in the inland. On the other hand, wind velocity may exceed 9 m/s in sea areas (on islands). According to the result of a trial calculation using data derived from all the observation points, 10-kW generators and 20-kW generators, if installed, may have their operation factors exceed 20% in many points. Even compared with Cape Tappi, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, where the operation factor is 18.7%, these points in Vietnam are suitable for wind power generation. Average wind velocity 30 m above the ground in Malaysia is only about 4 m/s even at high altitude. However, wind with velocity from 7 to 9 m/s may appear depending on districts. If 10-kW and 20-kW generators are installed, the operation factors in Mersing and Langkawi would exceed 30% and 20%, respectively, where wind has sufficient value of utilization. The operation factor may be low in areas other than the above districts. However, since the observation data were those taken in urban areas, collection of further detailed data is necessary. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Iron Age in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor K. Basa

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall discuss the issue of the Iron Age in Southeast Asia under two headings - mainland Southeast Asia and island Southeast Asia. On the mainland, I shall discuss the evidence from Vietnani, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, but exclude Burma, Laos and Kampuchea for lack of relevant data. In the islands, I will discuss Indonesia, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines. I would argue that the Iron Age as a separate cultural entity is evident on the mainland, but in the islands there is no identifiable Bronze Age preceding the adoption of iron. By the Iron Age, I mean a period associated with iron artefacts, wet rice farming, brisk internal exchange and external trade and, in the lowland at least, a ranked society. This corresponds roughly to the General Period C of Bayard (1984b, 163, see also Higham and Kijngam 1984, 13-21. But two points should be made about this scheme: This is a heuristic device, so all sites in Southeast Asia can not be easily fitted into it.There is as yet no general agreement among scholars regarding the chronology of various periods.

  13. Lenzing Group: Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing(China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of theLenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  14. Priority sector lending in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Creehan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This Asia Focus discusses Asia’s experience with priority sector lending, reviews the current state-level priority sector lending policies in several Asian economies, assesses the implications for the respective domestic banking systems, and examines potential alternative mechanisms to encourage lending to priority sectors.

  15. Small Hydropower in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NathanielC.Domingo; FidelpioV.Ferraris; Prof.RowaldoR.delMundo

    2004-01-01

    SHP has been applied in Southeast Asia (SEA) for three decades now. There is a number of existing SHP installations, both of mini and micro scale. However, comparing the current installed capacity to the potential capacity, SEA has yet to fully reap the benefits of SHP.

  16. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  17. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    -glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  18. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  19. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO2, NOx and SO2, volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  20. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  1. Men's health issues in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2013-09-01

    Men's health has gained prominence over the past few years but it is still not on par with the attention or funding that women and child health is getting. In Asia, this issue is even more conspicuous. With westernization of lifestyle, Asian men's problems emulate their Western counterparts but there are certain issues unique to Asian men due to cultural differences. This review will discuss the health issues affecting Asian men and suggest measures that can be taken to overcome them. PMID:23822757

  2. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Yathindranath S; Kureishi A; Singh S; Yeow S; Geng G; Wai K; Ho A; Lansang EZ; Lee KJ

    2014-01-01

    Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has an...

  3. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  4. Fiscal 1996 report on the comprehensive invetigational research on medical instruments. Development of a trace collection/microanalysis system of blood, etc.; development of a high accuracy three dimensional image diagnosis system; development of a low invasion operation supporting system; development of artificial internal organ technology; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho sogo chosa kenkyu (iryo kiki). Ketsuekinado biryo saishu/biryo bunseki system kaihatsu, koseido sanjigen gazo shindan system kaihatsu, teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu, jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with the rapidly advancing phenomena of decreasing in number of child and aging in Japan, enhancement in quality of medical care and welfare is an issue to be urgently considered, and importance of the support by technology of medical instruments is increasing. The purpose of this research is to extract subjects of the element technology, which will be important strategically and in the long run, from two viewpoints of the needs side and seeds side to study the course of the development of medical instruments. For this, questionnaires were sent out to learned persons in charge of work connected with medical care to grasp the needs for the future development of medical instruments. Based on them, the paper extracted subjects of the element technology which are considered to become strategically important in Japan. The report outlined the investigational research and arranged the methods and results of the survey of the needs for the development of medical instruments. Next, the paper described the method to extract important subjects of the element technology from the needs survey, and then arranged important subjects of the element technology extracted through the study in the committee. At last, the paper generalized the investigational research and summarized the remaining subjects, etc. at the same time. 11 tabs.

  5. FY 1999 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 1999 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu, Kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: outlook of energy supply/demand in China and the problems, natural gas resource and the plan for the use, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As to the general situation of natural gas in China, report was made on the following: present situation of the development of natural gas resource in China, present situation of town gas in large cities of China, present situation and outlook of coal development and utilization in China, assessment of the coal mine area adaptable to coal hydrogasification, etc. In the survey of the area suitable for coal hydrogasification, report was made on the present situation and future of energy supply/demand in Shanghai, Shanxi, Shenfua and Xinjiang, present situation and future of town gas supply, etc. Survey/report were also made on the coal hydrogasification technology and the applicability. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. II - Final report. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 2000 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: natural gas resource and the plan for the use in China, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As a result of the survey, the following was found out: In Xinjiang and Urumchi, Uigur Autonomous Region, there is an abundant coal resource that is suitable for coal hydrogasification, the transportation pipeline of natural gas had been constructed, and public facilities are prepared, and therefore, both cities are suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. Datong, Shanxi Province, is a largest city of coal production, enables the long-term coal supply for coal hydrogasification, and has a plan for remodeling of old facilities and construction of new facilities for the introduction of natural gas, and therefore, the city is suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. (NEDO)

  7. Food Allergy--Lessons from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E.; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2008-01-01

    Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have result...

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  9. Nuclear Weapons in Asia: Perils and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Cimbala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of nuclear weapons in Asia threatens nuclear deterrence and crisis stability in the region and o!ers unique challenges to United States and allied security. The article contrasts two possible futures for nuclear Asia: a relatively more constrained proliferation regime with tiered levels of agreed deployment ceilings among states; and an unconstrained nuclear arms race in Asia. Not only regional tensions, but also the overlap between regional and global antagonisms and ambitions might upset nuclear deterrence stability in Asia.

  10. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  11. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Tammi Martti; Ranganathan Shoba; Gribskov Michael; Tan Tin Wee

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-...

  12. Historicizing Queer Stories from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two recent studies in queer cultural criticism, Lucetta Kam’s Shanghai Lalas and J. Keith Vincent’s Two-Timing Modernity, offer contrastive accounts of the formation of queer subjectivities, identities, and historical memories in East Asia. These two works treat different societies and come from disparate disciplines: whereas Kam’s qualitative ethnography employs interviews with twenty-five lala (lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women in Shanghai, Vincent’s contemplative account offers insight into such topics as the betweenness of the homosocial and the homoerotic, the heterodiegetic tendencies of naturalism, and the Girardian triangle of internal mediation...

  13. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  14. Asia: A Perspective on the Subprime Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Hoe Ee; Kee, Rui Xiong

    2008-01-01

    The authors, from the Monetary Authority of Singapore, examines the current crisis through the lens of the financial crisis that hit Asia in 1997. They discuss lessons that industrial countries can take from the Asian crisis and lessons Asian countries can learn from the subprime crisis. They also examine the reasons for Asia's resilience, so far, to the financial crisis.

  15. Dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Rebecca Chunghee; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Asia through two related themes: research knowledge and ethical norms. ‘CSR in Asia’ research is shown to be growing, particularly in East Asia. Compared with Western CSR literature, it is shown to be dominated by empirical, parti...

  16. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Europe and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Elam, Gillian; Aro, Arja R; Abraham, Thomas; Bishop, George D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    During autumn 2005, we conducted 3,436 interviews in European and Asian countries. We found risk perceptions of avian influenza to be at an intermediate level and beliefs of efficacy to be slightly lower. Risk perceptions were higher in Asia than Europe; efficacy beliefs were lower in Europe than Asia.

  17. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia. PMID:24782601

  18. Project on Asia's sustainable development starts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research project of the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA) on the sustainable development in Asia has been latmched. The fast meeting of its expert panel was held on 25 February in Beijing, bringing together more than 20 experts from 10 Asian countries, including Russia, ROK, Turkey, Israel, India, Mongolia, Iran,Azerbaijan, and the Philippines.

  19. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  20. Asia and Europe, knowledge economies in encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Daan; Boom, Marien van den

    2006-01-01

    With the rise of the knowledge-based economy in Asia, Western-dominated organizational literature is being exported to Asian countries. There is a huge interest from businesses and universities in China, Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and other countries in Asia and the Middle-East t

  1. In Tokyo:Asia Color Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fifth Asia Color Forum (Japan), organized by Asia Color Committee and Japan fashion Association, will be held in the city of Roppongi Hills of Tokyo during Sep. 1st-3rd. Top-class professional color design experts from Asian and paci c areas

  2. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  3. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  4. Sentinel Asia initiative for disaster management support in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Kazuya; Held, A. Alexander; Fukui, Hiromichi; Arakida, Masaru

    2006-12-01

    The 'Sentinel Asia' initiative was established by regional space agencies, to use Remote Sensing information and Web-GIS data-delivery technologies in support of disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. Sentinel Asia is 'voluntary and best-efforts-basis initiatives' led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share the disaster information in the region using the 'Digital Asia' (Web-GIS) platform and to make the best use of earth observation satellites data for disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. The system is to initially be an internet-based, node-distributed, information distribution backbone, eventually distributing relevant satellite and in-situ spatial information on multiple hazards in the Asia-Pacific region. The system will also be used by member countries of Sentinel Asia in the Asia-Pacific region to 'trigger' dedicated satellite-data acquisitions by regionally operated satellites through their participating and cooperating space agencies during major and minor disasters in their countries. Operations of Sentinel Asia are to be commenced in October 2006 through a dedicated web site.

  5. U.S. Policy Towards Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui

    2008-01-01

    Greater East Asia is expected to be the next theatre for world politics.1 East Asian cooperation is rapidly developing through the channels of ASEAN Plus Three (APT) and East Asia Summit (EAS), both driven by ASEAN. Southeast Asia is a region of diverse states and cultures that brings together all the major powers of the Asian-Pacific in a myriad of strategic interests. It is thus an open arena with the potential for a variety of strategic game-playing, options, and uncertain outcomes.2 In recent years, China's developing relationship with Southeast Asia has undergone a significant shift as the U.S. 'distraction elsewhere and neglect of the region have created opportunities for an increased Chinese diplomatic and economic role in Southeast Asia.3 U.S. analysts are concerned about what may lie behind this shift in China-ASEAN relations, how it may affect American interests in the region and how best to react to the changes. Some have expressed concerns that to avoid becoming distanced from the region the U.S. should pay more attention to Southeast Asia, rather than just watching from a distance. This paper attempts to analyze the possible changes of U.S. policy towards Southeast Asia in the current context of East Asian Cooperation and its implications for China.

  6. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a signifi...

  7. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  8. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  9. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  10. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  11. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  12. Diarrhoeal problems in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoto

    1982-09-01

    Diarrhoea up till now is still a major problem in Southeast Asia with high morbidity and mortality, particularly among children under 5 years of age, with the peak in children between 6 - 24 months. In Indonesia, in 1981, it was estimated that there are 60 million episodes with 300,000 - 500,000 deaths. In the Philippines, diarrhoea ranks as a second cause of morbidity (600 per 100,000 in 1974) and second cause of infant mortality (5 per 1,000 in 1974). In Thailand, in 1980, the morbidity rate was 524 per 100,000 and the mortality rate 14 per 100,000. In Malaysia, in 1976, diarrhoea was still ranking number 5 (3.1%) as a cause of total admission and number 9 (2.2%) as a cause of total deaths. In Singapore, diarrhoea still ranks number 3 as a cause of deaths (4% of total deaths). In Bangladesh, the overall attack rates imply a prevalence of 2.0% for the entire population, with the highest for under 5 groups i.e. 4.1%. The diarrhoea episode in rural population is 85.4%, 39% of them are children under 5. The most common enteropathogens found in all countries are rotavirus followed by Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter. Malnutrition and decline of giving breast-feeding play an important role in causing high morbidity, besides socio-economic, socio-cultural and poor environmental sanitation. PMID:7163834

  13. Asia-pacific LNG outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are powerful drivers at work in the Asia-Pacific region for clean and affordable energy. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is providing a vital solution to this need. With demand in the region expected to grow from 70 million tonnes per annum to 110 million tonnes per annum by 2010, there are significant opportunities for the Australian natural gas industry and the country. The North West Shelf Venture, Australia's only LNG producer, currently provides some 7.5 million tonnes of LNG to Japanese customers. On 2 April 2001 a 50% expansion in LNG production was announced. The A$2.4 billion expansion project will be ready for start up in mid 2004 and will supply additional LNG to the Japanese customers. This increased demand and supply comes on the back of significant restructuring of the Japanese energy market. In addition to Japan, supply opportunities for LNG from Australia are emerging in China, Korea and Taiwan and the expectation is that there will be an increased reliance on LNG as an energy source. The challenge for Australian companies will be to ensure that opportunities are maximised for current and future LNG producers. David Maxwell, General Manager Commercial of Woodside Energy Limited, Operator of the North West Shelf Venture, will explore the current state of the LNG market, the forces at work in this industry and the outlook for LNG in the region. Copyright (2002) Institution of Chemical Engineers in Australia

  14. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  15. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  16. Asia-Europe: the third link

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Setton, Jeremie; Pisani-Ferry, Jean

    2008-01-01

    [Introduction] The prevailing view of the world economy is strikingly polarised. Analyses of macroeconomic linkages and transmission channels routinely represent the world with the US at the centre and other regions, among which Asia and Europe, at the periphery. Asia and Europe are obviously regarded as important players, but mainly in interaction with the US rather than with each other. In recent assessments of the short‐term economic outlook, the US is still widely seen as the driving forc...

  17. DISTANCE AND BLENDED LEARNING IN ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin OZARSLAN,

    2010-01-01

    Open and distance learning (ODL) is one of the most important trends in education in Asia as well as all around the world. This book reviews ODL/ICT developments in schools, colleges, universities, open schooling, workplace training, professional development and non-formal adult and community education. It examines ODL and ICT experiences, successes and failures of Asian education and training.This is one of the comprehensive books on distance education applications in Asia. It is written by ...

  18. The development of money markets in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mico Loretan; Philip Wooldridge

    2008-01-01

    The depth and breadth of money markets in Asia have improved significantly over the past decade, yet many are still characterised by segmentation and a low degree of cross-border integration. Admittedly, the underdevelopment of Asia’s money markets worked to the region’s advantage during the recent turmoil by insulating it to some degree from the shocks that disrupted more developed money markets. Nonetheless, the turmoil provides authorities and market participants in Asia with an opportunit...

  19. How international economic links affect East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nehru, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively well-diversified structure of production and of external markets. As a result, East Asia was relatively unaffected by t...

  20. Tackling Nuclear Terrorism in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Feroz Hassan; Burke, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Since India and Pakistan conducted their nuclear tests in 1998, every danger associated with nuclear weapons – proliferation, instability, and terrorism – has been linked to the region. And despite nuclear deterrence and the modernization of nuclear forces, South Asia is a far cry from achieving stability. Indeed, the security situation in South Asia has deteriorated and violent extremism has surged to unprecedentedly high levels. In the past decades, both states have ope...

  1. Enhancing financial stability in developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adam S. Posen; Véron, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Given no generally accepted framework for financial stability, policymakers in developing Asia need to manage, not avoid, financial deepening. This paper supports Asian policymakers' judgement through analysis of the recent events in the United States and Europe and of earlier crisis episodes, including Asia during the 1990s. There is no simple linear relationship between financial repression and stability - financial repression not only has costs but, so doing can itself undermine stability....

  2. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  3. Financial Inclusion in Asia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari, Meghana; Beck, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial development and inclusion in developing Asia using data from a wide array of sources. We show that in terms of aggregate measures of financial development, the region as a whole has superior banking sector depth compared to other developing regions; however, this masks a great deal of variation across Asian economies. Furthermore, in terms of financial inclusion, fewer than 27% of adults in developing Asia have an account in a formal financial inst...

  4. Language Endangerment and Preservation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Hugo C.

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to language, few corners of the globe are as diverse as South Asia. Throughout history, this has been an area of high multilingualism and intense linguistic contact, leading to often extreme processes of change, linguistic conflict and accommodation, as well as the emergence of new languages. However, while diversity may be the order of the day in South Asia, language obsolescence and loss have now become equally conspicuous. As a matter of fact, the most linguistically diverse ...

  5. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of verification of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 1. Development of the reservoir variation exploration method (development of the fracture hydraulic exploration method); 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu (danretsu suiri tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the fracture hydraulic exploration method as the variation exploration method of geothermal reservoirs. By elucidating hydraulic characteristics of the fracture system forming reservoir, technologies are established which are effective for the reservoir evaluation in early stages of development, maintenance of stable power after operational start-up, and extraction of peripheral reservoirs. As for the pressure transient test method, a test supporting system was basically designed to obtain high accuracy hydraulic parameters. As to the tiltmeter fracture monitoring method, a simulation was made for distribution of active fractures and evaluation of hydraulic constants without drilling wells. In relation to the two-phase flow measuring method, for stable steam production, the use of the orifice plate, the existing flow measuring method, etc. was forecast as a simple measuring method of the two-phase state of reservoir. Concerning the hydrophone VSP method, a feasibility study was made of the practical VSP for high temperature which can analyze hydraulic characteristics and geological structures around the well at the same time which the existing methods were unable to grasp, and brought the results. Moreover, to make high accuracy reservoir modeling possible, Doppler borehole televiewer was made in each reservoir. 80 refs., 147 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. FY 2000 Report on the results of the research work on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 2000 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the experimental studies on making Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis catalysts on a trial basis and their commercialization feasibility, aimed at producing liquefied fuels in Russia. Irkutsk State University is developing the 'Fischer-Tropsh synthesis catalysts for motor fuel production.' It is found that n-alkanes as the diesel fuel component is formed on the Co-{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst improved mainly by the first transition metals. Possibility is demonstrated that the synthesis gas can be directly converted into the hydrocarbons containing a high proportion of isoalkanes by the process which uses a combination of FT synthesis catalyst and zeolite catalyst. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis is developing the 'catalysts for synthesis of fuel hydrocarbons from the nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas.' It is confirmed by the FT synthesis reaction test with the diluted synthesis gas as the starting material that the fused iron and zeolite components for the binary catalyst, selected as the promising catalyst for production of gasoline fuel, are stable for extended periods of 3 months or longer. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1993 technological survey report. R and D project for industrial science and technology (Assignment by NEDO/R and D of biochip - survey on biological research of biochip); 1993 nendo bio soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bio soshi seibutsu kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    As a part of the R and D of a biochip, for the purpose of establishing fundamental technology in connection with a biochip having a new function that is nonexistent in a semiconductor, a committee for biological research and survey of biochip was organized, operating research activities, surveying and compiling research situations and technological trend at the forefront of each field, in regard to information processing in the biological field, brain-memory related information processing in the medical field, and biologically simulated information processing in the engineering field. The results were summarized in the following seven areas. 1. neurology of memory, 2. the frontal lobe and recognition, 3. function of the olfactory lobe and neural connection between the olfactory lobe and the hippocampus, 4. the cerebral fundus nucleus and function, 5. coordinate change from vision to motion in the brain, and 6. control of transient potassium current by the astroglia cell in the mouth and the hippocampus cultured nerve cell. (NEDO)

  8. Results of load-leveling capacitor system demonstration tests. Report on the results of a NEDO-commissioned work for fiscal 1997 (book of characteristic test data); Fuka heijunkayo capacitor system no jissho chosa. 1997 nendo itaku gyomu seika hokokusho (tokusei shiken data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests are conducted on a capacitor system unit cell built for power leveling and data are collected, to be outlined below. Enumerated in the report are, concerning the unit cell capacitor, the target specifications, external shape, capacity/resistance distribution in the manufactured capacitor, and a photograph showing the appearance; concerning the charge/discharge capacity and internal resistance characteristics, the method of testing static capacity and internal resistance characteristics, test result, test data, and the analysis of the test data; concerning the energy density, volume energy density and weight energy density; concerning the charge/discharge efficiency, the method of testing charge/discharge efficiency, test result, and the test data; concerning the self-discharge characteristics, the method for testing self-discharge characteristics, test result, and the test data; and, concerning changes in characteristics in response to different ambient temperatures, the temperature-dependent characteristics of static capacity and internal resistance, test data about the temperature-dependent characteristics of capacity and resistance, and the temperature-dependent characteristics of self-discharge and the test data

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the preceding research related to global environment industry technologies. Survey and research on reduction of nitrogen monoxide; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu asanka chisso no haishutsu teigen ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen monoxide is a strong greenhouse effect gas having warming up index per molecule 300 times greater than that of CO2, and is designated as the object of reduction in the Kyoto Conference. The present preceding research discusses necessity of performing research and development works related to reducing the emission of nitrogen monoxide, and if it is necessary, places the final objective on proposition of what researches should be planned. Fiscal 1997 being the first fiscal year of the preceding research has surveyed emission amount from different emission sources, and enumerated the research and development assignments. Fiscal 1998 falling under the final fiscal year summarizes the emission amount including the future trends, surveys the feasibility of the promising technological measures through experiments, and proposed finally a research and development plan desired of implementation in the future. The proposal contains a research plan placing development of nitrogen monoxide decomposing catalysts and automobile catalysts as the main objectives. Among the domestic nitrogen monoxide generating sources, about 2/3 is the man-made generation sources, hence catalysts, if developed, may be applied to such facilities as combustion furnaces. (NEDO)

  10. Project for the basic survey of enhancing energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Summary of the Conference on the Policies and Measures of Climate Change Mitigation; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Kiko hendo kanwasaku no seisaku to sochi ni kansuru kokusai kaigi hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Conference on the Policies and Measures of Climate Change Mitigation was held in Tokyo on January 28, 1997, with participation in the conference from governments, research institutes, industrial circles, NGO, etc. of ten countries including Japan. In the session `technology transfer,` presentations were made on `the current status of the technology transfer, and the expectation and requests` by Australia and Japan which provide technology and by China which receives technology. As a whole, every country recognized importance of technology transfer of both hardware and software, private sectors` taking leadership, the use of international organizations dealing with fund supply and credit guarantee. In the session `tradable permits/quotas,` Dr. A. Haspel, U.S. Department of Energy reported the structure and effect of U.S. tradable emission permits on sulfur dioxide from thermal power plants, and proposed tradable emission permits against greenhouse effect gas. The proposal needs to be further studied and discussed, and it was regarded as too early to include the proposal in the protocol to be conducted at COP3

  11. FY 2000 report on the R and D of the particulate utilization type creation technology of biological connective substances. Survey of the technical trend overseas; 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaigai gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the reports on the results of Japanese engineers' participating in the related scientific meetings held overseas as a survey report on the trend of the overseas technology. The scientific meetings they participated in were: 1) Impact of Genomics on Medicine and Pharmacogenomics Europe (Amsterdam; May 15-26, 2000), 2) Drug Discovery Technology 2000 (Boston; August 10-20, 2000), 3) Biotechnology 2000 (Berlin; September 3-12, 2000), 4) PacificChem 2000 (Hawaii; December 14-21, 2000), 5) 4th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (Seattle; January 27 - February 4, 2001). Impact of Genomics on Medicine was composed of the following five fields: microarrays, proteomics, functional genomics and target validation, genetic variation technology, and applications of SNP analysis (joint session). Pharmacogenomics Europe was composed of the following four fields: applications of SNP analysis (joint session), SNP assays, targets and compounds, and clinical applications. (NEDO)

  12. Report on commissioned business for fiscal 1997. Development of new power storage system for cells and development of technology for distributed power storage (research for a zinc/air cell system for automobiles); 1997 nendo itaku gyomu hokokusho. Shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu bunsangata denryoku chozo gijutsu kaihatsu (denki jidoshayo aen kuki denchi system chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the above, it is discussed whether such a system is feasible in Japan. A zinc/air cell system requires some special plants for zinc regeneration, etc. It is necessary to build a zinc refining plant and to install dozens of electrode replacing facilities in an area dozens of kilometers in diameter with the plant at the center. For such a system to be functional, there have to be several tens of thousands of automobile users in a limited area. In Japan, so large a number will not be found anywhere even if the appeal is directed to those in the postal service and electric utilities. There will be no economic success in Japan, different from in Germany. As for the economic comparison between a zinc/air cell system and natural gas system, the two will be equivalent to each other as far as the use of the quick filling stations for the natural gas automobiles remains as it is. When the number in consideration is so large as several tens of thousands, however, the natural gas system will turn out to be economically superior to the zinc/air cell system. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1997 report on the verification research on geothermal prospecting technology. Theme 4. Development of a reservoir variation prospecting method (development of a micro-earthquake monitoring system (MEMS)); 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. 4. Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu (jishinha tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate geothermal reservoirs in the initial stage of development and keep stable output in service operation, the application of MEMS is under development. This paper describes the result in fiscal 1997. Installation of 3-component velocity type seismometers in bore holes is desirable for permanent monitoring sites. Their arrangement should be determined by detection ability simulation. Their locations at various elevations are effective to improve the accuracy of hypocenter determination. Digital seismic data at the permanent sites are transmitted to a center through cables, while temporary data are recorded on site. For poor MEPAS, a Windows program of basic functions was developed. 3-D seismic velocity analysis and array monitoring system were also studied. A P-wave velocity of rocks decreased by 25% by formed two-phase region, and increased by 10% by decrease in reservoir temperature from 200 to 100degC. The velocity can be detected by change in travel time of direct waves due to considerable variation in reservoir environment. VSP technique using a vibrator or air gun as artificial hypocenter is effective for MEMS. 67 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement for Radom City district cogeneration station; 1999 nendo Radom shi chiiki netsuden heikyu station sho energy oyobi kankyo kaizen kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Pursuant to the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol, studies are conducted on a district cogeneration station for Radom City, Poland. Using the annual load pattern of heat supply, cogeneration will be built only for the amount that covers utilization factors not lower than a specified level, and the shortage in winter when the load is heavy due to demand for heat will be dealt with by the existing hot water boilers. Daily change in load is to be covered by a new, additional boiler which will bear 20% of the whole output. The system is a natural gas fired turbine cogenerator, and hot water is supplied by a waste heat recovery boiler. Cogeneration will cover 80% of the annual heat supply. As for heat supply capability, it is set at 72MWt with the additional boiler taken into account, and 35MWe is to be generated. Heat efficiency will increase to be higher than 80%, coal consumption will decrease, and 28,117 tons/year in terms of oil will be saved with the increase in natural gas consumption subtracted. CO2 reduction will also be as large as 206,000 tons/year, decreasing air pollutants. Provided that 4.336-billion yen for facilities are financed by Japan's environmental yen loan, Poland's National Fund, and Radom City's own fund, IRR (internal rate of return) on investment will be fairly good at 10% in 30 years of operation. Investment will be recovered in nine years and there is no problem in cash flow. (NEDO)

  17. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for district heat supplying plants in Dailian City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku/Dailian shi chiiki netsu kyokyu plant kokoritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dailian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project for improvement of efficiency of the power generation/desalination plant in Aktau City; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Aktau shi hatsuden zosui plant koritsu kaizen jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, feasibility study was conducted for improvement of efficiency of power generation/desalination facilities at MAEK Energy Center, Aktau City, Manghistau, Kazakhstan. Presently, the main facilities are the conventional natural gas fired power plant, evaporation type seawater desalination facility, hot water production facility, etc. In the project, introduction of the following was planned to be made: cogeneration facility composed of two units of 1,100-degree C class gas turbine and reverse osmosis (RO) type desalination facility for drinking water production with a capacity of 50,000 t/d. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount in this project was 151,900-165,400 toe/y in power generation facility, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was 355,000-387,000 t-CO2/y in power generation facility and 268,000 t-CO2/y in desalination facility. The construction cost and operational cost of the plant were 45.7 billion yen and 2.8 billion yen/y. In the economical estimation, ROI and ROE before tax were 7.4 and 34.8, respectively, which were considered to be appropriate values as social infrastructure related conditions. (NEDO)

  19. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on simplified desulfurizer introduction (Changshou Chemical Industry Main Works); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo) (Changshou kako sohei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results in the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of simplified desulfurizers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. The operation record data are periodically sent from the sites, to analyze the performance. In addition, experts were dispatched to survey the operation conditions of facilities introduced in the model project. Conditions of absorber, mist eliminator, scaling in ducts, and machineries including pumps were inspected by the experts to provide some guidance and advice. The utilization of by-product gypsum was also surveyed by the experts dispatched at the sites. The gypsum samples obtained were analyzed to provide some advice about its utilization. The project in this fiscal year has been successfully progressed, and the situation of demonstration operation is satisfied. 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 9 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the innovative and leading technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of giving useful suggestions/proposals to the course of WE-NET and contributing to the R and D, conducted were survey/collection/evaluation of new technologies. The paper described the fiscal 1997 results. The number of the proposals of new technology accumulated during fiscal 1993 to 1997 is 28. The proposals of new technology made in fiscal 1997 are hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen storage using fullerene, and the methanol power generation turbine system. Four technologies proposed in fiscal 1996 and 1997 were evaluated. The evaluation method requires two steps of the marking using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the adjustment by the committee. The highly evaluated proposals out of those having been made were analysis/evaluation of hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling engine, hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration method for hydrogen liquefaction, hydrogen production technology using photocatalyst, etc. The paper also stated the result of studying concepts of innovative/leading technologies in fiscal 1996. 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the verification research on geothermal prospecting technology. Theme 3. Development of a reservoir variation prospecting method (development of electric/electromagnetic prospecting methods); 1997 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. 3. Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu (denki denjiki tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate geothermal reservoirs in the initial stage of development and keep stable output in service operation, measurement of self-potential and resistivity changes due to production and reinjection of geothermal fluid has been made. This paper describes the result in fiscal 1997. To study the placing method and stability of electrodes for continuous self-potential monitoring network in fiscal 1998, continuous monitoring of potential differences started in an experimental field. The placing condition and electrode will be selected by July. By surveying self-potentials after the beginning of operation of Oogiri geothermal power plant, a distribution range of negative and positive potential anomalies was clarified. To predict the resistivity change, long-term change in salinity concentration in a reservoir was estimated by a hydrothermal flow concept model. The resistivity change caused by reservoir variation due to plant operation was also predicted to study its detection by MT method on the ground. The salinity concentration change due to reinjection, and resistivity change due to a two-phase region in the top of a reservoir were considered. 17 refs., 56 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. FY 1997 report on the study on cryogenic aggregate target PLD process by multi-laser excitation for using gaseous materials; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kitai genryo riyo no tame no taju laser reiki ni yoru gokuteion gyoshutai target PLD process ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the result in fiscal 1995 of the study on PLD (pulse laser deposition) thin film formation process having been made since 1993. In fiscal 1995, the effect of irradiation of excimer laser and YGA(SHG) on ablation of aggregates of N2, CH4, Ar, Kr and Xe, and the effect of time-delayed irradiation of YGA(SHG) and KrF excimer laser on ablation of N2 aggregate were studied aiming at exciting ablation by cryogenic aggregate alone. Experimental results by a newly developed multi-laser excitation experiment equipment are as follows. Ablation was not caused by KrF excimer laser irradiation, while caused by YGA(SHG) irradiation. Ablation was caused by 1mm thick N2 or CH4 aggregate alone. Kr target was the most promising among rare gas solid targets expected as seed of ablation occurrence. Multi-irradiation showed a different ablation behavior as compared with single YGA(SHG) irradiation, and in some cases, multi-irradiation not increased scattering of particles. Time-delayed multi- irradiation (YGA(SHG) excitation after excimer excitation) was effective. 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction (Calaca Batangas Thermal Power Station); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Calaca Batangas karyoku hatsudensho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results of the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of circulating fluidized bed boilers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. Some guidance and advice about operation processes, data processing, operation regulation, maintenance, and boiler maintenance works were provided to the Ministry of Energy and Electric Power Corporation of the Philippines. Semirara, Malangas, and Samar coals in the Philippines were used for the tests. The boiler facilities could be operated by Philippine operators themselves. Based on the guidance and advice about operation processes, combustion tests using various Philippine coals were also planned and conducted by themselves. The maintenance techniques were transferred to Philippine operators through the inspection, repair and advice. The Philippine side understood the technologies well, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler technology was independently educated in the Philippines. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Energy conservation by modernization of a cement plant (Double Horse Cement Co.) in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku cement kojo (Double Horse Cement) kindaika ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  5. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on introduction of industrial wastes composite treatment and power generation system intended for the whole Kagoshima prefectural area'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Kagoshimaken zenken'ikika wo taisho to shita haikibutsu fukugo shori hatsuden system no donyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to reduce environmental load, such as suppression of dioxin generation in Kagoshima Prefecture having a large number of small cities, towns and villages, discussions were given on business feasibility of introducing a high-efficiency industrial wastes power generation system intended for the whole Kagoshima prefectural area. The discussions performed investigations on quantity of wastes generation by districts and kinds and the present treatment conditions, system designs, and optimization of business operation systems. Loads given to the environment in association with the system installation were also investigated (SOx, NOx and CO2 emission, and water quality contamination). The system incinerates and treats RDF, waste plastics and combustible wastes in a gasification melting furnace, and amount of dioxin in the waste gas and ash is reduced to below the regulation values. Quantity of heat obtained from the combustion is turned into high-temperature and high-pressure steam, which is utilized for power generation. As a result of the discussions on business profitability, the industrial wastes power generation system intended for the whole prefectural area was found sufficiently realizable if installed by the public organization and operated by private business organization. However, such mechanism as PFI is thought difficult in the range anticipated at the present time. (NEDO)

  6. Report on survey in fiscal 2000 on the survey on succession of history of industrial technologies. Survey edition of industrial technologies in Japan that have contributed largely to development of industries; 2000 nendo sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa hokokusho. Sangyo no hatten ni okiku kiyoshita kokunai sangyo gijutsu no chosahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and researches have been performed to serve as reference for the future research and development policies by clarifying the innovation process of industrial technologies in Japan and the originality and creativity seen in that process. The surveys have focused on processes born in Japan and evaluated as 'world class' in significance of some kind, and summarized the technology history. The current fiscal year has surveyed newly the following nine processes: industrialization of the sodium glutamate and fructose manufacturing technologies, development of solar cell technologies, industrialization of the manufacturing process of cyclohexnol via cyclohexene, development of the MEK manufacturing process, development and industrialization of hollow fiber reverse osmosis membrane modules for single stage sea water desalination, development and industrialization of the new vitamin B1 intermediate process, development of HSG-Si capacitors for semiconductor memories, and development and industrialization of 4-ethylene fluoride/ethylene copolymer (ETFE). The surveys are considered to have obtained the results abound in suggestions toward original and creative technological developments. (NEDO)

  7. Survey report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Ueki Township. Town of solar energy and energy conservation (vision to build the town by actively living and creating with environment); Uekimachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho. Taiyo energy to sho energy no machi (kankyo to sekkyokuteki ni kyosei kyososuru machizukuri vision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on the new energy vision at Ueki Township in Kumamoto Prefecture. The total energy demand in Ueki Township is 898 x 10{sup 7} Kcal. of which about 44% is accounted for by the transportation department, 34.7% by the industrial department, and 21% by the consumer department. The total available regional new energy amount is estimated to be 52.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, which is consisted of stockbreeding wastes energy at 44.1%, solar energy power generation at 33.2% and solar heat utilization at 22.6%. Introduction of wind energy was judged impracticable. The new energy introduction plan calls for introduction of solar energy power generation for lighting and air conditioning of the diamond shaped nursery school, the Yamamoto nursery school, the Ueki Township office building, the multi-purpose sports center, the Ueki Hospital operated by the national health insurance, the multi-purpose health and welfare center, Yoshimatsu Sports Park, and Tahara Sports Park. A subsidy institution by the local government was discussed as the proliferation plan of solar energy power generation systems to be installed in individuals' houses and enterprises, with which introduction to residential houses of about 30% was targeted by 2010. (NEDO)

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Project for converting Russian Federation's Amursk coal-fired power plant into natural gas-fired power plant; 1998 nendo Roshia renpo AMURSK sekitandaki hatsudensho tennen gas nenryo tenkan keikaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A study is made about the application of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures adopted by the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to a coal-fired power plant of Amursk, Russian Federation, for conversion of its fuel to natural gas. An only 40km-long pipeline will enable the plant to receive natural gas. A 200MW-class combined cycle plant will be added. Only 2 of the 9 existing boilers will be modified for use as backups. Since the price of electricity or heat is quite low, the facilities as they are will not fulfill the cost-performance goal. If the power rate is slightly hiked or the construction cost is reduced by 20%, however, the expected goal will be achieved. Fuel conversion and improved thermal efficiency will result in a 980,000-ton per year reduction in CO2, and a cumulative CO2 reduction of 24,230,000 tons will realize by the end of the plant service life of 25 years. The rate of the cumulative reduction against the invested capital will be 0.115 tons of CO2 per one US dollar. As for the term of works, 1 year and 8 months (January 2000-August 2001) will be necessary for preparation, and 2 years and 7 months (September 2001-March 2004) for the construction, a total of 4 years and 3 months. The reduced discharge of smoke and dust and SOx will greatly improve on the environment. (NEDO)

  9. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  10. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  11. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  12. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  13. Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Issues for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals. PMID:26598849

  14. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  15. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring......, and the state-civil society relationship? The paper is divided into four parts. The first explores the historical and especially the contemporary changes in China's geo-economic bilateral relationship with Southeast Asia through its bilateral trade, the role of FDI, the role of the ethnic Chinese...... Diaspora, and other political and economic factors. The second focuses on China's role in the new emerging geo-political relations on a multilateral scale through new regional security, military and politico-economic institutions. The third part contains a brief exposure of shifting US bilateral and...

  16. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji. PMID:27018566

  17. Asia's economic growth: trends and patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Venu Menon, Sudha

    2007-01-01

    The spectacular growth of economies in Asia over the past few years has amazed the economics profession and has evoked a torrent of books and articles attempting to explain the phenomenon. Since 1960 Asia, the largest and most populous of the continents has become richer faster than any other region of the world. Asian growth, like that of the Soviet Union in its high-growth era, seems to be driven by extraordinary growth in inputs like labor and capital rather than by gains in efficiency. Of...

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Ullah; Dino Bindi; Marco Pilz; Laurentiu Danciu; Graeme Weatherill; Elisa Zuccolo; Anatoly Ischuk; Natalya N. Mikhailova; Kanat Abdrakhmatov; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999), aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probabili...

  19. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  20. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  1. Climate Change and Urban Planning in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Belinda; Kong, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world’s fastest growing regions in terms of population and urban growth. Scientific assessment indicates that the coastlines of Southeast Asia are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Climate change challenge is real and urgent in Southeast Asia. This paper presents a desktop review of the state of climate change research and policy in Southeast Asia. It identifies important challenges, knowledge gaps as well as promising practices, with specific fo...

  2. Trends in Private Higher Education in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2009-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in private higher education in most countries, including in Asia, during the last two-three decades. This growth, mostly motivated by profit, has had an effect on education and development in general and caused loss of equity--both social and economic, an increase in regional disparities, an erosion in quality, a change…

  3. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  4. Lenzing Group:Expanding in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 10th,the Lenzing Group started operation of its new viscose fiber plant at Nanjing (China).The new viscose fiber plant is the second production site for this fiber of the Lenzing Group in Asia and its sixth production site globally.

  5. Future of the Energy in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YukioMasuda

    2003-01-01

    I have been in oil and gas business, orthe evergy business in Japan for almost40 years at Mitsubishi Corporation. I hope myfew words will be a useful contribution totoday's agenda"Energy Security in Asia"and"Energy and Environment".

  6. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  7. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular institutiona

  8. THREAT OF TERRORISM IN SOUTH ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Surander Singh

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is an ambiguous concept and interoperated by the scholars as per the prevailing conditions. South Asia is one of the region which is facing this problem. Though it is an old concept but it took momentum after the 9/11 attack in US.

  9. Shifting Patterns of Student Mobility in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, Asia--traditionally one of the largest exporters of mobile students--has experienced major changes in student mobility within higher education. As the worldwide competition for international students has escalated, many Asian countries have adopted a wide range of mechanisms and strategies in facilitating student mobility.…

  10. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  11. 'Why is there no NATO in Asia?'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Why did the US prefer multilateral alliances in Europe, but bilateral alliances in Asia after World War II? Rationalists and constructivists debate the impact of power, institutions, and identities in explaining this highly contested question. We introduce a new argument embedded in prospect theo...

  12. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  13. Freeing up Transport In Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A"golden triangle"of logistics is taking shape in Northeast Asia,particularly in the Tumenjiang Area A 50-km expressway will soon link two ports in North Korea.The inves- tor,Hunchun Donglin Economy and Trade Co.Ltd.,comes from the

  14. The Geo-economic Situation in the Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Mengzi

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "the Asia-Pacific" is more than a simple descriptive geographical term, denoting anything from the specific area of EastAsia plus Southeast Asia to just the concept of a vast area in the East.

  15. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  16. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  17. Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M.

    2000-09-01

    My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.

  18. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-islamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly

  19. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  20. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  1. Energy issues for sustainable development in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director of TERI looks at some scenarios of economic growth projected for developing countries in the Asian region after first reviewing the record of their economic growth rates. He highlights the challenges facing the region, major ones being the increase in urban population and the restructuring of transport systems. The acute problems of deforestation and degradation of the natural resources base in vast areas of Asia are addressed. The large scope for international cooperation is stressed. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Motivations for Submarine Acquisitions in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Rodney E.

    1995-01-01

    Submarine acquisitions are on the rise throughout Asia. This thesis examines the national motivations behind this trend in three cases: India, China and Japan. Four hypotheses - focusing on national security, factional interests, technological momentum and institutional theory - are utilized in order to gain insight into the decision making process surrounding submarine acquisitions. The development of a conventional submarine fleet is strongly influenced by national security issues. The rema...

  3. Improving Statistics on International Migration in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    International migration has reached unprecedented scale, diversity and political, economic, social and demographic significance in Asia over the last decade. Despite this data collection of migrant stocks and flows remains very limited in most Asian countries. Accordingly, policy making on migration in the region lacks an evidence base and is influenced by interest groups, anecdotal evidence and prejudice. This paper argues that the heightened security consciousness since 911 together with th...

  4. Monetary policy in Asia: approaches and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2006-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were written for a conference held at the Hong Kong Monetary Authority in November 2005. It was organised jointly by the BIS Representative Office for Asia and the Pacific in Hong Kong SAR and the Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research. The objective of the conference was to take stock of the current practice of monetary policy in a broad cross section of Asian economies. Papers on China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippin...

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  6. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND CENTRAL ASIA: PREMATURE ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabol, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...

  7. Malaysia : the lucky man of Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia has been labelled the Lucky Man of Asia due to its wealth of natural resources, such as tin, rubber, palm oil, pepper, tropical timber, petroleum and a very fertile soil. There is no doubt that this richness has helped Malaysia to achieve impressive growth rates over the last decades, but history has taught us that large endowments of natural resources by far are sufficient to generate development. Since the early 1970s Malaysia has led a relatively successful racial integration poli...

  8. E-Commerce in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Badar AlamIqbal

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has transformed world economy and as a result, competition has become tougher and throat cutting. The million dollars question is how to face such persisting trends and situation. Hence, three fundamentals are required namely-saving time, reduce cost and improve quality. Therefore, the application of technology in business especially in services has emerged as the need of the day. South Asian Region is one of the growing regions of the world in general and Asia in particular. He...

  9. Governance and Development Outcomes in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between governance and economic development is one of the most important areas of research in international development. Much of the previous literature has focused on whether better governance leads to higher levels of income. In this paper, we examine the relationship between governance and broader development outcomes, with a specific focus on developing Asia. In our empirical analysis, we use disaggregated measures of governance to capture different dimensions of governan...

  10. The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Torgerson, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary publ...

  11. Population and Inequality in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Oshima; Andrew Mason

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the inequality experience of East Asia beginning around 1960 and explores whether that experience is consistent with alternative theories about the determinants of income inequality. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications of rapid economic growth and rapid demographic change that characterized the region. Simple models do not capture the enormous complexity that is characteristic of the region. The differences and the trends in inequality reflect a variety of h...

  12. WHITHER "HEARTLAND"? CENTRAL ASIA, GEOGRAPHY AND GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hekimoglu, Levent

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts a double task. First, it looks at the main premises of Halford J. Mackinder's analysis in his renowned 1904 address to the Royal Geographical Society, The Geographical Pivot of History, and discusses some of the problems. It observes that these problems have actually rendered the whole Heartland thesis a fallacy from its very inception, and argues that this resilient fallacy continues to distort perceptions and policies in/on Central Asia. Second, it draws attention to t...

  13. Bronze Civilization Shines Asia Art Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 11th Asia Arts Festival (AAF) was held from August 18 through 26, 2009 in Ordos, a city in the northern China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region. This event was jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China and the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and organized by the Ordos Municipal People's Government, Culture Department of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and China Arts and Entertainment Group.

  14. Can Asia Overcome the IMF Stigma?

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries still have the IMF stigma, which originates from the experiences of the Asian crisis of 1997-98. The feeling of being unfairly treated grew even stronger afterward. The Asian countries built large foreign reserves, carried out structural reforms, and became even stronger than pre- crisis period. Asians are confident in not repeating the same mistake of falling into a crisis with too much external borrowing. Whether IMF can entice Asia to new precautionary liquidities facilitie...

  15. Asia's Peaceful Rise: A Multiple Interactive Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the author sees it, "Asia's peaceful rise" seems to be a more appropriate expression to highlight the 21st century than the current buzzwords of "Asian century" or "the century of Asian resurgence" justifiably associated with the surging growth of regional economies and tighter ties among them since the end of the Cold War. It is of crucial significance to identify this as a process replete with complexities-an identification necessary for gauging its impact on the international community.

  16. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  17. Perbandingan Pendidikan Islam di Asia Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Pendi susanto

    2015-01-01

    Islamic education in Southeast Asia has some diverse substances. In Indonesia, Islamic education experience rapid progress. Indonesia employ Islamic education as cumpolsary subject in schools and public universities. In Malaysia, Islamic education has many improvements since 1956 e.g. Islamic education is taught in national school and also Malaysia also formed religious education department that handle every religious subject in schools. Thailand, especially in couple regions such as Pattani,...

  18. Collaborative work between the West and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-01-01

    The “Collaborative Work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  19. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    OpenAIRE

    G. Grosse; Jones, B M

    2010-01-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 × 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteri...

  20. Gender and Innovation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Byravan

    2009-01-01

    Women in South Asia have a great balancing act to perform, what with the dual burden of taking care of their homes and families and working outside the home or running a business. For them, mobility, family, transportation, financing, limited opportunities for social interactive learning and their tendency to be more risk-averse are some of the significant stumbling-blocks to innovation. In business women face gender bias in recruitment, sexual harassment in the workplace, and income inequali...

  1. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free. PMID:25858305

  2. Overview of the Northeast Asia energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid economic growth in Northeast Asia has vastly increased regional needs for energy services. In several countries of the region, this ongoing growth has been accompanied by significant environmental problems. The countries of the region already constitute the largest import market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). The region has accounted for a progressively larger share of world primary energy use; its share has risen from under 19% in 1999 to over 25% in 2007. Though the region as a whole possesses resources that could contribute substantially toward its future energy needs, many major energy resources are far from population centers. As such, major infrastructure investments will be required to bring these resources to market. This article provides a description of the current situation of energy demand and supply in Northeast Asia, summarizes recent trends in energy supply and demand, and of the 'drivers' that underlie energy use, in the region. Also presented are projections of energy use and of key impacts of energy use, such as greenhouse gas emissions, in the region. Other impacts of continued growth in energy supply and demand in Northeast Asia are reviewed qualitatively.

  3. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Nuclearisation in South Asia: reactions and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book addresses the core issues, problems and challenges that confront the Nuclear South Asia. It is a patent fact that both India and Pakistan are now nuclear weapon states. Critical to this fact is the question of threat perceptions, the peculiar national psyche in India and Pakistan, domestic settings in both countries and unresolved bilateral disputes including Kashmir. It is at this crucial juncture, a galaxy of scholars and specialists in this book dispassionately examine alternative security paradigms essential for the de-escalation of nuclear threat not only to the peace, security and stability of the South Asia region but also to other volatile regions including the international peace, in general. Departing from the traditional understanding of and approaches to the nuclear question in South Asia, the book focuses on threat perceptions, sociopsychological problems, and political and cultural factors which go a long way in determining the nuclear behaviour of India and Pakistan. The contributors have also examined in depth the reactions and responses of great powers-US, Russia, China and Japan-to the recent nuclear tests of India and Pakistan. Some of them have also taken into account the fallout of these tests in economic, strategic, security, military, political and cultural terms. This book should prove immensely useful as a reliable guide to top policy-makers, nuclear decision-makers, strategic analysts as well as for academics and scholars engaged in nuclear, defence and strategic studies

  5. Japanese Encephalitis: Estimating Future Trends in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Metelka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited surveillance programs and lack of diagnostic laboratory testing capacity in many low and middle income Asian countries have made it difficult to validate epidemiological patterns and anticipate future changes in disease risk. In this study, we consider the case of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and examine how populations of human hosts and animal reservoirs are expected to change over the next three decades. Growth was modelled at the sub-national level for rural and urban areas to estimate where high-density, susceptible populations will potentially overlap with populations of the virus' amplifying host. High-risk areas based on these projections were compared to the current distribution of Japanese Encephalitis, and known immunization activities in order to identify areas of highest priority for concern. Results indicated that mapping JE risk factors at the sub-national level is an effective way to contextualize and supplement JE surveillance data. New patterns of risk factor change occurring in Southeast Asia were identified, including around major urban areas experiencing both urbanization and growth in pig populations. A hotspot analysis of pig-to-population ratio found a significant spatial cluster extending northward through Southeast Asia and interior China. Mapping forecasted changes in risk factors for JE highlights regions vulnerable to emerging zoonoses and may be an important tool for developing effecting transnational health policies.

  6. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  7. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future. PMID:12347011

  8. The Problems of Terrorism in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Faisol Keling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The September 11th attack had opened the eyes of countries inthe international system regarding the threats from terrorists which is seen as capable of threatening the security of country. Many countries started talking about the development of international terrorists which are able to threaten a particular country at anytime. The success of international terrorists attacked against the most power country like United Stated has influenced the emergence of various terrorist activities all over the world including in the Southeast Asia. This region has got theworld’s attention when terrorism movements were developing like the‘Jemaah Islamiah Front’ (Indonesia, Abu Sayyaf Group and MoroIslamic Liberation Front (Philippines, Pattani Liberation Front(Thailand and Malaysian Militant Group (Malaysia which potentiallythreatened the security of the Southeast Asia region. These terroristgroups have changed from making limited or small attacks in the country to making serious threats and becoming bigger movements. Manypredictions have been made as to clarify how these terrorist attacks have changed into active threats. This situation has been connected to the role played by international terrorist who secretly entered the countries in the Southeast Asia to help the local terrorist. Therefore, this paper will explain the influence of international terrorist in the terrorism activities in this region. Besides that, it will also explain the background of these terrorist movements in the region and how these terrorist are able to enter a particular country and help the local terrorist movement to be moreactive in the region.

  9. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. PMID:24215381

  10. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. METHODS: The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. RESULTS: A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel. PMID:27336445

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and motor neuron syndromes in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrizaila, N; Sobue, G; Kuwabara, S; Kim, S H; Birks, Carol; Fan, D S; Bae, J S; Hu, C J; Gourie-Devi, M; Noto, Y; Shibuya, K; Goh, K J; Kaji, R; Tsai, C P; Cui, L; Talman, P; Henderson, R D; Vucic, S; Kiernan, M C

    2016-08-01

    While the past 2 decades have witnessed an increasing understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arising from East Asia, particularly Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China, knowledge of ALS throughout the whole of Asia remains limited. Asia represents >50% of the world population, making it host to the largest patient cohort of ALS. Furthermore, Asia represents a diverse population in terms of ethnic, social and cultural backgrounds. In this review, an overview is presented that covers what is currently known of ALS in Asia from basic epidemiology and genetic influences, through to disease characteristics including atypical phenotypes which manifest a predilection for Asians. With the recent establishment of the Pan-Asian Consortium for Treatment and Research in ALS to facilitate collaborations between clinicians and researchers across the region, it is anticipated that Asia and the Pacific will contribute to unravelling the uncertainties in ALS. PMID:27093948

  12. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Ryoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H gene, the fusion (F protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites.

  13. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee Wah

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a populous and diverse region and potentially an important source of information on food allergy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on food allergy from this region, comparing it with western populations. A PubMed search using strategies "Food allergy AND Asia", "Food anaphylaxis AND Asia", and "Food allergy AND each Asian country" was made. Overall, 53 articles, published between 2005 and 2012, mainly written in English were reviewed. The overall prevalence of food...

  14. Two Essays on Regional Economic Integration in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Josef T.

    2004-01-01

    Regional economic integration in East Asia has gained momentum in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis and the escalation of international terrorism. In the first essay, the integration process in Europe and East Asia is compared briefly. This is followed by a discussion on the expansion process by the European Union and how East Asia can learn from this. In particular, the concern is how to integrate the CMLV countries in a meaningful way. Proposals deal with the impact of freer moveme...

  15. Services Marketing in Asia-A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Merrilees; Kim Shyan Fam

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the main developments in services marketing in Asia over the last decade. Altogether our review of leading marketing journals resulted in 150 pertinent
    literature on services marketing in Asia. The period covered was between 1990 and 1999. A total of six themes are unveiled. Also included in this stocktake are the indicative directions that services marketing in Asia might take and some suggestions for future directions.

  16. Japan's environmental impact in Southeast Asia: Lessons for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Hikari

    2011-01-01

    Japan imported substantial amounts of tropical timber in the post-World War II period and the environmental impact of this on the rainforests in Southeast Asia has generated considerable controversy. This paper seeks to explore the environmental impact of Japan’s involvement in Southeast Asia with particular regards to forestry and examine whether Japan can play a positive role in promoting sustainable development in Southeast Asia, especially in countries where major deforestation has taken ...

  17. Japan in Maritime Asia: Security, Commerce, and Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Thai

    2015-01-01

    Catherine L. Phipps, Empires on the Waterfront: Japan’s Ports and Power, 1858–1899. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 308 pp. $39.95 (cloth). Noell Wilson, Defensive Positions: The Politics of Maritime Security in Tokugawa Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 258 pp. $39.95 (cloth). Historiography on Japan’s place within the world of maritime Asia has undergone dramatic reinterpretation in recent decades. Scholars of the early modern era have ...

  18. Security cooperation in East Asia: structures, trends and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    "The East Asia region is facing a plethora of traditional and nontraditional security problems: conventional and nuclear armament, territorial disputes, resource conflicts, major power rivalries, natural catastrophes, piracy and more. China plays a special role: The country's economic rise, its military modernization and its foreign policy stance have led various countries in the Asia-Pacific region to perceive it as a threat. East Asia is home to a complex web of multilateral organizations, ...

  19. DISTANCE AND BLENDED LEARNING IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin OZARSLAN,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL is one of the most important trends in education in Asia as well as all around the world. This book reviews ODL/ICT developments in schools, colleges, universities, open schooling, workplace training, professional development and non-formal adult and community education. It examines ODL and ICT experiences, successes and failures of Asian education and training.This is one of the comprehensive books on distance education applications in Asia. It is written by Colin Latchem and Insung Jung. Colin Latchem is an Australian-based consultant in open and distance learning. Insung Jung is Professor of Education, Media & Society at the International Christian University in Tokyo. The book's broader audience is anyone who is interested in ODL. If you are looking for on developments in ODL in Asia, this book is primarily for you. The book is consisted of 266 pages (+xiv covering 12 chapters with a conclusion part in each chapter.These conclusion parts provide a critical look at that chapter‘s issue Topics covered in the book are as follows: Technology, E-readiness And E-learning Readiness, Open Schooling, SchoolNets and Information and Communications Technology (ICT Integration in Classrooms, Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, Workplace Training, Professional Development and Non-Formal Adult and Community Education, New Providers and New Markets, ICT Integration In and Beyond the School, Instructional Design, Learner Support and Assessment in E-Learning, Leadership for Educational Change and Innovation, Quality Assurance and Accreditation, Staff Training and Development, Research, Publication and Translating Research into Practice.

  20. Acid precipitation in Europe and Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys acid precipitation problems in the region, discusses the sources, the pollutant composition and distribution, the work with the RAINS models as well as the organisation of and the results of joint incentives in the region. The acidification problems in China and some of the Norwegian participation efforts are reviewed. The author points out that much of the acidic precipitation and the environmental problems in Eurasia are due to the use of coal rich in sulphur, that the energy and environmental policies differs throughout the region because of differences in ecology and development levels and that Asia is far more heterogeneous than Europe as to the conditions for co-ordinated efforts against acid precipitation. The differences in economy, geopolitical situation, environmental policies etc. are larger than in Europe and a considerable international effort will be required in order to succeed. Should the regional model RAINS-Asia be used as basis for further co-ordinated efforts on acid precipitation thorough evaluations on costs and advantages are needed. The conditions and need for modelling as basis for international agreements between Asiatic countries are not the same as in Europe. Finally international development organisations have and will continue to play an important part in the work for reducing acid precipitation in Asia. The Asiatic countries may also greatly benefit in the battle against acid precipitation from the experiences of the industrialised countries. However, Asiatic countries will have to meet the major costs of emission reduction themselves. The main question is what emphasis will be put on the long term environmental profits and on the need for rapid economic growth of materially impoverished people. Other development directions than those used by the industrialised countries, seems to be needed

  1. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.

  2. Migration in south Asia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1983-01-01

    Past studies on migration patterns and flows in south Asia have been based on limited data. The present overview is based on a detailed study of census and survey data reaching back to the early 1950's. The study incorporates the thinking of several research scholars who have dealt with specialized areas of migration in individual countries, and in the region as a whole. The interrelationships between migration and development are considered in a final chapter, with special mention of future trends, associated with traditional practices and historical circumstances. Migration will be of great importance in the coming decades. The activities of "sons of soil" anti-migrant movements and anti-migrant legislation have had little, if any, effect on migration flows. As the population increases in villages and towns and jobs become scarce, migration is likely to become even more of a political issue. Less politically volatile is circulation between village and town or between villages, whereby the migrants can have access to resources in 2 or more places. This option may play a critical role in the continued survival of much of the population in the future. This has been perhaps the most important factor in explaining the relatively slow rate of urbanization in south Asia as it allowed the rural people to take advantage of the towns without causing a massive and permanent transfer of population. The numbers who practice this "bilocality" are therefore likely to increase and migrants will continue to make up more significant proportions of the urban populations than their contribution to urban growth would suggest owing to the importance of "turnover migration." However, this circulation is not a new phenomenon: India and the other countries of south Asia have been characterized by tremendous mobility of population through circulation for considerable time but both its volume, and the distances over which it occurs are likely to increase as these countries develop. PMID

  3. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  4. Vitamin D status and sun exposure in southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is more common in South Asia and Southeast Asia than is appreciated. Most studies defined 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [25(OH)D] levels of less than 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) as vitamin D deficiency. With this cut-off level, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was about 70% or higher in South Asia and varied from 6–70% in Southeast Asia. The determinants for the variation of vitamin D status are skin pigmentation, aging, the sun protection behaviors such as application of a s...

  5. Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Evans

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region includes six of the world’s nine nuclear-armed states, and in all of them relevant policymakers, still caught in a Cold War mindset, continue to believe in nuclear deterrence as a force for peace and stability, perceiving nuclear disarmament to be not only unachievable, but undesirable. But — whether the context is major powers seeking to neutralise threats from each other (United States, Russia, China and India), non-nuclear allies seeking nuclear protection from ...

  6. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  7. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  8. Population Aging and Economic Growth in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; David Canning; Jocelyn Finlay

    2008-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate between 1960 and 2005, coupled with an increase in life expectancy and the dynamic evolution of past variation in birth and death rates, is producing a significant shift in age structure in Asia. The age distribution has shifted from one with a high youth-age population share to one with a high old-age population share. We illustrate the role of these separate forces in shaping the age distribution. We also argue that the economic consequences of popula...

  9. Credit Crunch in East Asia: A Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Enya; Akira Kohsaka; Mervin Pobre

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the issue on credit crunch from a comparative perspective. Utilizing longer time series data, we investigate the existence of credit crunch in selected crisis-hit economies in East Asia over the period 1980-2002. We detected some episodes of credit crunch both before and after the Asian economic crisis. These episodes after the Crisis are somewhat different from those detected by previous studies on the issue. We, then, review the credit-crunch episodes in the broad ...

  10. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, C.; Soares, P; Mormina, M; Macaulay, V.; Clarke, D; Blumbach, PB; Vizuete-Forster, M; Forster, P; Bulbeck, D; Oppenheimer, S; M. Richards

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed in...

  11. 1st International AsiaHaptics conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hideyuki; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed not only at haptics and human interface researchers, but also at developers and designers from manufacturing corporations and the entertainment industry who are working to change our lives. This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International AsiaHaptics conference, held in Tsukuba, Japan, in 2014. The book describes the state of the art of the diverse haptics- (touch-) related research, including scientific research into haptics perception and illusion, development of haptics devices, and applications for a wide variety of fields such as education, medicine, telecommunication, navigation, and entertainment.

  12. Asia-Pacific Security: Policy Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, our newspapers have been filled with the ‘war on terror’; our governments have mobilised their resources for ‘homeland security’; and people everywhere are braced for more terrorist attacks. Yet while the new threat is genuine, we must not lose sight of the continuing security concerns in the Asia-Pacific. Tensions persist on the Korean peninsula, in the Taiwan Straits and the South China Sea, and in Kashmir. The region is well supplied with weapons of mass destr...

  13. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, P.K.; Canadell, J.G.; Houghton, R.A.; Piao, S.L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K.R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Lasco, R.

    troposphere over Asia (Patra et al., 2011a). CONTRAIL observations are also used for inversion, with CARIBIC data for validation (Niwa et al., 2012). Measurements of atmospheric CO2 in the South Asian region are limited to Cabo de Rama, India, for the period... of 1993–2002 (Bhattacharya et al., 2009). This site constrains the CO2 fluxes from India during winter to spring seasons only. Thus the use of aircraft measurements is indispensable for top-down flux estimates over the full seasonal cycle. 2.7 Methane...

  14. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  15. Taking CERN physics to South Asia

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    CERN physicists travelled to South Asia last month to bring a plethora of particle physics events to schools, universities and public venues. The initiative was the first of its kind in the region, and brought CERN particle physics to a new audience in Nepal and India.   Kathmandu University students take part in an ATLAS virtual visit. On 19 December 2014, students from Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University, Nepal and 16 schools in Punjab, India took part in a joint virtual visit to ATLAS. The visit, which was the first of its kind in South Asia, followed a two-day Masterclass in particle physics that took place simultaneously in the two countries. The Masterclass was organised as a part of Physics Without Frontiers, an International Centre for Theoretical Physics project in partnership with CERN. Besides the Masterclass, physics workshops led by ATLAS physicists Kate Shaw, Joerg Stelzer and Suyog Shrestha were held for high school students and science teachers in three different d...

  16. South Asia energy security: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. - Highlights: • No South Asian country is going to be able to meet its energy needs domestically. • Fostering cross border energy trade and promotion of investments opportunities are key solutions. • India’s neighbors have huge potential in hydroelectricity. • Co-operation among nations to tap the energy resource can be a win–win situation for all. • However it faces certain challenges

  17. 2011 minerals yearbook: Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Sam, Yolanda; Kuo, Chin S.; Shi, Lin; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Wacaster, Susan; Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The 31 countries and territories of the Asia and the Pacific region reported on in the Minerals Yearbook have a total area of about 30 million square kilometers, which accounts for about 20.1% of the world total. data and information for the majority of this report do not include Kiribati, Maldives, the Marshall islands, the federated states of Micronesia, Palau, tongo, or Vanuatu. the total population was about 3.9 billion, which accounted for 55.6% of the world total in 2011. china and india, which were the world’s two most populous countries, accounted for 66.7% of the region’s total population. the real gross domestic product (GdP) growth rate of 30 of the region’s countries increased in 2011 compared with that of 2010 whereas that of only one country, Japan, was reported to have decreased (by 0.8%). the GdP of 17 of the 31 countries and territories of the Asia and Pacific region increased by at least 5% in 2011, but for many countries the growth rate was lower than in 2010. the GdP of Mongolia, which was the country with the largest GdP growth in 2011, increased by 17.5% in 2011 compared with an increase of 6.4% in 2010 and a decrease of 1.3% in 2009 (tables 1, 2).

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention. PMID:27582153

  19. Gas markets and pricing in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues of natural gas market development and pricing are reviewed within the context of specific Asian countries where gas plays an important role. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia's Penninsular Gas Utilization project signals a new era in pipeline gas trade with an agreement to supply Singapore. There is now also an opportunity to extend Malaysian pipeline supplies to Thailand, which is actively seeking natural gas from neighboring countries. The prospects for LNG are dominated by the high growth markets of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. LNG trade has tended to bind the region together through close economic ties. Due to the increasing damand within the supplier countries themselves and their close neighbors, it is likely that LNG consumers will increasingly need to look beyond their traditional Southeast Asian suppliers in the future, perhaps to higher cost LNG schemes outside the region. In Southeast Asia, reduction of the high volumes of associated gas currently flared from the Bombay High Field in India will not only make big contribution to meeting the country's future gas demand, but will also prove environmentally beneficial. Pakistan, in order to control its developing gas markets, has raised gas prices to consumers substantially, with beneficial effects on supply and demand. In Bangladesh, economic pricing has been important in allocating gas resources efficiently. At both the regional and global level, the link between gas use and the environment is becoming stronger, raising the question of relating gas and energy prices to environmental costs and benefits

  20. Crimean Crisis and Military Balance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the Crimean Crisis goes on, many analysis have been focusing on the dynamics among parties of Ukraine, the EU, the US and Russia. Very few noticed another important strategic impact the Crisis may cause: the Chinese military rebalancing in East Asia. China has been increasingly confident in assuming both political and military power in the East Asian region. The confidence resulted in the South China Sea disputes with ASEAN countries, “Anti-Secession Law” against Taiwan, and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute with Japan. Behind such confidence of China, the EU has consistently been exporting defence products to China since the end of the Cold War; Ukraine, although sometimes reluctantly, has also been backing China along the process of building up a stronger navy as well as other defense industry construction; Russia has traditionally been supplying China with a wide range of military hardware. It can be noticed that the Crimean Crisis involved three out of four countries and region that have been behind China’s rise. How will the Crimean Crisis influence China’s rebalance in East Asia then? The answers stay opaque. This paper will attempt to answer the questions.

  1. Gauging gas sector opportunities in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future prospects for use of liquefied natural gas in Asia were examined, combined with a description of the opportunities and risks of investing in the Asian energy sector. It was concluded that the marked increase in energy demand makes market development for natural gas in Asia similar to what it was in North America several decades ago. Rapid economic development has increased the value of electricity, and natural gas is seen as the ideal fuel to generate it, as well as helping to combat local air pollution. Some of the barriers to expanded natural gas use include structural problems resulting from government action (or inaction), lack of an efficient distribution system and stable pricing for natural gas. Nevertheless, interest is growing, and however slowly, progress is inevitable At the same time, it should be emphasized that while the prospects are good for the domestic gas sector, there is yet no country where a foreign firm has been permitted to bring natural gas into the country, either by pipeline, or as liquid natural gas. 7 figs

  2. Review - Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ramirez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Culas, Christian and François Robinne (eds. 2009. Inter-ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other Through Ethnonyms, Territories and Ritual. London: New York: Routledge. 215. Bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-415-55936-2 (hardcover, 130USD, 978-0-203-86138-7 (ebook, 99.61USD. One of this volume's many merits is that it sets out to seriously address ethnic categorization in Upland Southeast Asia. Many valuable publications have dealt specifically with ethnicity in this region, where the complex intricacies of collective identities are easily noticed by social scientists. A strongpoint of this volume is its highlighting certain dimensions that have traditionally received little attention. This is thanks to a relatively unusual approach aimed at understanding horizontal inter-ethnic relationships. While many scholars have focused on relations between the state and 'minorities', or on opposition between hills and valleys – and sometimes both, as in the case of Scott (2009 – this compilation examines the manifold identity relations that "structure the ethnic groups' social spaces on a local or micro-regional level" (1.

  3. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  4. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  5. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  6. Key drivers of corporate social responsibility in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielecki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few years ago the concept of corporate social responsibility was not a household term in most organizations in Asia. Times are changing and now corporate social responsibility has appeared in most countries of the region. The aim of this article is to identify the main CSR drivers in Asia.

  7. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively...

  8. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region

  9. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Cai

    Full Text Available Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK and Hmong-Mien (HM speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape, with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  10. Averting War in Northeast Asia: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Gurtov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the United States and South Korea consider whether or not to accept North Korea's call for an "unconditional" return to the Six Party Talks (6PT or China's call for multilateral negotiations, Northeast Asia is sliding in the direction of deepening conflict that could lead to war. China-Japan relations, which had been warming since the departure of Koizumi Junichiro, and especially since the victory of the Democratic Party of Japan in 2008, are again in a deep freeze over disputed territory. One consequence is a reorientation of Japan's defense strategy southward, in the direction of the Senkakus (Diaoyutai. Washington is encouraging that shift, as well as closer military cooperation between Japan and South Korea. North-South Korea relations are very tense as the result of the Cheonan incident, the North's artillery barrage against a small South Korean island, and revelations of a modern North Korean uranium enrichment plant-all coming in the wake of the Lee Myung Bak administration's almost complete reversal of his predecessors' engagement policies. And China-US relations are increasingly contentious, going beyond the longstanding differences over currency valuation and human rights to include a host of security matters. Even though China-Taiwan relations have improved, U.S. naval activity in the Pacific has picked up, with a number of exercises conducted alone and with allies leading some Chinese analysts to conclude that containment is again prominent on the U.S. policy agenda. And both China and the United States are beefing up their weapons capabilities relevant to the Taiwan Strait.A bipolar lineup, reminiscent of the Cold War, is shaping up, with China, Russia, and North Korea on one side, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India on the other-with each side competing for the affections of the ten Southeast Asian countries grouped under ASEAN. Despite substantial economic ties between all these countries-even between

  11. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies

  12. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War......-instability paradox explains Cold War Europe and nuclear South Asia and will, conditional on Iranian and North Korean revisionism, predict the impact of nuclear weapons development on these states’ conflict propensities....

  13. Sexual medicine disparities between Asia and North America: commentary on male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin F Katz; Doron S Stember; Harris M Nagler

    2011-01-01

    @@ In a recently published article in Asian Journal of Andrology, Ho et al.1 examine prevalence,attitudes, and treatment patterns related to sexual dysfunction in Asia and contrast them with those of Western society.They highlight the relative paucity of data with respect to erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation, and hypogonadism in the Asian population.Although the authors make a commendable attempt to characterize sexual dysfunction in Asia, there are multiple factors that complicate interpretation of published prevalence rates.Confounding factors affecting interpretation of these studies include the methodology of identification of the studied cohorts, ages of study participants, survey response rates, definitions of ED, and strategies and lengths of time for data collection.

  14. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  15. The New Political Economy of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    each other and establish an identity.’ – Alice Amsden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US This well-researched book examines the dramatic transformation of Southeast Asian countries from agricultural and mining economies to industrial nations. In doing so, it explores the effects of development......This is a very interesting book. It is topical and is one of the few volumes that attempts to treat Southeast Asia as an integrated whole. The editors are methodologically ambitious, and they skillfully integrate a very large amount of diverse material in their introduction. I imagine that the book...... environmental issues. The distinguished authors present a regional and cross-border focus on transnational actors and institutions, and the policy issues and problems which have a wider impact on spatial configurations in the region. This insightful study will appeal to researchers, academics and policymakers...

  16. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the decades of 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land-to-atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C

  17. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  18. Asia's changing role in global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A

    2008-10-01

    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested. PMID:18991898

  19. Asia in the New Distribution of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Mora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Distribution of apparent magnetization for Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐元芳; 安振昌; 黄宝春; V.P.Golovkov; N.M.Rotanova; A.L.Kharitonov

    2000-01-01

    Magsat total field anomalies over Asia were used to construct an equivalent magnetization model, which represents the apparent magnetization distribution within an equivalent layer 40 km thick and correlates well with large-scale tectonics, for example, the Kazakhstan, Tarim, Yangtze, India, Sino-Korea and Indochina blocks. The basin, plain, sea basin, and islands are delineated by magnetization lows whereas the plateau and marine ridge correspond to magnetization highs. The boundary between Tibetan Plateau and India marked by a strong gradient along its length coincides with the Yarlung Zangbo River fault roughly. The Tanlu fault belt is the boundary between positive and negative anomalies. This boundary stretches in southwest direction and joins Sanjiang fault belt. The boundary between the Southeast China block and the Yangtze block is also clearly delineated by the magnetization anomalies. Generally, the magnetization boundaries are consistent with the collisional suture of blocks.

  1. A look at Asia's changing youth population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, P; Kabamalan, M; Westley, S B

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a recent East-West Center study on demographic and social changes among young people aged 15-24 years in 17 countries in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Nearly every country in Asia has experienced fertility decline. Decline began in Japan and Singapore during the 1950s, followed by declines in Hong Kong, South Korea, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Brunei, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, and China during the 1960s. Declines occurred during the 1970s in Indonesia, India, and Myanmar. A "youth bulge" occurred about 20 years later due to declines in infant and child mortality. This bulge varies by country with the timing and magnitude of population growth and subsequent fertility decline. The proportion of youth population rises from 16% to 18% about 20 years after the beginning of fertility decline and declines to a much lower stable level after several decades. The bulge is large in countries with rapid fertility decline, such as China. Governments can minimize the effects of bulge on population growth by raising the legal age at marriage, lengthening the interval between first marriage and first birth, and increasing birth intervals. School enrollments among adolescents are rising. In South Korea, the population aged 15-24 years increased from 3.8 to 8.8 million during 1950-90, a rise of 132% compared to a rise of 653% among school enrollments. It is expected that the number of out-of-school youths will decline from 5.1 to 3.6 million during 1990-2025. Youth employment varies by gender. Policies/programs in family planning and reproductive health will need to address the changing needs of youth population. PMID:12349008

  2. DISTRIBUTIONS OF SULFUR POLLUTANTS IN EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Eulerian sulfur deposition model is used to study the distributions of sulfur pollutants in East Asia, in which important physical and chemical processes such as transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, vertical transportation in cumulus cloud, gas phase chemistry, aqueous phase chemistry and heterogeneous aerosol chemistry are included.Two cases, the periods of 1987.07.02 GMT00-1987-07-03 GMT00(case 1) and 1989-04-20 GMT00-1989-04-21GMT00(case 2), are studied and the distributions of SO2 and SO24- in East Asia are shown. It is revealed that the patterns of distributions of SO2 and SO24- are different under different meteorological conditons. In the upper layer, the concentrations of SO2 and SO24- are 0.4 - 1.0 μg/m3 and 0.2 - 0.5 μg/m3, 4.0 - 10.0 μg/m3 and 2.0 - 6.0 μg/m3 in themiddle layer. In the surface layer, the levels of SO2 range from 4.0 to 30.0 μg/m3 and from 2.0 to 8.0 μg/m3 for SO24-Distributions of SOx are controlled by emissions in the surface layer, while in the upper layer it is mainly affected by precipitation. The distributions of SOx show the interaction of emissions, winds and precipitation in the middle layer.

  3. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Fiscal 1995 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the policy of coal demand stabilization using low grade coal; 1995 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban sokushin chosa. Teihin`itan riyo ni yoru sekitan jukyu anteika hosaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigated the trend of and the needs for low grade coal utilization and the seeds of low grade coal utilization technology and studied usability of low grade coal in the future. Importance of low grade coal utilization was described in consideration of features of the Asia/Pacific area in the world coal market, and the trend of production/utilization of low grade coal was examined mostly in countries holding main low grade coals in the Asia/Pacific area. The trend of the technical development contributing to the low grade coal utilization was studied to make it contribute to the extraction of technologies which are regarded as effective in the Asia/Pacific area. A study was made of applicability of the low grade coal utilization technology corresponding to the needs for low grade coal utilization, and at the same time, a study was made of the effect on the coal supply/demand in the Asia/Pacific area in case the low grade coal utilization is promoted helped by the study. Focusing on technical cooperation relating to clean coal technology, a study was conducted of the trend of international cooperation in Japan and various overseas countries and the trend of new cooperation in private sectors, and a discussion was made on how Japan should act toward promotion of low grade coal utilization. 12 figs., 91 tabs.

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Lani; Kamm, Michael A; De Cruz, Peter P; Chan, Francis K L; Ng, Siew C

    2012-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are lower in Asia than in the West. However, across Asia the incidence and prevalence of IBD has increased rapidly over the last two to four decades. These changes may relate to increased contact with the West, westernization of diet, increasing antibiotics use, improved hygiene, vaccinations, or changes in the gut microbiota. Genetic factors also differ between Asians and the Caucasians. In Asia, UC is more prevalent than CD, although CD incidence is rapidly increasing in certain areas. There is a male predominance of CD in Asia, but a trend towards equal sex distribution for UC. IBD is diagnosed at a slightly older age than in the West, and there is rarely a second incidence peak as in the West. A positive family history is much less common than in the West, as are extra-intestinal disease manifestations. There are clear ethnic differences in incidence within countries in Asia, and an increased incidence in IBD in migrants from Asia to the West. Research in Asia, an area of rapidly changing IBD epidemiology, may lead to the discovery of critical etiologic factors that lead to the development of IBD. PMID:22497584

  6. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  7. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  8. Nuclear energy options for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The five countries of Central Asia have a strong basis for the development of commercial nuclear energy. Several test reactors have operated within the region, including the Ak tau BN350 - a very advanced fast breeder reactor combined with a large water desalination plant. The Central Asian countries have a large cadre of well-trained nuclear scientists and engineers who could operate and maintain nuclear power plants and expanded nuclear fuel infrastructure as they evolve. The Central Asia region experiences significant demand for base-load energy in major population centers and industrial development areas. A well-developed electricity transmission grid could transmit nuclear-generated electricity from the power stations to the load centers. Finally, given the large land area and the relatively small population (in relation to the size of the region) there exist many remote and stable sites where nuclear generation centers can be sited and connected to the transmission grid. A good example is the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) whose vast area could easily contain several nuclear power plants, which would be cooled by the water flow of the Irtish River. The Kazakhstan authorities have already identified several potential nuclear power plant sites within the national transmission system, the STS being one such prospective site. The large-scale availability of uranium in the region affords the uranium exporting countries - particularly Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan - significant leverage with international nuclear reactor vendors in establishing the terms for nuclear plant imports into the region. Such leverage could further be increased if multiple reactor orders are submitted, for instance by two or more countries ordering similar types of plants to be installed at various sites in their territories. The added value of the uranium exports from Central Asia does not have to be measured only in terms of supporting the development of fuel cycle

  9. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  10. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  11. Asia's energy future: The case of coal - opportunities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author presents his views about the changing energy mix in Asia to the year 2020, and why the importance of coal will continue. The topics of the paper include Asia's energy mix compared with the rest of the world including nuclear power, hydropower, solar and wind energy, oil, coal, and natural gas; the economics of coal and natural gas; coal production and consumption; new energy sources; Asia's energy mix in the year 2020; resource depletion and conclusions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, an estimated 54 million people have angina, 16 million of whom are from the WHO South-East Asia region. Despite the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asia, there is no evidence of an economic burden of angina on households in this region. We investigated the economic burden of angina on households in South Asia. Methods We applied a novel propensity score matching approach to assess the economic burden of angina on household out-of-pocket (OOP) he...

  13. Evolution of the clinical trial landscape in Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathindranath S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role

  14. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  15. How Close is Asia to Already Being A Trade Bloc?

    OpenAIRE

    Chunding Li; John Whalley

    2014-01-01

    FTA bilateral and regional negotiations in Asia have developed quickly in the past decade moving Asia ever closer to an economic union. Unlike Europe with the EU and the 1997 treaty of Rome and the 1993 NAFTA in North American, Asian economic integration does not involve a comprehensive trade treaty, but an accelerating process of building one bilateral agreement on another. For countries in Asia there is negotiation of a China-Japan-Korea agreement, a China-India agreement, a Trans-Pacific P...

  16. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  17. Agriculture and Food Security in Asia by 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Strutt, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Rapid trade-led economic growth in emerging Asia has been shifting the global economic and industrial centres of gravity away from the north Atlantic, raising the importance of Asia in world trade but also altering the commodity composition of trade by Asia and other regions. What began with Japan in the 1950s and the Republic of Korea and Taipei,China from the late 1960s has spread to the much more populous ASEAN region, the People’s Republic of China, and India. This paper examines how...

  18. Nuclear power in Asia: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian countries have developed ambitious energy supply programs to expand their energy supply systems to meet the growing needs of their rapidly expanding economies. Most of their new electrical generation needs will be met by coal, oil and gas. However, the consideration of growing energy demand, energy security, environmental conservation, and technology enhancement is inducing more Asian countries toward the pursuit of nuclear power development. At present, nuclear power provides about 30% of electricity in Japan, and about 40% of electricity in Korea. These and other Asian countries are presumed to significantly increase their nuclear power generation capacities in coming years. Korea's nuclear power generation facilities are projected to grow from 12 gigawatt in 1998 to 16.7 gigawatt by 2004. On the other hand, China and India have now installed nuclear capacities of about 2 gigawatt, respectively, which will increase by a factor of two or more by 2004. The installed nuclear capacity in the Asian region totalled 67 gigawatt as of the end of 1997, representing about sixteen percent of the world capacity of 369 gigawatt. Looking to the year 2010, it is anticipated that most of the world's increase in nuclear capacity will come from Asia. It is further forecasted that Asian nations will continue to expand their nuclear capacity as they move into the 21st century. For example, China plans to develop additional 18 gigawatt of nuclear power plants by the year 2010. Nuclear power is also of particular interest to a number of emerging Asian countries in view of environmental conservation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in particular. Nuclear power appeals to some countries because of its high technology content. The strength in an advanced technology, such as the technological capability related to nuclear power, contributes to the overall development of the corresponding country's engineering base, enhancement of industrial infrastructure and expansion of

  19. Fires and Thick Smoke Across Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles and power plants are not the only sources of air pollution and greenhouses gases: fires contribute, too. In the Northern Hemisphere spring, which is the end of dry season across much of Southeast Asia, thousands of fires burn each year as people clear cropland and pasture in anticipation of the upcoming wet (growing) season. Intentional fires also escape people's control and burn into adjacent forest. The smoke from these fires crosses the Pacific Ocean, affecting climate far away. This dramatic photo-like image of fires and smoke in Southeast Asia was captured on April 2, 2007, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite. MODIS detected hundreds, possibly thousands of fires (marked in red), burning in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and China. Thick smoke hides nearly all of Laos, where the highest concentration of fires is located. In southern China and northern Vietnam, the smoke has sunk into the valleys that crisscross the mountainous terrain; only the highest ridgelines, which appear dark green, emerge from the blanket of smoke. The smoke sails above a bank of clouds at upper right as a dingy, yellowish haze. Fires have been burning in the region for more than month, as shown by the high carbon monoxide levels observed by NASA's MOPITT sensor during March 2007. In addition to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, fires produce tiny particles of incompletely burned, or charred, carbon. According to research published in mid-March 2007 in the Journal of Geophysical Research, significant amounts of this black carbon travel across the Pacific Ocean to North America at altitudes above 2 kilometers. In spring 2004, between 25-35 gigatons (roughly 55 to 77 million pounds) of black carbon crossed the Pacific and entered skies over western North America between March 26 and April 25; nearly 75 percent of it came from Asia. (Smoke and other pollution have no respect for borders; for example, scientists have also

  20. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  1. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  2. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  3. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  4. NGO Advocacy on Women's Health and Rights in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidah Abdullah

    2003-01-01

    Rashidah Abdullah highlights strategies used in advocacy work by women NGOs in the Southeast Asia region based on the work of ARROW. Development (2003) 46, 33–37. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110442

  5. Geologic map of South Asia (geo8ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is the digital geologic layer for the map of South Asia. The data set includes arcs, polgons, polygon labels, and attributes for geology, faults,...

  6. Asia Oceania Geosciences Society's First Annual Meeting. A report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.

    Working Groups (IWGs) 6. Hydrology and Water Resources (HW) The main emphasis of AOGS has been to evolve a common platform for active scientific interaction among the geoscientists of the Asia-Oceania region. About 1000 delegates participated...

  7. Linguistic phylogenies support back-migration from Beringia to Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Sicoli

    Full Text Available Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America.

  8. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  9. LNG: in Asia, the demand should double by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a well-documented study, ''Asia Gas Study'', published by the end of the first semester of 1996, the International Energy Agency (IEA) anticipated the doubling of the LNG demand from Asia, because of a more rapid growth of gas industry than for other energy industries. The regional gas trade should even triple by 2010. This study is the first from IEA about Asia and focusses on 6 key-countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. About 7% of the worldwide natural gas reserves belong to Asia but this self-sufficiency will fall rapidly. This paper summarizes the forecasting and uncertainties of natural gas demand from Japan, South Korea, China and India by the year 2010. LNG producers such as Brunei and Australia but also Papua-New Guinea, Vietnam, Alaska and Middle East are ready to supply the Asian demand. (J.S.)

  10. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  11. International Cooperation on Radioactive Source Security in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes international technical cooperation and assistance in South East Asia on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and sustainability of radioactive source security measures for the prevention of unauthorized acquisition of, or access to, high activity radioactive sources. (author)

  12. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of South Asia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and rock type for South Asia. The geologic...

  13. Generalized Geology of Southeast Asia (geo3bl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of Southeast Asia...

  14. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  15. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ciochon, R; Gu, Y; Larick, R; Qiren, F; Schwarcz, H; Yonge, C; de Vos, J; Rink, W

    1995-11-16

    The site of Longgupo Cave was discovered in 1984 and excavated in 1985-1988 by the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (Beijing) and the Chongqing National Museum (Sichuan Province). Important finds include very archaic hominid dental fragments, Gigantopithecus teeth and primitive stone tools. Palaeomagnetic analysis and the presence of Ailuropoda microta (pygmy giant panda) suggested that the hominid-bearing levels dated to the earliest Pleistocene. In 1992, joint Chinese-American-Canadian geochronological research corroborated the age using electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis. We report here that the hominid dentition and stone tools from Longgupo Cave are comparable in age and morphology with early representives of the genus Homo (H. habilis and H. ergaster) and the Oldowan technology in East Africa. The Longgupo dentition is demonstrably more primitive than that seen in Asian Homo erectus. Longgupo's diverse and well preserved Plio-Pleistocene fauna of 116 species provide a sensitive contextual base for interpreting the early arrival of the genus Homo in Asia. PMID:7477345

  16. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)

  18. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women. PMID:17160892

  19. Asia needs political commitment to fight AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Delegates from China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam to a Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) workshop in Bangkok urged their governments to give priority to the prevention of HIV and AIDS. There are already approximately 3 million people infected with HIV in Asia. Their numbers should increase by 1-2 million by the year 2000. However, devoid of any prevention measures, 2-5 million more people could instead become infected over the same period. Thailand, where many people have adopted condom use and the patronage of brothels and prostitutes has declined, was noted as a success story at the workshop in preventing the further spread of HIV. The level of risky sexual behavior in Thailand has declined to such an extent that HIV case projections made in 1991 for the year 2000 have been revised to a lower number. An estimated more than 100,000 people are infected with HIV in Indonesia, a country in which the epidemic may grow to 2.5 million cases by 2000 unless successful prevention programs are implemented. PMID:12347936

  20. Energy security and sustainability in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Energy Security' has typically, to those involved in making energy policy, meant mostly securing access to oil and other fossil fuels. With increasingly global, diverse energy markets, however, and increasingly transnational problems resulting from energy transformation and use, old energy security rationales are less salient, and other issues, including climate change and other environmental, economic, and international considerations are becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, a more comprehensive operating definition of 'Energy Security' is needed, along with a workable framework for analysis of which future energy paths or scenarios are likely to yield greater Energy Security in a broader, more comprehensive sense. Work done as a part of the Nautilus Institute's 'Pacific Asia Regional Energy Security' (PARES) project developed a broader definition of Energy Security, and described an analytical framework designed to help to compare the energy security characteristics - both positive and negative - of different quantitative energy paths as developed using software tools such as the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) system.

  1. A Global Conceptual History of Asia, 1860-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributors to this volume explore the changing concepts of the social and the economic during a period of fundamental change across Asia. Case studies show how adopting Western words reflected regional concepts of economy and society. Overall, contributors challenge accepted explanations of how...... Western knowledge spread through Asia and show how versatile Asian intellectuals were in introducing European concepts and in blending them with local traditions....

  2. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  3. Missing the target: Lessons from enabling innovation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Sulaiman V.; Hall, Andy; Reddy, T.S. Vamsidhar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on the experience of the Research Into Use (RIU) projects in Asia. It reconfirms much of what has been known for many years about the way innovation takes place and finds that many of the shortcomings of RIU in Asia were precisely because lessons from previous research on agricultural innovation were "not put into use" in the programme's implementation. However, the experience provides three important lessons for donors and governments to make use of agricultural research:...

  4. Initiatives Supporting Research Reactor in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe and effective operation and utilisation of research reactors in the Asia-Pacific will assist the region as it grows and develops into the world's powerhouse for economic development in the 21st century. This paper explores the drivers for developments in regional research reactor operation and high-level initiatives in safety for some nations. Detailed examples of safety initiatives for research reactors in some Asia-Pacific nations and challenges for the future in the region are given. (author)

  5. The Emergence of a Regional Financial Architecture in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Elson

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of monetary and financial cooperation in Asia since the regional financial crisis of 1997–98, with a view to determining whether the emerging Regional Financial Architecture in Asia is compatible with the global financial architecture and what are the prospects for possible economic and monetary union. Monetary and financial cooperation has focused on four architectural pillars (economic policy surveillance, crisis prevention, liquidity support, and bond ma...

  6. Market-Based Mechanisms to Promote Renewable Energy in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Alex BOWEN; Puthusserikunnel Devasia JOSE

    2015-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are increasingly favoured as an alternative to command-and-control legislation to increase the uptake of renewable energy. Focusing on the renewable energy industry and policy situation in Asia, this paper analysed the strengths and weaknesses of market-based approaches in the long-term interest of developing Asia. It found that approaches such as REC are disadvantaged by a lack of both market acceptance and a strong institut...

  7. Change, Choice, and Commercialization: Backpacker Routes in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.; Hamzah, Amran

    2016-01-01

    South-East Asia has the oldest and largest backpacker trails. This paper examines the geographies of such flows, drawing upon the largest survey to date of backpackers in Asia using qualitative research to survey the key changes from the 1970s to the 2000s. Backpacker trails have changed significantly and new routes have emerged including the ‘northern trail’ (Bangkok - Cambodia - Vietnam - Laos). It is to be expected that routes change as backpackers constantly seek new places, pioneering fo...

  8. Stroke burden and stroke care system in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suwanwela, Nijasri C.; Niphon Poungvarin; the Asian Stroke Advisory Panel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Asia is the largest and mostly populated continent of the world. The Asian Stroke Advisory Panel (ASAP) consists of stroke neurologists from 12 different countries in 13 Asian regions. It has been established for 17 years, and holds regular meetings for reviewing the stroke activities in Asia. It also helps in conducting several multinational research projects. This study is one of the ASAP projects and aims to explore stroke care s...

  9. Beyond Borders--Reconsidering Regional Trade in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grafe, Clemens; Raiser, Martin; Sakatsume, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of FSU countries has focused on the quantities traded, we use relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. We find that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one country are just as large as ...

  10. Investment Cooperation in Central Asia: Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nawal K. Paswan

    2013-01-01

    Central Asia is becoming an increasingly attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI). Although a first wave of foreign investments targeted Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, followed by a second one to South-east Europe in the early 2000s, FDI is now moving even further eastward towards Central Asia. The Central Asian countries are all relatively small landlocked economies and need to promote trade and investment which enable them to closely integrate into the inte...

  11. Developing regional financial markets – the case of East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerleano, Michael

    2008-01-01

    "The paper explores the extent and benefits of financial integration in East Asia. It presents evidence that the extent of financial integration in East Asia is less extensive than the aggregate data suggests. The paper then addresses why some countries are integrated more than others and discusses the obstacles to regional financial integration. The paper points out that East Asia’s growth strategy has shaped bank centric financial systems. An important thesis presented in the...

  12. Blended Learning-A Focus Study on Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong Onn Tham; ChoiKit Tham

    2011-01-01

    Blended learning is gaining popularity in Asia. This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore and the challenges encountered. While blended learning is well-received in western culture, it has met with varying degrees of success in Asia due in part to the different perceptions of instructors and students towards blended learning approaches. In China, for example, while blended learning was well-received, the ...

  13. Beyond borders: Reconsidering regional trade in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Grafe; Martin Raiser; Toshiaki Sakatsume

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of former Soviet Union countries has focussed on the quantities traded, this paper uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one co...

  14. Regionalism in South East Asia : a factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The concept of regionalism has been the subject of vast research. However, there have been few empirical studies of South East Asia. Although several authors have examined regionalism on a global scale (Russett 1967), the theoretical constructs have been primarily based on regionalism in Western Europe (Haas 1964). Few of these theories have been applied in the context of South East Asia. The current members of ASEAN were chosen for my research paper. (1) ASEAN includes Indonesia, Malaysia...

  15. Role of Production Networks in Sustaining and Rebalancing Asia's Growth

    OpenAIRE

    THORBECKE, Willem; Biswa N. Bhattacharyay

    2012-01-01

    In last few decades, Asian production networks have contributed significantly toward the rapid trade expansion and economic growth in East Asia. Developed Asia produces technology-intensive intermediate goods and capital goods and ships them to the People Republic of China (PRC) and ASEAN for assembly by lower-skilled workers. The finished products are then exported to the US, Japan, Europe, and other countries. In view of ongoing global financial crisis and European debt crisis, the ability ...

  16. River Rehabilitation for Conservation of Fish Biodiversity in Monsoonal Asia

    OpenAIRE

    David Dudgeon

    2005-01-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat worldwide, but the intensity of threat in the Oriental biogeographic region of tropical Asia is exceptional. Asia is the most densely populated region on Earth. Many rivers in that region are grossly polluted, and significant portions of their drainage basins and floodplains have been deforested or otherwise degraded. Flow regulation has been practiced for centuries, and thousands of dams have been constructed, with the result that most of the rivers ar...

  17. The democratizing potential of the Internet in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...

  18. Nuclear energy in Asia and regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing concern in East Asia about regional cooperation in the field of nuclear power. At the APEC conference in Osaka in 1995, APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) established an Energy Research Center. The center has started to perform joint research forecasts on energy supply and demand for the region. Japan proposed the inauguration of a Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia at the Moscow Nuclear Energy Summit in 1996. The first conference was held in Tokyo that year. This year, the conference will be held in Seoul. Japan's Atomic Energy Commission sponsors the International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia every year. This year marks the eighth conference. The outstanding feature of this year's conference was that so many countries stressed regional cooperation. South Korea proposed the installation of a regional online radiation monitoring system. The Philippines asserted the need for a cooperative mechanism on the lines of ASIATOM. Why is so much concern now being focused on nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? What kind of regional cooperation is necessary, and what kind is possible? What are the unique features of nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? These are the points addressed in this paper. (author)

  19. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  20. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  1. Jejak-jejak Imperial dalam Beragam Nasionalisme Asia Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010, xiii + 248 pages.Reid has long been widely known as a senior historian with a specialty in the history of Aceh, Sumatra, and the Indonesian revolution. Recently, he has begun to write about the history of Southeast Asia. Inspired by French historian Fernand Braudel, this work presents what Reid calls a “total history” of this region. In this approach wars, royal dynasties, and foreign traders are not prioritized over the diets, health, and pastimes of ordinary people. Through this work, Reid has begun to strengthen the study of Southeast Asia. As one of the pioneers and masters of the study of Asia and the Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, Reid is uniquely positioned to offer new insights about this region’s history. In this book, Reid offers a new understanding of the historical data collected on the link between ethnic identity, nationalism, and history of Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.516

  2. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development for enhancing reliability of photovoltaic power generation - Research on long-term reliability of inverter); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (taiyoko hatsuden no shinraisei kojo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu - inverter no choki shinraisei no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In fiscal 1999, the power conditioner which is the primary component of a photovoltaic power system was subjected to an accelerated test, etc., for the evaluation of its durability. For the accelerated test, operating conditions were so set that acceleration be implemented according to Arrhenius' law at ambient temperature 40 degrees C and relative humidity 36%. For the operation of the power conditioner, it was so set that the operation duration be 3.5 hours with a rest time of 4.5 hours for the night or the like. In the accelerated test conducted as in the previous year, 1100 cycles were completed recording the maximum, equivalent to approximately 8-1/2 years according to Arrhenius' law. After the test, no life affecting changes were detected in specimen device A, B, or D. Specimen C, however, failed during the test. As for the evaluation of durability of components, the electrolytic capacitor in the power conditioner was named. Reliability related literature was investigated and a durability evaluation test was started, with consideration given to the voltage to apply and service temperature. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the development of laser-aided, noncontacting, realtime, in-process dressing method using a grinding stone with ultrafine abrasive grains, and study on techniques for applying the method to grinding stone of superthin blades; 1998 nendo laser wo mochiita choteiryu toishi no hisesshoku real time inprocess dressing ho no kaihatsu oyobi gokuusuha toishi eno tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A new noncontacting dressing method using a laser as a tool has been studied and developed, in order to develop environment-compatible, energy-saving type machining machines. In this study, a cup-shaped grinding stone is developed for grinding performance testing by micron-order diamond abrasive powder, used for producing a grinding stone of superthin blades, is mixed with a cast iron binder, molded and sintered. In the grinding performance test, zirconia as a work is ground at a constant pressure to the grinding stone working surface before and after the laser-aided dressing, to analyze grinding/removal efficiency and grinding resistance. The grinding stone working surface conditions are observed by a scanning electron microscope after the laser-aided dressing, to correlate the surface conditions with the grinding data. It is found that the laser-aided dressing method needs no lubricant, is clean, cutting grinding time when incorporated in the machining process, suitable for grinding stone of low stiffness and ultrathin blades by use of ultrafine abrasive grains, suffering no exfoliation of the diamond grains, and hence economical. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1999 research report. Basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs (Comprehensive feasibility study on efficiency improvement of heat generation facility and heat network for district heating at middle and small cities in Moscow region, the Russian Federation - 2 model cities within the region); 1999 nendo Russia renpo Moscow shunai chusho toshi ni okeru chiiki danboyo netsu kyokyu shisetsu yusomo no koritsu kaizen keikaku sogo chosa hokokusho. Shunai 2 toshi wo model to suru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-named effort aims to work out modification plans and to predict their energy saving, energy substituting, and greenhouse gas reduction effects, and thereby to scout out a project which will effectively utilize flexibility-ensuring 'joint implementation' for the attainment of greenhouse gas reduction levels defined at COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The results of assessment of this project based on the outcome of the survey show that (1) there is necessity for the project and that the presence of needs to be urgently satisfied is clear, that (2) energy saving, energy substituting, and greenhouse gas reduction effects are proved to exist and that the project is therefore an appropriate candidate for an activity to be implemented jointly, that (3) Russian agencies concerned are strongly interested in the project and that a sufficiently cooperative system will be available toward implementation, and that (4) there is an extremely large room for energy saving in the district heating oriented heat supply business in Russia and that probabilities are quite high that natural gas-fired turbine cogeneration plants capable of improving overall energy efficiency will enjoy extensive diffusion. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  6. Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation: Sharing New Ideas for Asia Clean Energy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing demand of energy policy makers and regulators in the Asia and Pacific region for additional knowledge support on clean energy, this publication—prepared under the Law and Policy Reform Program of the Office of the General Counsel—presents lessons learned from countries’ clean energy policy and regulatory measures and approaches discussed during the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance, Policy, and Regulation held on 21–22 June 2010 at the Asian...

  7. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  8. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land–atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr−1

  9. Does interdependence alleviate proliferation risks in Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty ended with its unlimited extension without any modification of the treaty obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to nuclear disarmament, the prospect of the regime to incorporate those suspected nuclear powers in Asia, namely India, Pakistan and Israel, has become dark. In this paper the problem of proliferation risk centred in India is analysed. It is well known that India was the first to criticize the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime as highly discriminating between the five nuclear haves and the rest. As was always the case, India's point is logically persuasive and consistent. However, it is also true that the logical or legal point of view does not always solve the problem. Therefore, we look at the regional and international political constellation in which any assertion has to be constructed. At present there is very little possibility that this region will become nuclear-free. This is because the horizontal proliferation, that has seemingly taken place here, is the result of a 'nuclear chain reaction', starting with a minor nuclear-weapon state, China. However, the economic upsurge in the region now throws the nuclear chain-reactions into the background. It has come to a standstill and the future of nuclear proliferation here will have to be decided by global nuclear disarmament, as there is no motivation on the side of the two Asian giants to agree on the reduction in their nuclear arsenals, though under American pressure, another suspected nuclear power, Pakistan, may have to give up its nuclear development plan

  10. History of medicine and nephrology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E L; Ahmed, T M; Wang, M; Chan, J C

    1994-01-01

    The beginning of Chinese medicine has been attributed to 3 mythical emperors who gathered herbs for medicines. During the 2nd century BC, Han dynasty physicians developed cranial trephining and sedation with wine and herbs for anesthesia. Chiang Chung-Ching (142-212 AD) used the appearance of rashes in diagnosis, treated infections with anthelmintics and asthma with ephedra, described the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and expanded medical ethics. The specialties of obstetrics, pediatrics, ophthalmology and dentistry were described in the records of the Han and Tang dynasties, and methods of setting fractures and treating trauma were comparable with those of Roman military doctors. Shen Tua (1031-1095 AD) compiled a pharmacopeia and studied acupuncture and the pulses. Forensic medicine was developed during the 10th century by Sung Tse, who also advocated hand washing with sulfur and vinegar to avoid infection during autopsies. The Daoist physicians used androgens and estrogens to treat hypogonadism with therapeutic preparations of placentas. They also had an advanced knowledge of alchemy, claiming to achieve 'immortality' by their preservation techniques. Qualifying examinations for physicians were conducted by the Chinese state as early as the 1st century AD, and later incorporated philosophy and art to conform with the Confucian ideal. Throughout these eras, Chinese medicine profited from contact with western Asia. In ancient Chinese medicine, the excretory function of the kidney was attributed to the bladder. 'Kidney weakness', which refers to somatized depression, was treated by acupuncture along the 'kidney channel'. Pulse examination was also used to give a measure of the imbalance of renal Yin and Yang.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7847458

  11. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  12. Stock Investors’ Confidence on Low-Cost and Traditional Airlines in Asia During Financial Crisis 2007-2009 : Evidence from Air Asia and Singapore Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chin Fei; Tay, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The birth of low-cost carriers (LCC) in recent years, have added a new dimension to the aviation business, especially in Asia. There have been several success stories of these LCCs, compared with conventional full-serviced carriers. Two renowned airlines in Asia, Air Asia and Singapore Airlines have been chosen as our sample companies for the purpose of this research paper. Air Asia will represent the LCC segment, while Singapore Airlines is the proxy for traditional carriers. These two class...

  13. Dental perspectives on the population history of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Hudson, Mark J

    2005-06-01

    This article uses metric and nonmetric dental data to test the "two-layer" or immigration hypothesis whereby Southeast Asia was initially occupied by an "Australo-Melanesian" population that later underwent substantial genetic admixture with East Asian immigrants associated with the spread of agriculture from the Neolithic period onwards. We examined teeth from 4,002 individuals comprising 42 prehistoric and historic samples from East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and Melanesia. For the odontometric analysis, dental size proportions were compared using factor analysis and Q-mode correlation coefficients, and overall tooth size was also compared between population samples. Nonmetric population affinities were estimated by Smith's distances, using the frequencies of 16 tooth traits. The results of both the metric and nonmetric analyses demonstrate close affinities between recent Australo-Melanesian samples and samples representing early Southeast Asia, such as the Early to Middle Holocene series from Vietnam, Malaysia, and Flores. In contrast, the dental characteristics of most modern Southeast Asians exhibit a mixture of traits associated with East Asians and Australo-Melanesians, suggesting that these populations were genetically influenced by immigrants from East Asia. East Asian metric and/or nonmetric traits are also found in some prehistoric samples from Southeast Asia such as Ban Kao (Thailand), implying that immigration probably began in the early Neolithic. Much clearer influence of East Asian immigration was found in Early Metal Age Vietnamese and Sulawesi samples. Although the results of this study are consistent with the immigration hypothesis, analysis of additional Neolithic samples is needed to determine the exact timing of population dispersals into Southeast Asia. PMID:15558609

  14. Asia from Space: New Ideas for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    which lack radial drainage. Numerous other differences can be identified. As a normal component of the modern fluvial environment, megafans must exist in the subsurface. Megafan size, predictable channel patterns of the formative river, and the gradation from coarser to finer sediments from apex to toe of megafans are characteristics that ought to assist in understanding subsurface patterns of hydrocarbon host rocks, and possibly source rocks as well. We show examples from various producing basins. A roughness map of Asia, based on an algorithm developed for Mars, shows megafan landscapes to be dominated by short baseline roughness and low slopes, consistent with megafan-dominated plains worldwide. Interestingly, this a unique signature for a larger continental landform.

  15. Reducing deaths from pregnancy and childbirth. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, G

    1993-01-01

    99% of all maternal deaths occur in the developing world, and South Asian countries account for most deaths. The causes are obstructed labor, hemorrhage, pregnancy-related hypertension (eclampsia), or unsafe abortion. The United Nation's Children's Fund estimates 340 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births in India. In Indian rural areas, the maternal mortality rate is between 800 and 900 deaths per 100,000 live births in Bangladesh, 600; in Nepal, 830; and in Bhutan, 1710. IN comparison, the rate in the United States is 8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The technology for reducing maternal mortality has been utilized in most developed countries, as well as in parts of South Asia, in particular in Sri Lanka. The goal of the Safe Motherhood Initiative was to reduce maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. The immediate causes of maternal mortality include pregnancy and delivery and the management of complications such as hemorrhage, toxic and bacterial infections (sepsis), eclampsia, and obstructed labor. The poor health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women are the underlying causes of maternal death. One study in India found that inadequate medical treatment contributes to 36% to 47% of maternal deaths in hospitals. In India, abortion services are legal and acceptable on social, religious, and political grounds, but services are inaccessible. In Bangladesh, the availability of menstrual regulation is estimated to save 100,000 to 160,000 women from unsafe abortions each year. However, the inaccessibility of this service accounts for 700,000 unsafe abortions and 7000 maternal deaths. Gender bias in the allocation of meager food supplies results in the poor health and nutritional status of women, rendering a woman's pelvis too small, which causes obstructed labor and even death. Socioeconomic status is linked to access the family planning and health services which affect mortality and reproductive health. In Sri Lanka and Kerala, government

  16. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880–1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

  17. Treatment of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis in Asia: A Consensus Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wai Kwong; Yeung, Chi Keung; Torsekar, Raghunandan Govind; Suh, Dae Hun; Ungpakorn, Rataporn; Widaty, Sandra; Azizan, Noor Zalmy; Gabriel, Maria Teresita; Tran, Hau Khang; Chong, Wei Sheng; Shih, I-Hsin; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is common in Asia. Its prevalence is estimated to be 1-5% in adults. However, larger population-based studies into the epidemiology of SD in Asia are lacking, and the aetiology of SD may differ widely from Western countries and in different parts of Asia. In addition, clinically significant differences between Asian and Caucasian skin have been reported. There is a need to define standardized clinical diagnostic criteria and/or a grading system to help determine appropriate treatments for SD within Asia. With this in mind, experts from India, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Italy convened to define the landscape of SD in Asia at a meeting held in Singapore. The consensus group developed a comprehensive algorithm to aid clinicians to recommend appropriate treatment of SD in both adults and children. In most cases, satisfactory therapeutic results can be accomplished with topical antifungal agents or topical corticosteroids. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents with antifungal properties have been shown to be a viable option for both acute and maintenance therapy. PMID:27386464

  18. Outlook and challenges to coal in Asia: 1994--2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two key threats to coal's long term dominance in Asia are: (1) its uneven distribution of reserves and lack of adequate rail transportation infrastructure, and (2) growing environmental concerns about coal-related pollution. Even with increased attention to emissions control for coal, continued growth in coal consumption is expected to result in further deterioration of the environment in Asia for another one to two decades. China will remain the largest polluter in Asia, but it's believed it will become Asia's largest user of emissions control technology by 2015. The authors have subjectively weighed the above constraints to increased coal use in preparing the projections of the future role of coal in the Asian region. This paper shows past trends in coal production and consumption, plus projections of coal production, consumption and trade over the 1994--2015 period. The projections in this paper are useful as a general indicator of long term patterns in Asia. However, there are too many uncertainties about economic growth rates and energy and environmental policies to suggest that the projections will be accurate for every economy. This paper concludes with the preliminary results of research under way, which suggests that increasing economic wealth in China is the most important factor in solving China's coal-related pollution problems

  19. Strategic Balance in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze events in the Asia-Pacific region since the end of the Cold War and then draw three conclusions about the strategic balance of "one superpower, multiple major powers" in this region. First, compared with a stable superpower, the U.S., current multiple powers-China, Japan,Russia, ASEAN, India and Australia-are more dynamic.Second, two kinds of forces maintain order-a combination of national strength and non-national strength. On one hand, there are four different models which could ensure Asia-Pacific order in the future: the U.S. model of hegemony, China's model of a harmonious Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN's model of regional cooperation, and the model of non-states actors. On the other hand, four different structures-security, production, finance and knowledge-are closely linked in this area. Third,globalization of the market economy brings dynamic and diverse development. The authors believe that China's"Harmonious Asia-Pacific" model is the best choice for the Asia-Pacific strategic pattern of "One superpower, multiple major powers."

  20. The Asia Pacific natural gas market: Large enough for all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply

  1. Managing risk in Asia's oil and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The business environment and economic outlook for Asia's energy business was discussed. This paper focused on the risks in Asia's oil and gas business. It was predicted that the economic crisis may deepen in 1998/99 before recovering by 2000 at the earliest. Key risk factors were cited as further currency devaluations, deterioration of the banking sector and social unrest. At the same time, it was also predicted that within 4-6 years, economic growth rates in Asia will be higher than in the rest of the world. Currently, the main risks associated with the energy industry are currency collapse, highly leveraged buyers and sellers, politics, different types of joint venture partners, each type representing a different type of risk, demise of the old networks, reluctance to accept the reality of the economic collapse and to deal with the collapse the only way that may be effective. figs

  2. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  3. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: focus on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew C

    2014-06-01

    The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is changing globally. Incidence and prevalence may have stabilized in high-incidence areas such as North America and Europe but they continue to rise in previously low-incidence areas such as Eastern Europe, Asia, and much of the developing world. This epidemiological shift likely relates to westernization of lifestyle, changes in diet, and improved hygiene as part of socioeconomic development in developing countries. In Asia, UC is more prevalent than CD, although the UC:CD ratio is narrowing in certain areas. Clinical manifestations of IBD in Asia resemble the Western population, but with some differences, including higher prevalence of males and ileo-colonic CD, less familial clustering, lower surgical rates and extra-intestinal manifestations. These differences may relate to time, genetics and environmental factors. Studying the epidemiology of IBD in an area of rapidly increasing incidence may lead to discovery of important etiologic factors associated with disease development. PMID:24913377

  4. Website Usability in Asia “From Within”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    articles written by researchers with affiliations to universities in that part of the world. Based on a key word approach to major HCI research outlets, 60 articles from 2001 to 2011 were identified and analyzed. Results indicate that academic websites, e-commerce websites, and tourism websites were the......As the number of website users in Asia grows, there is an increasing need to gain an overview of human–computer interaction (HCI) research about users and websites in that context. This article presents an overview of HCI research on website usability in Asia “from within,” which outlines the...... most studied website domains in Asia. Typically, university graduates were used as participants in a laboratory setup and asked to navigate and find information on a website. No systematic use of cultural variables or theories to code, analyze, and interpret data and findings was found. The article...

  5. Rock Art Research in Southeast Asia: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Hidalgo Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock art has been known in Southeast Asia since the early 19th century, but relatively little attention has been paid to this class of archaeological material. This paper attempts to correct the perception that there is little rock art known in the region; especially in the light of intensified research efforts over the last 30 years that have led to the discovery of numerous new sites. Over a thousand rock art sites are known in the form of rock paintings, petroglyphs and megaliths in Southeast Asia, and their distribution across the various territories are uneven. This paper summarises the state of rock art research in Southeast Asia and discusses some of the challenges of studying rock art in this region, research trends and new finds from recent research.

  6. Burden of gastrointestinal cancer in Asia; an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Vahedi, Mohsen; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The cancers in the digestive system including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer are one of the most common cancers in Asia. The burden of GI cancer is increasing in Asia because of aging, growth of the population and the risk factors including smoking, obesity, changing lifestyle and high prevalence of H pylori, HBV and HCV. In most Asian countries, cancer control programs or early detection and treatment services are limited despite this increase. There are many people in the developing countries inside Asia who have no health insurance and many of them are too poor to go for screening tests, early detection or medical treatments. Therefore, it is important for the health organizations and governments in each country to recognize these groups and reduce the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancers, using simple and economic screening test, vaccination and changing risk factors such as smoking, diet and lifestyle by education programs. PMID:25584172

  7. Strategies for Astronomy Development in the Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy in the Southeast Asia has significantly growth. New telescopes and instruments, number of astronomers and astronomical activities have been increased during the past decade. Nevertheless, there are still some constraints for the development of astronomy in the Southeast Asia, especially national policy and funding in astronomy, proper scientific training programs, critical number of astronomers and concrete collaboration in the region.Long-term plans for key science direction, infrastructures, human resources and capacity buildings need to be considered for the sustainable development of Astronomy in the region. Southeast Asian Regional Office for Astronomy Development: SEA ROAD will take an important role for the regional collaboration and accomplishment on the development in astronomy in the Southeast Asia.

  8. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  9. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Arndt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention

  10. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  11. Soil Resources and Land Use in Tropical Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Tropical Asia is a region comprising South and Southeast Asia and under strong influence of the Asianmonsoon climate. It is characterized by an extremely high population density and by high land use intensity.Paddy rice cultivation is the most important form of agriculture in the greater part of the region. Soilresources of tropical Asia have a specific feature in comparison with tropical Africa and America. Ultisolsdominate in uplands, and lowland soils like Inceptisols and Histosols are relatively abundant. The latterpoint is made clearer if we take the landforms of the region with a vast extent of lowlands into consideration.Geologically, tropical Asia with the Himalayan orogeny and active volcanism exhibits a conspicuous contrastto tropical Africa and America with the dominance of the shield structure. This along with the monsoonclimate should have determined the basic features of landforms and soil, and accordingly all the agriculturaland social characteristics of tropical Asia today. Although paddy rice cultivation in the lowland is highlysustainable, upland cultivation in extensive Ultisol areas tends to be handicapped by low fertility and higherodibility of the soil, resulting in low sustainability. Land shortage is compelling people to exploit slopelandsin hills and mountains, on the one hand, and thus far unutilized coastal lowlands, on the other. Both ofthese new reclamations are facing to serious land degradation problems today. Tropical Asia will continueto be the most densely populated region of the world with ever-increasing population. In order to meet theincreasing food demand lowland rice cultivation should be intensified by the infrastructure development toease the stresses on slopelands and vulnerable coastal lowlands. At the same time, upland crop productionin Ultisol areas should be stabilized and enhanced, providing integrated nutrient management and measuresfor soil conservation.

  12. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export of...

  13. The comparison of petroleum contractual systems in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earnings from oil and gas sales are a very important source of income for some countries in Asia Pacific Region. The hydrocarbons are also important source of energy for almost all of the countries in the region. Most governments in this region invite foreign companies to their countries to supply the risk capital for petroleum exploration and development in exchange for a direct share in the potential profit. In this study, a comparison of different hydrocarbon fiscal systems and profitability in Asia Pacific Region is presented

  14. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success. (author)

  15. Know your epidemic, know your response: targeting HIV in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Curth, Nadja; Bridge, Jamie;

    2010-01-01

    predictable funding for a sustainable response that incorporates prevention and treatment scale-up. Strong political leadership and the involvement of affected communities are key to developing a systematic and comprehensive response. The potential consequences of inaction in Asia are enormous: even small...... have been many successes in the HIV response in Asia over the past decade, great challenges clearly remain - especially when addressing most-at-risk populations, who are often criminalized, marginalized, and discriminated against. These groups face significant legal and social barriers to accessing HIV...

  16. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon;

    2015-01-01

    allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly vulnerable and requires greater domestic leadership and coordination. Bilateral donors are still crucially important in the response to HIV throughout the...... in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia...

  17. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Kawasaki

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses a quantitative simulation analysis on the impact of Japan's FTAs in Asia using a CGE model of global trade. It has been argued that a regional FTA would be a step toward global trade liberalization rather than a final goal. In fact, it is shown that changes in sectoral trade balance and production would vary according to the partners in Japan's FTAs in Asia deviating from those expected in global trade liberalization. Moreover, the terms of trade effects would be relative...

  18. ASEAN and Strategic Rivalry among the Great Powers in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenna Egberink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at ASEAN’s role in the context of the three main bilateral relations among the great powers in Asia: China-US, China-Japan, and China-India. The authors argue that although ASEAN’s influence is limited in terms of geographical reach and its impact on actual security issues, Southeast Asia is potentially an important object of great power rivalry and thus the sub-region is highly relevant to Asian geopolitics. The key question with regard to geopolitical stability is how ASEAN will deal with increased great power rivalries in its own sub-region.

  19. THE EU STRATEGY IN CENTRAL ASIA: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhanov, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The European Union, one of the world’s most successful integration projects, is inevitably analyzed by every expert who probes deep into the international trends of our time. The union of 27 countries, with a population of about 480 million who produce about 28% of the world’s GDP, has certain interests in Central Asia even though the EU’s geopolitical status has not yet been fully developed. The EU wants to see stable and democratic regimes with market economies in Central Asia that are guid...

  20. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.