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Sample records for choromytilus chorus molina

  1. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  2. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and

  3. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure. PMID:11004549

  4. Use of clearance rate in Choromytilus chorus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae as a non-destructive biomarker of aquatic pollution El uso de la tasa de aclaramiento en Choromytilus chorus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae como biomarcador no destructivo de la polución acuática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ TORO

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in clearance rate was observed in the mussel Choromytilus chorus in relation to the degree of environmental pollution. Three sampling sites included the polluted San Vicente Bay, middling polluted Corral Bay, and weakly polluted Yaldad Bay in southern Chile. Pollution levels were estimated by quantitative analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mussel tissue from the three sites. Mussels from San Vicente showed lowest clearance rates and highest PAHs levels in both spring 1998 and summer 1999. Populations from Corral and Yaldad showed generally low levels of PAHs, so the mussels from Yaldad showed the highest rates of clearance in comparison to Corral and San Vicente populations. The significant negative relationship (P Se observó un deterioro de la tasa de aclaramiento en Choromytilus chorus de acuerdo al grado de polución ambiental. Se incluyeron tres sitios de muestreos, la bahía de San Vicente muy contaminada, la bahía de Corral con una polución intermedia y la bahía de Yaldad, al sur de Chile, con una baja contaminación. Los niveles de polución fueron estimados por análisis cuantitativos de hidrocarburos aromáticos polinucleares (HAPs en el tejido de los choros zapatos de los tres sitios de muestreo. Los choros zapatos de San Vicente mostraron la menor tasa de aclaramiento y altos niveles de HAPs, tanto en la primavera de 1998 como en el verano de 1999. Las poblaciones de Corral y Yaldad mostraron en general bajos niveles de HAPs, en tanto que los ejemplares de Yaldad presentaron altas tasas de aclaramiento en comparación con las poblaciones de Corral y San Vicente. La relación negativa significativa (P < 0,001 entre la polución en el tejido de los choros zapatos y sus tasas de aclaramiento, argumenta la utilidad del método como un biomarcador no destructivo para evaluar el impacto ambiental de la polución en las especies marinas

  5. Marching Choruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2009-01-01

      This article re-examines the evidence for choral marching in the Athenian theatre, which has fostered ideas on the dramatic choruses as military training for young men, ephebes. But the late lexicographical sources are not relating to the dramatic choruses of the fifth-century and are in consta...

  6. Chorus in Agamemnon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宬

    2012-01-01

      Agamemnon is the first play in Orestea trilogy. It deals with the murder of Agamemnon by his wife Clytemnestra. As is known to al , chorus plays a very important role in Greek tragedy. The chorus is, for sure, consistent pretty much across the play of Agamemnon. It keeps accompany of Agamemnon, analyzing his behavior, criticizing his wrong deed. The intensity that chorus produces creates ups and downs of the plot. It is an inseparable part of the play.

  7. The Function of the Tragic Greek Chorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the function of the chorus in Greek tragedy and highlights interpretations of Aristotle's statements on the chorus. Concludes that the chorus' role was that of alienating the audience and was basically theatrical, not dramatic. (JMF)

  8. CHORUS : Fotografare l'invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder

    1996-01-01

    5 maggio 1994, siamo al Centro Europeo per la Fisica delle particelle elementare, al CERN di Ginevra, ultime registrazioni su CHORUS, un microscope gigante per vedere delle particelle infinitamente piccole, delle particelle che si muovono alla velocita della luce ...

  9. A baseline study of metal contamination along the Namibian coastline for Perna perna and Choromytilus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, S; van der Bank, F H; Greenfield, R

    2014-08-15

    The use of bivalves such as the brown mussel (Perna perna) and the black mussel (Choromytilus meridionalis) is common in the study of marine pollution and the effect of these pollutants on ecosystems and are important in both economic and ecological roles. Namibian marine ecosystems are threatened by pollution from mining, commercial fishing and population growth. The aims of this study were to determine baseline metal concentrations, spatial variation and variation between species. Metal levels in C. meridionalis from Guano Platform (GP) are the lowest of all the sites. The most polluted sites are Rocky Point (RP), Halifax Island (HIL) and between Walvis Bay and Swakopmund (WS). The bioaccumulation of metals between P. perna and C. meridionalis were not uniform for all metals. Overall the study indicates the condition of the coastline to be mostly normal, with Cd and Pb levels being of concern.

  10. Population dynamics and growth of the bivalve Choromytilus meridionalis (Kr.) at different tidal levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roberta J.

    1981-01-01

    Settlement, growth and reproductive output of a population of Choromytilus meridionalis have been monitored at different shore levels at Bailey's Cottage, False Bay, South Africa. Settlement was irregular, occurring at 4- to 6-year intervals, and confined to the sublittoral and lower littoral of rocky areas. Spat settled on the existing mussel bed and adjacent clean rock surfaces. Continual migration of young mussels up the shore took place during the first 1 to 1·5 years of growth until an even distribution up to 0·5 m above L.W.S. was achieved. Juveniles displaced older individuals by moving between them and forcing them off the rocks so that the majority of the adult population were eliminated from the bed within the first year after spat settlement. Mortality in individual cohorts was largely caused by strong wave action and competition for space. The density of individuals within the mussel bed was closely related to mean shell length. Growth rates varied with habitat and declined markedly with increasing height above L.W.S. Sexual maturity was attained at approximately 20 mm and reproductive output rose from 5 kJ year -1 at this length to 80 kJ year -1 at 100 mm shell length. Since packing densities were much higher in smaller individuals the annual gamete output assessed on an area basis, remained fairly constant as the mussels grew, and averaged 1392 g m -2 year -1 dry weight (31 320 kJ m -2 year -1). Energy expended as gonad output exceeded that due to mortality by a factor of 10.

  11. New results of investigations of whistler-mode chorus emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Santolík

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes selected recent results obtained during investigation of whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's magnetosphere. Special attention is paid to results published during the last five years, with a focus on the results of the CLUSTER project. The nonlinear nature of chorus emissions is demonstrated using both theoretical results and measurements. Selected areas of research on whistler-mode chorus are covered and the paper especially reports new results on substructure and amplitudes of chorus wave packets, on new observations of frequency differences of chorus wave packets at different points in space and on their possible interpretations, on results concerning determination of position and size of the source region of chorus, on recent observational and theoretical results which lead to improved description of propagation of chorus from its source, and, finally, on comparison of chorus measurements with corresponding values deduced from nonlinear theory and simulations.

  12. Gerardo Molina y el Estado providente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataño , Gonzalo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo Gonzalo Cataño examina la visión del Estado del notable pensador y dirigente socialista colombiano, Gerardo Molina. Ofrece una breve información biográfica y comenta su enfoque sobre las funciones del aparato estatal. Aunque en la exposición predomina un tono crítico, muestra que las limitaciones de un analista inteligente de los asuntos públicos son más instructivas que las consideraciones correctas de un comentarista trivial de la política. En este trabajo se denomina por Estado providente ¿conocido también como asistencial o de bienestar¿ al que garantiza niveles mínimos de ingreso, salud, alimentación, vivienda, educación y trabajo, como derecho político y no como beneficencia.

  13. Chorus and chorus-like emissions seen by the ionospheric satellite DEMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Michel; Santolík, Ondřej; Němec, František

    2016-04-01

    A lot of different emissions have been detected by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions), and the aim of this paper is to study extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with elements drifting in frequency. It is shown that only some of them can be considered as usual chorus. These chorus elements are emitted in the equatorial plane, and their propagation analysis indicates that they are going downward at low altitudes in the ionosphere to be detected by the satellite. The study of one remarkable event recorded along the same orbit in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres on 8 May 2008 indicates that this propagation mechanism is reinforced at the location of the ionospheric trough, which corresponds to the plasmapause at higher altitudes. It has been observed that usual chorus elements at low frequencies are always in a frequency band which overlaps with a hiss band limited by a frequency cutoff close to the proton gyrofrequency. Other drifting elements can be attributed to emissions triggered by PLHR (power line harmonic radiation). It means that without a high-resolution spectral analysis, chorus-like elements triggered by PLHR can be wrongly considered as natural chorus. These drifting elements can also appear as filamentary structures emerging at the upper frequencies of a hiss band or quasiperiodic emissions. There are events where the elements even have certain similarities to quasiperiodic emissions. The difference between these elements and the chorus emissions will be emphasized.

  14. The trigger system of the CHORUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boes, J.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Born, E.A. van den [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaspers, M.J.F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Konijn, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldeman, R.G.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poel, C.A.F.J. van der [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reen, T. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stolte, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uiterwijk, J.W.E. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pesen, E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zeyrek, M.T. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Dewulf, J.P. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies (ULB-VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Bal, F. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Beyer, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gorbunov, P. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ferreira, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Friend, B. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Jong, M. de [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ludovici, L. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Panman, J. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bonnet, L. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gregoire, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1999-05-01

    A new apparatus for detection of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation has been successfully constructed and operated by the CHORUS Collaboration for the CERN-WA95 experiment. The design, implementation and performance of the electronic trigger system is described. A trigger efficiency of 99% was measured for {nu}{sub {mu}} charged-current events and 90% for neutral-current events.

  15. Animal choruses emerge from receiver psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D.; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Streiff, Réjane; Party, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Synchrony and alternation in large animal choruses are often viewed as adaptations by which cooperating males increase their attractiveness to females or evade predators. Alternatively, these seemingly composed productions may simply emerge by default from the receiver psychology of mate choice. This second, emergent property hypothesis has been inferred from findings that females in various acoustic species ignore male calls that follow a neighbor’s by a brief interval, that males often adjust the timing of their call rhythm and reduce the incidence of ineffective, following calls, and from simulations modeling the collective outcome of male adjustments. However, the purported connection between male song timing and female preference has never been tested experimentally, and the emergent property hypothesis has remained speculative. Studying a distinctive katydid species genetically structured as isolated populations, we conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the correlation between male call timing and female preference. We report that across 17 sampled populations male adjustments match the interval over which females prefer leading calls; moreover, this correlation holds after correction for phylogenetic signal. Our study is the first demonstration that male adjustments coevolved with female preferences and thereby confirms the critical link in the emergent property model of chorus evolution. PMID:27670673

  16. A generation mechanism of chorus emissions using BWO theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Singh, K K; Singh, A K; Patel, R P [Department of Physics, M. M. H. P. G. College, Ghaziabad (India); Singh, R, E-mail: abhay_s@rediffmail.co [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India)

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, discrete VLF chorus emissions recorded at low latitude ground station Jammu (geomag. Lat. = 22{sup 0} 26{sup /} N, L = 1.17) are reported and their characteristics based on complete spectral analysis have been carried out. These discrete chorus emissions are generated during a strong geomagnetic storm period of 2-7 May, 1998. We have computed the sweep rate, repetition period, source region, and drift rate of the individual chorus elements. It is observed that the sweep rate increases with time. To explain the various temporal and spectral features of these emissions, a possible generation mechanism has been presented based on the backward wave oscillator (BWO) regime in the magnetospheric cyclotron maser. On the basis of this model, we have computed some discrete chorus emission parameters as well as magnetospheric parameters relevant to the generation process. A comparison of the computed and observed magnetospheric parameters has been presented. These results show a good agreement with the BWO model.

  17. Does ELF chorus show evidence of power line stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been reported that electromagnetic chorus exhibits a longitudinal dependence, with enhanced occurrence over population centers (Alaska-New Zealand, Eastern U.S.-Canada, Western Europe and Western Siberia). This result has been cited as possible evidence of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) control of magnetospheric chorus. In this paper the authors report an analogous study using chorus data from OGO-5 to test this result. Chorus is found to exhibit maxima over the Eastern USSR, Greenland and Central Siberia and minima over central and Eastern Canada, a distribution significantly different than the OGO-3 result. This gross discrepancy is explained as an effect of data oversampling (presistence) in the method of analysis used in the previous study. The OGO-5 data are reanalysed with the oversampling removed. It is found that none of the longitudinal maxima or minima are then statistically significant (<2sigma). Thus, they find no statistically significant correlation between longitude and chorus occurrence which implies that there is little or no evidence of PLR effects on chorus triggering. (Auth.)

  18. Chorus, ECH, and Z mode emissions observed at Jupiter and Saturn and possible electron acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Menietti, J.D.; Y. Y. Shprits; Horne, R. B.; E. E. Woodfield; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare and contrast chorus, electron cyclotron harmonics (ECH), and Z mode emissions observed at Jupiter and Saturn and relate them to recent work on electron acceleration at Earth. Intense chorus emissions are observed near the magnetic equator, the likely source region, but the strongest intensities are on either side of the magnetic equator. Chorus intensities at Jupiter are generally about an order of magnitude larger than at Saturn, and the bandwidth of chorus at Jupite...

  19. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  20. Monotest in the complement fixation test: the Chorus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Meli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The complement fixation test (CFT is a method used for the detection of antibodies against pathogens of infectious diseases, it has been proved to be a useful diagnostic method in the detection of acute disease in many medical laboratories.The test performed manually is time consuming and needs very skilled personnel.This study evaluates the automated Chorus CFT system with 87 serum samples in comparison with manual method using Virion-Serion reagents, against a panel of antigens, such as Adenovirus, Influenza A and B virus, Respiratory Syncythial Virus, Parainfluenza Mix, Mycoplasma Pneumoniae, and Echinococcus. The Chorus system includes standardized reagents and a monotest device to perform the single assay. In comparison to the manual CFT method, the correlation is 91.6% (7/83.The results obtained show that the automated Chorus system can be applied for detecting complement fixation antibodies against different infectious disease agents.

  1. On the numerical modelling of VLF chorus dynamical spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nunn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the use of a one-dimensional Vlasov Hybrid Simulation (VHS computer code to simulate the dynamical spectra (i.e. frequency versus time spectrograms of ELF/VLF chorus signals (from ~a fraction to ~10 kHz. Recently excellent measurements of chorus have been made in the source region close to the geomagnetic equator aboard the four spacecraft Cluster mission. Using Cluster data for wave amplitude, which is up to 300 pT, local gyrofrequency, cold plasma density, and L-shell, observed chorus signals are reproduced with remarkable fidelity and, in particular, sweep rates in the range 1–10 kHz result as observed. Further, we find that the sweep rate is a falling function of increasing cold plasma density, again in accord with observations. Finally, we have satisfactorily simulated the rather rare falling frequency elements of chorus which are sometimes observed aboard Cluster in the generation region. For both rising and falling chorus we have presented detailed structural analyses of the generation regions. The main contributor to the frequency sweep rate is primarily the establishment of wave number/frequency gradients across the generation region by the out of phase component of the resonant particle current. The secondary contributor is the shortening of the wavelength of resonant particle current relative to that of the wave field. In view of the close agreement between observation and simulation, we conclude that nonlinear electron cyclotron resonance is indeed the mechanism underlying the generation of chorus signals just outside the plasmasphere.

  2. Chorusing, synchrony and the evolutionary functions of rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eRavignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc. with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony, we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, making group behavior key to understand the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates. Finally, we propose an Evolving Signal Timing hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s of rhythmic behavior in our proto-musical primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  3. Chorusing, synchrony, and the evolutionary functions of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Bowling, Daniel L; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of biomusicology is to understand the biological basis of human musicality. One approach to this problem has been to compare core components of human musicality (relative pitch perception, entrainment, etc.) with similar capacities in other animal species. Here we extend and clarify this comparative approach with respect to rhythm. First, whereas most comparisons between human music and animal acoustic behavior have focused on spectral properties (melody and harmony), we argue for the central importance of temporal properties, and propose that this domain is ripe for further comparative research. Second, whereas most rhythm research in non-human animals has examined animal timing in isolation, we consider how chorusing dynamics can shape individual timing, as in human music and dance, arguing that group behavior is key to understanding the adaptive functions of rhythm. To illustrate the interdependence between individual and chorusing dynamics, we present a computational model of chorusing agents relating individual call timing with synchronous group behavior. Third, we distinguish and clarify mechanistic and functional explanations of rhythmic phenomena, often conflated in the literature, arguing that this distinction is key for understanding the evolution of musicality. Fourth, we expand biomusicological discussions beyond the species typically considered, providing an overview of chorusing and rhythmic behavior across a broad range of taxa (orthopterans, fireflies, frogs, birds, and primates). Finally, we propose an "Evolving Signal Timing" hypothesis, suggesting that similarities between timing abilities in biological species will be based on comparable chorusing behaviors. We conclude that the comparative study of chorusing species can provide important insights into the adaptive function(s) of rhythmic behavior in our "proto-musical" primate ancestors, and thus inform our understanding of the biology and evolution of rhythm in human music and

  4. On the numerical modelling of VLF chorus dynamical spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, D; O. Santolik; Rycroft, M.; Trakhtengerts, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the use of a one-dimensional Vlasov Hybrid Simulation (VHS) computer code to simulate the dynamical spectra (i.e. frequency versus time spectrograms) of ELF/VLF chorus signals (from ~a fraction to ~10 kHz). Recently excellent measurements of chorus have been made in the source region close to the geomagnetic equator aboard the four spacecraft Cluster mission. Using Cluster data for wave amplitude, which is up to 300 pT, local gyrofrequency, cold plasma density, ...

  5. The Chorus Conflict and Loss of Separation Resolution Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chorus software is designed to investigate near-term, tactical conflict and loss of separation detection and resolution concepts for air traffic management. This software is currently being used in two different problem domains: en-route self- separation and sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. This paper describes the core resolution algorithms that are part of Chorus. The combination of several features of the Chorus program distinguish this software from other approaches to conflict and loss of separation resolution. First, the program stores a history of state information over time which enables it to handle communication dropouts and take advantage of previous input data. Second, the underlying conflict algorithms find resolutions that solve the most urgent conflict, but also seek to prevent secondary conflicts with the other aircraft. Third, if the program is run on multiple aircraft, and the two aircraft maneuver at the same time, the result will be implicitly co-ordinated. This implicit coordination property is established by ensuring that a resolution produced by Chorus will comply with a mathematically-defined criteria whose correctness has been formally verified. Fourth, the program produces both instantaneous solutions and kinematic solutions, which are based on simple accel- eration models. Finally, the program provides resolutions for recovery from loss of separation. Different versions of this software are implemented as Java and C++ software programs, respectively.

  6. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  7. Generation mechanism of whistler-mode chorus emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiharu

    2012-07-01

    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are coherent waves with rising frequencies due to the nonlinear wave growth mechanism [1,2] driven by formation of electromagnetic electron hole in the velocity phase space. The nonlinear wave growth is induced by a triggering wave that is either naturally growing or artificially injected at a constant frequency. The frequency increase is induced by gradual formation of the symmetric electron hole near the equator. The increase of the frequency breaks the symmetry of the electron hole, resulting in the negative resonant current parallel to the wave electric field [3]. The negative resonant current causes the wave growth with the progressively increasing frequency. The process is an absolute instability near the equator, generating seeds of chorus emissions. The nonlinear wave growth also takes place through propagation from the equator because the asymmetry of the electron hole is maintained by the inhomogeneous magnetic field. As the chorus wave packet propagates away from the equator, the wavenormal direction deviates from the parallel direction, resulting in a parallel electric field that appears as an electrostatic potential in the frame of reference moving with the phase velocity. Stable nonlinear trapping of electrons takes place because the group velocity is nearly equal to the phase velocity at half the cyclotron frequency as far as the wavenormal angle is small. The trapped electrons are accelerated in the parallel direction, while the wave packet undergoes the nonlinear damping at half the cyclotron frequency [2], being separated into the lower-band and upper-band chorus emissions. [1] Omura, Y., Y. Katoh, and D. Summers (2008), Theory and simulation of the generation of whistler-mode chorus, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A04223, doi:10.1029/2007JA012622. [2] Omura, Y., , M. Hikishima, Y. Katoh, D. Summers, and S. Yagitani (2009), Nonlinear mechanisms of lower band and upper band VLF chorus emissions in the magnetosphere, Journal

  8. Chorus from Two Brain Hemispheres with Chinese Pentatonic Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dan; YAO De-zhong

    2014-01-01

    In order to listen to brain activity as a piece of music, we proposed a scale-free brainwave music (SFBM) technology, which translates the scalp EEG into music notes according to the power law of both EEG and music. In this paper, the methodology was further extended to chorus music of two channels from the two hemispheres. Firstly, EEG data from two channels symmetrically located on the left and right hemispheres are translated into MIDI sequences by SFBM, respectively, where the EEG parameters modulate the pitch, duration and volume of each music note. Then, the two sequences are fiitered into a chorus of the Chinese pentatonic scale or the Western major scale. The resulted Chinese and Western music at different sleep stages illustrate distinct differences in harmony, and the music with Chinese pentatonic scale sounds more harmonious.

  9. Augmentation and Maximization of Per-Capita Call Active Space Through Chorusing in Anuran Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James Henderson

    It is poorly understood why anuran males form choruses. Although various reasons have been proposed, empirical support is lacking. This study proposed, developed, and evaluated the chorus active space (CAS) augmentation theory, which states that anuran choruses are formed and organized so as to augment and maximize per-capita CAS beyond that which could be achieved by an isolated male. This study involved three phases. First, computer models of hypothetical choruses indicated that CAS, as defined, is necessarily augmented for chorusing males. These models provided the necessary information from which optimal interindividual distances (IIDs), corresponding to maximal CASs, could be estimated differentially for linear and planar chorus configurations. The second phase examined Acris crepitans and Hyla cinerea choruses for optimal intermale spacing. A. crepitans, which utilizes mixed chorus geometries (either linear or planar, depending on available resources), cannot optimize IID within any observed pond-type breeding site; however, observed spacing would be optimal along a stream bank, where chorusing often occurs, for a chorus population of 61, approximately the minimum value at which CAS characteristics are stabile. H. cinerea males, which form only planar choruses, space orders of magnitude closer than optimal. Suboptimal spacing in this species is understandable, considering the would-be size of an optimally spaced chorus. In the final phase of this study, a database of CAS-related data was compiled mostly from published sources and was examined for variable relationships predicted on the basis of CAS augmentation theory. The findings suggest that very few planar geometry species may maximize CAS; whereas, a much larger number of mixed geometry species, perhaps as well as linear geometry species, may maximize CAS. These findings loosely agree with the field study findings and suggest that CAS augmentation theory applies to at least a subset of anuran species and

  10. A Three-Dimensional Ray Tracing Study on Whistler-Mode Chorus During Geomagnetic Activities%A Three-Dimensional Ray Tracing Study on Whistler-Mode Chorus During Geomagnetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆华; 史建魁; 肖伏良

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional ray tracing study of a whistler-mode chorus is conducted for different geomagnetic activities by using a global core plasma density model. For the upperband chorus, the initial azimuthal wave angle affects slightly the projection of ray trajectories onto the plane (Z, √(x^2 + y^2)), but controls the longitudinal propagation. The trajectory of the upper-band chorus is strongly associated with the plasmapause and the magnetic local time (MLT) of chorus source region. For the high geomagnetic activity, the chorus trajectory moves inward together with the plasmapause. In the bulge region, the plasmapause extends outward, while the chorus trajectory moves outward together with the plasmapause. For moderately or high geomagnetic activity, the lower-band chorus suffers low hybrid resonance (LHR) reflection before it reaches the plasmapause, leading to a weak correlation with the geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time of the chorus source region. For low geomagnetic activity, the lower-band chorus may be reflected firstly at the plasmapause instead of suffering LHR reflection, exhibiting a propagation characteristic similar to that of the upper-band chorus. The results provide a new insight into the propagation characteristics of the chorus for different geomagnetic activities and contribute to further understanding of the acceleration of energetic electron by a chorus wave.

  11. Antonio Muñoz Molina entre literatura y periodismo: Las columnas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Castellani

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Article tradition in Spain lives today in newspaper columns. In this paperwork a selection of Muñoz Molina's columns is studied in order to characterize them. Columns are constructed by using quotations of other authors and stylized anecdotes. Related to fiction works by the same author, they constiíute the basic elements of the stories' narrative matter. Columnism in Muñoz Molina's narrative is no longer a secondary or marginal genre: they are part of the creative ensemble elaborated besides his fiction works, which are enriched with this weekly insight.

  12. Standard Works for Chorus: "Ein Deutsches Requiem.""How Lovely Is Thy Dwelling Place."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    While high school choirs used to perform extended choral works, in recent years the emphasis has been on shorter works and unaccompanied chorus. Describes "A German Requiem" by Brahms and recommends performance of its fourth movement to develop the musical growth of a chorus. (CS)

  13. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J. R.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. Here we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ˜300-1500 Hz with the peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. The current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.

  14. The mid-high latitude whistler mode chorus waves observed around substorm onsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JunYing; CAO JinBin; YAN ChunXiao; LI LiuYuan; MA YuDuan

    2008-01-01

    Using the data of LFEW/TC-2, we studied the dawn side chorus around substorm onsets during a strong geomagnetic storm in November 2004. During this storm, LFEW/TC-2 observed 14 dawnside chorus events. Nine of them were associated with substorms and occurred within 40 min around the substorm onsets. The fre-quencies of waves have a very good correlation with the half equatorial electron cyclotron frequencies. Chorus can be excited in the region near magnetic equato-rial plane and then propagate to the mid and high latitudes. When the wave fre-quencies reach the local lower hybrid frequencies, chorus can be reflected due to the lower hybrid resonance. The time delay between the chorus and its echo is about 28 min. Previous observations show that the chorus can propagate at most to the magnetic latitudes of 40°. LFEW/TC-2 found for the first time that the chorus in space could propagate to the magnetic latitude of 70°. Since most of the previous chorus observatlons are made close to the magnetic equatorial plane, our results are Important for the studies of excitation and propagation of whistler mode wave, and relevant relativistic electron acceleration in the magnetosphere.

  15. The mid-high latitude whistler mode chorus waves observed around substorm onsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the data of LFEW/TC-2, we studied the dawn side chorus around substorm onsets during a strong geomagnetic storm in November 2004. During this storm, LFEW/TC-2 observed 14 dawnside chorus events. Nine of them were associated with substorms and occurred within 40 min around the substorm onsets. The fre-quencies of waves have a very good correlation with the half equatorial electron cyclotron frequencies. Chorus can be excited in the region near magnetic equato-rial plane and then propagate to the mid and high latitudes. When the wave fre-quencies reach the local lower hybrid frequencies, chorus can be reflected due to the lower hybrid resonance. The time delay between the chorus and its echo is about 28 min. Previous observations show that the chorus can propagate at most to the magnetic latitudes of 40°. LFEW/ TC-2 found for the first time that the chorus in space could propagate to the magnetic latitude of 70°. Since most of the previous chorus observations are made close to the magnetic equatorial plane, our results are important for the studies of excitation and propagation of whistler mode wave, and relevant relativistic electron acceleration in the magnetosphere.

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Betancur R; Gonzalo Silva A; J. Concepción Rodríguez M; Susana Fischer G; Nelson Zapata S.M

    2010-01-01

    In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100%) was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea may...

  17. Anton Bierl, Ritual and Performativity: The Chorus in Old Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Ritual and Performativity. The Chorus of Old Comedy (2009) è il prodotto di una revisione da parte dell’autore di un suo studio presentato alla facoltà di Filologia dell’Università di Leipzig nel 1998. Nell’edizione del 2009, tradotta dal Tedesco in inglese da Alexander Hollmann, B. propone un nuovo approccio allo studio della Commedia antica, fornendo al lettore, nella generosa Introduzione, un’analisi accurata del metodo che egli intende applicare. Nei due capitoli della trattazione, l’auto...

  18. Free radical scavenging potential of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl fruits extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan; Selvi Veluswamy; Priya Kannappan; Noorlidah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit. Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay. Results: The IC50 values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. Theβ-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  19. Recasting Madrid and Its Characters in Munoz Molina's "Los misterios de Madrid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sheri Spaine

    2009-01-01

    "Los misterios de Madrid" (1992) provides a burlesque novelistic portrayal of the changing capital city and its inhabitants in the early 1990s. Spanish writer Antonio Munoz Molina creates vignettes of Madrid's people and places while showing the capital as a destination for both foreign-born immigrants and provincial Spaniards alike. In…

  20. «Héctor Molina Riaño»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en los campos pertenecientes a la Empresa Azucarera «Héctor Molina Riaño», con el objetivo de desarrollar una metodología que permita realizar una evaluación energética y económica durante la recogida y transportación de los residuos agrícolas cañeros (RAC hasta la industria, partiendo de la determinación de los volúmenes de RAC, en campos cosechados con máquinas CAMECO y en el centro de limpieza. Para esto se utilizaron utensilios e instrumentos reglamentados por las normas de medición y control de la calidad. El valor de los RAC quedados en el campo ascendió a 3,87 t/ha, que pueden ser recogidos y transportados para producir energía y el índice de RAC para estas condiciones fue de 0,11. El volumen total de RAC a transportar desde el campo alcanzó 26 524,74 t y desde el centro de limpieza alcanzó 28 051,70 t. Según criterios planteados por diversos autores se realizó la evaluación energética de la recogida y transportación de los RAC hasta la industria, obteniéndose una energía requerida total de 680 478,34 Mcal y la energía que se puede producir con los RAC recogidos y transportado s es de 256 509 268 Mcal. También se realizó la evaluación económica, obteniéndose un gasto económico total de 411 256,27 pesos, costo de la energía producida de 909 607 pesos, con un costo unitario de 7,53 peso/t de RAC recogido y transportado y 16,66 peso/t de RAC utilizados en la generación de energía. Con estos resultados se evidencia que es factible el uso de los RAC como combustible alternativo en el sector azucarero.

  1. Modelling substorm chorus events in terms of dispersive azimuthal drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Collier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Substorm Chorus Event (SCE is a radio phenomenon observed on the ground after the onset of the substorm expansion phase. It consists of a band of VLF chorus with rising upper and lower cutoff frequencies. These emissions are thought to result from Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons which drift into a ground station's field of view from an injection site around midnight. The increasing frequency of the emission envelope has been attributed to the combined effects of energy dispersion due to gradient and curvature drifts, and the modification of resonance conditions and variation of the half-gyrofrequency cutoff resulting from the radial component of the ExB drift.

    A model is presented which accounts for the observed features of the SCE in terms of the growth rate of whistler mode waves due to anisotropy in the electron distribution. This model provides an explanation for the increasing frequency of the SCE lower cutoff, as well as reproducing the general frequency-time signature of the event. In addition, the results place some restrictions on the injected particle source distribution which might lead to a SCE.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interaction – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Storms and substorms

  2. Antineutrino Charm Production and Pentaquark Search in the CHORUS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Köse, U; Guler, A M

    2006-01-01

    During the years between 1994 and 1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS experiment was exposed to the wide band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average energy collecting about 106 neutrino interactions. A measurement of induced charm production and search for anticharmed pentaquark (0 c ) have been performed by using the presence of a 6% component in the beam. By requiring a positive muon charge as determined by the CHORUS muon spectrometer, 46 -induced charm events were observed with an estimated background of 5:20:4 events. By using the data sample, anticharmed pentaquark ( 0 c ) have been searched and no evidence is found. Based on the null observation, the limit on the 0 c production is found as a function of di eren t possible 0 c lifetimes. The tightest bound is 0 c = < 0.039 at 90% C.L by assuming that 0 c lifetime is equal to 0.5 c D 0. (not complete)

  3. Source location of chorus emissions observed by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Cluster mission is to study sources of various electromagnetic waves using the four satellites. This paper describes the methods we have applied to data recorded from the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. This spectral matrix is analysed to determine, for each satellite, the direction of the wave normal relative to the Earth’s magnetic field as a function of frequency and of time. Due to the Cluster orbit, chorus emissions are often observed close to perigee, and the data analysis determines the direction of these waves. Three events observed during different levels of magnetic activity are reported. It is shown that the component of the Poynting vector parallel to the magnetic field changes its sense when the satellites cross the magnetic equator, which indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from the equator. Detailed analysis indicates that the source is located in close vicinity of the plane of the geomagnetic equator.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms; Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities

  4. Magnetic and Electric Field Polarizations of Oblique Magnetospheric Chorus Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.

    2012-01-01

    A theory was developed to explain the properties of the chorus magnetic and electric field components in the case of an arbitrary propagation angle. The new theory shows that a whistler wave has circularly polarized magnetic fields for oblique propagation. This theoretical result is verified by GEOTAIL observations. The wave electric field polarization plane is not orthogonal to the wave vector, and in general is highly elliptically polarized. A special case of the whistler wave called the Gendrin mode is also discussed. This will help to construct a detailed and realistic picture of wave interaction with magnetosphere electrons. It is the purpose of this innovation to study the magnetic and electric polarization properties of chorus at all frequencies, and at all angles of propagation. Even though general expressions for electromagnetic wave polarization in anisotropic plasma are derived in many textbooks, to the knowledge of the innovators, a detailed analysis for oblique whistler wave mode is lacking. Knowledge of the polarization properties is critical for theoretical calculations of resonant wave-particle interactions.

  5. Frequencies of wave packets of whistler-mode chorus inside its source region: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Santolik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode chorus is a structured wave emission observed in the Earth's magnetosphere in a frequency range from a few hundreds of Hz to several kHz. We investigate wave packets of chorus using high-resolution measurements recorded by the WBD instrument on board the four Cluster spacecraft. A night-side chorus event observed during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is analyzed. We identify lower and upper frequencies for a large number of individual chorus wave packets inside the chorus source region. We investigate how these observations are related to the central position of the chorus source which has been previously estimated from the Poynting flux measurements. We observe typical frequency bandwidths of chorus of approximately 10% of the local electron cyclotron frequency. Observed time scales are around 0.1 s for the individual wave packets. Our results indicate a lower occurrence probability for lower frequencies in the vicinity of the central position of the source compared to measurements recorded closer to the outer boundaries of the source. This is in agreement with recent research based on the backward wave oscillator theory.

  6. Signal interactions and interference in insect choruses: singing and listening in the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic insects usually sing amidst conspecifics, thereby creating a social environment-the chorus-in which individuals communicate, find mates, and avoid predation. A temporal structure may arise in a chorus because of competitive and cooperative factors that favor certain signal interactions between neighbors. This temporal structure can generate significant acoustic interference among singers that pose problems for communication, mate finding, and predator detection. Acoustic insects can reduce interference by means of selective attention to only their nearest neighbors and by alternating calls with neighbors. Alternatively, they may synchronize, allowing them to preserve call rhythm and also to listen for predators during the silent intervals between calls. Moreover, males singing in choruses may benefit from reduced per capita predation risk as well as enhanced vigilance. They may also enjoy greater per capita attractiveness to females, particularly in the case of synchronous choruses. In many cases, however, the overall temporal structure of the chorus is only an emergent property of simple, pairwise interactions between neighbors. Nonetheless, the chorus that emerges can impose significant selection pressure on the singing of those individual males. Thus, feedback loops may occur and potentially influence traits at both individual and group levels in a chorus. PMID:25236356

  7. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  8. Bounce-Averaged Acceleration of Energetic Electrons by Whistler Mode Chorus in the Magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fu-Liang; CHEN Liang-Xu; ZHOU Qing-Hua; HE Hui-Yong; WEN Yong-Jun

    2007-01-01

    @@ We construct the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and study the bounce-averaged acceleration for energetic electrons in gyroresonance with whistler mode chorus. Numerical calculations have been performed for a band of chorus frequency distributed over a standard Gaussian spectrum specifically in the region near L = 4.5, where peaks of the electron phase space density occur. It is found that whistler mode chorus can efficiently accelerate electrons and can increase the phase space density at energies of about 1 MeV by more than one order of magnitude about one day, in agreement with the satellite observations during the recovery phase of magnetic storms.

  9. Performance of the CHORUS lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Buontempo, S

    1997-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of the lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter of the CHORUS experiment, which searches for νμ-ντ oscillations in the CERN Wide Band Neutrino beam. Two of the three sectors in which the calorimeter is divided are made of lead and plastic scintillating fibers, and they represent the first large scale application of this technique for combined electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The third sector is built using the sandwich technique with lead plates and scintillator strips and acts as a tail catcher for the hadronic energy flow. From tests performed at the CERN SPS and PS an energy resolution of σ(E)/E=(32.3±2.4)%/E(GeV)+(1.4±0.7)% was measured for pions, and σ(E)/E=(13.8±0.9)%/E(GeV)+(−0.2±0.4)% for electrons.

  10. The Greek chorus and other techniques of paradoxical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, P

    1980-03-01

    This paper has described some of the interventions developed at the Ackerman Brief Therapy Project in treating the families of symptomatic children. The interventions are based upon a differential diagnosis of the family system and upon an evaluation of that system's resistance to change. They are classified as compliance-based or defiance-based, depending upon the family's degree of anxiety, motivation, and resistance. Paradoxical interventions, which are defiance-based, are used as a clinical tool in dealing with resistance and circumventing the power struggle between therapist and family. A consultation group acting as a Greek chorus underlines the therapist's interventions and comments on the consequences of systemic change. This group is also sometimes used to form a therapeutic triangle among the family, therapist and group, with the therapist and group debating over the family's ability to change. PMID:7364038

  11. Greek Chorus: an Ageless Voice%希腊合唱团:永恒的声音

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The chorus in an ancient Greek drama is typically composed of ten to fifteen men who rhythmically chant a dramatic refrain. They are viewed as one entity in the play as opposed to a group of people.

  12. Field-aligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth's outer radiation belt

    OpenAIRE

    H. Breuillard; O. Agapitov; Artemyev, A; E. A. Kronberg; Haaland, S. E.; P. W. Daly; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Boscher, D.; Bourdarie, S; Zaliznyak, Y; Rolland, G.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Chorus-type whistler waves are one of the most intense electromagnetic waves generated naturally in the mag-netosphere. These waves have a substantial impact on the radiation belt dynamics as they are thought to contribute to electron acceleration and losses into the ionosphere through resonant wave–particle interaction. Our study is devoted to the determination of chorus wave power distribution on frequency in a wide range of magnetic latitudes, from 0 to 40 •. We u...

  13. The chorus environment and the shape of communication systems in frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Vince

    2003-04-01

    Many species of frogs breed in dense and structurally complex aggregations of calling males termed choruses. Females entering a chorus are faced with the tasks of recognizing and locating mates on the basis of their advertisement calls. The chorus environment poses particular challenges for communication as signalers and receivers will face high levels of background noise and interference between signals. For females, such conditions may decrease the efficiency of communication, with the consequences of increasing the time required to find a mate or errors in mate choice. For males, it will give rise to intense competition for the attention of females. Additionally, the chorus environment for a species is not static, and will vary over both spatial and temporal scales. This complex and dynamic environment has shaped the signals and signaling behaviors of frogs in sometimes surprising ways. In this talk, some of the implications of the chorus environment for both receivers and signalers is discussed. In particular, examples from North American hylid frogs are drawn upon and research on the role of signal timing in influencing the responses of females and plasticity in aggressive behavior between neighbors in choruses are discussed.

  14. Observational evidence of generation mechanisms for very oblique lower band chorus using THEMIS waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinliang; Mourenas, Didier; Li, Wen; Artemyev, Anton V.; Lu, Quanming; Tao, Xin; Wang, Shui

    2016-07-01

    Chorus waves are intense coherent whistler mode waves with frequency chirping which play a dual role in both loss and acceleration of radiation belt electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. Although the generation of parallel chorus waves has been extensively studied by means of theory, simulations, and observations, the generation mechanism of very oblique chorus waves still remains a mystery. In this study, we have analyzed hundreds of very oblique discrete (rising or falling tone) lower band chorus events collected from 7 years of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) waveform data to investigate their potential generation mechanisms. Comparisons between wave normal angles directly measured onboard THEMIS in the dawn-day sector at L = 5-9 and inferred from theoretical models on the basis of measured wave characteristics (frequency sweep rate, mean frequency, and amplitude) show that these very oblique waves are more commonly generated through cyclotron resonance with anisotropic electron streams. However, a second generation mechanism via Landau resonance with low-energy electron beams seems to be also operating on the nightside at L 8.5. Moreover, very oblique lower band chorus waves with large frequency chirping rates or small magnetic field amplitudes are more likely excited via cyclotron resonance, while waves with small frequency chirping rates or large magnetic field amplitudes are preferentially generated through Landau resonance. This comprehensive statistical study provides interesting insight into the possible generation mechanisms of very oblique lower band chorus waves in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  15. Chorus intensity modulation driven by time-varying field-aligned low-energy plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Liang, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Le Contel, O.; Auster, U.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that chorus waves are responsible for scattering and precipitating the energetic electrons that drive the pulsating aurora. While some of the chorus intensity modulation events are correlated with <~100 eV electron density modulation, most of the chorus intensity modulation events in the postmidnight sector occur without apparent density changes. Although it is generally difficult to measure evolution of low-energy (<~20 eV) electron fluxes due to constraints imposed by the spacecraft potential and electrostatic analyzer (ESA) energy range limit, we identified using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite data that low-energy ions of ~100 eV show density modulation that is correlated with chorus intensity modulation. Those low-energy ions and electrons are field-aligned with major peaks in 0° (for northern hemisphere winter event) and 180° (for northern hemisphere summer event) pitch angle, indicating that outflowing plasma from the sunlit hemisphere is the source of the low-energy plasma density modulation near the equator. Plasma sheet plasma density, and ambient electric and magnetic fields do not show modulations that are correlated with the chorus intensity modulation. Assuming charge neutrality, the low-energy ions can be used to represent cold plasma density in wave growth rate calculations, and the enhancements of the low-energy plasma density are found to contribute most effectively to chorus linear growth rates. These results suggest that chorus intensity modulation is driven by a feedback process where outflowing plasma due to energetic electron precipitation increases the equatorial density that drives further electron precipitation.

  16. Nonlinear chorus wave effects on energetic electrons reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Q.; Fok, M. H.; Zheng, Y.; Lui, A.

    2012-12-01

    Electron energy transport due to nonlinear plasma wave particle interactions are carried out by wave and particles resonating with each other. Many nonlinear wave studies conducted in the past have only considered the main resonance between wave and electrons. However, we have found through test particle simulations that although independent, separate contributions from higher order resonances can be small, but they can have a rather significant impact on the main-order contribution hence the total nonlinear wave effects. Contribution from different orders can interfere with each other hence the overall nonlinear wave effect is significantly different from that of just the major resonance. Therefore in the nonlinear wave particle interaction regime, contribution from different resonant orders is inseparable and contributions from higher order wave-particle resonances should be all included. For the same token, banded plasma waves should be used in nonlinear wave studies instead of assumed monochromatic waves. By including all the essential factors mentioned above, the overall electron transport due to the nonlinear plasma wave effects take the form of diffusion-like rather than advection, which was reported in many previous studies. It is also found that chorus wave induced electron transport is one important mechanism for the formation of electron butterfly pitch angle distribution.

  17. The SPS Target Station for CHORUS and NOMAD Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S; Zazula, J M

    1996-01-01

    A new SPS target station, T9, has been constructed for the CHORUS and NOMAD neutrino experiments at CERN. The heart of the station is the target box : 11 beryllium rods are aligned in a cast aluminium box ; they are cooled by a closed circuit helium gas with adjusted flow to each rod. The box is motorised horizontally and vertically at both ends, to remotely optimise the secondary particle production by aligning the target with the incident proton beam. Radiation protection around the station is guaranteed by more than 100 tons of shielding material (iron, copper, marble). This presentation describes briefly the various components of the target station ; it emphasises particularly the thermal and mechanical calculations which define a safe maximum beam intensity on the beryllium rods. Over the first two years of successful operation, the station has received more than 2€1019 protons at 450 GeV/c, with intensity peaks of 2.8€1013 protons per machine cycle.

  18. Effect of Chorus Latitudinal Distribution on Evolution of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang; LI Junqiu; TANG Lijun; HE Yihua; LI Jiangfan

    2009-01-01

    Primary result on the impact of the latitudinal distribution of whistler-mode chorus upon temporal evolution of the phase space density (PSD) of outer radiation belt energetic electrons was presented.We evaluate diffusion rates in pitch angle and momentum due to a band of chorus frequency distributed at a standard Gaussian spectrum,and solve a 2-D bounce-averaged momentum-pitch-angle Fokker-Planck equation at L=4.5.It is shown that chorus is effective in accelerating electrons and can increase PSD for energy of ~1 MeV by a factor of 10 or more in about one day,which is consistent with observation.Moreover,the latitudinal distribution of chorus has a great impact on the acceleration of electrons.As the latitudinal distribution increases,the efficient acceleration region extends from higher pitch angles to lower pitch angles,and even covers the entire pitch angle region when chorus power reaches the maximum latitude λm=45°.

  19. Chorus source region localization in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using THEMIS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agapitov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions, the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves observed in the Earth's radiation belts and outer magnetosphere, are thought to propagate roughly along magnetic field lines from a localized source region near the magnetic equator towards the magnetic poles. THEMIS project Electric Field Instrument (EFI and Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM measurements were used to determine the spatial scale of the chorus source localization region on the day side of the Earth's outer magnetosphere. We present simultaneous observations of the same chorus elements registered onboard several THEMIS spacecraft in 2007 when all the spacecraft were in the same orbit. Discrete chorus elements were observed at 0.15–0.25 of the local electron gyrofrequency, which is typical for the outer magnetosphere. We evaluated the Poynting flux and wave vector distribution and obtained chorus wave packet quasi-parallel propagation to the local magnetic field. Amplitude and phase correlation data analysis allowed us to estimate the characteristic spatial correlation scale transverse to the local magnetic field to be in the 2800–3200 km range.

  20. Dawn chorus variation in East-Asian tropical montane forest birds and its ecological and morphological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.-M.; Lee, Y.-F.; Tsai, C.-F.; Yao, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-H.; Li, S.-H.; Kuo, Y.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Many birds in breeding seasons engage in vigorous dawn singing that often turns to a prominent chorus. We examined dawn chorus variation of avian assemblages in a tropical montane forest in Taiwan and tested the hypothesis that onset sequence is affected by eye sizes, foraging heights, and diet of b

  1. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis.

  2. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  3. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  4. Paralelismos y divergencias entre Juan Tenorio de Tirso de Molina y Miguel Páramo, personaje de Juan Rulfo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Ramírez-Barradas.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este breve artículo se presentan algunas características de Miguel Páramo que, primero, permiten incluirlo en la larga lista de personajes donjuanescos derivados de la obra de Tirso de Molina y que, además, hacen posible entender su función trágica.Summary: This article presents some of Miguel Páramo's characteristics that, first, allow including him in the long list of prominent Don Juan figures derived from Tirso de Molina's work and, in addition, make it possible to understand his tragic function.

  5. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  6. Exilios y nostalgias: Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Cuiñas, Ana

    2007-01-01

    En los albores del siglo XXI y bajo el signo de la posmodernidad, Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera llevan a cabo en “Valdemún”-un capítulo de Sefarad- y La ignorancia una serie de operaciones y articulaciones narrativas que tienen un común denominador: el tratamiento de las “interrogaciones existenciales” del exilio y la nostalgia. Ambos autores fraguan poéticas similares en lo que a la representación del horror del pasado se refiere, y apuestan en estos textos por un resca...

  7. Observations and modeling of forward and reflected chorus waves captured by THEMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agapitov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions are the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves observed in the radiation belts of the Earth's magnetosphere. Chorus emissions, whistler-mode wave packets propagating roughly along magnetic field lines from a well-localized source in the vicinity of the magnetic equator to polar regions, can be reflected at low altitudes. After reflection, wave packets can return to the equatorial plane region. Understanding of whistler wave propagation and reflection is critical to a correct description of wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts. We focus on properties of reflected chorus emissions observed by the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms spacecraft Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM and Electric Field Instrument (EFI at ELF/VLF frequencies up to 4 kHz at L≥8. We determine the direction of the Poynting flux and wave vector distribution for forward and reflected chorus waves. Although both types of chorus waves were detected near the magnetic equator and have similar, discrete structure and rising tones, reflected waves are attenuated by a factor of 10–30 and have 10% higher frequency than concurrently-observed forward waves. Modeling of wave propagation and reflection using geometrical optics ray-tracing allowed us to determine the chorus source region location and explain observed propagation characteristics. We find that reflected wave attenuation at a certain spatial region is caused by divergence of the ray paths of these non-ducted emissions, and that the frequency shift is caused by generation of the reflected waves at lower L-shells where the local equatorial gyrofrequency is larger.

  8. Signal recognition by frogs in the presence of temporally fluctuating chorus-shaped noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    The background noise generated in large social aggregations of calling individuals is a potent source of auditory masking for animals that communicate acoustically. Despite similarities with the so-called "cocktail-party problem" in humans, few studies have explicitly investigated how non-human animals solve the perceptual task of separating biologically relevant acoustic signals from ambient background noise. Under certain conditions, humans experience a release from auditory masking when speech is presented in speech-like masking noise that fluctuates in amplitude. We tested the hypothesis that females of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) experience masking release in artificial chorus noise that fluctuates in level at modulations rates characteristic of those present in ambient chorus noise. We estimated thresholds for recognizing conspecific advertisement calls (pulse rate=40-50 pulses/s) in the presence of unmodulated and sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) chorus-shaped masking noise. We tested two rates of modulation (5 Hz and 45 Hz) because the sounds of frog choruses are modulated at low rates (e.g., less than 5-10 Hz), and because those of species with pulsatile signals are additionally modulated at higher rates typical of the pulse rate of calls (e.g., between 15-50 Hz). Recognition thresholds were similar in the unmodulated and 5-Hz SAM conditions, and 12 dB higher in the 45-Hz SAM condition. These results did not support the hypothesis that female gray treefrogs experience masking release in temporally fluctuating chorus-shaped noise. We discuss our results in terms of modulation masking, and hypothesize that natural amplitude fluctuations in ambient chorus noise may impair mating call perception.

  9. Nonlinear sub-cyclotron resonance as a formation mechanism for gaps in banded chorus

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Xiangrong; Dong, Chuanfei; Gary, S Peter

    2015-01-01

    An interesting characteristic of magnetospheric chorus is the presence of a frequency gap at $\\omega \\simeq 0.5\\Omega_e$, where $\\Omega_e$ is the electron cyclotron angular frequency. Recent chorus observations sometimes show additional gaps near $0.3\\Omega_e$ and $0.6\\Omega_e$. Here we present a novel nonlinear mechanism for the formation of these gaps using Hamiltonian theory and test-particle simulations in a homogeneous, magnetized, collisionless plasma. We find that an oblique whistler wave with frequency at a fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency can resonate with electrons, leading to effective energy exchange between the wave and particles.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Tecplot Chorus for Analyzing Ensemble of CTH Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevenson, Joel O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Attaway, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, David

    2015-04-01

    The exploration of large parameter spaces in search of problem solution and uncertainty quantifcation produces very large ensembles of data. Processing ensemble data will continue to require more resources as simulation complexity and HPC platform throughput increase. More tools are needed to help provide rapid insight into these data sets to decrease manual processing time by the analyst and to increase knowledge the data can provide. One such tool is Tecplot Chorus, whose strengths are visualizing ensemble metadata and linked images. This report contains the analysis and conclusions from evaluating Tecplot Chorus with an example problem that is relevant to Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  12. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  13. How Race Is Made in America: Immigration, Citizenship, and the Historical Power of Racial Scripts by Natalia Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Velez, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Natalia Molina presents a critical analysis of the period 1924-1965 in U.S. immigration policy and provides an opportunity for readers to examine the racialization of Mexicans in the United States and its impact on immigration legislation and naturalization.

  14. A survey of Galileo plasma wave instrument observations of Jovian whistler-mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of plasma wave observations at Jupiter obtained by the plasma wave instrument on board the Galileo spacecraft is presented. The observations indicate that chorus emissions are observed commonly in the Jovian magnetosphere near the magnetic equator in the approximate radial range 6<r<10 RJ. The survey includes almost all local times but not equally sampled in radial distance due to the spacecraft trajectory. The data suggest that chorus emissions are somewhat more intense on the dayside, but this may be a result of insufficient nightside observations. The orbit of Galileo is also restricted to ±3° of the Jovigraphic equator, but the tilt of the magnetic field permits coverage of a range of magnetic latitudes of −13°<λmag<+13°. The similarities of chorus emissions to terrestrial observations are a good reason to speculate that Jovian chorus emission may play a significant role in the stochastic acceleration of electrons in the radial range 6–10 RJ as recent studies indicate. These electrons may then be transported inward by radial diffusion where they are additionally accelerated to form the synchrotron radiation belt source.

  15. Restrictions on the Quasi-Linear Description of Electron-Chorus Interaction in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Sibeck, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of electrons with coherent chorus waves in the random phase approximation can be described as quasi-linear diffusion for waves with amplitudes below some limit. The limit is calculated for relativistic and non-relativistic electrons. For stronger waves, the friction force should be taken into account.

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  17. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  18. Singing the Praise of Hong Kong’s Return——A Hong Kong chorus visits Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AN 82-member Hong Kong chorus recently held a concert in Beijing to express their happiness at Hong Kong’s return to China. The Hong Kong Arts Chorus entitled their concert, "When the wind sweeps through, paddy fields produce fragrance to merge both banks--hail the return of Hong Kong." The verse which the chorus had adopted as the title of their concert in Beijing comes from a well-known song on the mainland,"My Motherland." By adopting this famous

  19. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  20. High Resolution Spectral Analysis of Hiss and Chorus Emissions in Ground Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Aliabad, S. P.; Golkowski, M.; Gibby, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic evolution of the radiation belts is believed to be controlled in large part by two separate but related classes of naturally occurring plasma waves: ELF/VLF chorus and hiss emissions. Although whistler mode chorus has been extensively studied since the first reports by Storey in 1953, the source mechanism and properties are still subjects of active research. Moreover, the origin of plasmaspheric hiss, the electromagnetic emission believed to be responsible for the gap between the inner and outer radiation belts, has been debated for over four decades. Although these waves can be observed in situ on spacecraft, ground-based observing stations can provide orders of magnitude higher data volumes and decades long data coverage essential for certain long-term and statistical studies of wave properties. Recent observational and theoretical works suggest that high resolution analysis of the spectral features of both hiss and chorus emissions can provide insight into generation processes and be used to validate existing theories. Application of the classic Fourier (FFT) technique unfortunately yields a tradeoff between time and frequency resolution. In additional to Fourier spectra, we employ novel methods to make spectrograms with high time and frequency resolutions, independently using minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR). These techniques are applied to ground based data observations of hiss and chorus made in Alaska. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband, structure less, incoherent emission. We quantify the extent to which plasmaspheric hiss can be a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Likewise, to date, researchers have differentiated between hiss and chorus coherency primarily using qualitative "naked eye" approaches to amplitude spectra. Using a quantitative approach to observed amplitude and we present more rigorous classification criteria for these emissions.

  1. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  2. Catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este artículo se prentende difundir el catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina (Fuente Victoria, 1903- Almería, 1995, compositor, profesor, director, y sobre todo la cuna musical almeriense de la postguerra, conocido en Almería como el maestro Barco, obras que pertenecen al patrimonio musical de Almería y que hasta el momento han permanecido refugiadas, en su mayor parte, en archivos privados (familia, amigos y discípulos y/o instituciones de ámbito privado (hermandades y SGAE y en muy pocos casos, en instituciones públicas como es el caso de la Biblioteca Nacional de España, en la que se encuentran seis de los títulos que forma la obra musical de este compositor y el archivo de la Banda Municipal de Almería.

  3. Pollen germination capacity and viability in lagenaria siceraria (molina) standley (cucurbitaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to a monoecious species Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley belonging to Cucurbitaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using 'hanging drop technique'. Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different humidity conditions in a refrigerator (4 deg. C), freezer (-20 deg. C. -30 deg. C), freeze drier (-60 deg. C). The pollen were also treated in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4 deg. C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (- 60 deg. C) showed the highest percentage of germination. (author)

  4. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina Standl. Germplasm from peninsular india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil N*, Thirupathi Reddy M, Hameedunnisa B, Vinod Someswara Rao P, Sivaraj N, Kamala V, Prasad R B N, Rao B VS K, Chakrabarty S K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 20 diverse accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl., exhibited wide range of variability for qualitative and quantitative traits. The seed oil content ranged from 18.6 % (IC446598 to 28.0 % (IC446592. The fatty acid composition of bottle gourd seed oil also varied. Days to 50% flowering and peduncle length had significant positive correlation with seed oil content, whereas inter nodal length had significant negative correlation. The intermodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Based on the traits, the accessions clustered into three distinct clusters. The diversity may be exploited for crop improvement and the potential of bottle gourd as edible oil source further explored.

  5. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  6. The CHORUS gap analysis on user-centered methodology for design and evaluation of multi-media information access systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karlgren, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    CHORUS is a Coordination Action, a specific type of project funded by the European commission under its research programmes, intended to bring together research projects with common goals, in the field of search technologies for digital audio-visual content, one of the strategic objectives of the current research frame program. CHORUS coordinates a number of research projects in the general area of audio-visual and multi-media information access and management. The most important single ...

  7. Solar Wind Compression Generation of Coincident EMIC and Whistler Mode Chorus and Hiss Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Alexa; Mann, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Electron radiation belt dynamics are controlled by the competition of multiple acceleration and loss mechanisms. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), chorus, and hiss waves have all been implicated as potential loss mechanisms of radiation belt electrons along with Chorus waves proposed as a mechanism for accelerating the lower energy source population to MeV energies. Understanding the relative importance of these waves as well as where and under what conditions they are generated is vital to predicting radiation belt dynamics. Although the size of the solar wind compression on 9 January 2014 event discussed here was modest, it has given us an opportunity to observe clearly how a magnetospheric compression can lead to the generation of EMIC, chorus, and hiss waves. The ICME generated shock encountered the Earth's magnetosphere on 9 January 2014 at ~20:11 UT, and the Van Allen Probes observe the coincident excitation of EMIC and Chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and hiss weaves inside the plasmasphere. As the shock encountered the magnetosphere, an electric field impulse was observed to generate an increase in temperature anisotropy for both ions and electrons. This increased temperature anisotropy led to increased wave growth on both the ion and electron cyclotron branches. The simultaneous generation of multiple types of waves may lead to significant impacts on the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons, especially during geomagnetic compressions observed during the substorms, and the storm sudden commencement and main phases of geomagnetic storms, as well as during quiet time sudden impulse events. For example, the excitation of both EMIC and chorus waves at the same place, and at the same time, may complicate studies seeking a causal connection between specific individual plasma wave bursts and observations of particle precipitation into the atmosphere. During this relatively small event BARREL had three payloads in conjunction with the Van

  8. Pitch Angle Distribution Evolution of Energetic Electrons by Whistler-Mode Chorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hui-Nan; SU Zhen-Peng; XIONG Ming

    2008-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional momentum and pitch angle code to solve the typical Fokker-Planck equation which governs wave-particle interaction in space plasmas. We carry out detailed calculations of momentum and pitch angle diffusion coefficients, and temporal evolution of pitch angle distribution for a band of chorus frequency distributed over a standard Gaussian spectrum particularly in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt L = 4.5,where peaks of the electron phase space density are observed. We find that the Whistler-mode chorus can produce significant acceleration of electrons at large pitch angles, and can enhance the phase space density for energies of 0.5~1 MeV by a factor of 10 or above after about 24h. This result can account for observation of significant enhancement in flux of energetic electrons during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm.

  9. Propagation of whistler-mode chorus to low altitudes: divergent ray trajectories and ground accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Chum, J.; O. Santolík

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the ray trajectories of nonductedly propagating lower-band chorus waves with respect to their initial angle θ0, between the wave vector and ambient magnetic field. Although we consider a wide range of initial angles θ0, in order to be consistent with recent satellite observations, we pay special attention to the intervals of initial angles θ0, for which the waves propagate along t...

  10. Observation of chorus waves by the Van Allen Probes: Dependence on solar wind parameters and scale size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Kletzing, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Highly energetic electrons in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity. However, geomagnetic indices are nonspecific parameters that are compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements. The present study uses wave data from the two Van Allen Probes to present the distribution of lower band chorus waves not only as functions of single geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters but also as functions of combined parameters. Also the current study takes advantage of the unique equatorial orbit of the Van Allen Probes to estimate the average scale size of chorus wave packets, during close separations between the two spacecraft, as a function of radial distance, magnetic latitude, and geomagnetic activity, respectively. Results show that the average scale size of chorus wave packets is approximately 1300-2300 km. The results also show that the inclusion of combined parameters can provide better representation of the chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere and therefore can further improve our knowledge of the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons.

  11. Quillajasides A and B: New Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters from the Inner Bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Steingass, Christof B; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-14

    The phenolic composition of freshly prepared aqueous extracts of the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina was compared to that of commercially available Quillaja extracts, which are currently used as emulsifiers in foods and cosmetics. Major phenolics in both extracts were (+)-piscidic acid and several p-coumaroyl sucrose esters. Among the latter, two new compounds were isolated and characterized: α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside A) and β-d-apif-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside B). In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of at least 20 structurally related p-coumaroyl sucrose esters was tentatively identified. Besides their antioxidant activity and their potential function as substrate for enzymatic browning reactions, the new compounds are highly characteristic for both the inner bark of Q. saponaria and commercial extracts derived therefrom. Consequently, they might serve as authenticity markers for the detection of Quillaja extracts in food and cosmetic formulations. PMID:26375986

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  13. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  14. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  15. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  16. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  17. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Studies on Chemical Controll of Botrytis cinerea in Pepper by 50% CHORUS WG%50%CHORUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病药效试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德咏; 陈文勇; 谭新球; 刘勇

    2005-01-01

    对新型苯氨基嘧啶类杀菌剂50%CHORUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病的田间效果进行了试验.结果表明:50%CHO-RUS WG防治辣椒灰霉病的防治效果较好.用量为120g/100L水,喷药液50~70L/667m2,药后7d、10d对叶部病害的防效分别为71.63%、72.83%,对果实病害的防效分别为74.49%、75.337%.50%CHORUS WG是二甲酰亚胺类杀菌剂的良好替代药剂.

  19. Radial variation of whistler-mode chorus: first results from the STAFF/DWP instrument on board the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Santolík

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the first measurements of the STAFF/DWP instrument on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft to investigate whistler-mode chorus. We present initial results of a systematic study on radial variation of dawn chorus. The chorus events show an increased intensity at L parameter above 6. This is important for the possible explanation of intensifications of chorus, which were previously observed closer to the Earth at higher latitudes. Our results also indicate that the upper band of chorus at frequencies above one-half of the electron cyclotron frequency disappears for L above 8. The lower band of chorus is observed at frequencies below 0.4 of the electron cyclotron frequency up to L of 11-12. The maxima of the chorus power spectra are found at slightly lower frequencies compared to previous studies. We do not observe any distinct evolution of the position of the chorus frequency band as a function of L. More data of the TC-1 spacecraft are needed to verify these initial results and to increase the MLT coverage.

  20. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Pyrrhura sp.--question about conspecificity in the light of hybridization between Pyrrhura molinae and Pyrrhura rupicola species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Strzała, Tomasz; Grabowski, Krzysztof Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pyrrhura contains at least 24 species widespread mainly through South America. Pyrrhura molinae (Green-cheeked Conure) and Pyrrhura rupicola (Black-capped Conure) are treated as separate species based on morphological differences. Geographical ranges of these two species overlap in southern Peru. However, it is not clear if they occur there sympatrically or it is a hybridization zone. Some taxonomists conjecture their conspecific character, as possible hybrid individuals have been found in Puno region. We sequenced mitochondrial genome of specimen with phenotype typical for P. molinae. To confirm its species belonging, we aligned CYTB and control region (CR) sequences with adequate sequences of 21 Pyrrhura species. Surprisingly, analyzed P. molinae individual grouped together with two different individuals of P. rupicola species. Such incompatibility of genetic data with morphology may be only the result of these two species hybridization.

  1. Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Meredith

    Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave

  2. Equatorial electron loss by double resonance with oblique and parallel intense chorus waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Puzzling satellite observations of butterfly pitch angle distributions and rapid dropouts of 30-150 keV electrons are widespread in the Earth's radiation belts. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these observations, such as enhanced outward radial diffusion combined with magnetopause shadowing or scattering by intense magnetosonic waves, but their effectiveness is mainly limited to storm times. Moreover, the scattering of 30-150 keV electrons via cyclotron resonance with intense parallel chorus waves should be limited to particles with equatorial pitch angle smaller than 70°-75°, leaving unaffected a large portion of the population. In this paper, we investigate the possible effects of oblique whistler mode waves, noting, in particular, that Landau resonance with very oblique waves can occur up to ˜89°. We demonstrate that such very oblique chorus waves with realistic amplitudes can very efficiently nonlinearly transport nearly equatorially mirroring electrons toward smaller pitch angles where nonlinear scattering (phase bunching) via cyclotron resonance with quasi-parallel waves can take over and quickly send them to much lower pitch angles <40°. The proposed double resonance mechanism could therefore explain the formation of butterfly pitch angle distributions as well as contribute to some fast dropouts of 30-150 keV electrons occurring during moderate geomagnetic disturbances at L = 4-6. Since 30-150 keV electrons represent a seed population for a further acceleration to relativistic energies by intense parallel chorus waves during storms or substorms, the proposed mechanism may have important consequences on the dynamics of 100 keV to MeV electron fluxes in the radiation belts.

  3. Propagation of whistler-mode chorus to low altitudes: divergent ray trajectories and ground accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chum

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ray trajectories of nonductedly propagating lower-band chorus waves with respect to their initial angle θ0, between the wave vector and ambient magnetic field. Although we consider a wide range of initial angles θ0, in order to be consistent with recent satellite observations, we pay special attention to the intervals of initial angles θ0, for which the waves propagate along the field lines in the source region, i.e. we mainly focus on waves generated with &theta0 within an interval close to 0° and on waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle. We demonstrate that the ray trajectories of waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle with a wave vector directed towards the lower L-shells (to the Earth significantly diverge at the frequencies typical for the lower-band chorus. Some of these diverging trajectories reach the topside ionosphere having θ close to 0°; thus, a part of the energy may leak to the ground at higher altitudes where the field lines have a nearly vertical direction. The waves generated with different initial angles are reflected. A small variation of the initial wave normal angle thus very dramatically changes the behaviour of the resulting ray. Although our approach is rather theoretical, based on the ray tracing simulation, we show that the initial angle θ0 of the waves reaching the ionosphere (possibly ground is surprisingly close - differs just by several degrees from the initial angles which fits the observation of magnetospherically reflected chorus revealed by CLUSTER satellites. We also mention observations of diverging trajectories on low altitude satellites.

  4. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  5. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  6. The Dusk Chorus from an Owl Perspective: Eagle Owls Vocalize When Their White Throat Badge Contrasts Most

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Penteriani; Maria del Mar Delgado

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to dat...

  7. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    M.C.S. Barbosa; K.M. da S. Belletti; T.F. Corrêa; C.A.M. Santos

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  8. Narrativa de indios en las Historias naturales de Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre

    OpenAIRE

    Hachim Lara, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Los naturalistas europeos abordaron a los aborígenes de América, recurriendo a las narraciones que el archivo occidental poseía y que estaba a disposición de la racionalidad ilustrada en perspectiva de la administración colonial. A su vez, los criollos letrados, confrontan su episteme –a veces diferenciada– con esas narrativas occidentalistas. Así, los jesuitas chilenos Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre en sus Historias naturales, investigarán las costumbres civiles del indígena ...

  9. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-01-01

    Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha infl...

  10. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ALBERTO ÁLVAREZ WATSON; HENRY ORLANDO BOLAÑOS BURBANO; FRANCISCO ORLANDO VELÁSQUEZ VÁSQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    El caso analiza la situación particular de la Institución educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina, el liderazgo del rector y el apoyo del sector privado en los procesos de gestión de la calidad. Esto motiva a los integrantes de la institución a trabajar en equipo para lograr la certificación de calidad, mejorando sus resultados académicos año tras año, destacándose a nivel regional y nacional, y generando cambios sociales en su entorno. Metodológicamente, se identificó una instituci...

  11. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. PMID:19145575

  12. Dynamic Evolution of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons due to Whistler-Mode Chorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan; XIONG Ming

    2009-01-01

    Following our preceding work,we perform a further study on dynamic evolution of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt L = 4.5 due to a band of whistler-mode chorus frequency distributed over a standard Gaussian spectrum.We solve the 2D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation by allowing incorporation of cross diffusion rates.Numerical results show that whistler-mode chorus can be effective in acceleration of electrons at large pitch angles,and enhance the phase space density for energies of about 1MeV by a factor of 102 or above in about one day,consistent with observation of significant enhancement in flux of energetic electrons during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm.Moreover,neglecting cross diffusion often leads to overestimates of the phase space density evolution at large pitch angle by a factor of 5-10 after one day,with larger errors at smaller pitch angle,suggesting that cross diffusion also plays an important role in wave-particle interaction.

  13. Luis de Molina y la esclavitud de los negros africanos en el siglo XVI. Principios doctrinales y conclusiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Añoveros, Jesús María

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important consequences of Portuguese discoveries was the black slavery business. A most reputed theologist and jurist of the time, Juan de Molina, who had a first-hand knowledge of the subject, made a thorough analysis of the justness of slavery from a Theology and Law perspective, while showing himself opposed to the same. His doctrine set basis for future thought and he must be considered as the first great tratadist on black slavery.

    Una de las consecuencias más importantes de los descubrimientos portugueses en África fue el negocio de los esclavos negros. Luis de Molina, uno de los teólogos y juristas más importantes de su época y con un gran conocimiento del asunto, trató el tema de la licitud de los esclavos negros en amplitud, analizándolo desde la perspectiva de la teología y del derecho, sin omitir su opinión personal contraria a dicha esclavitud. Su doctrina creó escuela y debe ser considerado como el primer gran tratadista de la esclavitud de los negros.

  14. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  15. The dusk chorus from an owl perspective: eagle owls vocalize when their white throat badge contrasts most.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white

  16. Magnetospherically reflected chorus waves revealed by ray tracing with CLUSTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    Full Text Available This paper is related to the propagation characteristics of a chorus emission recorded simultaneously by the 4 satellites of the CLUSTER mission on 29 October 2001 between 01:00 and 05:00 UT. During this day, the spacecraft (SC 1, 2, and 4 are relatively close to each other but SC3 has been delayed by half an hour. We use the data recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. Dedicated software processes this spectral matrix in order to determine the wave normal directions relative to the Earth’s magnetic field. This calculation is done for the 4 satellites at different times and different frequencies and allows us to check the directions of these waves. Measurements around the magnetic equator show that the parallel component of the Poynting vector changes its sign when the satellites cross the equator region. It indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from this region which is considered as the source area of these emissions. This is valid for the most intense waves observed on the magnetic and electric power spectrograms. But it is also observed on SC1, SC2, and SC4 that lower intensity waves propagate toward the equator simultaneously with the SC3 intense chorus waves propagating away from the equator. Both waves are at the same frequency. Using the wave normal directions of these waves, a ray tracing study shows that the waves observed by SC1, SC2, and SC4 cross the equatorial plane at the same location as the waves observed by SC3. SC3 which is 30 minutes late observes the waves that originate first from the equator; meanwhile, SC1, SC2, and SC4 observe the same waves that have suffered a Lower Hybrid Resonance (LHR reflection at low altitudes (based on the ray tracing analysis and now return to the equator at a different location with a lower intensity. Similar phenomenon is observed when all SC are on the other side

  17. Decrease of VLF transmitter signal and Chorus-whistler waves before l'Aquila earthquake occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Boudjada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the VLF emissions observed by the Instrument Champ Electrique (ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. We analyze intensity level variation 10 days before and after the occurrence of l'Aquila earthquake (EQ. We found a clear decrease of the VLF received signal related to ionospheric whistler mode (mainly Chorus emission and to signal transmitted by the DFY VLF station in Germany, few days (more than one week before the earthquake. The VLF power spectral density decreases of more than two orders of magnitude until the EQ, and it recovers to normal levels just after the EQ occurrence. The geomagnetic activity is principally weak four days before EQ and increases again one day before l'Aquila seismic event. Our results are discussed in the frame of short- and long-terms earthquakes prediction focusing on the crucial role of the magnetic field of the Earth.

  18. Leading order analysis of neutrino induced dimuon events in the CHORUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Kama, S; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlioueva, I; Artamonov, A; Gorbunov, P; Khovansky, V; Shamanov, V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2008-01-01

    We present a leading order QCD analysis of a sample of neutrino induced charged-current events with two muons in the final state originating in the lead-scintillating fibre calorimeter of the CHORUS detector. The results are based on a sample of 8910 neutrino and 430 antineutrino induced opposite-sign dimuon events collected during the exposure of the detector to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam between 1995 and 1998. The analysis yields a value of the charm quark mass of $m_c=(1.26+- 0.16+-0.09) GeV/c^2$ and a value of the ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon of $\\kappa=0.33+-0.05+-0.05$, improving the results obtained in similar analyses by previous experiments.

  19. Leading order analysis of neutrino induced dimuon events in the CHORUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a leading order QCD analysis of a sample of neutrino induced charged-current events with two muons in the final state originating in the lead-scintillating fibre calorimeter of the CHORUS detector. The results are based on a sample of 8910 neutrino and 430 antineutrino induced opposite-sign dimuon events collected during the exposure of the detector to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam between 1995 and 1998. The analysis yields a value of the charm quark mass of mc=(1.26±0.16±0.09)GeV/c2 and a value of the ratio of the strange to non-strange sea in the nucleon of κ=0.33±0.05±0.05, improving the results obtained in similar analyses by previous experiments

  20. The acoustic characteristics of professional opera singers performing in chorus versus solo mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Katherine L P; Davis, Pamela; Oates, Jennifer; Cabrera, Densil; Ternström, Sten; Black, Michael; Chapman, Janice

    2007-01-01

    In this study, members of a professional opera chorus were recorded using close microphones, while singing in both choral and solo modes. The analysis included computation of long-term average spectra (LTAS) for the two song sections performed and calculation of singing power ratio (SPR) and energy ratio (ER), which provide an indication of the relative energy in the singer's formant region. Vibrato rate and extent were determined from two matched vowels, and SPR and ER were calculated for these vowels. Subjects sung with equal or more power in the singer's formant region in choral versus solo mode in the context of the piece as a whole and in individual vowels. There was no difference in vibrato rate and extent between the two modes. Singing in choral mode, therefore, required the ability to use a similar vocal timbre to that required for solo opera singing. PMID:16427767

  1. Chorus-Driven Outer Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics at Different L-Shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sai; XIAO Fu-Liang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energetic outer radiation belt electron phase space density(PSD)evolution due to interaction with whistler-mode chorus at different L-shells is investigated by solving the diffusion equation including cross diffusion terms.It is found that the difference of diffusion rates for different L-shells occurs primarily at pitch angles 0°-50° and around 90°.In particular,diffusion rates for L = 6.5 are found to be 5-10 times larger than that for L = 3.5 at these pitch angles.In the presence of cross terms,PSD for~MeV electrons after 24 h decreases by about 25,12,10 and 8 times at L = 3.5,4.5,5.5 and 6.5 near the loss cone,and increases by about 55,45,30 and 20 times at larger pitch angles,respectively.After 24 h,the ratios between~MeV electron PSDs from simulations without and with cross diffusion at L = 3.5,4.5,5.5 and 6.5 are about 350,600,800 and 800 near the loss cone,and become 5,5.5,6.5 and 8 at pitch angle 90°,respectively.These results demonstrate that neglect of cross diffusion generally results in the overestimate of PSD,and the cross diffusion plays a more significant role in the resonant interaction between chorus waves and outer radiation belt electrons at larger L.

  2. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  3. Comparison of the onset of dawn chorus of bulbuls and house sparrows in two different geographical locations: effect of climate, noise and light pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail M. Hasan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The onset of dawn chorus was studied for a period of fourteen months for bulbuls (Pycnonotidae and house sparrows (Passer domesticus in two different geographical locations. One is very quiet and semi lit place in the suburbs of the small Mediterranean city of Tulkarem/Palestinian Authority. The other location is comparatively noisy and very well lit place in the Ar-Rayyan urban district of the city of Riyadh/ Saudi Arabia where desert climate prevails. This study is the first of its kind and clearly shows that the timing of dawn chorus is similar for autumn and winter seasons in both locations but major differences were observed from February until September between the two locations. It can be concluded that very early timing of dawn chorus during spring / summer for the Riyadh location cannot only be attributed to breeding season and is temperature dependent (strong positive correlation, r>0.6. The similarities for autumn and early winter between the two locations is very interesting in that it is not in agreement with the notion that big cities (urbanization influence the timing of dawn chorus due to noise and light pollution. This emphasizes that dawn chorus is a complex process and that change in the onset and pattern of dawn chorus can not merely be attributed to one variable such as noise or light pollution alone.

  4. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  5. Magion 5 observations of chorus-like emissions and their propagation features as inferred from ray-tracing simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chum

    Full Text Available After reviewing briefly the present state of knowledge about chorus-like emissions, we present an overview of Magion 5 satellite observations of these emissions in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. From the extensive VLF data recorded on board the Magion 5 satellite, we show examples of different types of discrete elements, representing rising and falling tones, and discuss their spectral properties, such as the bandwidth and the characteristic frequency as compared to the equatorial electron gyrofrequency. We analyse the possibility of satellite observation of discrete elements, assuming nonducted wave propagation from the source. As for the characteristic dimension of the generation region, we apply the figures obtained from the recently published correlation analysis of chorus emission recorded by four satellites in the Cluster experiment. We conclude that different frequencies in the chorus element should be emitted in a certain span of wave normal angles, so that the whole element could be observed far from the generation region.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma waves and instabilities – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions – Ionosphere (wave propagation

  6. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  7. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Rivera; Gonzalo Silva; Inés Figueroa; Maritza Tapia; J. Concepción Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina) foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at pr...

  8. Intensification of dayside diffuse auroral precipitation: contribution of dayside Whistler-mode chorus waves in realistic magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the recently improved understanding of nightside diffuse aurora, the mechanism(s responsible for dayside diffuse aurora remains poorly understood. While dayside chorus has been thought as a potential major contributor to dayside diffuse auroral precipitation, quantitative analyses of the role of chorus wave scattering have not been carefully performed. In this study we investigate a dayside diffuse auroral intensification event observed by the Chinese Arctic Yellow River Station (YRS all-sky imagers (ASI on 7 January 2005 and capture a substantial increase in diffuse auroral intensity at the 557.7 nm wavelength that occurred over almost the entire ASI field-of-view near 09:24 UT, i.e., ~12:24 MLT. Computation of bounce-averaged resonant scattering rates by dayside chorus emissions using realistic magnetic field models demonstrates that dayside chorus scattering can produce intense precipitation losses of plasma sheet electrons on timescales of hours (even approaching the strong diffusion limit over a broad range of both energy and pitch angle, specifically, from ~1 keV to 50 keV with equatorial pitch angles from the loss cone to up to ~85° depending on electron energy. Subsequent estimate of loss cone filling index indicates that the loss cone can be substantially filled, due to dayside chorus driven pitch angle scattering, at a rate of ≥0.8 for electrons from ~500 eV to 50 keV that exactly covers the precipitating electrons for the excitation of green-line diffuse aurora. Estimate of electron precipitation flux at different energy levels, based on loss cone filling index profile and typical dayside electron distribution observed by THEMIS spacecraft under similar conditions, gives a total precipitation electron energy flux of the order of 0.1 erg cm−2 s−1 with ~1 keV characteristic energy (especially when using T01s, which can be very likely to cause intense green-line diffuse aurora activity on the

  9. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  10. Rapid increase in relativistic electron flux controlled by nonlinear phase trapping of whistler chorus elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinji; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Seki, Kanako

    2016-07-01

    Wave-particle interactions with whistler chorus waves are believed to provide a primary acceleration for electrons in the outer radiation belt. Previous models for flux enhancement of the radiation belt have assumed the stochastic process as a diffusion manner of successive random-phase interactions, but physical mechanisms for the acceleration are not fully incorporated in these models because of the lack of a nonlinear scattering process. Here we report rapid increase in relativistic electron flux by using an innovative computer simulation model that incorporates not only diffusive process but also nonlinear scattering processes. The simulations show that three types of scattering simultaneously occur, which are diffusive, phase trapping, and phase bunching. It is found that the phase trapping is the most efficient mechanism to produce the MeV electrons rapidly in the scattering processes. The electrons are accelerated from 400 keV to over 1 MeV in time scale less than 60 s. On the other hand, as the phase trapping is suppressed by the breaking of relative phase angle between waves and gyrating electrons during the interaction, the increase of electron flux at MeV energy is clearly reduced. Our simulations conclude that the phase-trapping process causes a significant effect for the increase in relativistic electron flux and suggest that a quasi-linear diffusion model is not always valid to fully describe the relativistic electron acceleration.

  11. Substorm-related VLF chorus events: local-time dependence and relationship to newly-injected clouds of drifting energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VLF chorus is a naturally occurring, electromagnetic wave phenomenon that is generated in the earth's magnetosphere during interactions between VLF waves and energetic electrons. The macrostructure of a 9-day period of VLF ground station data, recorded at two Antarctic stations, Halley Bay and Siple, has been studied using compressed time-scale spectrograms. A magnetically quiet period was chosen for analysis, within which isolated substorms occurred. It has been found that chorus frequently occurs in events, the most characteristic feature of which is an initial rise in the upper cut-off frequency of the chorus band. The events are typically observed in the midnight to 16:00 MLT sector. They are correlated with disturbances of about 100 to 750 gammas in the AE magnetic activity index, or substorms, and with energetic electron flux enhancements measured by ATS 6 at geosynchronous orbit. In addition, parameters scaled from the upper and lower cut-off frequency variations of the events have a local-time dependence. During substorms, satellites consistently encounter clouds of energetic electrons that have been injected into the nightside outer radiation zone. It is believed that the time-developing characteristics, and local-time dependencies of the chorus events are a reflection of the time-developing characteristics of clouds of energetic electrons that have recently been injected during substorms. Two interpretations of the chorus events have been investigated based on this theory

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  13. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

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    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha influenciado el desarrollo de esta área en el Perú no solo en las adaptaciones curriculares que se han producido en varias universidades del país sino también en las investigaciones biotecnológicas que se llevan a cabo en universidades e institutos de investigación en las diferentes regiones del país. En este devenir histórico se concluye que el balance es muy positivo y que la mejor corriente epistemológica es la que nos lleva mediante la investigación a encontrar verdades usables en la solución de los problemas del país y, también por qué no, del planeta.

  14. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.

  15. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

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    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  16. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Fredes; Gloria Montenegro; Juan Pablo Zoffoli; Miguel Gómez; Paz Robert

    2012-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and a...

  17. Simulation of Resonant Interaction between Energetic Electrons and Whistler-Mode Chorus in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan

    2008-01-01

    @@ We construct a realistic model to evaluate the chorus wave--particle interaction in the outer radiation belt L = 4.5.This model incorporates a plasmatrough number density model, a field-aligned density model and a realistic wave power and frequency model.We solve the 2D bounce-averaged momentum-pitch-angle Fokker-Planck equation and show that the Whistler-mode chorus can be effective in the acceleration of electrons, and enhance the phase space density for energies of ~1 Me V by a factor from 10 to 103 in about two days, consistent with the observation.We also demonstrate that ignorance of the electron number density variation along field line and magnetic local time in the previous work yields an overestimate of energetic electron phase space density by a factor 5~10 at large pitch-angle after two days, suggesting that a realistic plasma density model is very important to evaluate the evolution of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt.

  18. Method for direct detection of pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons caused by whistler mode chorus emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA), a new instrument proposed by Fukuhara et al. (2009), measures the relative phase angle between the wave magnetic field vector and the velocity vector of each particle and calculates the energy exchange from waves to particles. In this study, we expand its applicability by proposing a method of using the WPIA to directly detect pitch angle scattering of resonant particles by plasma waves by calculating the g values. The g value is defined as the accumulation value of the Lorentz force acting on each particle and indicates the lost momentum of waves. We apply the proposed method to the results of a one-dimensional electron hybrid simulation reproducing the generation of whistler mode chorus emissions around the magnetic equator. Using the wave and particle data obtained at fixed observation points assumed in the simulation system, we conduct a pseudo-observation of the simulation result using the WPIA and analyze the g values. Our analysis yielded significant values indicating the strong pitch angle scattering for electrons in the kinetic energy and pitch angle ranges satisfying the cyclotron resonance condition with the reproduced chorus emissions. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method enables us to directly and quantitatively identify the location at which pitch angle scattering occurs in the simulation system and that the method can be applied to the results of space-based observations by the forthcoming Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) satellite.

  19. Tropos y fotos para establecer identidad en El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Corbellini, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    A partir de la lectura de El jinete polaco Antonio Muñoz Molina se reflexiona sobre la construcción del discurso sobre la memoria histórica que realiza el autor en esta novela. Se analiza la utilización de fotos e imágenes como motivos a partir de los cuales los personajes arman su relato del pasado desde una perspectiva personal. Se pone en consideración este procedimiento con otras novelas del autor y como característica de autores contemporáneos.

  20. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. De la Historia moral a la Historia civil en el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 del abate Juan Ignacio Molina

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    Luis Hachim Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El jesuíta Juan Ignacio Molina escribió el Compendio de la Historia Geográfica, Natural y Civil deIReynodeChile (1776 y el Compendio de la HistoriaCivil del ReynodeChile (1787 en el exilio italiano. En los estudios sobre los jesuítas, sus Historias naturales no han sido exploradas en cuanto a la importancia cultural, literaria y crítica que implican. En este trabajo se tratarán algunos rasgos de la escritura de la Historia que constituyen el discurso de la ciencia y que muestran el desarrollo que va desde la Historia naturaly moral -que desde Aristótelesy Plinio representa la ciencia clásica- a los nuevos modos de conocer que representa el modelo de ciencia de la Ilustración. En consecuencia, el aporte del Abate Molina en su Compendio de la Historia Civil consiste en incorporar la concepción de progreso en los usos y costumbres de los indígenas, aportando una visión de integración diferente a la civilidad. Sabemos que con posterioridad al siglo dieciocho el aporte de muchos astrónomos, médicos y científicos jesuítas -en América- construyeron las bases de la ciencia moderna y progresiva, representando la continuidad más que la regresión en el desarrollo científico tal como lo concebimos actualmente.TheJesuit Juan Ignacio Molina vimte the Compendiode la Historia Geográfica, natural y Civil del Reyno de Chile (1776 y el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 in exile in Italy. In relation to criticism, the thinking of the naturalist of the company in the transition -some see opposition-from the model of traditional and scholastic science to the paradigm of modern and enlightened science was importantThis assignment will consider some of the characteristics of the writing of history, which constitute the discourse of science and show the development from the moral and natural history -the classical science of Aristotle and Plinio- to the new forms of knowledge that represent the model of science of the enlight

  2. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  3. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  4. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellanomexicano (1555 de Fray A. De Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galeote

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aqui comiença vn vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina —el Nebrija de las Indias — y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  5. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  6. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  7. [Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Neogene micromammalian faunas from the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (Spain) / Freudenthal, M. (editor)]: Rodents and lagomorphs from a lower Vallesian fissure filling near Molina de Aragon (Prov. Guadalajara, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anduenza, J.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new lower Vallesian micromammalian fauna from a locality near Molina de Aragon is described. Five species of Cricetidae, three species of Sciuridae - including a new one (Heteroxerus molinensis) -, two species of Gliridae, and one lagomorph species are described. Also, the paleoecological implicat

  8. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. в образах и символах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  9. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), and its application to fishery-biological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Palma G; Patricio Arana E

    1996-01-01

    La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos ...

  10. Instability of whistler mode chorus in space plasma%空间等离子体中哨声波合声模非稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆华; 肖伏良; 唐立军

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study on the instability of whistler mode chorus in space plasma by a Kappa distribution was presented. When the anisotropy or the number density of energetic electrons increases, the wave growth rate increases and the frequency range of positive growth rate is broader. If the temperature of energetic electrons is very low or very high, the interaction between the particles and wave are relatively weak and the growth rate is relatively low. The path-integrated gain of whistler-mode chorus was calculated based on ray trace results and it is found that the lower band chorus has a much higher path-integrated gain than an upper band chorus under the same conditions.%系统分析了Kappa空间等离子体中哨声波合声模的非稳定性.研究发现,高能电子的数密度和温度各向异性越高,哨声波的增长率以及正增长率所对应的频率范围也越大;当电子温度过低或过高时,高能电子与哨声波的相互作用较弱,导致增长率较低;磁纬度越高,传播角越大,增长率越小.利用射线追踪的结果分析了哨声波合声模在传播过程中的增益和衰减过程,计算结果表明,在同等条件下,低频段哨声波合声模的增益远大于高频段哨声波合声模的增益.

  11. CHORUS Deliverable 2.2: Second report - identification of multi-disciplinary key issues for gap analysis toward EU multimedia search engines roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Bardeli, Rolf; Boujemaa, Nozha; Compañó, Ramón; Doch, Christoph; Geurts, Joost; Gouraud, Henri; Joly, Alexis; Karlgren, Jussi; King, Paul; Köhler, Joachim; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Le Moine, Jean-Yves; Ortgies, Robert; Point, Jean-Charles; Rotenberg, Boris

    2008-01-01

    After addressing the state-of-the-art during the first year of Chorus and establishing the existing landscape in multimedia search engines, we have identified and analyzed gaps within European research effort during our second year. In this period we focused on three directions, notably technological issues, user-centred issues and use-cases and socio- economic and legal aspects. These were assessed by two central studies: firstly, a concerted vision of functional breakdown of...

  12. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  13. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    R P Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley (LS, commonly known as "bottle gourd" (English, possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina Standley (LS using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant.

  14. Exploration on the Intonation of Pre-school Education Students' Chorus Training%幼师生合唱训练音准之探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋碧

    2013-01-01

    Chorus is a compulsory course of pre-school education students, and chorus training is an important approach to improve pre-school education teachers' music accomplishment, but the problems of intonation often occur. The intonation of chorus is in-fluenced by various elements. This paper aims to explore and re-search this issue from these elements.%合唱是幼师生的选修课程之一,合唱训练是提高幼师学生音乐素质的重要途径。因为合唱作品为多声部的声音艺术,因此在训练中经常出现音准问题。幼师合唱队的音准受多种因素的制约,首先受歌唱者的情绪,声音强弱、音域特点等因素影响。另外,合唱队员的音乐理论知识和歌唱基本功也影响着合唱的音准,本文旨从以上几个方面作出探讨和研究。

  15. TENSIONES ENTRE LITERATURA, CIENCIA, EXPERIENCIA E HISTORIA EN UN INTELECTUAL DE LA SATTELZEIT HISPANOAMERICANA: LOS PREFACIOS EN LA PROSA CIENTÍFICA DE JUAN IGNACIO MOLINA Tensions between literature, science, experience and history in an intellectual of the Sattelzeit in Spanish America: the prefaces in the scientific prose of Juan Ignacio Molina

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    Adolfo de Nordenflycht B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una revisión de los prefacios de las principales obras de Juan Ignacio Molina (el Compendio anónimo de 1776, el Saggio de 1782 traducido al español como Compendio en 1788 y el Saggio de 1810 a fin de evidenciar cómo ciertos aspectos literarios de su prosa científica -en particular, los problemas del género (ensayo, compendio la escritura de "historias naturales", el significado del narrar y el sentido de la experiencia del sujeto- ilustran las tensiones inherentes durante el proceso del cambio semántico del concepto de "ciencia" en el marco de la Sattelzeit hispanoamericana.A study which propounds a review of the prefaces of Juan Ignacio Molina's principal works (the anonymous Compendio 1116, the Saggio 1782, translated into Spanish like Compendio in 1788 and the Saggio 1810 in order to demonstrate how certain literary aspects of his scientific prose -in particular, gender issues (essay, compendium, the writing of "Natural History", the meaning of the narrative and the sense of the subject's experience- ¡Ilustrate the tensions inherent in the process of semantic change of the concept of "science" in the frame of the Sattelzeit in Spanish América.

  16. Actividad de polvo, extractos y aceite esencial de Peumus boldus Molina solos y en mezcla con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Aguayo, Gonzalo Iván

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero las propiedades insecticidas del polvo, aceite esencial y extracto en cloruro de metileno de Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), además del alcaloide boldina y el terpeno 1-8-cineol (eucaliptol), solos y en combinación con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Se realizaron bioensayos para evaluar mortalidad, efecto en el ciclo de vida y las preferencias alimenticias de l...

  17. Introducción al estudio de las mineralizaciones del Señorío y Tierra de Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Perelló, José M.; Octavio PUCHE RIART

    1992-01-01

    In this communication it's efected an introduction to the study of the mineralizations placed in the Señorio and Tierra de Molina de Aragón an historical demarcation of Guadalajara situated in the Sistema Ibérico. In this comunication, we will introduce the Study Castilian mineralizations between them, C/Ag are present as well as stratiform iron and copper mineralization.

  18. Juan Ignacio Molina y la comprensión de la naturaleza del Finis Terrae. Un acercamiento desde la Historia (cultural de la Ciencia

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    Orrego González, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the work of the Chilean Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, especially since the Chilean historiography, has accused an important criticism myopia about of the naturalist that constantly has been considered, with fairly light weight, as the “first Chilean scientist”. The fundamental importance of exile as a scientific vocation, the European controversies about the New World and the institutional conditions and political mechanisms that allowed the development of scientific knowledge in late eighteenth century are elements that have not been integrated into the analysis of the work of the naturalist Chilean who came to integrate the Bologna Academy of Sciences. Therefore, the proposed historical analysis of this article seeks to break the apologetic historiography in order to present the work and figure of the Chilean Jesuit in a broad historical context, in an attempt to provide alternative answers, shows part of the political and epistemological problems that influenced the development of scientific thought of the Chilean naturalist.El estudio de la obra del jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, especialmente desde la historiografía chilena, ha acusado una importante miopía crítica respecto del naturalista que constantemente ha sido considerado, con bastante ligereza, como el “primer científico chileno”. La importancia fundamental del exilio como vocación científica, las controversias europeas sobre el Nuevo Mundo y las condiciones institucionales y mecanismos políticos que permitieron el desarrollo del conocimiento científico a fines del siglo XVIII son elementos que no han sido integrados en el análisis de la obra del naturalista chileno quien llegó a integrar la Accademia delle Scienze di Bologna. Por tanto, la propuesta de análisis histórico de este artículo busca romper con la historiografía apologética para presentar la obra y la figura del jesuita chileno en un contexto histórico amplio y

  19. Optimization of the anaerobic digestion through application of ultrasounds in secondary sludge of the wastewater treatment plant of Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Optimizacion de la digestion anaerobia mediante la aplicacion del ultrasonidos en los fangos secundarios de la EDAR Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Lardin, C.; Andreu, J. a.; Bolinches Sanchez, S.; Garcia, A.; Pinana, L.; Pradas, P.; Gutierrez Garcia, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of ultrasounds in secondary sludge in the wastewater treatment plant of Molina de Segura produces an instantaneous hydrolysis on the existing cellular walls in secondary sludge, all it in a time of retention of 2 seconds as opposed to the 8 days of minimum time of required retention in any anaerobic digestion. This hydrolysis instantaneously increases the biodegradable matter easily biodegradable accelerating the processes of digestion and allowing to the passage to next the three stages (acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis), providing great amount of benefits, as are, an increase of the yield of elimination of volatile material, an increase in the production of biogas and a reduction in the production of dehydrated sludge. (Author)

  20. 论合唱教育中的情商体现与培养%Chorus education and training reflect EQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华夏

    2015-01-01

    合唱艺术自西方传入中国虽然只有一百多年的历史,但合唱教育发展至今已成为中国音乐教育中的一项重要内容,合唱课程的设置、合唱团体的培养促进了合唱艺术的发展。合唱教育除了提高学生的音乐素养还具有很强的教化作用,在此,笔者认为合唱教育不仅能培养人的团队精神及合作意识,还能有效提高人的情商。文章着重于合唱中的情商体现与培养,并论述情商培养的社会意义。%Chorus from the west into China, although only a hundred years of history, but the development of education has become a chorus of music education in China is an important element, setting, training courses choir choral groups promoted the development of choral art. Choral music education in addition to improving students' literacy also has a strong role of education in this, I believe that not only choral education awareness teamwork and cooperation of people, but also effectively improve people's emotional intelligence. The article focuses on the chorus and EQ reflects culture, and discusses the social significance of EQ training.

  1. How to Let the Chorus Teaching Integrate into the Course of Music Appreciation%如何将合唱教学融入音乐欣赏课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敏

    2014-01-01

    对于青少年来说,音乐教育是不可缺少的一门课程,而合唱是音乐教育中的培养学生感性认识的重要课程,并提高学生的文化素质。合唱是一种团体行为,在演唱过程中,不仅能通过音乐抒发情感,凝聚情感,还能使学生互相接触、学习、合作等。合唱教学被一些音乐教师当成是一种难以掌握的教学环节。除了环境、师生等客观因素外,科学的教学方法也是帮助突破课堂上许多瓶颈的重要一环。%For teenagers,music education is an indispensable course,while the chorus is an important course for students perceptual knowledge training in music education,and improve the students’ cultural quality. The chorus is a kind of group behavior,during the song,not only through the music to express of emotion,emotional cohesion,but also can enable students to contact each other,learning,cooperation etc. Chorus teaching by some music teachers as a difficult teaching. In addition to the environment,the teachers and students and other objective factors,scientific teaching method is to help break through the classroom many bottleneck is important one annulus.

  2. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  3. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  4. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  5. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  6. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  7. Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for the Pitch Angle Scattering of Electrons by Whistler-mode Chorus Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Pitch angle scattering of electrons caused by chorus emissions is one of significant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. A number of previous studies treat the pitch angle scattering as a diffusion of distribution function and calculate diffusion coefficients from observed wave spectra. However, in the diffusion model, we cannot evaluate the nonlinearity of the pitch angle scattering, while recent theoretical works and observation results have pointed out the importance of nonlinear effects. A concept of Wave-Particle Interaction Analysis (WPIA) is proposed by Fukuhara et al. (2009). In the frame of the WPIA, we can directly detect wave-particle interactions by calculating the energy exchange between waves and particles. In the present study, in addition to the method to detect the energy exchange, we propose a method to directly detect the pitch angle scattering of resonant particles by calculating G. The G is defined as the accumulation value of a pitch angular component of the Lorentz force acting on each particle. We apply the proposed method to results of the one-dimensional electron hybrid simulation (Katoh and Omura, 2007a, b). By using the wave and particle data obtained at fixed points assumed in the simulation system, we conduct the pseudo-observation in the simulation. In the result of the analysis, we obtain significant values of G for electrons in the kinetic energy and pitch angle ranges satisfying the cyclotron resonance condition. We compare the result of the analysis of G with the temporal variation of both the pitch angle distributions and the wave spectra. While the pitch angle distribution varies by a few percent through interactions, we obtain the statistically significant G. Furthermore, we compare the G with diffusion coefficient D. While the D showed the broadband diffusive scattering, the G values indicated the narrowband strong scattering. We note that in deriving Fokker-Planck equation and diffusion coefficient D, we use the

  8. Caracterización de los suelos de usos agrícolas e industrial de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) para una planificación racional del territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez García, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende conocer la situación actual de los suelos de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) así como ver si presentan una planificación racional del territorio ya que no había estudios anteriores que caracterizaran tan detalladamente los tipos y usos de los suelos de esta comarca. Los dos principales tipos de suelos presentes son Regosoles calcáricos (suelos poco evolucionados con un horizonte A ócrico en superficie como único horizonte diagnóstico y con abundante car...

  9. Distribución paleogeográfica de las unidades del Pérmico y del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] En los sistemas Pérmico y Triásico del sector Molina de Aragón- Albarracín (Cordillera Ibérica) se pueden diferenciar dieciséis unidades litoestratigráficas. La inferior no ha podido datarse en esta zona, pero por su posición estratigráfica y características litológicas puede ser equivalente a unidades descritas como "Autuniense" por autores previos, en áreas próximas. Por encima aparece una unidad terrígena correspondiente a las facies Saxoniense, que al SE es concorda...

  10. Evolution of the plasma sheet electron pitch angle distribution by whistler-mode chorus waves in non-dipole magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Thorne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed numerical study on the effects of a non-dipole magnetic field on the Earth's plasma sheet electron distribution and its implication for diffuse auroral precipitation. Use of the modified bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation developed in the companion paper by Ni et al. (2012 for 2-D non-dipole magnetic fields suggests that we can adopt a numerical scheme similar to that used for a dipole field, but should evaluate bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and bounce period related terms in non-dipole magnetic fields. Focusing on nightside whistler-mode chorus waves at L = 6, and using various Dungey magnetic models, we calculate and compare of the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients in each case. Using the Alternative Direction Implicit (ADI scheme to numerically solve the 2-D Fokker-Planck diffusion equation, we demonstrate that chorus driven resonant scattering causes plasma sheet electrons to be scattered much faster into loss cone in a non-dipole field than a dipole. The electrons subject to such scattering extends to lower energies and higher equatorial pitch angles when the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF increases in the Dungey magnetic model. Furthermore, we find that changes in the diffusion coefficients are the dominant factor responsible for variations in the modeled temporal evolution of plasma sheet electron distribution. Our study demonstrates that the effects of realistic ambient magnetic fields need to be incorporated into both the evaluation of resonant diffusion coefficients and the calculation of Fokker-Planck diffusion equation to understand quantitatively the evolution of plasma sheet electron distribution and the occurrence of diffuse aurora, in particular at L > 5 during geomagnetically disturbed periods when the ambient magnetic field considerably deviates from a magnetic dipole.

  11. COMPARAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA ENTRE AMOSTRAS DE Peumus boldus Molina INDUSTRIALIZADAS E ARTESANAIS DO MUNICÍPIO DE CURRAIS NOVOS, RN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gonçalves Macêdo de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, embora constituam válida vertente da Medicina Tradicional, quando mal utilizadas representam risco potencial a saúde humana. O consumo de produtos contaminados pode gerar intoxicações diversas por subprodutos advindos de microrganismos patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de Peumus boldus Molina artesanais, comercializadas na feira popular, e compará-la com a qualidade microbiológica de amostras da mesma espécie industrializadas, comercializadas no comércio varejista local. Foram quantificados: aeróbios mesófilos (ágar Padrão de Contagem, 35±1°C/24h, coliformes totais/Escherichia coli (teste presuntivo: caldo LST, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; CT: caldo VB, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; E. coli: caldo EC, 44,5±0,2°C/24±2h; ágar L-EMB, 35±0,5°C/24±2h, bolores e leveduras (ágar Batata Dextrosado Acidificado, 25±1°C/5 dias e Staphylococcus aureus (ágar Baird-Parker, 35-37°C/24±2h. Para a confirmação de E. coli, colônias foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas da série IMViC. A E. coli estava presente em 10% das amostras, o S. aureus em 50%, bolores e leveduras em 80% e aeróbios mesófilos em 100% das amostras analisadas. O estudo revelou que a tanto amostras industrializadas quanto artesanais não estavam de acordo com as recomendações de padrões sanitários e microbiológicos adequados para o comércio, caracterizando-se como riscos potenciais à Saúde Pública.

  12. The preliminary Discussion of the Effect of Vocal Techniques’ Apply to Chorus Art%浅谈合唱表演艺术中声乐技巧的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艺

    2016-01-01

    Chorus is derived from the medieval religious music, and it has been recognized as a collective vocal music art form by the world after one thousand years’ historical precipitation. With the continuous development of our country’s chorus art in recent years, chorus has not been only a form of singing together, it needs more skills and ways to deduce works in the process of pursuit higher artistic enjoyment, only by this, can it achieve the art of perfect reappearance. Chorus needs soloist to grasp vocal techniques effectively and apply it to the cantata to show the charm of art preferably.%合唱源于中世纪的宗教音乐,经过一千多年的历史沉淀,如今已成为世界人民共同认可的一种集体声乐艺术形式。随着我国近年来合唱艺术的不断发展,合唱已经不仅仅是大家一起唱的形式,在追求更高艺术享受的过程中,它需要更多的技巧及表现手段来演绎作品,才能实现完美的艺术再现。合唱需要合唱者对声乐技巧进行有效合理的把握,然后再将它很好地运用在合唱之中,这样才能更好地表现出合唱的艺术魅力。

  13. The Artistic Performance Characteristics of the Mixed Chorus "Initiating a New Era"%略论地方本科院校历史学专业教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉发

    2012-01-01

    The mixed chorus "Initiating a New Era" is the representative works of Professor Ping Liming, a Chinese conductor and composer. It was awarded the prize "Five-One Projects" in the spiritual civilization of Guangdong Province in 2007. This chorus is felicitously structured, breaking through the traditional musical form. It combines Chinese and western mode and tonality, arranging voice part based on voice features, which provides large room for the development of refined lyrics. The mixed chorus "Initiating a New Era" has become an out- standing chorus works in China after being polished for many times.%21世纪以来,随着高等教育乃至初等教育改革日益向纵深方向发展,古老的历史学科面临重重压力与挑战。就本科院校的历史学专业教学而言,主要存在着“两通”比重过大、选修课门类太少、与中学历史教学实际需求联系不紧密以及培养学生能力的课程欠缺等。进一步改革的思路是,加强教师队伍自身建设和课程理念现代化,教学内容上压缩“两通”、增设选修课、突出师范特色并保持师范性与学术性的统一以及改进实践教学环节、提高学生的中学课堂教学和论文写作能力等。

  14. 论混声合唱《把崭新的世纪开创》的艺术特征%The Artistic Performance Characteristics of the Mixed Chorus "Initiating a New Era"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文博

    2012-01-01

    The mixed chorus "Initiating a New Era" is the representative works ot eroiessor ring blIIllIlg, il Chinese conductor and composer. It was awarded the prize "Five-One Projects" in the spiritual civilization of Guangdong Province in 2007. This chorus is felicitously structured, breaking through the traditional musical form. It combines Chinese and western mode and tonality, arranging voice part based on voice features, which provides large room for the development of refined lyrics. The mixed chorus "Initiating a New Era" has become an out- standing chorus works in China after being polished for many times.%混声合唱《把崭新的世纪开创》是作曲家平黎明教授的代表作品,2007年获得广东省第六届精神文明建设“五个一工程”奖。这首作品在结构上巧妙构建,突破了传统理论上的曲式结构;在调式调性上中西并用,巧妙地使用人声特点安排声部布局,为精炼的歌词拓展了广阔的发展空间;混声合唱《把崭新的世纪开创》在经过多次的锤炼后,已经成为一首优秀的合唱作品。

  15. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  16. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  17. 文学视角下《黄河大合唱》的审美价值%Perspective of Literary Aesthetic Value of"the Yellow River Chorus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琼

    2016-01-01

    "The Yellow River Chorus"created in the Anti-Japanese War period,is a landmark work full of patriotic and pas-sion of the war of resistance against Japan.It is also our country,contemporary the most brilliant success for a large vocal music in the history of music works.The lyricist of"the Yellow River Chorus"GuangWeiRan is a poet.This article attempts to intro-ducte literary aesthetic value of"the Yellow River Chorus"from three aspects including the form of diversity and harmonious, sincere emotion and rich,and the language of popular image.%《黄河大合唱》诞生于抗日时期,是老百姓耳熟能详的一部大型声乐作品,主题是抗战、爱国,它的词作者是诗人光未然。本文试图从作品形式的多样与和谐、情感的真挚与丰富、语言的通俗与形象三个方面浅谈《黄河大合唱》的文学审美价值。

  18. Los sueños tristes de este amor extraño : Molina encuentra a la Manuela con guión de Puig, Donoso, Ripstein y Sarduy

    OpenAIRE

    Corbatta, Jorgelina

    2015-01-01

    Mi artículo explora la imagen del homosexual travesti como el producto/proyecto final de una construcción cuyas partes están en la figura de Molina en El beso de la mujer araña (l976) de Manuel Puig, la Manuela en El lugar sin límites (l966) de José Donoso y su adaptación al cine por Arturo Ripstein en el film homónimo (l976), en diálogo con textos de Sarduy sobre ambos escritores y, en especial, «Escritura/Travestismo» (Escrito sobre un cuerpo, l969).Tenemos entonces que en el lapso de diez ...

  19. El método retrospectivo en la enseñanza de la Historia : Algunas reflexiones a partir del compromiso docente de Susana Simián de Molinas

    OpenAIRE

    Diburzi, Nélida; Scaraffia, Inés

    2006-01-01

    Susana Simián de Molinas es una docente de larga y destacada trayectoria en la educación dentro de la ciudad de Santa Fe, donde trabajó en instituciones que en la década del 60 y primeros años de los ’70, fueron notables como ámbitos de experimentación pedagógica y didáctica. En la Argentina de entonces corrían tiempos de búsqueda, de innovación, de creatividad en todos los ámbitos; también eran tiempos de indagación y criticidad frente al pasado nacional, al cual se veía como una clave para ...

  20. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  1. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  2. El túnel viario de María de Molina en Madrid. Optimización en el diseño y descripción de las soluciones estructurales adoptadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granda San Segundo, Laura

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria de Molina tunnel which will join paseo de la Castellana and Velázquez street with the N-II highway (Madrid - Barcelona will be the largest municipal underground work in Spain. The tunnel is 1171 meters long and it will absorbe a traffic of 30000 vehicles going out every day. The initial part of the tunnel has been designed as false tunnels made with foundation walls and slabs. The concrete has been cast over the ground and the tunnel has been excavated afterwards in order to minimize the effect of the work on Madrid traffic. Once a sufficient depth has been reached, two different construction systems have been proposed, depending on the conditions the tunnel finds in each case. The project presents some singular points in which the solutions adopted are structurally extraordinary.El túnel viario de María de Molina, que unirá el Paseo de la Castellana y la calle Velázquez con la N-II de Madrid a Barcelona, constituirá la mayor obra municipal de pasos subterráneos. El túnel de un total de 1.171 m de longitud va a absorber una salida de tráfico de 30.000 vehículos diarios. En los tramos iniciales se han proyectado falsos túneles con pantallas y losas hormigonadas sobre el terreno y excavadas a posteriori, para minimizar los efectos tráfico. Cuando se alcanza una profundidad adecuada se ha planteado la ejecución de un túnel con dos sistemas constructivos diferentes, dependiendo de los condicionantes que se encuentran en cada momento. El proyecto presenta una serie de puntos singulares en los que las soluciones adoptadas son estructuralmente extraordinarias

  3. First estimates of the probability of survival in a small-bodied, high-elevation frog (Boreal Chorus Frog, Pseudacris maculata), or how historical data can be useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Scherer, R. D.; Amburgey, S. M.; Matthews, T.; Spencer, A. W.; Corn, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In an era of shrinking budgets yet increasing demands for conservation, the value of existing (i.e., historical) data are elevated. Lengthy time series on common, or previously common, species are particularly valuable and may be available only through the use of historical information. We provide first estimates of the probability of survival and longevity (0.67–0.79 and 5–7 years, respectively) for a subalpine population of a small-bodied, ostensibly common amphibian, the Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata (Agassiz, 1850)), using historical data and contemporary, hypothesis-driven information–theoretic analyses. We also test a priori hypotheses about the effects of color morph (as suggested by early reports) and of drought (as suggested by recent climate predictions) on survival. Using robust mark–recapture models, we find some support for early hypotheses regarding the effect of color on survival, but we find no effect of drought. The congruence between early findings and our analyses highlights the usefulness of historical information in providing raw data for contemporary analyses and context for conservation and management decisions.

  4. 评侗族大歌音乐诗剧《行歌坐月》%Review of the Dong Chorus Musical Drama-Song and Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅安辉; 吴媛姣; 吴文梅

    2015-01-01

    《行歌坐月》是首个登上国家大剧院的侗族题材剧目。侗族大歌音乐诗剧《行歌坐月》在京首演成功,再一次证明了民族传统文化艺术可以焕发艺术新生。侗戏文化唯有扬弃和吐故纳新,才具有鲜活的生命力和欣欣向荣的发展前景。侗族大歌音乐诗剧《行歌坐月》作为探索传统与现代创作联手的范式,无疑是保护民族传统文化的新途径,更是探索发展民族文化产业的开路先锋。%Song and Moon is the first Dong theme drama to reach the national theatre, In Beijing,the successful premiere of the Dong Chorus Musical Drama—Song and Moon proved again that the national traditional culture and arts can be full of art renaissance, As a traditional paradigm in conjunction with modern creation,the drama is undoubtedly the new approach to protecting the national traditional cul-ture and the pioneer as well in exploring the development of the ethnic culture industry as.

  5. Sperm competition and the evolution of precopulatory weapons: Increasing male density promotes sperm competition and reduces selection on arm strength in a chorusing frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-10-01

    Sperm competition theory assumes a trade-off between precopulatory traits that increase mating success and postcopulatory traits that increase fertilization success. Predictions for how sperm competition might affect male expenditure on these traits depend on the number of competing males, the advantage gained from expenditure on weapons, and the level of sperm competition. However, empirical tests of sperm competition theory rarely examine precopulatory male expenditure. We investigated how variation in male density affects precopulatory sexual selection on male weaponry and the level of sperm competition in the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana, where males use their arms as weapons in male-male combat. We measured body size and arm girth of 439 males, and recorded their mating success in the field. We found density-dependent selection acting on arm girth. Arm girth was positively associated with mating success, but only at low population densities. Increased male density was associated with higher risk and intensity of sperm competition arising from multimale amplexus, and a reversal in the direction of selection on arm girth. Opposing patterns of pre- and postcopulatory selection may account for the negative covariation between arm girth and testes across populations of this species. PMID:26375605

  6. Strong enhancement of 10-100 keV electron fluxes by combined effects of chorus waves and time domain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Mourenas, Didier; Artemyev, Anton; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Time domain structures (TDSs) are trains of intense electric field spikes observed in large numbers during plasma injections in the outer radiation belt. Here we explore the question of their importance in energetic electron acceleration and loss in this region. Although the most common TDSs can preaccelerate low-energy electrons up to 1-5 keV energies, they often cannot produce by themselves the seed population of 30-150 keV electrons, which are needed for a subsequent energization up to relativistic energies during storms or substorms. However, we demonstrate by numerical simulations that modifications of the low-energy electron pitch angle and energy distributions due to interactions with TDS lead to more efficient scattering of electrons by chorus waves toward both higher and lower pitch angles, ultimately leading to both significantly higher fluxes in the 10-100 keV energy range and more intense 1-100 keV precipitation into the atmosphere, potentially affecting the outer radiation belt dynamics.

  7. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  8. Finding your mate at a cocktail party: frequency separation promotes auditory stream segregation of concurrent voices in multi-species frog choruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Nityananda

    Full Text Available Vocal communication in crowded social environments is a difficult problem for both humans and nonhuman animals. Yet many important social behaviors require listeners to detect, recognize, and discriminate among signals in a complex acoustic milieu comprising the overlapping signals of multiple individuals, often of multiple species. Humans exploit a relatively small number of acoustic cues to segregate overlapping voices (as well as other mixtures of concurrent sounds, like polyphonic music. By comparison, we know little about how nonhuman animals are adapted to solve similar communication problems. One important cue enabling source segregation in human speech communication is that of frequency separation between concurrent voices: differences in frequency promote perceptual segregation of overlapping voices into separate "auditory streams" that can be followed through time. In this study, we show that frequency separation (ΔF also enables frogs to segregate concurrent vocalizations, such as those routinely encountered in mixed-species breeding choruses. We presented female gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis with a pulsed target signal (simulating an attractive conspecific call in the presence of a continuous stream of distractor pulses (simulating an overlapping, unattractive heterospecific call. When the ΔF between target and distractor was small (e.g., ≤3 semitones, females exhibited low levels of responsiveness, indicating a failure to recognize the target as an attractive signal when the distractor had a similar frequency. Subjects became increasingly more responsive to the target, as indicated by shorter latencies for phonotaxis, as the ΔF between target and distractor increased (e.g., ΔF = 6-12 semitones. These results support the conclusion that gray treefrogs, like humans, can exploit frequency separation as a perceptual cue to segregate concurrent voices in noisy social environments. The ability of these frogs to segregate

  9. A Study of Present Situation and Countermeasures of Primary School Chorus Education in the Undeveloped Areas——A Case Study of the Northern Mountainous Guangdong%经济欠发达地区小学合唱教育现状与对策研究——基于广东省粤北山区的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿舜

    2011-01-01

    随着素质教育、创新教育、新课改的不断深入,合唱教育在小学音乐教育中日益得到更多的重视.近年来,珠江三角洲成为了中国合唱艺术最活跃的地区之一,作为其重要组成部分的小学合唱教育也得到了蓬勃的发展,但同属广东省的韶关地区小学合唱教育的情况就不容乐观.文章通过对小学教师与学生的问卷调查、个别访谈、文献分析等形式的调查研究,对韶关地区小学合唱教育的现状进行深入的调查分析,并寻找影响合唱教育水平的重要因素,寻求改善本地区小学合唱教育状况的对策.%Following the deep development of quality education,enterprising education and reforms of new courses,chorus education is gradually attached great importance in the musical education of primary schools.In recent years,the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most active areas for China's chorus arts,Primary school chorus education,as an important part of chorus arts,also develops prosperously.But its current situation in Shaoguan area is not so optimistic.This essay,which makes a deep survey and analysis on the current state of primary school chorus education in Shaoguan area,is trying to search for important factors influencing chorus education quality and to find solution contributing to the improvement of local chorus educating situation through forms of questionnaire,individual interviews and documentary analysis.

  10. Intervention of Multi-part Chorus on Mental Health Status of Adult Prisoners%多声部合唱对罪犯心理健康状况的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 练恒胜; 刘小超; 高歌

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effect of multi-part chorus on mental health in adult prisoners and to give refer-ence for psychological treatment in criminal theory of reforming practice.Methods Sixty prisoners were randomly chosen as research objects and divided into control and intervention group.The intervention group practiced multi-part chorus and were followed up for 3 months.The effect of intervention was evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),Trust Scale,Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD),shyness scale,UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA),and Chinese Offender Psychological Assessment-Personality Inventory (COPA-PI).Results Compared with the control group,the differ-ences in anxiety,trust-d,loneliness,social avoidance and distress,extraversion and impulse showed significant change in the intervention group before and after intervention.Conclusions Multi-part chorus is an effective way to improve mental healthiness and promote psychological health level of prisoners.%目的:探讨多声部合唱干预对罪犯心理健康状况的影响,为监狱心理矫治工作提供参考。方法选取狱中60名罪犯作为受试对象,随机分为试验组与对照组。采用多声部合唱方法对试验组罪犯的心理健康状况进行干预试验,观察3个月。于干预前后采用焦虑自评量表、信任量表、社交回避及苦恼量表、羞怯量表、UCLA 孤独量表、中国罪犯心理测试个性分测验(COPA-PI)对其进行心理测试和评估。结果试验组罪犯群体经过多声部合唱干预前后与对照组罪犯群体对比,在焦虑、信任-D、孤独、社交回避与苦恼、COPA-PI(外倾、冲动)等因子差异具有统计学意义。结论多声部合唱能有效改善罪犯群体的心理健康状况,提高罪犯的心理健康水平。

  11. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules. PMID:11007180

  12. The Training Strategy of Middle School Students’ Chorus Ability in Music Teaching%中学音乐教学中学生合唱能力的培养策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the society, people's living standards improved, the society pays more attention to students' comprehensive development, especially demands of students by having some specialties to realize all around development as much as possible. In order to respond to the appeal of the society, every primary and every secondary school opens the music subject but get little effect. Therefore, the article discusses how to develop the students' chorus ability of music teaching in middle school.%随着社会的发展,人们生活水平的提高,社会越来越重视学生的全面发展,尤其要求学生最好能具备一些特长,尽可能地实现德智体美劳共同发展。为了响应社会号召,各中小学都开设了音乐学科,但是教学效果不佳。为此,文章就中学音乐教学中如何培养学生的合唱能力进行探讨。

  13. Tirso de Molina, Indios y Encomenderos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro López, Ceferino

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the text of Tirso's Trilogía de los Pizarro elements are to be found which allow to affirm that the playwright availed himself of an occasional commission to make an instrument of political criticism aiming at false advisers and validos. Tirso fought against the novelties in the government and policy of the Inidies and stood for the abolition of the humanitarian measures of the Leyes Nuevas and the strengthening of the encomenderos' power. Thus the Trilogy presents itself as a telling instance of the mental shift between Renaissance erasmism and the crisis of the Counter-Reformation.

    En la Trilogía de los Pizarro hay elementos que permiten afirmar que el dramaturgo usó un encargo ocasional para hacer un instrumento de crítica de la política de su tiempo, poniendo en evidencia la figura de los validos y de los malos consejeros. Contra las novedades introducidas en el gobierno y en la política indiana Tirso proponía la abolición de las medidas humanitarias incluidas en las Leyes Nuevas y el fortalecimiento de la autoridad de los encomenderos. La Trilogía se presenta por lo tanto como un ejemplo del cambio cultural entre el erasmismo del Renacimiento y la crisis de la Contrarreforma.

  14. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  15. Movilidad, redes de intercambio y circulación de bienes en el sudoeste del Neuquén (Norpatagonia, Argentina: Los moluscos marinos del lago Traful Mobility, Exchange Networks And Circulation Of Goods In Southwestern Neuquén, Northern Patagonia, Argentina: The Marine Mollusks From Traful Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la procedencia de fragmentos de moluscos marinos hallados en los aleros Los Cipreses y Lariviere, en el área del lago Traful, sur de la provincia de Neuquén. Estudios previos en áreas cercanas con mayor proximidad a la costa del océano Pacífico suponen que las piezas recuperadas evidencian contacto con grupos provenientes del lado occidental de la cordillera de Los Andes -Chile. En este trabajo se indica que parte de las valvas estudiadas corresponden a fósiles marinos o fluviales no identificados. Los fragmentos identificados corresponden al gasterópodo marino Adelomelon brasiliana procedente del Atlántico y al bivalvo Choromytilus chorus posiblemente del Pacífico. Estos datos, sumados a los recientes análisis sobre muestras de obsidiana procedentes de fuentes de aprovisionamiento del sudoeste neuquino que circularon grandes distancias hacia la costa atlántica, resaltan la complejidad y extensión de la movilidad humana y/o de las redes interregionales de intercambios.In this article the origin of fragments of marine shells found at Los Cipreses and Lariviere rock-shelters is presented. Consistent with studies by other authors in nearby areas in greater proximity to the Pacific coast, it was assumed that these fragments indicated contact with groups from the western side of the Chilean Andes. The results show that the shells correspond to marine or unknown fluvial fossils; a few pieces correspond to a marine gasteropod of great size, Adelomelon brasiliana, from the Atlantic Ocean and the bivalve Choromytilus chorus, probably from the Pacific. These data, and the recent analysis of samples of obsidian from sources located in southwestern Neuquén, which circulated far toward the Atlantic coast, highlight the complexity and extent of human mobility and interregional exchange networks.

  16. 与瓠瓜品系'J083'白粉病抗性基因连锁的SCAR分子标记%SCAR marker linked to resistance gene of powdery mildew in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] breeding line J083

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲平; 吴晓花; 汪宝根; 徐沛; 李国景

    2011-01-01

    The genetic analysis of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] resistance to powdery mildew was evaluated with a highly resistant breeding line J083 and a highly susceptible breeding line J73 and their F1, F2 populations. The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew in J083 was controlled by a single recessive gene. From 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pair combinations, a pair of stable polymorphic AFLP markers (E-ATG/M-CTC), 105 bp in size was obtained. The AFLP fragment was then converted to a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, named as GPDSATG/CTC75. This SCAR marker could be used effectively for molecular markerassisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs to develop bottle gourd cultivars resistance to powdery mildew.%以瓠瓜抗白粉病品系'J083'和感病品系'J73'及它们的F1代和F2代分离群体为试验材料,经接种鉴定和抗性遗传规律分析表明:瓠瓜品系'J083'对白粉病的抗性受单隐性基因控制;从100对扩增片段长度多态性(AFLP)引物组合中获得稳定的多态性引物组合1对,即E-ATG/M-CTC;经回收、测序,特异片段全长为105 bp,并成功将其转化为序列特征性扩增区域(SCAR)标记;经连锁分析,该SCAR标记与白粉病抗性基因的连锁距离为9.6 cM,将其命名为GPDSATG/CTC75.此标记可用于瓠瓜抗白粉病品种的辅助选育.

  17. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LONG GOURD LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca for food

  18. Excitation of Whistler-Mode (Chorus) Emissions during Terrestrial Substorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fu-Liang; ZHAO Hua; HE Hui-Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The enhanced growth rate of whistler mode waves has been evaluated during an injection event associated with an isolated terrestrial substorm that occurred at 23:00 UT, on January 21, 1991. The electron phase space density observed by an LEPA instrument on the board of the CRRES spacecraft is modelled by using a bi-loss-cone distribution function (composed of a high anisotropic component and a quasi-isotropic component). During the injection event, the path integrated gain may increase by a factor of 5 over a frequency range near a few tenths of the electron gyrofrequency, which is consistent with the enhancement observed in the CRRES plasma wave experiment (PWE) emissions. Scattering of electrons by the enhanced whistler mode waves causes the pitch angle distribution of resonant electrons to a quasi isotropic (flat-top) distribution during the terrestrial substorm injection event.

  19. Focal Chorus806V书架扬声器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿闰

    2007-01-01

    法国扬声器生产商Focal最为人所称道的就是他的旗舰级Utopia系列,由上一代的Utopia到新世代的UtopiaBe,都是非常靓声而且表现全面。我作为上一代MezzoUtopia的长期用家,可以肯定的说,用了它,你根本没有办法在同等价位找到任何对手。Focal虽然精于制作真正Hi—End级别的扬声器,幸好她并没有忘记普罗大众发烧友,除了推出Utopia以下一级的中档Electra系列,还有入门级的Chorus系列,让知悭识俭的发烧朋友能够付出适合自己的价值,享受Focal富有活力的声音。

  20. Focal Chorus 826W特别版音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聪; 庄宏道(摄影)

    2012-01-01

    要说法国Focal音箱的代表作,无疑是新乌托邦系列。新乌托邦系列中的型号,无论是旗舰的Grande Utopia EM,还是稍小一号的Stella Utopia EM,都是同价位音箱中的佼佼者,

  1. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  2. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos, puesto que el número de anillos de crecimiento excedió al número de verticilos en 1,8 a 3,9 veces. El intervalo promedio entre la producción de verticilos sucesivos fue significativamente menor en individuos expuestos a pleno sol (2,1 años verticilo-1 que en aquellos que crecieron bajo sombra (2,6 años verticilo-1, sugiriendo cierta relación con el balance de carbono de la planta. La distancia promedio entre verticilos también se mostró sensible al ambiente lumínico. El resultado de este efecto del ambiente lumínico sobre tanto la tasa de producción de verticilos, como la distancia entre éstos, fue que la tasa promedio de crecimiento en altura de los individuos soleados (169 mm año-1 excedió en > 50% a la de los individuos sombreados (111 mm año-1. A pesar de la naturaleza no anual de los verticilos en la población estudiada, los recuentos de verticilos pueden tener potencial como un método no invasivo de estimación de edad para juveniles de A. araucana. Tanto dentro de las subpoblaciones soleadas como sombreadas, el número de verticilos fue mejor indicador de la edad que el diámetro o la altura del fuste

  3. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  4. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2004-01-01

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  5. NETSUKE AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, with a descriptive method and a method of analysis and synthesis, we have conducted a study of species diversity of Lagenaria on the basis of a miniature sculpture of netsuke. In Japan and China, in the period from the 17th to the 20th century, the most common was 9 species. The biological peculiarities of some rare species of lagenaria has been described

  6. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  7. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  8. Topography of the medullar cone in nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 – Rodentia: Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei José Birck

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the topography of the medullar cone, ten adult nutria (Myocastor coypus, eight male and two female, were previously fixed in 10% aqueous formalin solution, maintained in similar solution and dissected. After the dissection the following data were noted: a the medullar cone apex was close to the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5 in five animals (50.0%, between L5 and L6 in three animals (30.0%, between L4 and L5 in one animal (10.0%, and just above L6 in one animal (10.0%; b the medullar cone base was observed between L3 and L5 in nine animals (90.0%, and in one animal alone (10.0% it was found between the L4 and L5 vertebrae. This Myocastor coypus presented six lumbar vertebrae.

  9. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p shellfish was not associated with the presence of HAB. The ranking of toxin concentration in the tissues of most species was: digestive glands > mantle > adductor muscle for the STX-group toxins and foot > digestive gland for the OA-group toxins. These results gave a better understanding of the variability and compartmentalisation of STX-group and OA-group toxins in different bivalve and gastropod species from the south of Chile, and the analyses determined that tissues could play an important role in the biotransformation of STX-group toxins and the retention of OA-group toxins. PMID:25769036

  10. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of bioaccumulation and biotransformation they will thereafter exhibit. PMID:23822152

  11. Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics in a chorus frog (Pseudacris) hybrid zone over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristin N; Barrow, Lisa N; Rittmeyer, Eric N; Brown, Jeremy M; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Although theory suggests that hybrid zones can move or change structure over time, studies supported by direct empirical evidence for these changes are relatively limited. We present a spatiotemporal genetic study of a hybrid zone between Pseudacris nigrita and P. fouquettei across the Pearl River between Louisiana and Mississippi. This hybrid zone was initially characterized in 1980 as a narrow and steep "tension zone," in which hybrid populations were inferior to parentals and were maintained through a balance between selection and dispersal. We reanalyzed historical tissue samples and compared them to samples of recently collected individuals using microsatellites. Clinal analyses indicate that the cline has not shifted in roughly 30 years but has widened significantly. Anthropogenic and natural changes may have affected selective pressure or dispersal, and our results suggest that the zone may no longer best be described as a tension zone. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of significant widening of a hybrid cline but stasis of its center. Continued empirical study of dynamic hybrid zones will provide insight into the forces shaping their structure and the evolutionary potential they possess for the elimination or generation of species.

  12. Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics in a chorus frog (Pseudacris) hybrid zone over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristin N; Barrow, Lisa N; Rittmeyer, Eric N; Brown, Jeremy M; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily

    2016-07-01

    Although theory suggests that hybrid zones can move or change structure over time, studies supported by direct empirical evidence for these changes are relatively limited. We present a spatiotemporal genetic study of a hybrid zone between Pseudacris nigrita and P. fouquettei across the Pearl River between Louisiana and Mississippi. This hybrid zone was initially characterized in 1980 as a narrow and steep "tension zone," in which hybrid populations were inferior to parentals and were maintained through a balance between selection and dispersal. We reanalyzed historical tissue samples and compared them to samples of recently collected individuals using microsatellites. Clinal analyses indicate that the cline has not shifted in roughly 30 years but has widened significantly. Anthropogenic and natural changes may have affected selective pressure or dispersal, and our results suggest that the zone may no longer best be described as a tension zone. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of significant widening of a hybrid cline but stasis of its center. Continued empirical study of dynamic hybrid zones will provide insight into the forces shaping their structure and the evolutionary potential they possess for the elimination or generation of species. PMID:27547330

  13. Red Star Chorus of the PLA Academy Of Arts Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Headed by Jing Dunquan, vice president of the CPAFFC, with Li Guoru, deputy director of the Publicity Department of the General Political Department of the People’s Liberation Army as his deputy, and Li Shuangjiang, the well-known tenor as

  14. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. PMID:26988233

  15. Accumulation of pesticides in Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Fellers, Gary M; Kleeman, Patrick M; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  16. Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  17. Notes on a Visit to Nagasaki by Beijing Yuying Beiman Alumni Specialists Chorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Nagasaki Municipal Government, the Nagasaki International Tourism and Convention Association and the Executive Committee of Madame Butterfly International Concours in Nagasaki

  18. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  19. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Labarca Encina; Alfredo Prieto Iglesias

    2009-01-01

     Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP), ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile). Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la regió...

  20. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  1. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an ecologically important species due to its aggregates, providing habitat for other species. In addition, it is an economically important species being commercially exploited along the coast of Chile. Here, changes in distribution and abundance have been observed during the last decade that have been linked to overfishing. Patterns of genetic variation and population structure are important to understand biodiversity, management and conservation of species. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Pyura chilensis in three localities along the Chilean coast (Antofagasta, Talcahuano, Puerto Montt. The polymorphic loci obtained were: Mdh-1 and Gpi-1 for P. chilensis. The Fst values showed slight population structure (Fst = 0.019, and the genetic differentiation showed statistically significant values (P = 0.031. The Puerto Montt locality was significantly different from the other two sites in the pairwise comparison in some loci. The genetic differentiation among localities of P. chilensis could be explained by a combination of different causes: (i low larval dispersion capacity associated to the larval life time of this species (12 to 24 h, and (ii differences in oceanographic conditions between localities and a closed circulation pattern that restrict dispersion. We conclude that monitoring of genetic diversity levels are essential to establish conservation and management plans of exploited marine resources

  2. ANALYSIS OF FRUIT POLYMORPHISM IN THE BOTTLE LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. ON THE BASIS OF IMAGES OF ART WORKS

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of international spread the fruits of bottled gourd. Analysis of polymorphism of lagenaria fruits have been made on the basis of images of the paintings and sculpture, marked characteristic features of each country. Issues of selection on the basis of the trait of fruit form have considered

  3. Morphological and allozyme variation in a collection of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. from Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi KK.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the intraspecific variation of 30 edible-seed Lagenaria siceraria germplasm accessions from the University of Abobo-Adjamé. These accessions were collected from three (Centre, East and South geographical zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Selection based on seed size by the farmers has resulted in subdividing the species into two cultivars: large-seeded and smallseeded. The morphological diversity study of the collection included 18 accessions and 24 traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed a significant difference between the two groups of cultivars. Principal component analysis on 13 traits pointed out variations among individuals, mainly on the basis of flower, fruit, and seed size. Dendrogram with UPGMA method allowed clustering of the cultivars. The genetic structure analysis among accessions using allozyme markers showed the following values: 18.95% for the proportion of polymorphic loci (P, 1.21 for the number of alleles (A and 0.053 for observed heterozygosity (Ho. The level of the within accessions genetic diversity (HS = 0.188 was higher than the genetic variation among accessions (DST = 0.082. The estimates of F-statistics indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between accessions (FST = 0.298. Such a value suggested that L. siceraria maintains about 30% of its genetic variation among accessions. Nei genetic distances between the two cultivars were also low (0.002, indicating that cultivars were genetically similar enough to belong to the same genetic group.

  4. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  5. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani; Gerby Giovanna Rondán-Sanabria; Flavio Finardi-Filho

    2013-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M.), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C.) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P.) were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape) was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oc...

  6. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  7. Sedimentología de las unidades carbonáticas del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] cinco unidades litoestratigráficas bien diferenciadas, que se distribuyen en dos barras de litología carbonática, separadas por un tramo terrígeno-evaporítico. Estos grandes tramos se disponen en "onlap", presentando una mayor extensión areal, las unidades superiores respecto de las inferiores. El límite de la primera barra carbonática se encuentra dentro de la zona estudiada. Sin embargo el tramo lutíticoevaporítico y la barra superior ocupan toda esta región, acuñándo...

  8. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extrac...

  9. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Führer; Anny Rudolph; Claudio Espinoza; Rodrigo Díaz; Marisol Gajardo; Nuria Camaño

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and ...

  10. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L(-1) (LC(50-96 hours)). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L(-1) were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L(-1) stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  11. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Führer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours. Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone.

  12. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval quality of the species, under conditions of culture. The larvae, were cultured, in a tank of 250 L with water at 20 psu, at a constant temperature (25° ± 1°C, controlled with a thermostat and with 100% refill every day. The diet consisted of microalgae (Nannochloris sp. and Isochrysis sp., rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplii of Artemia franciscana and formulated food. Five indicators were used, considering morphologic and behavior aspects: intestinal fill, midgut gland condition, gill development, swimming behavior and phototactic response. The indicators selected in the present work, were feasible of being used for the determination of the condition and quality of the larvae of C. caementarius, being able to make an effective follow-up and association with every condition of larval development, standardize desirable characteristics in the larvae and demonstrate verifiable results, using a protocol for culture and food supply. Moreover, it was possible to identify an extensive range of potential studies, based on the relationships that the morphology and the larval behavior support with the physiological capacities of the larvae in development.

  13. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  14. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz es considerada como uno de los factores responsables del declive ontogenético en las tasas de crecimiento relativo de las plantas, debido a la dificultad de evitar el autosombramiento entre un creciente número de hojas. Sin embargo, rara vez se ha cuantificado el efecto de tamaño de las plantas sobre el autosombramiento y la eficiencia en intercepción de la luz. Utilizamos un sistema de digitalización para construir modelos virtuales tridimensionales de la arquitectura de plántulas 71-358 mm de alto de la conífera Araucaria araucana, y modelamos su intercepción de la luz en el sotobosque mediante el programa YPLANT. Analizamos además la alometría de las plántulas para determinar los efectos combinados de la distribución de biomasa y el autosombramiento sobre la intercepción total de luz a nivel de la planta entera. La eficiencia promedio de intercepción de la luz de A. araucana (29 % fue la más baja documentada para plántulas de especies de bosques húmedos, reflejando las limitaciones impuestas por hojas cortas, carencia de pecíolos, y la incapacidad de desarrollar follaje plagiotrópico. La intercepción total de luz por las plántulas fue proporcional al área foliar0,735, producto de un aumento en el autosombramiento en función del tamaño. Sin embargo, debido a la relación del área foliar con la potencia 1,24 de la masa de las plántulas, la intercepción de luz se acercó a la proporcionalidad directa (exponente 0,91 con la masa. Este patrón fue producto de la relativa delgadez de los tallos de las plántulas grandes, y su baja proporción de biomasa radicular. Por tanto, el declive ontogenético en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz fue en gran medida compensada por cambios de asignación que aumentaron la superficie foliar de las plántulas grandes. Estos mecanismos que conservaron la relación de la ganancia potencial de carbono con la masa de las plántulas probablemente serán vistos solamente en especies con hojas muy longevas, en hábitats húmedos con poco viento. En ambientes abiertos, donde los estrés por sequía y viento podrían seleccionar en contra tales patrones de asignación, es probable que se evidencie más claramente el rol del autosombramiento en los declives ontogenéticos en la tasa de crecimiento relativo

  15. Mark Bowden and Owen Sheers present "Creation" [working title]: a new musical and poetic collaborative project for chorus, soloists and orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    "Creation" is a new collaboration between Mark Bowden, in his role as BBC National Orchestra of Wales’ Resident Composer, and the poet and novelist Owen Sheers.   Taking Haydn's 1798 work "The Creation" as a point of departure, they plan to create a new cantata for the digital age exploring the meaning of creation in the twenty-first century. Through engagement with developments in biology and physics they plan to create a new work incorporating poetry and music that will explore the latest ideas concerning the creation of matter and the emergence of life in the universe, whilst also delving into the human side of the brilliant minds that are currently working to uncover these secrets of the universe. More information is available here. Meet them at the CERN Library (bldg. 52 1-052) on Wednesday 2 October at 4 p.m. * Coffee will be served at 3.30 p.m.*

  16. Finding Your Mate at a Cocktail Party: Frequency Separation Promotes Auditory Stream Segregation of Concurrent Voices in Multi-Species Frog Choruses

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Nityananda; Bee, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Vocal communication in crowded social environments is a difficult problem for both humans and nonhuman animals. Yet many important social behaviors require listeners to detect, recognize, and discriminate among signals in a complex acoustic milieu comprising the overlapping signals of multiple individuals, often of multiple species. Humans exploit a relatively small number of acoustic cues to segregate overlapping voices (as well as other mixtures of concurrent sounds, like polyphonic music)....

  17. 谈合唱教学在学校素质教育中的作用%Discussing the Function of the Chorus Teaching in School Anlage Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟小威

    2000-01-01

    合唱是一种群体歌唱的多声部艺术表现形式,合唱教学包括欣赏、演唱、表演三个环节,是学校音乐教育不可缺少的一项教学内容,是对学生进行思想教育、审美教育的有效途径。本文着重就合唱教学在学校素质教育中的作用进行简要的论述。

  18. 49 CFR 25.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... make requirements based on vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one...

  19. 44 CFR 19.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  20. 10 CFR 1042.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... make requirements based on vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one...

  1. 32 CFR 196.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  2. 24 CFR 3.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  3. 29 CFR 36.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  4. 36 CFR 1211.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  5. 45 CFR 2555.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  6. 10 CFR 5.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With... vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex....

  7. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Quejido Alonso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  8. El Triásico de la región Nuevalos-Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector del borde de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    García Royo, J.F.C.; Arche, Alfredo

    1987-01-01

    El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se hace...

  9. El Triásico de la región Nuévalos - Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; García-Royo, J. F. C.

    1987-01-01

    [ES] El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se ...

  10. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" : Paul J Crutzen, Mario J Molina and F Sherwood Rowland

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Prof. Paul J Crutzen presents "The stratospheric ozone hole : a man-caused chemical instability".The discovery of the spring time stratospheric ozone hole by scientists of the British Antarctic Survey, led by Joe Farman, was one of the greatest surprises in the history of the atmospheric sciences and global change studies. After intensive research efforts by many international scientific teams it has clearly been demonstrated that the observed rapid ozone depletions are due to catalytic reactions involving CIO radicals, more than 80571130f which are produced by the photochemical breakdown of the industrial chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. In this lecture I will present the course of events leading to the rapid ozone depletions. International agreements have been reached to forbid the production of the CFC gases. However, despite these measures, it will take almost 50 years before the ozone hole will have disappeared. I will also show that mankind has indeed been very lucky and that things could have been far w...

  11. Toward the characteristics of the development of the seedlings and immature plants of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch (Araucariaceae in its natural habitats (Neuquén Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Kazakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria forests were studied and their types were distinguished. Descriptive characteristics of defined forest types were established. Araucaria araucana regrowth rate and seed survival expressed as thousands per hectare were estimated in the natural habitats of araucaria. The anatomical features of needles of immature and generative plants were compared. A. araucana life cycle from the seedling to the immature developmental stage was described. Growth power classes of immature plants were defined according to the environmental conditions of A. araucana growth.

  12. Study on High Energy Electron Flux Enhancement Events and Whistler Chorus Wave%哨声模合声波与地球同步轨道高能电子通量增强事件事例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何甜; 刘四清; 郑金磊; 龚建村

    2013-01-01

    局部加速机制是磁暴期间地球外辐射带高能电子通量增强事件发生的重要原因.此加速机制需要两个基本条件,一是存在种子电子,二是存在能与种子电子产生共振的加速波动,包括哨声模合声波.通过对2004-2006年Pil地磁脉动持续时间与种子电子通量的相关性分析,更明确提出Pil地磁脉动的持续时间可以作为种子电子通量的指示剂.通过对三个磁暴事例地球同步轨道的种子电子通量、高能电子通量及哨声模合声波变化情况的分析,发现在高能电子通量较强的事例中,均观测到较高的种子电子通量和较强的哨声模合声波,这在一定程度上验证了哨声模合声波对种子电子的回旋加速机制,且合声波强度与高能电子通量有正的相关性.

  13. The Inspiration of Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development"Theory to Chorus Teaching%维果茨基"最近发展区"理论对合唱教学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪淑萍

    2005-01-01

    维果茨基"最近发展区"理论对合唱教学具有重要的指导意义.该理论提供了在合唱教学中确定学生"最近发展区"的方式方法,提供了在"最近发展区"实施最佳教学的策略,使学生实现良好的螺旋式发展,以提高合唱教学质量,最大程度地促进学生智力技能的发展.

  14. Compte rendu de l’ouvrage de José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, Casas Viejas. Del crimen a la Esperanza. María Silva « Libertaria » y Miguel Pérez Cordón: dos vidas unidas por un ideal (1933-1939 Reseña del libro de José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, Casas Viejas. Del crimen a la Esperanza. María Silva « Libertaria » y Miguel Pérez Cordón: dos vidas unidas por un ideal (1933-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Brey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace más o menos una década, determinados sectores de la opinión p��blica española se preocupan por «recuperar la memoria histórica» de la guerra civil española o, mejor dicho, la de las víctimas olvidadas del bando «vencido», mientras que los herederos del otro bando evocan de vez en cuando las víctimas del «comunismo». Se han ido constituyendo asociaciones en distintos puntos del país para localizar los restos de las víctimas de la represión franquista en los meses de la guerra, para d...

  15. From hundreds to thousands: Widening the normal human Urinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santucci

    2014-12-01

    The data are related to Santucci et al. (in press [1] and available both here and at ChorusProject.org under project name “From hundreds to thousands: widening the normal human Urinome”. The material supplied to Chorus Progect.org includes technical MS spectra data only.

  16. Detection and reconstruction of short-lived particles produced by neutrino interactions in emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk, Johannes Wilhelmus Edmond

    2007-01-01

    Several different topics related to the CHORUS experiment at CERN are presented. CHORUS has searched for neutrino oscillation between νμand ντwith mixing probability down to 2⋅10-4 and ∆ m-2 >0.5 eV2. Chapter 1 discusses the discovery of neutrino oscillations by several other experiments. Chapter 2

  17. Lisa maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Uued teosed sarjast "Maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramu": Tirso de Molina "Sevilla pilkaja ja kivist külaline" ja Pedro Calderon de la Barca "Suur Maailmateater" (Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2006)

  18. 78 FR 2292 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... service. Data are provided by period of service and a range of demographic characteristics. The supplement..., this 4th day of January 2013. Eric Molina, Acting Chief, Division of Management Systems, Bureau...

  19. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  20. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Courtney Love "American Sweetheart", Haltya "Electric Help Elves", Beats and Styles "This Is... Beats and Styles", "Ennio Morricone Remixes vol. 2", Delta Goodrem "Innocent Eyes", Juana Molina "Segundo"

  1. Relativistic electron microbursts and variations in trapped MeV electron fluxes during the 8-9 October 2012 storm: SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Blake, J. Bernard; Reeves, Geoffery D.; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that whistler mode chorus is responsible for both acceleration of MeV electrons and relativistic electron microbursts through resonant wave-particle interactions. Relativistic electron microbursts have been considered as an important loss mechanism of radiation belt electrons. Here we report on the observations of relativistic electron microbursts and flux variations of trapped MeV electrons during the 8-9 October 2012 storm, using the SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes satellites. Observations by the satellites show that relativistic electron microbursts correlate well with the rapid enhancement of trapped MeV electron fluxes by chorus wave-particle interactions, indicating that acceleration by chorus is much more efficient than losses by microbursts during the storm. It is also revealed that the strong chorus wave activity without relativistic electron microbursts does not lead to significant flux variations of relativistic electrons. Thus, effective acceleration of relativistic electrons is caused by chorus that can cause relativistic electron microbursts.

  2. Cressier Patrice, Fierro Maribel, Molina Luis (ed., Los Almohades : problemas y perspectivas, Madrid, Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, 2005 (Estudios árabes e islámicos : monografías, 11, 2 vol., 1 230 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Valérian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En réunissant les actes de trois séminaires organisés entre 2000 et 2002 à la Casa de Velázquez de Madrid sur les Almohades, ce volumineux ouvrage entend faire le point sur les « problèmes et perspectives » de l’histoire de ce qui fut à la fois un mouvement idéologique et religieux, une dynastie et un empire qui marquèrent profondément l’histoire du Maghreb médiéval. Un de ses mérites est de rassembler, autour de cette période charnière, historiens, philologues, archéologues, historiens de l’...

  3. Varela-Mato, V.; Cancela, J.M.; Ayan, C.; Molina, A.; Martín, V. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2728–2741

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]. In the article it is mentioned that “the study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers and also by the Ethics Committee of the University of Vigo.” However, it should read: “The study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers” only.

  4. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing. PMID:26499261

  5. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing.

  6. Resonant diffusion of radiation belt energetic electrons by field-aligned propagation whistler-mode chorus waves%场向传播的内磁层哨声波对辐射带高能电子的共振扩散

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪彬彬; 赵正予; 顾旭东; 汪枫

    2008-01-01

    基于高斯分布的哨声波谱密度分布、偶极子背景磁场模型以及建立在卫星观测数据基础上的半经验电子密度纬度分布模型,对于等离子体层顶以外区域(4≤L≤7),计算了准线性当地及弹跳平均电子共振扩散系数,并估算了与磁层哨声波回旋共振导致的辐射带电子损失及加速时间尺度.结果表明,波粒共振相互作用区域取决于电子能量、波谱分布、电子赤道抛射角以及当地电子密度及背景磁场.哨声波共振频率除了与以上5个参量有关外,还与地磁纬度有关.赤道哨声波主要影响较低能量辐射带电子的加速,中高纬度哨声波主要作用于较高能量辐射带电子的沉降损失.对于较低能量(约200 keV)的辐射带电子,磁层哨声波可以在几个小时内使之沉降,对于较高能量(约1 MeV)的电子,则需要一到数天;对低能量(约200 keV)电子的加热可以在数小时内完成,回旋加速较高能量(约1 MeV)电子一般则需要3-4 d.电子密度分布的改变能够明显影响电子共振损失时间尺度,但是对电子共振加速时间尺度的作用很小.随着电子密度增强幅度随纬度的上升而增大,电子共振损失时间尺度会随之增大,但是电子共振加速时间尺度基本上不变化.另外,哨声波幅度及频谱随L及纬度的分布也显著影响它对辐射带电子的共振扩散效果,这些作用一般要大于电子密度分布变化带来的影响.

  7. 民族风韵与现代意识的融合——曹光平无伴奏三声部女声合唱《天湖·纳木错》评析%A Fusion of Ethnic Nature and Modem Thinking: An Analysis of Cao Guangping's "Namucuo Lake" a cappella for Female Chorus in Three Voice Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇杰

    2009-01-01

    “嗡嘛呢叭咪吽”……每当人们走过纳木错湖畔时,总能听到这发自信徒心底的虔诚咏唱——六字真言。它浓缩着藏族人民的生存、生活和生命,透过它也仿佛听到了藏民族的过去、现在和将来,同时也感受到了宗教文化中的世俗和世俗人文中的宗教。

  8. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  9. Uudised : New Order keerab grungeks. Kaheksas Haapsalu Vanamuusikafestival tulekul. Kaljuste lindistus saab kiita. Janaceki edu flaami ooperis / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2001-01-01

    B. Corgan on ans. New Order uus kitarrist. 4.-8. juulini toimuvast Haapsalu Vanamuusikafestivalist. T. Kaljuste ja Madalamaade Kammerkoori poolt salvestatud S. Tanejevi "The twelve choruses" sai hollandis positiivse vastukaja. L. Janaceki ooperi "Kaval rebane" lavastusest Flaami Ooperis

  10. A Compressible High-Order Unstructured Spectral Difference Code for Stratified Convection in Rotating Spherical Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Miesch, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code for simulating thermal convection and related fluid dynamics in the interiors of stars and planets. The computational geometries are treated as rotating spherical shells filled with stratified gas. The hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM) on unstructured meshes. The computational stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS demonstrates excellent parallel performance for all test cases reported in this paper, scaling up to 12,000 cores on the Yellowstone High-Performance Computing cluster at NCAR. The code is verified by defining two benchmark cases for global convection in Jupiter and the Sun. CHORUS results are compared with results from the ASH code and good agreement is found. The CHORUS code creates new opportunities for simulating such varied phenomena as multi-scale solar co...

  11. Pop / Raul Saaremets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saaremets, Raul

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Horrors "Strange House", Earlies "The Enemy Chorus", Finish Me Off "Seed", Kasabian "Empire", Norah Jones "Not Too Late", Kaiser Chiefs "Yours Truly Angry Mob", Skinny Puppy "Mythmaker", Patrick Wolf "The Magic Position"

  12. Evaluation of the Status of Anuran Metapopulations on a Refuge in Suburban Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Because many anurans have well-defined breeding seasons and male anurans produce loud advertisement calls, surveys of these breeding choruses are believed to...

  13. Uudised : Ain Anger tuli ooperilauljate konkursil esikohale. Elton Johni fotokogu näitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    A. Anger võitis 11.-14. juuliniu Lätis Jurmalas toimunud rahvusvahelise noorte ooperilauljate konkursi "Amber Sea Voices". E. John korraldab novembris Ameerikas Atlantas oma fotokogu avaliku näituse "Chorus of Light"

  14. ANALYSES OF IMAGES OF LAGENARIA (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. IN PAINTING AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION AND CROP ARCHEOGENETIC Анализ изображения лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (molina standl. в живописи как источник информации для истории интродукции и археогенетики культуры

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Works of painters of past is the source of information of crop domestication, use in horticultural, species diversity. Lagenaria crop images in painting can also be a resource for determining the morphological changes of the crop in evolution

  15. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008): 150-4.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2009-01-01

    Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS) publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors...

  16. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  17. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy of the central western continental margin of India: late-Quaternary evolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Vora, K.H.

    continen- tal margin: an update. J. Geol. Soc. India 46, 157^162. Hernandez-Molina, F.J., Somoza, L., Rey, J., Pomar, L., 1994. Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments on the Spanish conti- nental shelves: Models for very high-resolution sequence stratigraphy.... Mar. Geol. 120, 129^174. Hernandez-Molina, F.J., Somoza, L., Rey, J., 1996. Late Pleis- tocene-Holocene high-resolution sequence analysis on the Alboran Sea continental shelf. In: De Batist, M., Jacobs, P. (Eds.), Geology of Siliciclastic Shelf Seas...

  18. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  19. Study of choral training curriculum reform of music major%高校音乐专业合唱训练课程改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁波

    2013-01-01

    the chorus is a kind of important form of music. Chorus training is an important content of college music teaching, chorus training has the characteristics of the vocals sing more and diverse structure, chorus training to improve students' music quality, enhance the solidarity between the students, it is of great significance, since the reform of colleges and universities, the chorus training curriculum reform gradually attention by people. To explore the role of choral training in music teaching, to strengthen the research of chorus training, science chorus training course reform is the inevitable choice of music teaching in colleges and universities.%合唱是音乐的一种重要形式。合唱训练是高校音乐专业教学的重要内容,合唱训练具有人声多唱与多元结构的特点,合唱训练对于提升学生的音乐素养、增强学生之间的团结,具有重要意义,高校改革以来,合唱训练课程的改革逐渐被人们所重视。探讨合唱训练在音乐教学中的作用,加强对合唱训练的研究,科学改革合唱训练课程是高校音乐教学的必然选择。

  20. Multiperspectivism in the Novels of the Spanish Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2011-01-01

    stereotyp-opfattelsen af borgerkrigen som en konfrontation mellem det Gode og det Onde. De fire romaner er Javier Cercas' Soldados de Salamina (2001), Alberto Méndez' Los girasoles ciegos (2004), Antonio Muñoz Molina's La noche de los tiempos (2009) og Isaac Rosas Otra maldita novela sobre la guerra civil...

  1. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  2. Agua malgastada y agua utilizada: observaciones sobre la modernización del regadío en el Oasis de Kuqar (Xinjiang, República Popular China)

    OpenAIRE

    Faggi, Pierpaolo

    1993-01-01

    Texto traducido por Gloria Navarro Albaladejo y revisado por Juan Antonio Marco Molina Esta investigación ha sido financiada al 60% por el Ministerio Universitario de Investigación Científica y Técnica y por el Centro Nacional de Investigación de Italia

  3. El aumento del sodio intracelular inducido por la eliminación de calcio externo regula la movilidad del espermatozoide humano /

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Flores, Víctor Manuel

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, presenta Víctor Manuel Torres Flores ; asesor Alberto Darszon Israel, Luis Manuel Montaño Ramírez, Juan Arcadio Molina Guarneros. 79 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2011

  4. Fisica y vida cotidiana

    CERN Multimedia

    Méndez, R

    2002-01-01

    "Estaba harto de escuchar lo dificil que es ensenar fisica, interesar a los alumnos en gases, tiros parabolicos y campos magneticos. Por eso el profesor de Fisica de la Universidad de Murcia Rafael Garcia Molina decidio hace cinco anos dejar sin argumentos a sus colegas. Comenzo la busqueda de juguetes, regalos y objetos cotidianos para explicar la fisica" (1 page).

  5. Influencia de la despolarización atrial en la velocidad de conduccion y refractariedad en la unión atrioventricular /

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández de Lara, Luis Gerardo

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Ciencias Medicas, presenta Luis Gerardo Molina Fernández de Lara ; asesor Ruy Pérez Tamayo, David Kershenobich Stalnikowitz, Juan Garduño Espinosa75 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Ciencias Medicas UNAM, Facultad de Medicina, 2012

  6. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  7. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  8. Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Alternativas. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: Título: Las enseñanzas de Trabajo Social en España: 1932-1983. Estudio socio-educativo. Autora: Mª Victoria Molina Sánchez. Edita: Universidad Pontificia de Comillas. Madrid / por Mª Carmen Santos Aguado.

  9. Ranking de Producción Científica Mexicana. Ranking 2011

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2011-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Corera-Álvarez, E.(coord.), González-Molina, A., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. Ranking de Producción Científica Mexicana. Ranking 2011. México: Foro Consultivo Científico y Tecnológico, 2011

  10. 76 FR 58649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Van Rossem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... (Cerro Prieto geothermal generation facility) in northeast Baja California. The facility started... also located at inland localities in northeastern Baja California, Mexico (Molina and Garrett 2001, p... Medium McCaskie 1987, p. 1488; Patton 2009, Table 2. Mexico......... Baja California... Campo Geot...

  11. Ord der forandrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rolle som kritisk og historisk bevidsthed. Værker af så forskellige forfattere som Durif, Tabucchi, Houellebecq, Molinas, Mertens og Antunes tager Sartres grundlæggende spørgsmål om litteraturens samfundsmæssige funktion op igen og bliver analyseret i antologien, der tager forholdet mellem litteratur og...

  12. Historien er ikke slut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurah, Thomas

    , Seamus Heaney, Stefan Heym, Peer Hultberg, Per Højholt, Imre Kertész, Jan Kjærstad, Ivan Klíma, Jaan Kross, Siegfried Lenz, Claudio Magris, Antonio Muñoz Molina, Cees Nooteboom, Ljudmila Petrusjevskaja, Christoph Ransmayr, Klaus Rifbjerg, Salman Rushdie, José Saramago, Peter Seeberg, Tage Skou...

  13. Dimensione medievale e finalità parenetiche nei cori dell’Ecerinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bosisio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Dimension and Parenetic Purposes of the Choruses of the Ecerinis Mussato’s Ecerinis, the first tragedy in European literature, consists of 629 verses; they recall the dramatic period between 1237 and 1259, when Ezzelino III da Romano ruled over Padua. The author’s instructions (Ep. I, 136 and the coeval comment by Guizzardo da Bologna and Castellano da Bassano prove that the work served to contemporaries as an example and warning against Cangrande della Scala. In fact, the lord of Verona is the real threat against whom the parenetical message of the text is addressed. Thus the article, analyzing the contingent features of the tragedy, situates the Ecerinis within the historical and cultural context of Padua between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and highlights the role of the choruses. If the first two choruses tend to put the viewer-reader in a dramatic atmosphere − which involves him emotionally, reminding him of his own negligence and also showing him the risks of a new tyranny – the third chorus infuses hope of redemption, provided that Padua’s citizens follow the former examples of courage and loyalty. Conversely, in the last two choruses the previous scenes of despair and resignation are reversed; however, a final victory, as the one achieved by Padua’s army fifty years before, will only be possible again through a fast reaction of the population.

  14. Rapid energization of radiation belt electrons by nonlinear wave trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that nonlinear wave trapping plays a significant role in both the generation of whistler-mode chorus emissions and the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. We have performed particle simulations that successfully reproduce the generation of chorus emissions with rising tones. During this generation process we find that a fraction of resonant electrons are energized very efficiently by special forms of nonlinear wave trapping called relativistic turning acceleration (RTA and ultra-relativistic acceleration (URA. Particle energization by nonlinear wave trapping is a universal acceleration mechanism that can be effective in space and cosmic plasmas that contain a magnetic mirror geometry.

  15. Final results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Eskut, E; Onengüt, G; Van Beuzekom, M G; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Cassol, F; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Righini, P; Simone, S; Vivolo, L; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van der Donckt, M; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Luppi, C; Ishii, Y; Kazuno, M; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Flegel, W; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Niu, E; Øverås, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R; Uiterwijk, J W E; Weinheimer, C; Wong, H; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Mailov, A A; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Brooijmans, G; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Hérin, J; Kalinin, S; Makhlioueva, I; Artamonov, A; Gorbunov, P; Khovansky, V; Shamanov, V; Tsukerman, I; Bonekämper, D; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Kotaka, Y; Kozaki, T; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Obayashi, Y; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G De Lellis G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, M; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, V; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Capone, A; De Pedis, D; Di Liberto, S; Dore, U; Ludovici, P F Loverre L; Maslennikov, A; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Santacesaria, G Rosa R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2008-01-01

    The final oscillation analysis of the complete set of data collected by CHORUS in the years 1994-1997 is presented. Reconstruction algorithms of data extracted by electronic detectors were improved and the data recorded in the emulsion target were analysed by new automated scanning systems, allowing the use of a new method for event reconstruction in emulsion. CHORUS has applied these new techniques to the sample of 1996-1997 events for which no muons were observed in the electronic detectors. Combining the new sample with the data analysed in previous papers, the overall sensitivity of the experiment to the $\

  16. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  17. Neue Klassik-CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Firma Antes plaatide seas "Eesti portreed. Werke für Flöte und Gitarre", "Kangro. Klavierkonzert Nr.2"; Deutsche Grammophon'i plaat "Steinberg dir, N. Järvi"; Globe plaat "Tanejev. The Twelve Choruses op. 27", dir. T. Kaljuste

  18. Multiple scale music segmentation using rhythm, timbre and harmony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual...

  19. Primary Care's Dim Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    Given the chorus of approval for primary care emanating from every party to the health reform debate, one might suppose that the future for primary physicians is bright. Yet this is far from certain. And when one looks to history and recognizes that primary care medicine has failed virtually every conceivable market test in recent years, its…

  20. Reform, Racism and the Centrality of Whiteness: Assessment, Ability and the "New Eugenics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning scientist James Watson was vilified when his views on the supposedly inherent deficiencies of black people became public. The scientific establishment, mainstream media and politicians joined a chorus of disapproval that would seem to evidence a widespread rejection of the old myths of racially ordered intelligence.…

  1. States Seek Flexibility on Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele; Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With the debut of common assessments less than two years away, states and districts are worried about the accountability systems that hinge on those tests. A growing chorus of policy groups is urging more flexibility in how states evaluate teachers, label schools, and enforce other high-stakes consequences during what's likely to be a messy…

  2. Status of the search for $\

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzberg, D

    1996-01-01

    The CHORUS experiment is searching for nu-mu to nu-tau oscillations using an 800 kilogram emulsion target and an electronic detector. Two of four years of running have been completed. The experiment will probe small mixing angles for squared neutrino mass differences greater than 10 eV^2, at least one order of magnitude better than previous limits.

  3. Thickening Our Stories: Models for Using Environmental History as Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brian

    2003-01-01

    In his position at Penn State University, this author teaches environmental studies (ES) students in core introductory, mid-level, and upper-level courses. As he teaches the first full batch of graduates in this year's Senior Seminar, the chorus is clear: environmental history has played a distinct role in bringing coherence to their ES curricula.…

  4. Determination of the semi-leptonic branching fraction of charm hadrons produced in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; De Jong, M; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Spada, F R; Van Dantzig, R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, S A; Chizhov, M; Doucet, M; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; Di Capua, F; De Rosa, G; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2002-01-01

    During the years 1994--1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the CERN-SPS Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The improvements of the past few years in the automatic emulsion scanning systems allowed a sample of events located in emulsion to be used for studies of charm production. Based on a sample of 56,172~$\

  5. Eight Ways to Support Students during Standardized Tests. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Julie; Holcomb, Linda Laine

    2012-01-01

    Standardized testing time often creates a nervous atmosphere in classrooms. In past years one of the authors joined a chorus of teachers singing her own woes about the infamous test. She increased her daily caffeine intake, lost sleep, and became a nervous, crazed teacher who had turned her classroom into a test prep center. Her aha moment came…

  6. Potential component Allee effects and their impact on wetland management in the conservation of endangered anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Gaston

    Full Text Available Effective management of wetland quantity and quality is crucial for effective conservation of declining amphibian populations. In particular, frogs and toads that employ aggregative breeding strategies may suffer negative population impacts in response to changes in availability of aquatic breeding habitat, including overabundance of suitable habitat, if density of conspecifics attending aggregations is positively correlated with reproductive success. Here we document such a positive relationship, potentially the first example of a component Allee effect in an anuran, in the critically endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis. We assessed the relationship between mean yearly chorus size and reproductive success of males at the pond level using an information theoretic model selection approach and a two-sample t-test. The chosen model contained the single variable of mean yearly chorus size to predict probability of reproduction, as selected using the Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample size and Akaike weight. Mean chorus sizes were significantly higher among ponds exhibiting evidence of reproduction than in those that showed no evidence of reproduction. Our results suggest that chorusing alone is a poor proxy for inference of population stability and highlight a need for reassessment of widely-used amphibian monitoring protocols. Further, amphibian conservation efforts should account for potential Allee effects in order to optimize benefits and avoid underestimating critical population thresholds, particularly in species exhibiting rapid population declines.

  7. Harmonious Night,Beautiful Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>An 80-member Chinese delegation consisting of the Red Star Chorus and reporters arrived in Singapore on March 1 for a performance tour.It was headed by Li Yonglong, Political Commissar of the People’s Liberation Army Academy of Arts with the famous tenor Li Shuangjiang as art director.

  8. Signal recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) in naturally fluctuating noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A

    2013-05-01

    This study tested three hypotheses about the ability of female frogs to exploit temporal fluctuations in the level of background noise to overcome the problem of recognizing male advertisement calls in noisy breeding choruses. Phonotaxis tests with green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were used to measure thresholds for recognizing calls in the presence of noise maskers with (a) no level fluctuations, (b) random fluctuations, or level fluctuations characteristic of (c) conspecific choruses and (d) heterospecific choruses. The dip-listening hypothesis predicted lower signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating maskers compared with nonfluctuating maskers. Support for the dip-listening hypothesis was weak; only Cope's gray treefrogs experienced dip listening and only in the presence of randomly fluctuating maskers. The natural soundscapes advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when level fluctuations resembled those of natural soundscapes compared with artificial fluctuations. This hypothesis was rejected. In noise backgrounds with natural fluctuations, the species-specific advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when fluctuations resembled species-specific patterns of conspecific soundscapes. No evidence was found to support this hypothesis. These results corroborate previous findings showing that Cope's gray treefrogs, but not green treefrogs, experience dip listening under some noise conditions. Together, the results suggest level fluctuations in the soundscape of natural breeding choruses may present few dip-listening opportunities. The findings of this study provide little support for the hypothesis that receivers are adapted to exploit level fluctuations of natural soundscapes in recognizing communication signals.

  9. Has matter's mother paid a call?

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, P

    2003-01-01

    "..Stunning results .. are prompting a growing chorus of physicists to say that it's time to declare success in a decades-long quest to make quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot, dense soup of matter that contains loose fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons" (1 page).

  10. Fritids- og sportsaktiviteter hos yngre pacemakerpatienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Petersen, J

    1989-01-01

    : Badminton (3), bicycle-riding (6), firefighting (1), fishing (3), golf (2), gymnastics (3), handball (1), hunting (4), riding (1), running/jogging (4), sailing (5), shooting (2), skiing (3), soccer (5), swimming (1), theatre (1), chorus (1), and tennis (2). No significant changes in the levels of activity...

  11. Pulsating aurora observed on the ground and in-situ by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Denton, R. E.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.; Bounds, S. R.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kurth, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    Early observations and theory related to pulsating aurora suggested that the electrons that drive this aurora originate from the equatorial region of the magnetosphere and that a likely process that can scatter these electrons would involve chorus waves. Recent satellite observations during pulsating auroral events have provided important "firsts", including evidence of strong correlations between pulsating auroral patches and in-situ lower-band chorus (THEMIS), as well as correlations with energetic electron precipitation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit (GOES). These results provide important information regarding particle dynamics, leading to a question about how the chorus might be driven. We present observations of the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with a pulsating aurora event, as confirmed by observations on the ground. The in-situ data again show the presence of lower-band chorus. However, magnetic and electric field data also show that the wave bursts coincide with an apparent poloidal field-line resonance, begging the question of whether the resonance might be responsible for driving the VLF waves.

  12. Scheduling Sanity in the Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatilo, Joseph S.

    1983-01-01

    Use of the music block schedule for elementary band, chorus, and orchestra programs has many advantages. For example, it eliminates the need to pull students from class and abates classroom teacher and music teacher friction. Solutions to other problems often encountered in scheduling are also discussed. (RM)

  13. The Knights’ Eleven Oars: In Praise of Phormio? (Ar. Eq. 546-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2009-01-01

    The curious “eleven oars” of the chorus of Knights in Aristophanes’ eponymous play recall the victory of Phormio and his eleven triremes in the gulf of Naupactus in 429 B.C., and echo a lost victory ode performed at the celebration of this victory....

  14. “Behandl dig selv med honning"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejrup, Kristian; Bjerring-Nielsen, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    with a heavenly figure, a potent Joseph lookalike, who reveals to her inexpressible secrets mediated in an exuberant honeycomb. The revelatory capacity of honey is stylistically rendered by means of repetition, pleonasm, chorus, reprises and gestures. The encounter with “Das ganz Andere” does not leave Aseneth...

  15. Is Inheritance Tax the Answer to A Fair Distribution of Wealth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After the snow disaster in south China and the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in the first half of 2008, the nation showed its support by donating almost 100 billion yuan ($14.3billion). This has prompted a chorus of voices

  16. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  17. El fantástico Hombre Bala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepa Merlo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de El Fantástico hombre bala, es hablar de una pequeña joya en todos los sentidos: una cuidada edición que la editorial El Páramo mima con ilustraciones de Alicia Gómez Molina, intercaladas entre los cuentos como si se tratara de una novela gráfica, introduciéndonos magistralmente en los veintisiete relatos asombrosos del libro.

  18. Luces y sombras de la calidad de la democracia en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alcántara Sáez

    2008-01-01

    El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer), The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh P Prajapati; Manisha Kalariya; Parmar, Sachin K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2010-01-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit p...

  20. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Mauricio González; Campuzano, Hermelinda Servín

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christian...

  1. Nuevas adiciones de bivalvos a la malacofauna marina peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro especies de moluscos bivalvos marinos, Nuculana (Jupiteria cuneata (Sowerby, 1833, Isognomon (Isognomón janus Carpenter, 1857, Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857 y Mysella (Rochefortia molinae Ramorino, 1968 se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano. Se incluye datos sobre la distribución geográfica y el hábitat de cada una de las especies.

  2. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  3. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Kristerson Reinaldo de Luna Freire; Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activi...

  4. Ethnobotany of Hulu(Lagenaria siceraria)%葫芦的民族植物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈重明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 葫芦(Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.)系葫芦科植物,在我国有着悠久的应用的历史,在古代人民的经济生活和医疗活动中均有重要的地位,而且在民俗文化方面更有丰富的内容,和宗教、植物崇拜有着密切的关系.

  5. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, P. A; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; Fleming, E. L.; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S.R.; Jackman, C. H.; N. A. Krotkov; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  6. Overfishing population characteristics of razor clam, Ensis macha, from Independencia Bay, Peru, in 2004 year

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tarazona; Jürgen Laudien

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative monthly samplings, in 2004, were carried out to estimate the density and biomass of Ensis macha (Molina 1782), from Morro Quemado area, Bay Independence, Pisco. The present study analyzes biometric relationships, growth parameters and somatic production using the ELEFAN I routine and the Crisp’s method. During the year 2004 the rate of exploitation (E= 0.69 y-1) was significantly bigger than the values of 2003 and the monthly landings (maximum of 335 t) and fishing effort (maximu...

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  8. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an exp...

  9. Una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, I. chola sp. n., de material procedente de la Zona Reservada de Tambopata, departamento de Madre de Dios, y de Chanchamayo, departamento de Junín, en Perú. El material tipo se encuentra depositado en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

  10. Informe de calidad y datos de producción centífica (2003-2009) en Telecomunicaciones y Sociedad de la Información.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción centífica (2003-2009) en Telecomunicaciones y Sociedad de la Información. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  11. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Biotecnología.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Biotecnología. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  12. Principales Indicadores Cienciométricos de la Actividad Científica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Informe 2013

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Bustos-Gonzalez, Atilio; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Bustos-González, A. (coord.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., López-Illescas, C., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Principales Indicadores Cienciométricos de la Actividad Científica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Informe 2013. Bogotá: Universidad de Antioquia, 2013

  13. Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; Guerrero-Bote, Vicente; Gómez-Crisóstomo, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Vargas-Quesada, B., Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., Muñoz-Fernández, F.J., Guerrero-Bote, V.P., Gómez-Crisóstomo, R. (2007) Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004) 11 International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Madrid, Spain, 25-27 June

  14. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  15. 编辑推荐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    摩卡站 With the success of their two restaurants, Mosto and Modo Urban Deli, chef Daniel Urdaneta, from Venezuela, and co- owner Alex Molina, from Columbia, are now embarking on a new concept for their cuisine empire. Moka Bros opened last month in Nali Patio, Sanlitun, and the partners' concept is for the eatery to be a casual spot tbr urban diners to relax and have access to clean, healthy and affordable food.

  16. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    OpenAIRE

    Malice M.; Baudoin JP.

    2009-01-01

    In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.). Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development...

  17. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Uribe Barichivith; Daniel López Stefoni

    1980-01-01

    The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W), it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782), primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera En...

  18. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  19. CHITEC, Invovation Changes the World%CHITEC,Invovation Changes the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Platform to show Pablo Molina Petrovich,general manager architect of Architectural Office Association of Chile,is satisfied with what he has achieved by displaying a promotion booth for his newly-established China office at the 12th CHITEC."Our Beijing office was just established at the early January this year,so it's high time to promote ourselves to be more familiar with Chinese.China now is full of opportunities here," he said.

  20. Interim communities between singularities: encounters of delicacy, artistic creation and difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araújo Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an outcome of the dissertation “Poetics and marginality: the Project Cidadãos Cantantes experience” that focused on the chorus collective experience, in the project focusing the formation of groupality, the ways of being together or coexisting, and presents an analysis of these procedures. This Project was created on 1992 in the interface of antimanicomial movement. It consists in two workshops: a scenic chorus workshop and a workshop of dance and body expression. Through the project, the authors elaborated a narrative that leads the analyses of the mentioned experience. It is understood that promoting encounters between any kind of people, with or without psychic suffering - and not grouped based on a definition or diagnosis, the project can bring people in a desiring and cooperatively manner-. Therefore, the relationships developed during the project’s workshops strengthen the production of guided encounters in power, in the creation and respect for differences.

  1. Wave "Coherency" and Implications for Wave-Particle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Lakhina, Gurbax; Remya, Banhu; Lee, Lou

    2016-04-01

    Wave "coherency" was introduced in 2009 by Tsurutani et al. (JGR, doi:10.1029/2008JA013353, 2009) to describe the waves detected in the ~10 to 100 ms duration subelements which are the fundamental components of ~0.1 to 0.5 s chorus "elements". In this talk we will show examples of what we mean by coherency and quasicoherency for: electromagnetic whistler mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and plasmaspheric hiss waves. We will show how to measure coherency/quasicoherency quantitatively. This will be important for modeling purposes. Perhaps even more important is how coherent waves affect wave-particle interactions. Specific wave examples will be used to show that the pitch angle scattering rate for energetic electrons is roughly 3 orders of magnitude faster than Kennel-Petschek diffusion (which assumes incoherent waves).

  2. A first approach to model the low-frequency wave activity in the plasmasphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. André

    Full Text Available A comprehensive empirical model of waves is developed in the objective to simulate wave-particle interactions involved in the loss and acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Three years of measured magnetic wave field components from the Plasma Wave Instrument on board the DE-1 satellite are used to model the amplitude spectral density of the magnetic wave field of each type of emission observed in the equatorial regions of the plasmasphere: VLF transmitter emissions, chorus emissions, plasmaspheric hiss emissions and equatorial emissions below ~ 200 Hz. Each model is a function of the wave frequency f , the MLT, L and Mlat parameters, and the Kp values. The performances of the plasmaspheric hiss and chorus models are tested on amplitude spectra recorded on board the OGO-5 and GEOS-1 satellites.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques

  3. Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.; Haarmann, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  4. Studies of annual and seasonal variations in four species of reptiles and amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.I.; Haarmann, T.; Keller, D.C.; Foxx, T.

    1998-11-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the gathered data from 1990--1997 (excluding 1992), they plan to determine if patterns can be found in the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad, the western chorus frog, the many-linked skink, and the plateau striped whiptail lizard. Statistical analysis results show that significant changes occurred on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  5. The guitar chord-generating algorithm based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Yi-fan; Du, Dan; Liu, Miao-miao; Siddiqi, Awais

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to generate chords for popular songs automatically based on complex network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of guitar tablature, six chord networks of popular songs by six pop singers are constructed and the properties of all networks are concluded. By analyzing the diverse chord networks, the accompaniment regulations and features are shown, with which the chords can be generated automatically. Secondly, in terms of the characteristics of popular songs, a two-tiered network containing a verse network and a chorus network is constructed. With this network, the verse and chorus can be composed respectively with the random walk algorithm. Thirdly, the musical motif is considered for generating chords, with which the bad chord progressions can be revised. This method can make the accompaniments sound more melodious. Finally, a popular song is chosen for generating chords and the new generated accompaniment sounds better than those done by the composers.

  6. Evidence for Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics from Van Allen Probe Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    VLF waves in the whistler mode branch in the Earth's radiation belts play a critical role in both the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. VLF waves are often observed with magnetic field amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the background magnetic field suggesting that nonlinear effects may be important. We develop new Bayesian time-series analysis tools to investigate magnetic and electric field data from the EMFISIS instrument on board the Van Allen Probes. We also validate the analysis techniques through laboratory experiments. We apply these tools to Chorus waves to show that the picture of a single coherent plane wave is insufficient to explain EMFISIS data and that nonlinear collective wave interactions play an important role in moderating Chorus wave growth. We also apply these techniques to show that nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons can play a significant role in controlling the propagation of large amplitude lightning generated whistlers inside the plasmasphere.

  7. Ethical aspects of life cycle assessments of diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gjerris, Mickey;

    2016-01-01

    Since the turn of the century a growing chorus of researchers has been espousing reduced meat and dairy intake as a partial strategy to transition towards a sustainable food system. Many of these studies have been predicated on a life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and though transparent in c...... for assessing environmental dietary performance, but is less suited for estimating environmental pressures that are highly dependent on local conditions (e.g. chemical toxicity)....

  8. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuuma)

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-01-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on...

  9. A first approach to model the low-frequency wave activity in the plasmasphere

    OpenAIRE

    André, R.; Lefeuvre, F.; Simonet, F.; U. S. Inan

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive empirical model of waves is developed in the objective to simulate wave-particle interactions involved in the loss and acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Three years of measured magnetic wave field components from the Plasma Wave Instrument on board the DE-1 satellite are used to model the amplitude spectral density of the magnetic wave field of each type of emission observed in the equatorial regions of the plasmasphere: VLF transmitter emissions, chorus emissio...

  10. MUSIC EXPERIENCES OF TURKISH MIGRANTS: MUSIC SPECIES, MUSIC OCCUPATION AND TRADITIONAL ENTERTAINMENT PLACES

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Şenel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates transformations of music taste, amateur musicianship and entertainment places in the concept of Turkish wedding and Türkü bars in Turkish migrants life. Within this concept firstly, how music alternatives of Turkish migrants who dont know any kind of music except Turkish folk music before expand to contain all music speciesare examined. Secondly chorus and music courses of cultural associations which are important for maintain and circulation of traditional music ...

  11. Reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Lina Ren; Dujuan He; Ying Wang; David Pike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera) in Mianyang, China during the wet season of 2013. Male Sichuan digging frogs first appear at temporary ponds following the first heavy rain of the wet season and initiate calling. Females arrive at ponds shortly after males. Male frogs chorus extensively throughout the wet season during the evenings and nights following rainstorms. Female frogs leave the pond after laying eggs, and lik...

  12. Eurosceptics in Lithuania : on the margins of politics?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Unikaitė-Jakuntavičienė

    2014-01-01

    The first eurosceptic ideas were articulated in Lithuania during the European Union accession referendum campaign in 2003, but they were almost inaudible through the chorus of pro-European voices. Different kinds of eurosceptic arguments were expressed, such as a fear of identity loss or critics of the government “buying votes”. However, there were just a few political actors expressing these views, and the relevant political parties were absent among this group. This situation was in contras...

  13. Telepresence learning environments for opera singing, a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rajs, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzes the data obtained in the execution of the Opera eLearning project, a multidisciplinary effort to develop a solution for Opera singing distance lessons at the graduate level, using high bandwidth to deliver quality audio and video experience that has been evaluated by singing teachers, chorus and orchestra directors, singers and other professional musicians. The research work includes the phases of design, execution and evaluation of pilot tests, followed by further ...

  14. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  15. Measurement of $D^0$ production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, S A; Chizhov, M V; Doucet, M; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A N; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Castagneto, L; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; Di Capua, F; De Rosa, G; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Kawamura, T; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2002-01-01

    During the years 1994--1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the Wide Band Neutrino Beam from the CERN-SPS. About 170,000 neutrino interactions were successfully located in the emulsion. Improvements in the automatic emulsion scanning systems and application of different criteria allowed the sample of located events to be used for studies of charm production. We present a measurement of the production rate of $D^0$ mesons based on a sample of 25693 located $\

  16. ENTERTAINMENT GENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has the largest population of young netizens in the world, but they turn to the Internet mostly to play games Step into any Internet cafe in China and you are bound to see this sight: rows of young faces, their eyes fixed on computer screens, earphones over their heads, their fingers moving rapidly on the keyboards. A chorus of mouse clicks provides the background music. Take a closer look and you will see guns shooting, grenades exploding, monsters

  17. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to d...

  18. 生涯音楽学習の学習動機となる要因が学習に及ぼす影響 <論文>

    OpenAIRE

    Beppu, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect aggressiveness for the learning, intention to ontinue learning, and elevating sprit, and to investigate how those factors can influence lifelong music learning. A questionnaire is completed by people learn playing in chorus, playing taisyogoto, or wind instrument music. As the result of factor analysis, 7 factors that affect learning is found, as follows: “school education”, “finding value of learning”, “a sense that couldn’t lea...

  19. 2008 hunger strikes in Greek Prisons and their aftermath Lo sciopero della fame del 2008 nelle prigioni greche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of imprisonment has known an immense growth in Greece over the last couple of decades. Overcrowding in prison establishments is staggering and living conditions are deplorable, turning unrest and even riots into a commonplace occurrence. In recent years, with international watchdogs and national pressure groups joining prisoners in the chorus of outcry, the Greek state has been promising to effectuate fundamental reforms, including a decisive turn towards decarceration.

  20. Physical theatre as an approach to contemporary stagings of classical Greek tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Moschochoriti, Rubini

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This PhD focuses on physical theatre techniques and practices in order to provide acting keys for directing ancient drama. More specifically, the work for stage put effort in the acting method, with which the chorus and the main characters can be approached. For that reason, the basic method adopted was that of J. Lecoq, and especially the ‘transference’ practice. Moreover, specific elemen...

  1. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2016-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  2. Interpretation of poetical text in choral triptych “About the peace” of R. Boiko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Ravikovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of interpretation of poetical text in cycle of chorus of well-known Moscov composer R. Boiko. The author’s attention is first of all focused on the interaction of poetical and musical means of expression that certainly it is important for us to understand general rules of composer’s creative process, his style and mentality.

  3. Performance Of A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Exposed To The WANF Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F; Bonesini, M; Borio di Tigliole, A; Boschetti, B; Bueno, A; Calligarich, E; Casagrande, F; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, Sandro; Cesana, E; Cline, D; Curioni, A; De Mitri, I; De Vecchi, C; Dolfini, R; Ferrari, A; Ghezzi, A; Guglielmi, A; Kisiel, J; Mannocchi, G; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Matthey, C; Mauri, F; Montanari, C; Navas, S; Negri, P; Nicoletto, Marino; Otwinowski, S; Paganoni, M; Palamara, O; Pepato, Adriano; Periale, L; Piano Mortari, G; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Puccini, A; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Redaelli, N; Rondio, E; Rubbia, André; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P R; Sergiampietri, F; Sobczyk, J; Suzuki, S; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Terrani, M; Terranova, F; Tonazzo, A; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Zalewska A

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  4. Detection and reconstruction of short-lived particles produced by neutrino interactions in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Uiterwijk, J W E

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, several different topics related to the chorus experiment are pre- sented. The chorus experiment has been used to study neutrino oscillations using the neutrino beam at cern. The neutrino oscillation hypothesis provided an explanation for the lower than expected fluxes of solar and atmospheric neutrinos. There are three neutrino species in nature corresponding to different weak eigenstates, namely, the elec- tron neutrino (νe ), the muon neutrino (νμ ), and the tau neutrino (ντ ). The lower fluxes could be interpreted as spontaneous oscillations between electron and muon neutrinos and between muon and tau neutrinos. The chorus experiment was designed to detect oscillation of muon neutrinos into tau neutrinos with small mixing probability down to 2 · 10−4 and a mass difference square between νμ and ντ larger than 0.5 eV2 . In the last decade, several disappearance experiments have confirmed the neutrino oscillation hypothesis and showed that oscillations occur between mass eig...

  5. Nonlinear local parallel acceleration of electrons through Landau trapping by oblique whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Artemyev, Anton; Mourenas, Didier; Mozer, Forrest; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Simultaneous observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B are analyzed to identify long-lasting (more than 6 h) signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. Such Landau resonant interactions result in the trapping of ˜1-10 keV electrons and their acceleration up to 100-300 keV. This kind of process becomes important for oblique whistler mode waves having a significant electric field component along the background magnetic field. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. We demonstrate that the electron energy corresponding to the observed plateau remains in very good agreement with the energy required for Landau resonant interaction with the simultaneously measured oblique chorus waves over 6 h and a wide range of L shells (from 4 to 6) in the outer belt. The efficient parallel acceleration modifies electron pitch angle distributions at energies ˜50-200 keV, allowing us to distinguish the energized population. The observed energy range and the density of accelerated electrons are in reasonable agreement with test particle numerical simulations.

  6. Ionosphere-magnetosphere energy interplay in the regions of diffuse aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tripathi, A. K.; Detweiler, L. G.; Avanov, L. A.; Singhal, R. P.

    2016-07-01

    Both electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and whistler mode chorus waves resonate with electrons of the Earth's plasma sheet in the energy range from tens of eV to several keV and produce the electron diffuse aurora at ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of these superthermal electrons with the neutral atmosphere leads to the production of secondary electrons (E whistler mode chorus waves, however, can also interact with the secondary electrons that are coming from both of the magnetically conjugated ionospheres after they have been produced by initially precipitated high-energy electrons that came from the plasma sheet. After their degradation and subsequent reflection in magnetically conjugate atmospheric regions, both the secondary electrons and the precipitating electrons with high (E > 600 eV) initial energies will travel back through the loss cone, become trapped in the magnetosphere, and redistribute the energy content of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, scattering of the secondary electrons by ECH and whistler mode chorus waves leads to an increase of the fraction of superthermal electron energy deposited into the core magnetospheric plasma.

  7. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Pérez; Gonzalo Silva; Maritza Tapia; Ruperto Hepp

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p). Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insecto...

  8. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malice M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.

  9. De la capa al agujero: los descuidos de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Martínez, Carlos E.

    1997-01-01

    Diez años después de la firma del Protocolo de Montreal para regular el uso de sustancias nocivas para la capa de ozono, firmado por 24 países en 1987, se reseñan algunos inventos tecnológicos que si bien hacen la vida cotidiana más cómoda, continúan ocasionando daños a la capa de ozono. Asimismo, se presentan las batallas libradas hasta entonces por los científicos Mario Molina y Sherwood Rowland para que se reconocieran los efectos dañinos de los clorofluorocarbonos. Se incluye la reproducc...

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña; José Luis Gutiérrez Molina; David Molina Rabadán; Alejandro Román Antequera; Jesús Fernández García; Roberto Germán Fandiño Pérez; Rafael Gómez Sánchez; Julio Pérez Serrano; Leonardo Mazzei de Grazia; Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2008-01-01

    Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed.), Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David...

  11. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Mauricio González

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christianity in Mexico are similar to global.

  12. Diferencias en el perfil psicológico y en la conducta alimentaria de madres de mujeres con y sin trastornos alimentarios /

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez Velazquez, Veronica

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Psicología, presenta Verónica Vázquez Velázquez ; tutores principales de tesis Lucy María Reidl Martínez, Gilda Libia Gómez Pérez Mitré, Juan Pablo Méndez Blanco, Martha Kaufer Horwitz, Teresita de Jesús Saucedo Molina177 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2012 Programa de Posgrado en Psicología

  13. Pioneers in ozone research receive Nobel Prize in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded its 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three AGU members for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Only one other Nobel prize has ever been awarded in the realm of atmospheric research. The honorees are professors Paul Crutzen of the Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The Academy credits the three with contributing to “our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences.”

  14. La traducción de culturemas en el ámbito del patrimonio cultural: análisis de folletos turísticos de la Región de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Almela, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de culturemas es una de las principales dificultades a las que ha de hacer frente el traductor de textos turísticos. Dichos elementos proceden de diversos ámbitos de una cultura y encuentran en el folleto turístico su nexo de unión. Uno de los ámbitos que ya desde Nida (1945) ha sido objeto de catalogaciones es el de la cultura material, también llamado ámbito del patrimonio cultural (Molina Martínez, 2001). Precisamente el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en...

  15. Generación de banco de propagación de bambú- guadua en zonas áridas de la costa peruana regado con distintos tipos de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, Juan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un proyecto de investigación experimental que se ha realizado en la facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola de La Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. Se basa en el aprovechamiento de diferentes tipos de agua, a las que se les aplican diversas tecnologías sostenibles de tratamientos de agua, tal como sistemas de humedales construidos de flujo horizontal y reservorios. El reúso de estos cuerpos de agua se utiliza para la generación de un banco de pr...

  16. El suelo, un sistema organizado que sustenta la vida terrestre, una propuesta de aula para ciclo I

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Mora, Yenny Patricia

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo diseñar una propuesta de aula donde se integren conceptualmente la estructura, y los procesos: físicos, químicos, biológicos y sociales, que inciden en el desarrollo y protección del suelo, con el fin de lograr un aprendizaje significativo, el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento y una conciencia del cuidado de éste en los estudiantes del ciclo I, del colegio Gerardo Molina Ramírez IED. Se realizó una prueba diagnóstica con el fin de identificar la...

  17. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca; Francisco de Paula Villatoro Sánchez; David Molina Rabadán; Daniel Alcalde Güelfo; Daniel Francisco Álvarez Espinosa; Mª del Rocío Piñeiro Álvarez; Manuel Baraja Escudero; José Joaquín Fernández Alles; Gema León Ravina

    2009-01-01

    Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición), Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps.), Econom...

  18. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  19. Estratigrafía del Pérmico y Triásico en el sector central de la rama castellana de la Cordillera Ibérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Arlucea, M.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The main Permian and Triassic sequence in Molina de Aragón and South Albarracín is established. More than 45 sections have been studied, analysing the lateral changes and establishing 16 lithoestratigraphic Units. Part of these 1ithoestraigraphic Units were originally established by Ramos (1979 in the Molina de Aragon area, but this study prove that they can be followed to our arca. .
    The description, main characteristics, lateral changes and extension of each lithoestratigraphic Units are established here. .
    The paleogeography of this area with a large high located in the half north of Albarracín Sierra, is discussed here. That high was related with the tectonic movements contemporaneous to sedimentation during Upper Permian and Triassic.

    Se establece la sucesión estratigráfica tipo del Pérmico y Triásico de la región comprendida entre Molina de Aragón y el sur de Albarracín. Sobro la base do más de 45 columnas estratigráficas levantadas y del análisis de las variaciones que presentan los distintos tramos litológicos de que se compone la serie, se establecen 16 unidades litoestratigráficas, Aunque una parte de estas unidades fueron definidas originalmente en otros sectores de la Cordillera Ibérica, el estudio realizado demuestra que son también válidas en este área. Es el caso de las unidades definidas para parte del Pérmico y para las facies Buntsandstein por Ramos (1979, al oeste de Molina de Aragón.
    Se describen y analizan las principales características de cada una de las unidades litoestratigráficas establecidas. así como sus variaciones laterales y extensión superficial. .
    Por último, se discuten las implicaciones paleogeográficas que tuvo la existencia de un importante umbral situado en la mitad norte de la Sierra de Albarracín, Y se relaciona su presencia con la actividad tectónica contemporánea de la sedimentación del Pérmico superior y del Triásico.

  20. Energía solar térmica y fotovoltaica aislada para pequeñas comunidades en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piriz Sagahon, Imanol Yalli Atahualpa

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de este proyecto se hizo gracias al apoyo económico del Centro de Cooperación al Desarrollo (CCD) y del Programa de Educación en Ciencia y Tecnología del Agua para la Población Infanto-juvenil de Perú PCIAECID (A1-035941-11). El apoyo en logística e instalaciones por parte del Departamento de Ordenamiento Territorial y Desarrollo Sostenible de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El presente trabajo final de master esta orientado al diseño y la implement...

  1. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants. PMID:27477343

  2. Effects of Different Common Cucurbitaceae Grafting Rootstock on Growth, Development and Quality of Melon(Cucumis melo L.)%常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜其品质差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 于高波; 盛云燕; 王洋洋; 廖佳宁

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze growth, development and quality of melon after grafting using common Cucurbitaceae grafting rootstock. [Method] The self-root seedling of Dongtian 02 was used as control. And pumpkin( Cucurbita moschata), big gourd[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. gourda Ser. ] , ground melon[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. clavata Ser. ], zucchini(Luffa cylin-drica) , and luffa[Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ) Cogn. var. chieh-qua How] were used for grafting to melon Dongtian 02. The experiment studied different rootstocks on the grafting survival rate, growth rate and fruit characteristics. [ Result] The results indicated that using luffa and zucchini as grafting rootstock were not suitable for the improvement of melon quality whereas gourd melon and pumpkin had the positive influence on performance. As grafting rootstock, big gourd has advantages and disadvantages. [ Conclusion] The study provides a theoretical basis for melon grafting cultivation development.%[目的]分析常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)后甜瓜的生长发育及果实品质.[方法]以东甜02自根苗作为对照,进行以南瓜(Cucuita moschata)、大葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.gourda Ser.]、瓠子[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.clavata Ser.]、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、节瓜[Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.var.chieh-qua How]为砧木、东甜02为接穗的嫁接栽培比较试验,研究不同砧穗组合的嫁接成活率、植株生长速率和果实性状.[结果]以节瓜、丝瓜为砧木,不利于东甜02果实优良性状的表现,而以瓠子、南瓜为砧木,对东甜02有积极的影响,而以大葫芦为砧木,则利弊参半.[结论]该研究可为甜瓜嫁接栽培的发展提供理论依据.

  3. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Energía y Cambio Climático.

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009) en Energía y Cambio Climático. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  5. Understanding the crisis in Spain: An unhealthy political environment or a plain vanilla recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Winther, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to examine the crisis in Spain and to consider whether an unhealthy political environment and the existence of an extractive political class can explain the crisis, or whether the situation in the country should be understood merely as a temporary economic crisis. To do so I investigate and discuss the causes to the crisis and test the assumptions and propositions in César Molinas’ theory of the political class in Spain. Molinas argues that the Spanish politicians do n...

  6. Banded structures in electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients from resonant wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron pitch angle (Dαα) and momentum (Dpp) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies ≤10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = ±1, ±2, … ±5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (α) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in Dαα and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than Dαα coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than Dαα coefficients for the case n ≠ 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of Dαα coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89° and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle 10° and Landau

  7. Ámbar en la Meseta Oriental durante el Bronce Final: yacimientos locales e importaciones bálticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cerdeño, M.ª

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis done with two amber beads coming of the cemetery of Herrería II (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara; it is dated in Late Bronze Age, preceding the Celtiberian period. The Baltic origin of the raw material has been confirmed by the analysis and this origin provides the evidence that continental cultural influences arrived to the meseta during mentioned period.

    En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados de los análisis de espectroscopía infrarroja realizados a dos cuentas de ámbar procedentes de la fase II de la necrópolis de Herrería (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, fechada a finales del Bronce Final y precedente inmediato de la primera fase celtibérica de dicho cementerio. Los resultados confirman la procedencia báltica de esta materia prima. Ello la convierte en una nueva evidencia +de la llegada de elementos continentales hasta la Meseta oriental, donde dicho substrato cultural desempeñó un papel importante en la gestación de los posteriores pueblos prerromanos.

  8. DO PENSAR HISTÓRICO Á NEGAÇÃO DO PÓS-TURISMO: Ensaio crítico sobre Pós-Turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Santos Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente ensaio propõe uma análise crítica do livro O Pós-Turismo, do mexicano Sergio Molina. Inicialmente, destacamos os métodos funcionalista, estruturalista e do materialismo histórico como instrumentos capazes de interpretar a realidade turística, mostrando seus avanços e limites, para, em seguida, discutir o conceito de pós-modernidade e o surgimento do sufixo “pós”. Assim, poderemos iniciar a discussão em torno do pós-turismo e explicitar o método utilizado por Molina para criar tal conceito e demonstrar como o mesmo contribui para o empobrecimento científico e acadêmico da teoria do Turismo, evidenciando que tal conceito aplica-se como uma construção voltada para o mercado e não para o saber turístico. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Teoria do Turismo. Pós-Turismo. Funcionalismo. Neoliberalismo. 

  9. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  10. La relación entre carácter y destino en la modernidad a través del mito de las sirenas: de Homero a Kafka y Joyce / The Relationship Between Character and Destiny in Modernity Through the Siren's Myth: from Homer to Kafka and Joyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo de Camps Mora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la diferente articulación de la figura del héroe en la novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, Beltenebros (1989, y en su adaptación cinematográfica, realizada por Pilar Miró (1991. Teniendo en cuenta el contexto histórico, y un origen cervantino en esa figura, se analizan las diferencias entre la técnica de presentación en la novela, el fluir de la conciencia, y las acciones y gestos en la adaptación, en la que dos escenas de baile resaltan por su contenido simbólico y carácter intertextual, que podemos relacionar con la cultura de masas. / In this article I review the hero´s characterization in Beltenebros, by Antonio Muñoz Molina (1989, and its filmic adaptation by Pilar Miró (1991. I review the historical contexts and the literary influence in that figure. We find important differences in the kind of hero, the presentation as a ”fluid” consciousness in the novel, and the contrast with the acting and gestures in the adaptation, where we find two dancing scenes relevants by its symbolic content and the inclusion of mass culture.

  11. 海南岛葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫种类鉴定%Species identification of the root-knot nematode on Cucurbitaceae vegetables in Hainan Is land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟明; 陈绵才; 肖彤斌; 王会芳

    2011-01-01

    The root knot nematodes on Cucurbitaceae vegetables collected from 4 cities in Hainan Island were identified by using morphological characters, isozymes and mtDNA-PCR.Meloidogyne enterolobii were found in 5 samples, and it was a new record species on Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl and Luffa cylindrica Roem.Its distribution in Wenchang and Lingshui was also reported.Miscegenation of M.enterolobii and M.incognita was observed on two samples.%运用比较形态学、同工酶和mtDNA-PCR对采自海南岛4个市县的葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫进行鉴定,结果发现5个种群均存在象耳豆根结线虫(Meloidogyne enterolobii).该种线虫是葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl]和丝瓜[Luffa cylindrica(Linn)Roem]上的新记录种,文昌和陵水属其首次被报道的分布地区.有2个样本表现为象耳豆根结线虫和南方根结线虫(M.incognita)的混合种群.

  12. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  13. 2 obras de Barba Corsini, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Corsini, F. J.

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available Chalet at Vallvidrera This is a beautiful house, specially adapted to the requirements of the owners (a couple with three children and servants. It has three storeys, facing the mountains. Since the location of this house is close to Barcelona, on the southwest slopes of the Tibidabo mountain, it has been selected by many Barcelona families as their permanent residence. Apartments building at La Molina This building in the Alpine style is well and flexibly adapted to the mountain slope. It has eleven storeys within four separate blocks at different levels, which, together with the internal fitting and design, make this a most exclusive and singular mountain hotel.Chalet en Vallvidrera Se trata de una bonita residencia, perfectamente adaptada a sus usuarios —un matrimonio con tres hijos y servicio—, distribuida en tres plantas y mirando hacia la montaña. Dada la proximidad a Barcelona del pequeño pueblo, situado en la ladera suroeste del Tibidabo, muchos barceloneses lo han elegido para residencia permanente. Edificio de apartamentos en La Molina Esta construcción, de un gran carácter alpino, se adapta flexiblemente al ritmo de la pendiente, con sus once plantas retrocediendo según lo imponen las características de la montaña y con cuatro cuerpos de diferentes alturas; todo lo cual, unido al tratamiento interior y a todas las comodidades de que se dispone, confieren al conjunto una categoría exclusiva y singular.

  14. Relativistic radiation belt electron responses to GEM magnetic storms: Comparison of CRRES observations with 3-D VERB simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Ni, Binbin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration, loss, and transport in the Earth's radiation belt during magnetic storms is a challenging task. The U.S. National Science Foundation's Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) has identified five magnetic storms for in-depth study that occurred during the second half of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission in the year 1991. In this study, we show the responses of relativistic radiation belt electrons to the magnetic storms by comparing the time-dependent 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) simulations with the CRRES MEA 1 MeV electron observations in order to investigate the relative roles of the competing effects of previously proposed scattering mechanisms at different storm phases, as well as to examine the extent to which the simulations can reproduce observations. The major scattering processes in our model are radial transport due to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic fluctuations, pitch angle and energy diffusion including mixed diffusion by whistler mode chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss inside the plasmasphere. The 3-D VERB simulations show that during the storm main phase and early recovery phase the estimated plasmapause is located deep in the inner region, indicating that pitch angle scattering by chorus waves can be a dominant loss process in the outer belt. We have also confirmed the important role played by mixed energy-pitch angle diffusion by chorus waves, which tends to reduce the fluxes enhanced by local acceleration, resulting in comparable levels of computed and measured fluxes. However, we cannot reproduce the more pronounced flux dropout near the boundary of our simulations during the main phase, which indicates that non-adiabatic losses may extend toL-shells lower than our simulation boundary. We also provide a detailed description of simulations for each of the GEM storm events.

  15. Combined use of two rapid test in Legionella pneumophila infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LPSg1 is the prevalent cause of legionellosis in many geographical areas of the world. LPSg1 infection may presents a severe pulmonary disease whose clinical picture is undistinguishable from that of other pneumotropic agents. In addition, a low clinical suspicion and some limitations in diagnostic tests (overall the lack of a “gold standard” make a correct diagnosis of legionnaires’ disease easy to be missed. To provide a rapid and suitable diagnosis in patients with clinical signs and symptoms resembling legionnaires’ disease, specific antibodies (IgM and IgG against LPSg1 were detected in 25 sera collected from 22 male and female subjects using a rapid ELISA test (Legionella Chorus. Results were compared with those obtaiened by a standard ELISA (Legionella Vircel, which was set as the reference. In addition, a total of 16 urine specimen from individual patients were furtherly assessed for LPSg1 antigen by a rapid immunochromatographic test (BinaxNOW Legionella. In a control group of 104 healthy subjects, IgM and IgG Legionella Chorus specificity values were 99%.Agreement of IgM and IgG values with those obtained by the Legionella Vircel test were 98% and 95.5%, respectively. In patients with confirmed legionnaires’ disease, IgM agreement between the above reported tests was 88%; IgM Legionella Chorus sensitivity was 88%. LPSg1 urine antigen was positive in 12 out of 16 examined specimen.Among these, 9 showed IgM positive sera. Conversely, 4 patients with IgM positive sera were negative upon urinary antigen. Although antigen detection remains the method of choice to diagnose LPSg1 infection, the combination antigen detection plus rapid serology methods provides an additional tool for rapid diagnosis.

  16. Origins of the Earth's Diffuse Auroral Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhang, Xiaojia; Bortnik, Jacob; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Hu, Ze-jun; Han, Desheng; Shi, Run; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's diffuse auroral precipitation provides the major source of energy input into the nightside upper atmosphere and acts as an essential linkage of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Resonant wave-particle interactions play a dominant role in the scattering of injected plasma sheet electrons, leading to the diffuse auroral precipitation. We review the recent advances in understanding the origin of the diffuse aurora and in quantifying the exact roles of various magnetospheric waves in producing the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and its variability with the geomagnetic activity. Combined scattering by upper-and lower-band chorus accounts for the most intense inner magnetospheric electron diffuse auroral precipitation on the nightside. Dayside chorus can be responsible for the weaker dayside electron diffuse auroral precipitation. Pulsating auroras, the dynamic auroral structures embedded in the diffuse aurora, can be mainly caused by modulation of the excitation of lower band chorus due to macroscopic density variations in the magnetosphere. Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are an important or even dominant cause for the nightside electron diffuse auroral precipitation beyond {˜}8Re and can also contribute to the occurrence of the pulsating aurora at high L-shells. Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could quite possibly be the leading candidate responsible for the ion precipitation (especially the reversed-type events of the energy-latitude dispersion) in the regions of the central plasma sheet and ring current. We conclude the review with a summary of current understanding, outstanding questions, and a number of suggestions for future research.

  17. Significance of Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for direct measurements of nonlinear wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the upcoming JAXA/ERG satellite mission, Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA will be installed as an onboard software function. We study the statistical significance of the WPIA for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector E and velocity vector v of each electron and computes their inner product W, where W is the time variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. We evaluate the feasibility by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results of whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W using both a wave electric field vector observed at a fixed point in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through this point. By summing up Wi of an individual particle i to give Wint, we obtain significant values of Wint as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. We can discuss the efficiency of the energy exchange through wave-particle interactions by selecting the range of the kinetic energy and pitch angle of the electrons used in the computation of Wint. The statistical significance of the obtained Wint is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σW of Wint. In the results of the analysis, positive or negative Wint is obtained at the different regions of velocity phase space, while at the specific regions the obtained Wint values are significantly greater than σW, indicating efficient wave-particle interactions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using the WPIA, which will be on board the upcoming ERG satellite, for direct measurement of wave-particle interactions.

  18. Relativistic electron acceleration during HILDCAA events: are precursor CIR magnetic storms important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Brum, Christiano Garnett Marques; Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Santolik, Ondrej

    2015-07-01

    We present a comparative study of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events, both isolated and those occurring in the "recovery phase" of geomagnetic storms induced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The aim of this study is to determine the difference, if any, in relativistic electron acceleration and magnetospheric energy deposition. All HILDCAA events in solar cycle 23 (from 1995 through 2008) are used in this study. Isolated HILDCAA events are characterized by enhanced fluxes of relativistic electrons compared to the pre-event flux levels. CIR magnetic storms followed by HILDCAA events show almost the same relativistic electron signatures. Cluster 1 spacecraft showed the presence of intense whistler-mode chorus waves in the outer magnetosphere during all HILDCAA intervals (when Cluster data were available). The storm-related HILDCAA events are characterized by slightly lower solar wind input energy and larger magnetospheric/ionospheric dissipation energy compared with the isolated events. A quantitative assessment shows that the mean ring current dissipation is ~34 % higher for the storm-related events relative to the isolated events, whereas Joule heating and auroral precipitation display no (statistically) distinguishable differences. On the average, the isolated events are found to be comparatively weaker and shorter than the storm-related events, although the geomagnetic characteristics of both classes of events bear no statistically significant difference. It is concluded that the CIR storms preceding the HILDCAAs have little to do with the acceleration of relativistic electrons. Our hypothesis is that ~10-100-keV electrons are sporadically injected into the magnetosphere during HILDCAA events, the anisotropic electrons continuously generate electromagnetic chorus plasma waves, and the chorus then continuously accelerates the high-energy portion of this electron spectrum to MeV energies.

  19. BRINGING CIVILIZATION: SAVAGERY AND THE TAMING OF THE SAVAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Newman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “See, the Conqu’ring Hero Comes” goes the famous chorus from Handel’s Judas Maccabeus, but how does the hero conquer? Achilles defeats his enemies through his extraordinary prowess in battle, Odysseus by using his wit, but some heroes must abandon the trappings of civilization in order to conquer. This paper examines two examples of such heroes from Germanic and Greco-Roman myth: Beowulf and Herakles. In the texts analyzed, these heroes not only set aside their civilized veneer, but must journey into the territory of the monster they wish to destroy and there use savagery to defeat the savage, in order to bring civilization.

  20. Humans, Fish, and Whales: How Right Whales Modify Calling Behavior in Response to Shifting Background Noise Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan E; Groch, Karina; Flores, Paulo; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Urazghildiiev, Ildar R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of behavioral plasticity in the variation of sound production of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in response to changes in the ambient background noise conditions. Data were collected from southern right whales in Brazilian waters in October and November 2011. The goal of this study was to quantify differences in right whale vocalizations recorded in low background noise as a control, fish chorus noise, and vessel noise. Variation in call parameters were detected among the three background noise conditions and have implications for future studies of noise effects on whale sound production.

  1. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  2. Singer Han Hong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIRIN; KID

    2000-01-01

    HAN Hong had a happy childhood in the beautiful Xigaze City, Tibet. From the children's chorus, the military art troupe, the Prize Winning Competition on TV, up to the institute of art, she has never stopped singing. The difference to other singers her age is that she not only wishes to be a singer but a composer. Not satisfied with just singing the songs of others, she began expressing her happiness and sadness by writing her own. Finally she finished her first collection Rays in Tibet, which is the fi...

  3. Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? Débat avec la rédaction de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail Conceptualising work as a gift? Debate with editors of the Nouvelle Revue du Travail ¿Es posible pensar el trabajo a través del don? Debate con el comité de redacción de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Caillé; Norbert Alter

    2012-01-01

    Dans un échange avec la Nouvelle Revue du Travail, Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter soutiennent leur lecture maussienne des réalités contemporaines du travail en discutant les questions centrales du capitalisme, du salariat, de l’entreprise et du travail sociologique. Cet échange fait suite aux contributions d’Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter dans ce Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? De la mise en œuvre du paradigme du don contre-don en sociologie du travail. »In an exchange with the ...

  4. Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail

    OpenAIRE

    Caillé, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Alain Caillé resitue le paradigme du don que le Mouvement anti-utilitariste en sciences sociales (MAUSS) s’emploie à dégager depuis une trentaine d’années avant de montrer comment les lunettes du don permettent de mieux voir ce qu’il y a dans la boîte noire des organisations et de mieux lire par là même les ravages du néomanagement. À cette contribution répond celle de Norbert Alter dans le cadre du dossier Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? »

  5. Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? Débat avec la rédaction de la Nouvelle Revue du Travail

    OpenAIRE

    Caillé, Alain; Alter, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Dans un échange avec la Nouvelle Revue du Travail, Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter soutiennent leur lecture maussienne des réalités contemporaines du travail en discutant les questions centrales du capitalisme, du salariat, de l’entreprise et du travail sociologique. Cet échange fait suite aux contributions d’Alain Caillé et Norbert Alter dans ce Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? De la mise en œuvre du paradigme du don contre-don en sociologie du travail. »

  6. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  7. The Future of Labor and Employment Law in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    There is a serious problem with the labor and employment law system in the United States today. Unions have declined to the point where they represent less than 8 per cent of the private sector workforce, employee wages have stagnated for more than three decades, employers are cutting back on workers’ health insurance and pensions, and there is a dramatic growth in the numbers of the working poor. At the same time, there has been a rising chorus of complaints from labor scholars that the labo...

  8. Microprocessor implementation of an FFT for ionospheric VLF observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, J.; Kintner, P.; Holzworth, R.

    1984-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform algorithm is implemented on a CMOS microprocessor for application to very low-frequency electric fields (less than 10 kHz) sensed on high-altitude scientific balloons. Two FFT's are calculated simultaneously by associating them with conjugate symmetric and conjugate antisymmetric results. One goal of the system was to detect spectral signatures associated with fast time variations present in natural signals such as whistlers and chorus. Although a full evaluation of the system was not possible for operational reasons, a measure of the system's success has been defined and evaluated.

  9. A New Search for $ \

    CERN Multimedia

    Dore, U; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Loverre, P F

    2002-01-01

    % WA95\\\\ \\\\ The question whether neutrino flavours mix at some level - and the related question whether neutrinos have non-zero mass - is one of the remaining great challenges of experimental physics. Neutrinos from supernovae, from the sun, from the earth's atmosphere, from nuclear reactors and from radioactive decays are currently under study; in this frame, experiments using accelerators play a privileged role because the well known neutrino source properties allow high precision measurements and background control.\\\\ \\\\The main goal of the CHORUS experiment is to search for neutrino oscillations in the $\

  10. Wave Normal and Poynting Vector Calculations using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Dougherty, M.; Inan, Umran; Wood, Troy

    2001-01-01

    Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) are used to examine the propagation characteristics of various plasma waves during the Earth flyby on August 18, 1999. Using the five-channel waveform receiver (WFR), the wave normal vector is determined using the Means method for a lightning-induced whistler, equatorial chorus, and a series of low-frequency emissions observed while Cassini was in the magnetosheath. The Poynting vector for these emissions is also calculated from the five components measured by the WFR. The propagation characteristics of the lightning-induced whistler were found to be consistent with the whistler wave mode of propagation, with propagation antiparallel to the magnetic field (southward) at Cassini. The sferic associated with this whistler was observed by both Cassini and the Stanford VLF group at the Palmer Station in Antarctica. Analysis of the arrival direction of the sferic at the Palmer Station suggests that the lightning stroke is in the same sector as Cassini. Chorus was observed very close (within a few degrees) to the magnetic equator during the flyby. The chorus was found to propagate primarily away from the magnetic equator and was observed to change direction as Cassini crossed the magnetic equator. This suggests that the source region of the chorus is very near the magnetic equator. The low-frequency emission in the magnetosheath has many of the characteristics of lion roars. The average value of the angle between the wave normal vector and the local magnetic field was found to be 16 degrees, and the emissions ranged in frequency from 0. 19 to 0.75 f(sub ce), where f(sub ce) is the electron cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors of these waves were primarily in one direction for each individual burst (either parallel or antiparallel to the local field) but varied in direction throughout the magnetosheath. This suggests that the sources of the emissions are far from

  11. Determination of Strange Sea Quark Distributions from Fixed-target and Collider Data

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Caminadac, L; Lipka, K; Lohwasser, K; Moch, S; Petti, R; Placakyte, R

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the strange sea distribution in the nucleon with constraints coming from the recent charm production data in neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering by the NOMAD and CHORUS experiments and from charged current inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. We demonstrate that the results are consistent with the data from the ATLAS and the CMS experiments on the associated production of $W^\\pm$-bosons with $c$-quarks. We also discuss issues related to the recent strange sea determination by the ATLAS experiment using LHC collider data.

  12. The new ABMP16 PDF

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S; Placakyte, R

    2016-01-01

    We present an update of the ABM12 PDF analysis including improved constraints due to the final version of the inclusive DIS HERA data, the Tevatron and LHC data on the W- and Z-production and those on heavy-quark production in the electron- and neutrino-induced DIS at HERA and the fixed-target experiments NOMAD and CHORUS. We also check the impact of the Tevatron and LHC top-quark production data on the PDFs and the strong coupling constant. We obtain $\\alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1145(9)$ and $0.1147(8)$ with and without the top-quark data included, respectively.

  13. Determination of strange sea quark distributions from fixed-target and collider data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J.; Lohwasser, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Caminada, L. [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Physik Inst.; Lipka, K.; Placakyt e, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petti, R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2014-04-15

    We present an improved determination of the strange sea distribution in the nucleon with constraints coming from the recent charm production data in neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering by the NOMAD and CHORUS experiments and from charged current inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. We demonstrate that the results are consistent with the data from the ATLAS and the CMS experiments on the associated production of W{sup ±}-bosons with c-quarks. We also discuss issues related to the recent strange sea determination by the ATLAS experiment using LHC collider data.

  14. Experimental study of quasi-elastic neutrino interactions on Ar with a liquid Ar TPC exposed to the WANF neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A

    2006-01-01

    We present results from the first exposure of a liquid Ar time projection chamber to a neutrino beam. The data have been collected in 1997 with a 50 liter ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiment at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility. We focus on the analysis of quasi-elastic interactions; despite the limited size of the detector, nuclear effects beyond Fermi motion and Pauli blocking have been observed as perturbations to the pure quasi-elastic kinematics.

  15. A field evaluation of frogs as a potential source of secondary organophosphorus insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, G.V.N.; DeWeese, L.R.; Lamont, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Because amphibians are relatively resistant to organophosphorus insecticides and can bioaccumulate residues to high levels, they may be a source of secondary poisoning for vertebrates that feed on them. This hypothesis was tested by determining residues in breeding upland chorus frogs Pseudacris triseriata, that were collected from ponds treated with the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion. Frogs were collected up to 3-days posttreatment in four areas that were treated with fenthion formulated in either diesel oil or water. No residues of fenthion were detected above the 0.01 ppm level of analytical sensitivity. These results indicate that the frogs were not a likely source of secondary poisoning for predatory vertebrates.

  16. The Famous Conductor,VuZhu Dokyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    VUzhu Dokyi,now the head of the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble is a second-grade conductor of the state,a member of Chinese Musicians’Association,the vice-president of Tibetan Musicians’Association and a council member of the Chinese Chorus Artists’Association.In 1960 he was admitted to the Tianjin Conservatory of Music and followed Qiu Jianhua,the famous music educator,to learn violin.After graduation,he was first violin in the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble Orchestra.

  17. Humans, Fish, and Whales: How Right Whales Modify Calling Behavior in Response to Shifting Background Noise Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan E; Groch, Karina; Flores, Paulo; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Urazghildiiev, Ildar R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of behavioral plasticity in the variation of sound production of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in response to changes in the ambient background noise conditions. Data were collected from southern right whales in Brazilian waters in October and November 2011. The goal of this study was to quantify differences in right whale vocalizations recorded in low background noise as a control, fish chorus noise, and vessel noise. Variation in call parameters were detected among the three background noise conditions and have implications for future studies of noise effects on whale sound production. PMID:26611036

  18. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  19. The rational thinking about the disputes of Cao Cao's Tomb——On the flaws and perfection of our country's archaeological proof system%曹操墓纠纷的理性思考——论我国考古论证制度的缺失和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国平

    2011-01-01

    After the astonishing discovery of the Tomb of Cao Cao in Anyang,Henan,questions flared up."The Cao assenting chorus of scholars" said with certainty;"the Cao dissenting chorus of scholars"believe that the evidence is insufficient and the conclusion is made too early.The public question is directed at the credibility of the government and academic authority.The debate reflects the imperfection of our country's archaeological proof system.%曹操墓惊现河南安阳后,质疑纷起。"挺曹派"言之凿凿;"反曹派"学者认为证据不足,定性为时过早;公众质疑矛头直指政府和学术权威的公信力。各方法理辩论的背后折射出我国考古论证制度的不完善。

  20. The importance of local and landscape-scale processes to the occupancy of wetlands by pond-breeding amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick D.; Muths, Erin; Noon, Barry R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the distribution and abundance of species across landscapes has traditionally been attributed to processes operating at fine spatial scales (i.e., environmental conditions at the scale of the sampling unit), but processes that operate across larger spatial scales such as seasonal migration or dispersal are also important. To determine the relative importance of these processes, we evaluated hypothesized relationships between the probability of occupancy in wetlands by two amphibians [wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata)] and attributes of the landscape measured at three spatial scales in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. We used cost-based buffers and least-cost distances to derive estimates of landscape attributes that may affect occupancy patterns from the broader spatial scales. The most highly ranked models provide strong support for a positive relationship between occupancy by breeding wood frogs and the amount of streamside habitat adjacent to a wetland. The model selection results for boreal chorus frogs are highly uncertain, though several of the most highly ranked models indicate a positive association between occupancy and the number of neighboring, occupied wetlands. We found little evidence that occupancy of either species was correlated with local-scale attributes measured at the scale of individual wetlands, suggesting that processes operating at broader scales may be more important in influencing occupancy patterns in amphibian populations.

  1. The Roles of Transport and Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua

    2011-01-01

    Particle fluxes in the radiation belts can vary dramatically during geomagnetic active periods. Transport and wave-particle interactions are believed to be the two main types of mechanisms that control the radiation belt dynamics. Major transport processes include substorm dipolarization and injection, radial diffusion, convection, adiabatic acceleration and deceleration, and magnetopause shadowing. Energetic electrons and ions are also subjected to pitch-angle and energy diffusion when interact with plasma waves in the radiation belts. Important wave modes include whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and magnetosonic waves. We investigate the relative roles of transport and wave associated processes in radiation belt variations. Energetic electron fluxes during several storms are simulated using our Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model. The model includes important transport and wave processes such as substorm dipolarization in global MHD fields, chorus waves, and plasmaspheric hiss. We discuss the effects of these competing processes at different phases of the storms and validate the results by comparison with satellite and ground-based observations. Keywords: Radiation Belts, Space Weather, Wave-Particle Interaction, Storm and Substorm

  2. Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Averkamp, T. F.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Santolík, O.; Watt, C. E. J.

    2016-05-01

    Cold plasma theory and parallel wave propagation are often assumed when approximating the whistler mode magnetic field wave power from electric field observations. The current study is the first to include the wave normal angle from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science package on board the Van Allen Probes in the conversion factor, thus allowing for the accuracy of these assumptions to be quantified. Results indicate that removing the assumption of parallel propagation does not significantly affect calculated plasmaspheric hiss wave powers. Hence, the assumption of parallel propagation is valid. For chorus waves, inclusion of the wave normal angle in the conversion factor leads to significant alterations in the distribution of wave power ratios (observed/ calculated); the percentage of overestimates decreases, the percentage of underestimates increases, and the spread of values is significantly reduced. Calculated plasmaspheric hiss wave powers are, on average, a good estimate of those observed, whereas calculated chorus wave powers are persistently and systematically underestimated. Investigation of wave power ratios (observed/calculated), as a function of frequency and plasma density, reveals a structure consistent with signal attenuation via the formation of a plasma sheath around the Electric Field and Waves spherical double probes instrument. A simple, density-dependent model is developed in order to quantify this effect of variable impedance between the electric field antenna and the plasma interface. This sheath impedance model is then demonstrated to be successful in significantly improving agreement between calculated and observed power spectra and wave powers.

  3. Wave "Coherency" and Implications for Wave-Particle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Singh Lakhina, Gurbax; Bhanu, Remya; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2016-07-01

    Wave "coherency" was introduced in 2009 by Tsurutani et al. (JGR, doi:10.1029/2008JA013353, 2009) to describe the waves detected in the ~10 to 100 ms duration subelements which are the fundamental components of ~0.1 to 0.5 s chorus "elements". In this talk we will show examples of what we mean by coherency, quasi-coherency and incoherency for a variety of magnetospheric plasma waves. We will show how to measure coherency/quasicoherency quantitatively for electromagnetic whistler mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, plasmaspheric hiss and linearly polarized magnetosonic waves. If plasma waves are coherent, their interactions with resonant particles will be substantially different. Specific examples will be used to show that the pitch angle scattering rates for energetic charged particles is roughly 3 orders of magnitude faster than the Kennel-Petschek diffusion (which assumes incoherent waves) rate. We feel that this mechanism is the only one that can explain ~ 0.1- 0.5 s bremsstrahlung x-ray microbursts.

  4. Oblique Whistler-Mode Waves in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere: Energy Distribution, Origins, and Role in Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Shastun, Vitalii; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistler-mode waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and non-linear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasi-linear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of wave-particle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistler-mode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of wave-particle resonant interactions.

  5. Measurement of charm production in antineutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onengüt, G; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; FLoverre, P; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2004-01-01

    During the years 1994-97, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS collecting about 10^6 neutrino interactions. A measurement of nubar_mu-induced charm production is performed by usingthe presence of a 5% nubarmu component in the nu_mu beam. The measurement takes advantage of the capability to observe the decay topology in the emulsion. The analysis is based on a sample of charged-current interactions with at least one identified muon. About 100 000 vere located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed. By requiring a positive muon charge as determined by the CHORUS spectrometer, 32-nubar_mu induced charm events were observed with an estimated background of 3.2 events. At an average antineutrino energy in the neutrino beam of 18GeV, the charm production rate induced by anitneutrinos is measured to be sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+cbarX)/sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+X) = (5.0^+1.4_-0.9(stat) +- 0.7(syst))%. The ratio between neutral and charged charm productio...

  6. circadian rhythm of calling behavior in the emei music frog (babina daunchina)is associated with habitat temperature and relative humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    generally,the function of vocalizations made by male anurans are to attract females or defend resources.typically,males vocalize in choruses during one or more periods in a twenty-four-hour cycle,which varies,however,among species.nevertheless,the causal factors influencing circadian variations of calling patterns in anuran species are not clear.in this study,male chorus vocalizations were monitored in the emei music frog (babina daunchina)for 17 consecutive days during the breeding season,while its habitat air temperature and relative humidity in the course of experiments were measured as well.the results revealed that the circadian calling patterns were characterized by two periods of peak vocalization,which were observed from 0500 h to 0700 h and from 1300 h to 2000 h,while the lowest activity period was found from 2100 h to 2200 h.both calls/h and notes/h were positively correlated with air temperature and negatively with relative humidity.overall,our data indicate that the emei music frogs (b.daunchina)could regulate their vocal activities based on the changes of physical micro-environment (e.g.,temperature or humidity)to maximize reproductive success.

  7. Simultaneous Observation of Plasma Waves Detected by the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft During Close Spacecraft Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, George; Santolik, Ondrej; Averkamp, Terrance; Bounds, Scott; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John

    2014-05-01

    The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft launched in August 2012 includes the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) Wave instrument that simultaneously measures three orthogonal components of the wave magnetic field and, with the support of the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument sensors, three components of the wave electric field at two locations in Earth's magnetosphere. Measuring all six wave components simultaneously allows the wave propagation parameters, such as the wave normal angle and Poynting vector, of the plasma wave emissions to be obtained. The orbit of the spacecraft are designed such that they "lap" each other roughly every 69 days, allowing observations over a range of spacecraft separations, with the closest separations on the order of 100 km. Simultaneous measurements at a range of distances between the two spacecraft provide an opportunity to investigate the scale, size and propagation characteristics of a number of plasma wave emissions associated with the Van Allen radiation belts, including whistler mode chorus. We examine these characteristics of the emissions detected by both spacecraft during separation distance of < 1000 km. Very similar small scale chorus wave packets were detected by both spacecraft when separation distances were the smallest. The similarities and differences detected by both spacecraft and their relation to separation distances will be discussed.

  8. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  9. Short-duration Electron Precipitation Studied by Test Particle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Lee, Jong-Gil

    2015-12-01

    Energy spectra of electron microbursts from 170 keV to 340 keV have been measured by the solid-state detectors aboard the low-altitude (680 km) polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite). These measurements have revealed two important characteristics unique to the microbursts: (1) They are produced by a fast-loss cone-filling process in which the interaction time for pitch-angle scattering is less than 50 ms and (2) The e-folding energy of the perpendicular component is larger than that of the parallel component, and the loss cone is not completely filled by electrons. To understand how wave-particle interactions could generate microbursts, we performed a test particle simulation and investigated how the waves scattered electron pitch angles within the timescale required for microburst precipitation. The application of rising-frequency whistler-mode waves to electrons of different energies moving in a dipole magnetic field showed that chorus magnetic wave fields, rather than electric fields, were the main cause of microburst events, which implied that microbursts could be produced by a quasi-adiabatic process. In addition, the simulation results showed that high-energy electrons could resonate with chorus waves at high magnetic latitudes where the loss cone was larger, which might explain the decreased e-folding energy of precipitated microbursts compared to that of trapped electrons.

  10. Acoustic analysis of the interaction of choral arrangements, musical selection, and microphone location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J; Mustafa, Ashley J; McCrea, Christopher R; Fowler, Linda P; Aspaas, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Acoustic differences were evaluated among three choral arrangements and two choral textures recorded at three microphone locations. A choir was recorded when singing two musical selections of different choral texture, one homophonic and one polyphonic. Both musical selections were sung in three choral arrangements: block sectional, sectional-in-columns, and mixed. Microphones were placed at the level of the choristers, the conductor, and the audience. The recordings at each location were analyzed using long-term average spectrum (LTAS). The LTAS from the mixed arrangement exhibited more signal amplitude than the other arrangements in the range of 1000-3500Hz. When considering the musical selections, the chorus produced more signal amplitude in the region of 1800-2200Hz for the homophonic selection. In addition, the LTAS produced by the choir for the homophonic selection varied across the microphone locations. As for the microphone location, the LTAS of the signal detected directly in front of the chorus had a greater slope than the other two locations. Thus, the acoustic signal near the choristers differed from the signals near the conductor and in the audience. Conductors may be using acoustic information from the region of the second and third formants when they decide how to arrange a choir for a particular musical selection. PMID:16806816

  11. Consideraciones taxonómicas en especies de Senecio de Argentina Taxonomic considerations on Argentine species of Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen algunas especies de Senecio de Argentina, reconocidas hasta el presente como especies válidas, en la sinonimia de otras: S. francisci Phil. en S. polygaloides Phil.; S. gymnocaulos Phil. en S. kingii Hook. f.; S. molinae Phil. en S. glaber Less.; S. mustersii Speg. y su var. dentatus Cabrera en S. subumbellatus Phil. Senecio microcephalus Phil. y su var. angustifolius Cabrera son consideradas una variedad de S. subumbellatus y S. schreiteri Cabrera una variedad de S. leucostachys Baker. No se acepta la validez de las variedades Senecio gilliesii Hook. et Arn. var. dasycarpus Cabrera, S. glaber Less. var. pratensis (Phil. Cabrera, S. gnidioides Phil. var. gilvus (Phil. Cabrera, S. kingii Hook. f. var. paradoxus (Albov ex Kurtz Cabrera, S. leucomallus A. Gray var. incisus A. Gray, S. linariifolius Poepp. ex DC. var. heliophytoides (Phil. Reiche y var. subtomentosus Cabrera y de la forma S. perezii Cabrera fo. integerrimus Cabrera.

  12. Rastros digitais, discriminação e recrutamento em Alta Normandia : A situação das pessoas com limitação funcional psíquica

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaayon, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    1. Michel ARNAUD : Professeur en SIC à l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, rapporteur.2. Joël COLLOC : Professeur en Informatique à l’Université du Havre.3. Béatrice GALINON-MÉLÉNEC : Professeur en SIC à l’Université du Havre, co-directrice de thèse.4. Hervé LE CROSNIER : Maître de Conférences, HDR en SIC à l’Université de Caen, rapporteur.5. Louise MERZEAU, Maître de Conférences, HDR en SIC à l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, co-directrice de thèse.6. Michèle MOLINA : P...

  13. Esquema de evaporación flexible para la producción integrada de azúcar y alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Yannery González Fundora

    2008-01-01

    La investigación responde a la necesidad de implementar un nuevo esquema de evaporación en la fábrica de azúcar de la Empresa Azucarera "Héctor Molina", con el objetivo de crear una industria flexible que se ajuste a las variaciones del flujo en proceso debido al desvío de jugo diluido a la destilería (entre el 20 y 70 %), con la menor inversión posible y utilizando los equipos existentes. Para el cálculo de los balances de masa y energía se utilizó la simulación con la herramienta DAFLEX (Di...

  14. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; San Martin, R.; Doberti, A.;

    2000-01-01

    Immunisation against pathogens remains one of the most effective ways of preventing or reducing losses due to infectious diseases in animal husbandry. When inactivated vaccines are used, adjuvants are most often required to obtain satisfactory immune responses. One such type of adjuvant is saponin...... derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant...... activity. By carefully selecting the bark source, live have succeeded in preparing a much less heterogeneous preparation of quillaja saponin. In this report we describe the preparation, in terms of structural complexity, hemolytic activity, adjuvant activity, and its ability to form ISCOM matrix. This new...

  15. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  16. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  17. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eQuian Quiroga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g. being attracted to saliency regions but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology give a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  18. Ingenieros españoles en la Ilustración (El Real Gabinete de Máquinas)

    OpenAIRE

    González, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    La segunda mitad del siglo XVII fue una época fértil para el progreso de las diversas ramas de la tecnología y, de una manera m"DVpartiC..ldlar,para la ingeniería mecánica y la civil. Una de las innovaciones más notables de este período fue la creación del «Real Gabinete de Máquinas», en cuya génesis, organización y dirección tuvieron un papel destacado dos de los más grandes personajes de la Ilustración tardía, el ingeniero civil Agustín de Betancourt y Molina (Puerto de la Cr...

  19. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Iturriaga Barco; David Molina Rabadán; Gema González Ferrera; Jesús Rodríguez González; Antonio Muñoz de Arenillas Valdés; Alejandro Estrella González; Francisco de Paula Villatoro Sánchez; Miguel Ángel González Clarós; Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca; José Antonio Ruiz Gil

    2009-01-01

    Beck, Ulrich, Sobre el terrorismo y la guerra. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 62 pp.Páginas 187-188Diego Iturriaga BarcoBurleigh, Michael, Sangre y rabia. Una historia cultural del terrorismo. Madrid, Taurus, 2008, 736 pp.Páginas 188-190David Molina RabadánColectivo IOÉ, Barómetro Social de España. Análisis del período 1994-2006. Madrid, Traficantes de Sueños y Centro de Investigación para la Paz (CIP)-Ecosocial, 2008, 469 pp.Páginas 190-192Gema González FerreraDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Mise...

  20. 湖北部分瓠瓜种质资源初步研究及利用%Research and Utilization of Hubei L.siceraria Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开银; 石伟平; 胡宇舟; 高道先

    2003-01-01

    @@ 瓠瓜[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Stardl.]亦称夜开花、蒲瓜,为葫芦科一年生攀缘草本植物,依形状分为长瓠、短瓠、圆瓠(葫芦),依熟性分为早、中、晚熟.瓠瓜在湖北省栽培面积较大,种质资源丰富,仅三峡地区已收入国家种质资源库的瓠瓜地方品种就达11份[1],为选育瓠瓜一代杂种及为西瓜作砧木提供了广泛的遗传基因[2,3].

  1. A QTAIM topological analysis of the P3HT-PCBM dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan I.; Matta, Chérif F.; Uribe, Emilbus A.; Götz, Andreas W.; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.; Molina-Brito, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    In order to cast some light onto the nature of the chemical bonding between a 8-unit oligomer of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in the two stables isomers reported recently [I. Gutiérrez-González, B. Molina-Brito, A.W. Götz, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, J.I. Rodríguez, Chem. Phys. Lett. 612, 234 (2014)], we have performed a Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis. According to QTAIM, no covalent bonds are formed between P3HT and PCBM, and hydrogen and stacking interactions account for about 90% and 10% of the total number of bonds between P3HT and PCBM, respectively.

  2. Impacto económico del sector cerámico en San José de Cúcuta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar el impacto económico de las empresas del sector cerámico en la ciudad de San José Cúcuta (Colombia en el periodo 2008-2011. Se utilizó como instrumento un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a los empresarios del sector. Igualmente, se efectuaron entrevistas a directivos de organizaciones gremiales. El impacto económico se analizó siguiendo la metodología propuesta por Soto y Bergoeing (1998, Arbeláez y Sandoval (2006 y Molina, Coronado y Rivera (2008. Se concluye que este sector, en el periodo estudiado, presentó gran impacto económico, en particular en lo relativo al nivel de empleo, el aporte en impuestos al municipio, el consumo intermedio y el valor agregado.

  3. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  4. Antimonumentos: trabalho de memória e de resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Seligmann-Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este ensaio apresenta uma reflexão sobre o fenômeno dos "antimonumentos" que surgiram no final do século XX como uma forma de lidar, pelo viés das artes, com a violência de Estado, como nos casos do nazismo e das ditaduras latino-americanas. Este texto faz inicialmente uma retomada da mnemotécnica, ou seja, da antiga "arte da memória", que tem como seu pai mítico Simônides de Ceos, para em seguida apresentar a cena moderna da "arte da memória" sob a rubrica dos antimonumentos. O trabalho apresenta e discute obras de, entre outros artistas, Jochen Gerz, Horst Hoheisel, Andreas Knitz, Marcelo Brodsky e Fulvia Molina.

  5. Raceways-based production of algal crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisti, Yusuf [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Raceway ponds, or 'high-rate algal ponds', of various configurations have been used to treat wastewater since the 1950s. They are also known as Oswald ponds after their inventor W. J. Oswald. Large-scale outdoor culture of microalgae and cyanobacteria in raceways is well established (Terry and Raymond 1985; Oswald 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1989; Becker 1994; Lee 1997; Molina Grima 1999; Pulz 2001; Borowitzka 2005; Spolaore et al. 2006). Raceway culture is used commercially in the United States, Thailand, China, Israel and elsewhere, mostly to produce algae for relatively high-value applications. This chapter is focused on raceways typically used in the production of algal biomass and not in the treatment of wastewater. The engineering design, operation and performance characteristics of raceways are discussed. The biomass productivity of the raceways is assessed in relation to limits imposed by algal biology. The economics of algal oil production in raceways are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Integration of Communication Analysis and the OO-Method: Rules for the manual derivation of the Conceptual Model

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise information systems can be developed following a model-driven paradigm. This way, models that represent the organisational work practice are used to produce models that represent the information system. Current software development methods are starting to provide guidelines for the construction of conceptual models, taking as input requirements models. This paper proposes the integration of two methods: Communication Analysis (a communication-oriented requirements engineering method [Espa\\~na, Gonz\\'alez et al. 2009]) and the OO-Method (a model-driven object-oriented software development method [Pastor and Molina 2007]). For this purpose, a systematic technique for deriving OO-Method Conceptual Models from business process and requirements models is proposed. The business process specifications (which include message structures) are processed in order to obtain static and dynamic views of the computerised information system. Then, using the OLIVANOVA framework, software source code can be generated...

  7. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Alonso de Molina’s Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements and the uses of plants -mainly corn- utilized in the agricultural labour, which was basic in the life of the Nahuas in Central Mexico. It has several tables with the data obtained from the historical sources which permit to understand the richness of this economic activity. This article is important for agricultural, ecological and historical studies and the information it presents is valuable.

  8. A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788 and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880 by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.

  9. Revolución y contrarrevolución en el Caribe: España, Trujillo y Fidel Castro en 1959

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    de Paz Sánchez, Manuel

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the Cuban Revolution it was found out that its own survival depended mostly on the dissemination of its message in the Caribbean area, and specially on the need to export its revolutionary experience to those territories which, as it was the case with the Dominican Republic, wished to get free from the last dictators in America, the most famous among the latter being Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. Spain's external position was peculiar in this regard. Within the general framework of its Latin American policy, aiming at the maintenance of diplomatic links in the area, Madrid endeavoured to keep good relationships both with Trujillo 's Dominican Republic and with revolutionary Cuba.

    La Revolución Cubana no tardó en descubrir que una de las claves fundamentales para su propia supervivencia, que estaba ligada, asimismo, a su ideario de insurrección continental era la expansión de su mensaje en la propia zona del Caribe y, en concreto, la necesidad de exportar sus prácticas insurgentes hacia aquellos territorios que, como la República Dominicana, estaban deseando liberarse del yugo de los últimos dictadores de América, entre los que alcanzaba la cúspide de la impopularidad Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. La posición exterior de España, en tales circunstancias, no dejaba de ser peculiar. En el contexto general de su política hacia América Latina que ansiaba mantener los vínculos diplomáticos, al margen de contingencias más o menos coyunturales, Madrid hizo todo lo posible por entenderse tanto con la República Dominicana del dictador Trujillo como con la Cuba revolucionaria del rebelde Castro.

  10. Estudio hermenéutico de la izquierda colombiana como alternativa política de partido

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    Emma Doris López

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio hermenéutico parte de los argumentosplanteados en el seminario electivo de comportamientopolítico, en el Doctorado de Ciencias Políticas,orientado por el doctor José Enrique Molina.La interpretación política de la izquierda en Colombiaha incidido a través de la historia como una fuerzaque, a pesar de su fragmentación, hoy se está consolidandocomo una alternativa de partido que abarca el manejode los comportamientos electorales desde lo psicológicoy lo sociológico.Este artículo está fundamentado en Pérez (2006 y enlos planteamientos de Torcal y Mainwaring. Se trató deinterpretar la posición de la izquierda como política alternativapara el mejoramiento de los estados sociales enlos países de América Latina.Palabras clave: Hermenéutica, Política de izquierda,Comportamiento electoral. AbstractThis hermeneutic study of the arguments raised inthe seminar elective political behavior, the Ph.D. in PoliticalScience, guided by Dr. José Enrique Molina.The political interpretation of the left in Colombiahas affected through history as a power that, despite itsfragmentation, today is emerging as an alternative partythat covers the management of electoral behavior fromthe psychological and the sociological.This paper it is based on Pérez (2006 and approachesTorcal and Mainwaring. He tried to interpret the positionof the left as an alternative for improving social conditionsin Latin American politics.Keywords: Hermeneutics, Leftist politics, ElectoralbehaviorCómo

  11. La democracia en el Perú: una terca voluntad

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    Carolina ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La construcción de la democracia en el Perú es una vieja tarea que se realiza, aunque imperceptiblemente, lenta y tercamente tanto en la cultura política de los nuevos ciudadanos como en la organización política de la sociedad. El presente artículo es un ensayo sobre la aventura democrática en el primer lustro del siglo XXI yendo a las últimas décadas del siglo XX en el Perú, en las que la institucionalidad democrática adquiere nueva legitimidad, para entender las dificultades que los actores políticos encuentran y que se deben tomar en cuenta para hablar de la calidad de la democracia, en la línea que el artículo de Levine y Molina (2007 nos propone.ABSTRACT: The construction of democracy in Peru is a long standing challenge that has advanced slowly and stubbornly, if imperceptibly at time, in both the political culture of the citizens and the political organization of society. This article analyzes the «democratic adventure» in Peru in the first years of the 21st century in the context of the last two decades of the 20th, when democratic institutionalization achieved a new level of legitimacy, to identify the challenges to democracy that political actors have confronted. These elements will help analyze the quality of democracy along the lines proposed in the work of Levine and Molina (2007.

  12. Desmitificar el mito de la Revolución mexicana

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    Marie-José Hanaï

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la posrevolución mexicana, varios discursos han emprendido una mitificación de la Revolución, pretendiendo unificar a la nación mediante imágenes, héroes y fórmulas, o intentando establecer los rasgos de la mexicanidad. En la segunda mitad del siglo XX, historiadores, antropólogos y escritores de ficción escogen la vía de la exploración y discusión del mito para reevaluar su peso y significación en la identidad mexicana y la cultura nacional. La representación de la Revolución en la novela participa de esa revisión e interrogación del mito. Proponemos considerar dos novelas publicadas en los años 80, Gringo viejo, de Carlos Fuentes, y La familia vino del norte, de Silvia Molina, para comparar las estrategias de discusión del mito revolucionario, entre la re-mitificación y la humanización.From the Mexican post-revolution, several speeches have undertaken a mythification of the Revolution, claiming to unify the nation by means of images, heroes and formulae, or trying to establish the features of the Mexican identity. In the second half of the 20th century, historians, anthropologists and fiction writers choose the route of the exploration and discussion of the myth to re-evaluate its importance and meaning in the Mexican identity and the national culture. The representation of the Revolution in the novel takes part of this review and interrogation of the myth. We propose to consider two novels published in the 80s, Gringo viejo, of Carlos Fuentes, and La familia vino del norte, of Silvia Molina, to compare the strategies of discussion of the revolutionary myth, between re-mythification and humanization.

  13. Base litoestratigráfica de las facies Buntsandstein y Muschelkalk en la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica (zona norte

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    Arribas, J.

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to complete the information about the Triassic in the Iberian Range, a description of Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk facies lithostratigraphy of the aragonesa branch has been made. In this way we have informaly defined six lithostratigraphic units. The presence of two Triassic lithotypes (Iberian Triassic and Mediterranean Triassic in the study area allows us to analyse the lithologic relationships between both of them. Finally. a first attempt of correlation between the informal units mentioned above and the Ramos' (1979 units of the Molina de Aragón area has been made, This correlation permits us to relate the Triassic of both branches in the Iberian Range.

    En este trabajo se realiza una descripción de la litoestratigrafía de las facies Buntsandstein y Muschelkalk en la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica, con el fin de cubrir un vacío bibliográfico de gran importancia en el contexto global del Trias de la Cordillera Ibérica. Se han definido informalmente cuatro unidades litoestratigráficas correspondientes a las facies Buntsandstein y dos a las facies Muschelkalk. La presencia de dos litotipos triásicos (mediterráneo e ibérico en la zona de estudio, permite analizar en detalle las relaciones litológicas entre ellos. Por último, se realiza un intento de correlación entre las unidades definidas informalmente en este trabajo con las definidas por Ramos (1979 en las proximidades de Molina de Aragón, con el fin de relacionar el Trías de las dos ramas de la Cordillera Ibérica.

  14. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

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    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (Tyto alba nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (Tyto alba è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a Prosopis caldenia. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  15. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  16. Modal Processor Effects Inspired by Hammond Tonewheel Organs

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    Kurt James Werner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this design study, we introduce a novel class of digital audio effects that extend the recently introduced modal processor approach to artificial reverberation and effects processing. These pitch and distortion processing effects mimic the design and sonics of a classic additive-synthesis-based electromechanical musical instrument, the Hammond tonewheel organ. As a reverb effect, the modal processor simulates a room response as the sum of resonant filter responses. This architecture provides precise, interactive control over the frequency, damping, and complex amplitude of each mode. Into this framework, we introduce two types of processing effects: pitch effects inspired by the Hammond organ’s equal tempered “tonewheels”, “drawbar” tone controls, vibrato/chorus circuit, and distortion effects inspired by the pseudo-sinusoidal shape of its tonewheels and electromagnetic pickup distortion. The result is an effects processor that imprints the Hammond organ’s sonics onto any audio input.

  17. The Official Catalog of Potential Literature—Selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Dworkin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available These texts explore the material possibilities of the book. Somewhat parallel to the call of N. Katherine Hayles who, in her book Writing Machines, urges literary theorists to take up the practice of Medium Specific Analysis (to account for the way the medium in which it is presented conditions or at least bears on a literary text. I see in the imagined works of The Official Catalog a call for the innovative writers of today to become Medium-Responsive. This would mean thinking through the specific (materially constrained possibilities offered by the media in which texts are presented, and in thinking of the literary text as a kind of art in the greater context of other arts and the book as a medium situated within the context of many other media. In doing so, the contemporary writer refutes the chorus of critics who lament the death of the book by consistently reinvigorating literary innovation.

  18. Magnetospheric dynamics and wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that two general classes of wave-particle interactions are of great importance for magnetospheric dynamics. Electromagnetic and electrostatic plasma instabilities give rise to relatively narrow-banded spontaneous emissions (e.g., ELF hiss, chorus, three-halves noise, ion cyclotron and ion-plasma-frequency turbulence) that can scatter trapped particles into the loss cone, leading to modified pitch-angle distributions, stable trapping limits, diffuse aurora, proton precipitation events, etc. The current-driven plasma instabilities give rise to impulsive ion acoustic or Buneman mode turbulence that provides very effective energy transfer (via the anomalous conductivity mechanism) at the bow shock and in regions where strong field-aligned currents are observed. We review these interactions and identify significant open questions that must be investigated during the IMS.

  19. Resonant and non-resonant whistlers-particle interaction in the radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Camporeale, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We study the wave-particle interactions between lower band chorus whistlers and an anisotropic tenuous population of relativistic electrons. We present the first direct comparison of first-principle Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations with a quasi-linear diffusion code, in this context. In the PIC approach, the waves are self-consistently generated by a temperature anisotropy instability that quickly saturates and relaxes the system towards marginal stability. We show that the quasi-linear diffusion and PIC results have significant quantitative mismatch in regions of energy/pitch angle where the resonance condition is not satisfied. Moreover, for pitch angles close to the loss cone the diffusion code overestimates the scattering, particularly at low energies. This suggest that higher order nonlinear theories should be taken in consideration in order to capture non-resonant interactions, resonance broadening, and to account for scattering at angles close to $90^\\circ$.

  20. Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Compernolle, B; An, X; Bortnik, J; Thorne, R M; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W

    2015-06-19

    Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are important magnetospheric waves, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density, and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified.

  1. MI Coupling Processes in the Regions of Diffuse Aurora: Magnetospheric Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Glocer, Alex; Sibeck, David

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we present the solution of the Boltzmann-Landau kinetic equation that uniformly describes the entire electron distribution function in the diffuse aurora. The calculation includes the affiliated production of secondary electrons and their energy interplay in the magnetosphere and two conjugated ionospheres. This solution starts with the primary injection of plasma sheet electrons via both electron cyclotron harmonic waves and whistler mode chorus waves to the loss cone, and includes their subsequent multiple atmospheric reflections between the two magnetically conjugated ionospheres. It is demonstrated that magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is the key element in the formation of electron distribution function in the region of diffuse aurora at the magnetospheric altitudes.

  2. On reception of the church Byzantine music in Belgrade at the end of 20th century and beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is usage/misusage of a church music by a portion of clergy: a religious identity is being suppressed while a church music is used as a mean of communication of a national identity. The problem is discussed using the territory of the Belgrade-Karlovac diocese. In the 1990’s many choruses were found that were suppose to perform in church-Slavic and Serbian languages. This music has evoked many different reactions, from delight to banishment until finally it was outlawed on the diocese territory. The mode of singing, present among Serbs in the last hundred years was proclaimed native and original, and therefore as the only mode suitable on liturgies. Thus, an invented tradition takes place, where newer mode of performing and singing becomes older and more Serbian.

  3. Le paradigme du don face aux nouvelles réalités du monde du travail The gift paradigm facing new realities in the work world El paradigma del don frente a las nuevas realidades del mundo del trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Caillé

    2012-01-01

    Alain Caillé resitue le paradigme du don que le Mouvement anti-utilitariste en sciences sociales (MAUSS) s’emploie à dégager depuis une trentaine d’années avant de montrer comment les lunettes du don permettent de mieux voir ce qu’il y a dans la boîte noire des organisations et de mieux lire par là même les ravages du néomanagement. À cette contribution répond celle de Norbert Alter dans le cadre du dossier Chorus « Peut-on penser le travail par le don ? »Alain Caillé starts by resituating th...

  4. Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Compernolle, B.; An, X.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are an important magnetospheric wave, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified. The research was funded by NSF/DOE Plasma Partnership program by grant DE-SC0010578. Work was done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BAPSF) also funded by NSF/DOE.

  5. In Defense of Stuxnet

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    James A. Lewis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Revelations about Stuxnet and Flame have provoked a chorus of dire warnings on the dangers of cyber warfare and the need for action. Yet the most troubling question to emerge from these revelations is why, if cyber warfare is such a critical issue, are so many people so badly informed about it? Suggestions that Stuxnet or Flame have increased risk are based on a faulty understanding of how much risk already exists in cyberspace, the already high frequency of state-sponsored malicious cyber action, and the rapid growth in many countries’ military capabilities. It is, rather, more accurate to see Stuxnet and Flame as episodes in the ongoing contests between the US, Iran, and Russia.

  6. Search for Superfragments and Measurement of the Production of Hyperfragments in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onengüt, G; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Köse, U; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Goldberg, J; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Zucchelli, P; Uiterwijk, J W E; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Hara, T; Aoki, S; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Tsukerman, I; Shamanov, V V; Khovanskii, V D; Gorbunov, P; Artamonov, A V; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Okusawa, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V

    2005-01-01

    A systematic search for superfragments (charmed nuclei) has been performed in 22 200 neutrinoâ€"emulsion interactions obtained with the CHORUS experiment making use of automatic off-line image analysis. The absence of candidates provides an upper limit for the superfragment production rate of 1:9 _ 10_4 (90% C.L.) relative to neutrino charged-current interactions at an average neutrino energy of 27 GeV. In the same analysis 28 hyperfragment decays were found. For the first time, a production rate of hyperfragments in neutrinoâ€"emulsion interactions was obtained. The value of the hyperfragment production rate relative to the neutrino charged-current cross-section was found to be (2:0 _ 0:4 (stat) _ 0:3 (syst)) _ 10_3.

  7. Measurement of charm production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy from 1994 to 1997. In total about 100000 charged-current neutrino interactions with at least one identified muon were located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed, using newly developed automated scanning systems. Charmed particles were searched for by a program recognizing particle decays. The observation of the decay in nuclear emulsion makes it possible to select a sample with very low background and minimal kinematical bias. 2013 charged-current interactions with a charmed hadron candidate in the final state were selected and confirmed through visual inspection. The charm production rate induced by neutrinos relative to the charged-current cross-section is measured to be $\\sigma(\

  8. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  9. Nietzsche, Euripides, Diogenes: the “impossible dialogue” about the inversion of values from the Greek demythologization to the modern secularization. Commentary on the paragraphs 12 and 13 of The birth of tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Manuel Mora Mínguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this research article is focused on the question about the importance of the dionysianisms in the Nietzsche’s Philosophy in The Born of Tragedy. The central question of the existence in the Greece’s chorus the Dionysus’ presence, the role of Dionysus in the last Euripides’s theatric works and the relation of this author with the Socrates’ intellectualism. These are some of the fundamental elements which will be studied in this article. For getting it, we suggested a theatric ride around these different protagonists of this story, which is the same History of Occident. So, through these pages will pass: Euripides, Socrates, Silenus, Midas’s King and include an atypical Cynic Diogenes, oddly enough closer to the Nietzsche later to The Born of Tragedy

  10. Convection in Oblate Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Liang, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    We present the first global 3D simulations of thermal convection in the oblate envelopes of rapidly-rotating solar-type stars. This has been achieved by exploiting the capabilities of the new Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral difference (CHORUS) code. We consider rotation rates up to 85\\% of the critical (breakup) rotation rate, which yields an equatorial radius that is up to 17\\% larger than the polar radius. This substantial oblateness enhances the disparity between polar and equatorial modes of convection. We find that the convection redistributes the heat flux emitted from the outer surface, leading to an enhancement of the heat flux in the polar and equatorial regions. This finding implies that lower-mass stars with convective envelopes may not have darker equators as predicted by classical gravity darkening arguments. The vigorous high-latitude convection also establishes elongated axisymmetric circulation cells and zonal jets in the polar regions. Though the overall amplitude of the surface...

  11. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout-system design and results in application

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, K; Gussek, P; Balogh, I; Breitfelder, S; Schlichting, J; Dupraz, J P; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Zucchelli, P; Van de Vyver, B L

    1999-01-01

    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g-line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution i...

  12. 七月份娱乐信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Red Classic: Modern Beijng Opera Vocal Concert 红色经典——现代京剧唱段演唱会Date: 1st July 演出时间:7月1日Address: Zhongshan Concert Hall 演出地点:中山音乐堂Price: 480, 380, 280, 180, 80 (RMB) 演出票价:480、380、280、180、80(人民币) Red Star Over China: Red Classic Music Chorus Musicale 红星照耀中国——庆“七一”红色经典歌曲合唱音乐会Date: 1st July 演出时间:7月1日Address: Cultural Palace of

  13. Multitrack analysis of amateur and professional choirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jers, Harald

    2005-09-01

    Many choir singers in the world know the fascinating phenomenon of choir sound, which is the result of multiple voices singing in an ensemble. This so-called chorus effect, where the normal mechanisms of auditory localization of the single voices are disrupted, may be caused by complex interactions between the choir singers, but has not been researched in detail. Each singer of an amateur and a professional vocal ensemble of 16 singers was recorded on separate tracks while singing in the choir. The evaluation of different choir pieces and exercises provided information and predictions about F0, SPL, timing/synchronization, vibrato behavior, and the produced choir sound. The results reveal differences between amateur and professional choirs for homophonic and polyphonic choir pieces, and suggest new considerations for choir rehearsals and concert performances.

  14. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. PMID:21457476

  15. Electron butterfly distribution modulation by magnetosonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Armando A.; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Spence, Harlan

    2016-04-01

    The butterfly pitch angle distribution is observed as a dip in an otherwise normal distribution of electrons centered about αeq=90°. During storm times, the formation of the butterfly distribution on the nightside magnetosphere has been attributed to L shell splitting combined with magnetopause shadowing and strong positive radial flux gradients. It has been shown that this distribution can be caused by combined chorus and magnetosonic wave scattering where the two waves work together but at different local times. Presented in our study is an event on 21 August 2013, using Van Allen Probe measurements, where a butterfly distribution formation is modulated by local magnetosonic coherent magnetosonic waves intensity. Transition from normal to butterfly distributions coincides with rising magnetosonic wave intensity while an opposite transition occurs when wave intensity diminishes. We propose that bounce resonance with waves is the underlying process responsible for such rapid modulation, which is confirmed by our test particle simulation.

  16. Music snippet extraction via melody-based repeated pattern discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU JiePing; ZHAO Yang; CHEN Zhe; LIU ZiLi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete set of procedures to automatically extract a music snippet, defined as the most representative or the highlighted excerpt of a music clip. We first generate a modified and compact similarity matrix based on selected features and distance metrics, and then several improved techniques for music repeated pattern discovery are utilized because a music snippet is usually a part of the repeated melody, main theme or chorus. During the process, redundant and wrongly detected patterns are discarded, boundaries are corrected using beat information, and final clusters are also further sorted according to the occurrence frequency and energy information. Subsequently, following our methods, we designed a music snippet extraction system which allows users to detect snippets. Experiments performed on the system show the superiority of our proposed approach.

  17. Antikinių dramų pastatymai Lietuvoje | Performances of Antique Dramas in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Dikmonienė

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Performances according to antique dramas and their revamps by Lithuanian directors of 1925 to 2003 are presented in the article. Performances of Sophocles’ and Euripides’ tragedies are discussed wider. Scilicet: “Oedipus at Colonus” by Borisas Dauguvietis (1939, “Oedipus the King” by Juozas Miltinis (1977, “Electra” by Irena Kriauzaitė (1993, “Medea” by Linas Marijus Zaikauskas (1994, “Oedipus the King” by Rimas Tuminas (1998, “Antigonė” by Birutė Marcinkevičiūtė (Mar (1999 and “Oedipus the King” by Oskaras Koršunovas (2002. Scenography and direction of performances, interpretation of antique text and particularity of development of performances’ form and content are analyzed in the article.Scenography of performances changed from realistic (by B. Dauguvietis and static (by J. Miltinis portrayal of antique theatre to modern (by L. M. Zaikauskas, plastic (by R. Tuminas with vivid reflection of today’s realia (by O. Koršunovas. B. Dauguvietis has saved almost authentic form of antique performance and has rejected only from masks and cothurni. Idea of antique marble statuary playing in the tragedy of “Oedipus the King” was rendered in J. Miltinis’ performance. Role of chorus was retained in these performances; original text was not changed or shortened. Plays by I. Kriauzaitė and B. Marcinkevičiūtė were up-to-date, without antique costumes and masks, and distinguished from other plays with its minimalist direction and scenography. Chorus parts, which were acted by one actress, were shortened in “Electra”. Director and actress B. Marcinkevičiūtė herself performed all personages in tragedy and tragedy’s chorus was represented by video projection in “Antigonė”. Later performances of antique dramas were modernized not only in the meaning of form but of content, too. Greek tragedy’s text remained plot’s pattern in L. M. Zaikauskas’ and O. Koršunovas’ performances, through which

  18. Nucleon PDF separation with the collider and fixed-target data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, Sergey [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, Johannes; Lohwasser, Kristin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Caminada, Lea Michaela [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Physik Inst.; Lipka, Katerina; Placakyt e, Ringaile [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moch, Sven-Olaf [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petti, Roberto [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2014-10-15

    We consider the impact of the recent data obtained by the LHC, Tevatron, and fixed-target experiments on the nucleon quark distributions with a particular focus on disentangling different quark species. An improved determination of the poorly known strange sea distribution is obtained due to including data from the neutrino-induced deep-inelastic scattering experiments NOMAD and CHORUS. The impact of the associated (W+c) production data by CMS and ATLAS on the strange sea determination is also studied and a comparison with earlier results based on the collider data is discussed. Finally, the recent LHC and Tevatron data on the charged lepton asymmetry are compared to the NNLO ABM predictions and the potential of this input in improving the non-strange sea distributions is evaluated.

  19. Nucleon PDF separation with the collider and fixed-target data

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Caminada, L; Lipka, K; Lohwasser, K; Moch, S; Petti, R; Placakyte, R

    2014-01-01

    We consider the impact of the recent data obtained by the LHC, Tevatron, and fixed-target experiments on the nucleon quark distributions with a particular focus on disentangling different quark species. An improved determination of the poorly known strange sea distribution is obtained due to including data from the neutrino-induced deep-inelastic scattering experiments NOMAD and CHORUS. The impact of the associated (W + c) production data by CMS and ATLAS on the strange sea determination is also studied and a comparison with earlier results based on the collider data is discussed. Finally, the recent LHC and Tevatron data on the charged lepton asymmetry are compared to the NNLO ABM predictions and the potential of this input in improving the non-strange sea distributions is evaluated.

  20. The rites in the mysteries of Dionysus: the birth of the drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Mari Näsström

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek drama can be apprehended as an extended ritual, originating in the ceremonies of the Dionysus cult. In particular, tragedy derived its origin from the sacrifice of goats and the hymns which were sung on that occasion. Tragedia means "song of the male goat" and these hymns later developed into choruses and eventually into tragedy, in the sense of a solemn and purifying drama. The presence of the god Dionysus is evident in the history and development of the Greek drama at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and its sudden decline 150 years later. Its rise seems to correspond with the Greek polis, where questions of justice and divine law in conflict with the individual were obviously a matter of discussion and where the drama had individual and collective catharsis (purifying in mind.

  1. Traffic noise causes physiological stress and impairs breeding migration behaviour in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jennifer B; Parks, Susan E; Langkilde, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Human-generated noise has profoundly changed natural soundscapes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, imposing novel pressures on ecological processes. Despite interest in identifying the ecological consequences of these altered soundscapes, little is known about the sublethal impacts on wildlife population health and individual fitness. We present evidence that noise induces a physiological stress response in an amphibian and impairs mate attraction in the natural environment. Traffic noise increased levels of a stress-relevant glucocorticoid hormone (corticosterone) in female wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and impaired female travel towards a male breeding chorus in the field, providing insight into the sublethal consequences of acoustic habitat loss. Given that prolonged elevated levels of corticosterone can have deleterious consequences on survival and reproduction and that impaired mate attraction can impact population persistence, our results suggest a novel pathway by which human activities may be imposing population-level impacts on globally declining amphibians.

  2. Poets and athletes: Olympic winners and losers in early Greek lyric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Henderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Greek society was extremely competitive; amongst the nobility especially there was the constant need for an ideal of achievement on the battlefield or athletics track and to integrate this into the family history. In the absence of the role the present-day media plays in our society, three poets in particular recorded, propagated and praised the achievements of athletes at the Olympic and other games: Simonides, Pindar and Bacchylides. For a winner they composed a special victory hymn, the epinikion, an elevated ode sung by a chorus with musical accompaniment. In this article extracts of such poems are analysed in order to illustrate the poets’ views regarding winners and losers.

  3. Compendium of European Vocal Music in the 16th Century%概述16世纪欧洲声乐艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴雄

    2001-01-01

    16世纪的欧洲声乐艺术从内质上得到了空前的发展。合唱艺术,特别是无伴奏合唱围绕着复调音乐这个轴心,已达到相当的高度。宗教声乐通过改革与世俗声乐共同发展,交相辉映;学校声乐教育体系也初步形成。歌唱技法得到进一步重视并趋于科学化。声乐技法的发展,促进了作曲家、歌唱家的创作欲望与热情。在16世纪末产生的新型歌唱样式--歌剧,便成为作曲家、歌唱家文化内涵及歌唱技巧展示的重要舞台。%European vocal music in the 16th century developed from its essence. Chorus art, especiallyacappella unacconpanied chorus enclosed the axis of counter point music, reached the fairly high height,religious and carnal vocal music developed and influenced each other through reforming. Vocal music education system in the school had originally shaped. Singing technic was thought highly of and trended scientifically been raised, and trained aimly in the teaching practice. The developing of vocal music, promoted composing desire and enthusiasm of composers and singers. In the end of 16th century, a new singing style-opera had been born, it was the important stage for the composers and singers to show the culture connotation and singing technic.

  4. CITIZEN SCIENTISTS MONITOR A DEADLY FUNGUS THREATENING AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN COASTAL CALIFORNIA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, Ecoclub Amphibian; Pope, Karen L; Wengert, Greta M; Foley, Janet E; Ashton, Donald T; Botzler, Richard G

    2016-07-01

    Ecoclub youth and supervising family members conducted citizen science to assess regional prevalence and distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) among amphibians at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and Redwood National and State Parks (Parks), Humboldt County, California, US, May 2013 through December 2014. Using quantitative real-time PCR, 26 (17%) of 155 samples were positive for Bd. Positive samples occurred in four frog and toad species: foothill yellow-legged frog ( Rana boylii ), northern red-legged frog ( Rana aurora ), Pacific chorus frog ( Pseudacris regilla ), and western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas); no salamanders or anuran larvae were positive. Except for R. aurora , all infected anurans were first-time species reports for coastal northern California. At the Refuge, significantly fewer (6/71) postmetamorphic amphibians were positive compared to the Parks (20/69; P=0.0018). We assessed the association of being PCR-positive for Bd, season of sampling, and age of sampler (child, teen, or adult). The full model with season, species, and sampler age had the greatest support. Frogs tested in winter or spring were more likely to be positive than those tested in summer or fall; foothill yellow-legged frogs, northern red-legged frogs, and western toads were more likely to be positive than were Pacific chorus frogs; and the probability of being positive nearly doubled when a child (≤12 yr old) collected the sample compared to a teen or adult. Our results support other chytrid studies that found amphibians are more susceptible to Bd when temperatures are cool and that species differ in their susceptibility. The Ecoclub's findings provide new information important to conservation of northern California's coastal amphibians and demonstrate the value of involving children in citizen science. PMID:27195681

  5. Auroral pulsations and accompanying VLF emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Tagirov

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous TV observations of pulsating auroral patches and ELF-VLF-emissions in the morning sector carried out in Sodankylä (Finland on February 15, 1991 are presented. Auroral pulsating activity was typical having pulsating patches with characteristic periods of about 7 s. Narrow-band hiss emissions and chorus elements at intervals of 0.3–0.4 s formed the main ELF-VLF activity in the frequency range 1.0–2.5 kHz at the same time. The analysis of auroral images with time resolution of 0.04 s allowed perfectly separate analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the auroral luminosity. Mutual correspondence between the behaviour of the luminous auroral patches and the appearance of ELF noise type hiss emissions and VLF chorus trains was found in two intervals chosen for analysis. While the hiss emissions were associated with the appearance of luminosity inside a limited area close to the zenith, the structured VLF emissions were accompanied by rapid motion of luminosity inside the area. The spatial dimension of the pulsating area was about 45–50 km and luminosity propagated inside it with velocity of about 10–12 kms. We discuss a new approach to explain the 5–15 s auroral pulsation based on the theory of flowing cyclotron maser and relaxation characteristics of ionosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  6. Plasma sheet stretching accompanied by field aligned energetic ion fluxes observed by the MUADU instrument aboard TC-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Li; S.MCKENNA-LAWLOR; S.BARABASH; LIU ZhenXing; CAO JinBin; J.BALAZ; K.KUDELA; T.L.ZHANG; C.M.CARR

    2007-01-01

    The NUADU(NeUtral Atom Detector Unit)instrument aboard TC-2 recorded 4π solid angle images of charged particles(E>180 keV)spiraling around the magnetic field lines in the near-Earth plasma sheet (at~-7 RE,equatorial dawn-to-night side)during a geomagnetic storm(Dst=-219 nT)on August 24,2005.Energetic ion beam events characterized by symmetrical,ring-like,solid angle distributions around ambient magnetic field lines were observed during a 34-minute traversal of the plasma sheet by the TC-2 spacecraft.Also,observations during these multiple crossings of the plasma sheet were monitored by the magnetometer experiment(FGM)aboard the same spacecraft.During each crossing,a whistler-mode chorus enhancement was observed in the anisotropic area by the TC-2 low frequency electromagnetic wave detector(LFEW/TC-2)at a frequency just above that of the local lower hybrid wave.A comparison of the ion pitch angle distribution(PAD)map with the ambient magnetic field shows that an enhancement in the field aligned energetic ion flux was accompanied by tailward stretching of the magnetic field lines in the plasma sheet.In contrast,the perpendicular ion-flux enhancement was accompanied by a signature indicating the corresponding shrinkage of the magnetic field lines in the plasma sheet.Since both parallel ion-flux and perpendicular ion-flux enhancements occurred intermittently,the data were interpreted to imply a dynamical,oscillatory process of the magnetic field line(stretching and shrinking)in the near-Earth plasma sheet,which might have acted to help establish an interaction region in this area which would support continuous aurora-substorm triggering during the ongoing magnetic storm.The whistler-mode chorus may have been produced due to ion gyro-resonance during particle pitch angle diffusion after the plasma sheet compression.

  7. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Kanekal, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Green, J. C.; Goldstein, J.

    2016-06-01

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electron evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.

  8. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvarado López, Guillermo, El poder desde el espíritu: la visión política del Pentecostalismo en el México contemporáneo. Buenos Aires, Libros de la Araucaria, 2006, 149 pp.Páginas 193-196David Oviedo SilvaCandela Sevila, Virgilio F., Del franquismo a la democracia. La formación de la UCD en la provincia de Alicante. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 196-198Mónica Fernández AmadorCardenal, Ernesto, Vida perdida: memorias 1. México, Fondo de Cultura Económico, 2003, 446 pp.Páginas 198-199Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (ed., « De l’anarchisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIè siècles », monográfico de Regards, 9 (2007, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 460 pp.Páginas 199-201Iván López CabelloDíaz Rangel, Eleazar, La prensa venezolana en el siglo XX. Caracas, Ediciones B, 2007, 218 pp.Páginas 201-203Carmen Rodríguez González“El nuevo orden mundial y el mundo islámico”, dossier de Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 65 (2007, 313 pp.Páginas 203-205Antonio Javier Martín CastellanosLewis Gaddis, John, El paisaje de la historia. Cómo los historiadores representan el pasado. Barcelona, Anagrama, 2004, 244 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánMalgat, Gérard, Max Aub y Francia o la esperanza traicionada. Sevilla, Renacimiento, 2007, 416 pp.Páginas 207-209José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaMearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen, El lobby israelí. Madrid, Taurus, 2007, 616 pp.Páginas 209-211Javier Lión BustilloMoradiellos García, Enrique, 1936: Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 211-212David Molina RabadánPrieto Borrego, Lucía; Barranquero Texeira, Encarnación, Población y Guerra Civil en Málaga: Caída, éxodo y refugio. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones-Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga, 2007, 348 pp.Páginas 212-214Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaQuirosa-Cheyrouze y Muñoz, Rafael (coord., Historia de la Transición en

  9. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición, Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps., Economía mundial y desarrollo regional. Buenos Aires, GEL, 2005, 403 pp.Páginas 182-184David Molina RabadánDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Miseria. Madrid, Foca Editorial, 2007, 283 pp.Páginas 184-185Daniel Alcalde GüelfoElguero Olavide, Ignacio, Los niños de los Chiripitifláuticos: retrato generacional de los nacidos en los 60. Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2006, 672 pp.Páginas 185-189Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaEstulin, Daniel, Los secretos del Club Bilderberg. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 2006, 304 pp.Páginas 190-191Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezFernández Bessa, Cristina et al., Frontera Sur. Nuevas políticas de gestión y externalización del control de la inmigración en Europa. Bilbao, Virus Editorial, 2008, 272 pp.Páginas 191-192Manuel Baraja EscuderoGonzález Clavero, Mariano; Pelaz Pérez, José Vidal; Pérez López, Pablo, Castilla y León en democracia. Partido, elecciones y personal político. 1977-2007. Salamanca, Junta de Castilla y León, 2007, 345 pp.Páginas 192-194Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezKhanna, Parag, El segundo mundo. Barcelona, Paidós, 2008, 570 pp.Páginas 194-196David Molina RabadánSanmartín Barros, Israel, Entre dos siglos. Globalización y pensamiento único. Madrid, Ediciones Akal, 2007, 334 pp.Páginas 196-198Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaToscano Gil, Francisco, Autonomía y potestad normativa local. Granada, Comares. 2007, 202 pp.Páginas 198-200José Joaquín Fernández AllesVV.AA., Ernesto

  10. Spatial variability of the active layer thickness at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica) and the role of snow cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Miguel A.; Molina, Antonio; Ramos, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    research also required developing a qualitative grain-size analyses and geomorphological cartography of the ground at the CALM-S site. Here we show the first results of our analyses and how some factors correlate by the spatial evolution of the thaw depth in the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site. de Pablo, M.A., Blanco, J.J., Molina, A., Ramos, M., Quesada, A., and Vieira, G. 2013. Interannual active layer variability at the Limnopolar Lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 25(2). 167-180. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2014. Thermal characterization of the active layer at the Limnopolar lake CALM site on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island), Antarctica. Solid Earth, 5. 721-739. de Pablo, M.A., Ramos, M., and Molina, A. 2016. Snow cover evolution at the Limnopolar Lake CALM-S site on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2009-2014. Catena. Submitted. Lewkowicz, A. G. 2008. Evaluation of miniature temperature-loggers to monitor snowpack evolution at mountain permafrost sites, northwestern Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19. 323-331.

  11. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed., Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Historia y actualidad. Clío en la posada. Madrid, Actas, 2002, 402 pp.Páginas 141-143Alejandro Román AntequeraHardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Imperio. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 432 pp.Páginas 143-145Jesús Fernández GarcíaHowson, Gerald, Armas para España. La historia no contada de la Guerra Civil Española. Barcelona, Península, 2000, 450 pp.Páginas 145-148Roberto Germán Fandiño PérezKaku, Michio, Visiones: cómo la ciencia revolucionará la materia, la vida y la mente en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Debate, 1998, 484 pp.Páginas 148-150Rafael Gómez SánchezLemus López, Encarnación, En Hamelin... la Transición española más allá de la frontera. Oviedo, Septem Ediciones, 2001, 158 pp.Páginas 150-153Julio Pérez SerranoSalazar Vergara, Gabriel, Labradores, peones y proletarios. Formación y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo XIX. Santiago de Chile, LOM Ediciones, 2000, 3ª ed., 334 pp.Páginas 153-155Leonardo Mazzei de GraziaSantacreu Soler, José Miguel, Peseta y política: Historia de la peseta, 1868-2001. Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 2002, 196 pp.Página 155Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

  12. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

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    Felipe Pérez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p. Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos e inmaduros y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. La mayor mortalidad se obtuvo en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2003, para las tres concentraciones con un 100%, mientras que la menor fue en mayo de 2003, cuando solo la concentración de 2% fue próxima a 100% de mortalidad. La menor emergencia de insectos adultos y pérdida de peso se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos. El efecto sobre estados inmaduros fue menor que contra adultos, y la germinación de los granos de maíz fue afectada por los polvos de P. boldus. Las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de hojas de P. boldus no son estables durante el año, Mayo es el mes con la menor eficacia insecticida, y la germinación de las semillas se ve afectada por el polvo.The objective of this work was to determine the annual variation of Peumus boldus Molina insecticidal properties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, under laboratory conditions. The powder of P. boldus leaves was evaluated, during 12 months, in 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/w concentrations. Thirty-six treatments, with three replications, were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design, with a factorial arrangement. Evaluations were made for adult and immature insect percentage mortality and emergence, grain weight loss and seed germination. The greatest mortality was obtained in August and September 2003, in the three concentrations with 100%, and the lowest mortality was registered in May 2003

  13. Análise de metais pesados em amostras de Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae Analysis of heavy metals in samples of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae

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    Melissa Schwanz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Oito amostras, provenientes do Brasil, Chile e Argentina, de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae, espécie comum e abundante no Chile, cujas folhas são amplamente empregadas pela medicina tradicional para o tratamento de uma variedade de afecções do sistema digestivo e hepatobiliar, foram analisadas, após digestão nítrica, para a quantificação de ferro, manganês, cobre, chumbo, cromo, cobalto e níquel, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Chumbo, cromo e cobalto não foram detectados (limite de detecção de 5 µg/g em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras apresentaram maior teor em ferro, que variou de 109,7 mg/kg a 315,7 mg/kg, seguido por manganês (65,5 mg/kg a 158,8 mg/kg, cobre (3,04 mg/kg a 9,16 mg/kg e níquel (0,77 mg/kg a 4,31 mg/kg.Eight samples, obtained from Brazil, Chile and Argentina, of Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae, an abundant and widespread native tree in Chile, which leaves are widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and hepatobiliary disorders, were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of iron, manganese, copper, lead, chromium, cobalt and nickel, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead, chromium and cobalt were not detected (detection limit of 5 µg/g in any sample. The samples showed a high level of iron, which ranged from 109.7 mg/kg to 315.7 mg/kg, followed by manganese (65.5 mg/kg to 158.8 mg/kg, copper (3.04 mg/kg to 9.16 mg/kg and nickel (0.77 mg/kg to 4.31 mg/kg.

  14. Proposição métodos analíticos para tinturas-mãe e misturas: avaliação estatística Proposition of analytical methods for tinctures and mixtures: statistical valuation

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    Gilberto Rubens Biancalana

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetiuo de propor métodos analíticos de tinturas-mãe e misturas utilizadas em preparações homeopáticas estudou-se a sua aplicabilidade a uma mistura em partes iguais de 10 (dez tinturas-mãe, das seguintes plantas: Archangelica offcinalis L.; Drymis granatensis L.; Mentha piperita L.; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Bahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisia absin­thium L. e Coriandrum sativum L. todas de usp terapêutico comprovado(6,7,8,9,10, e preparadas a partir de padões, em períodos distintos, durante cinco anos consecutivos. Os valores estatísticos calculados permitiram estabelecer os seguintes limites para os métodos propostos: a Resíduo alcalino clorofórmico: entre 0,203 e 0,387%; b Resíduo de ácido clorídrico adicionado ao extrato clorofórmico:entre 0,016 e 0,072%; c Determinacdo de pll: entre 6,39 e 6,80; d Determinação da acidez total: entre 0,048 a 0,112%.To propose a new analytical methodology applied to homeopathy, and its consequent statistical valuation, the autors studied its applicability to a mixture of ten tinctures in equal parts of the following plants: Archangelica officinalis L; Matricaria chamomile L; Drymis granatensis L; Mentha piperita L; Peumus boldus Molina; Cassia medica; Cassia augustifolia Vahl; Maytenus ilicifolia Martius; Artemisa absinthium L. and Coriandrum sativum L. all of them with therapeutic activity proved (6,7,8,9,10 and prepared from standards, in distinct periods, during five consecutive years. The calculated statistical values permitted to establish the following limits form proposed methods: a chloroform alkaline residue: form 0.203 to 0.387%; b hydrochloride acid residue added to the chloroform extract: from 0.016 to 0.072%; c pH: 6.39 to 6.80; d Total acidity: from 0.048 to 0.112%.

  15. Reseñas de Libros

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    Héctor Vega Deloya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arizpe, Lourdes, Culturas en movimiento: Interactividad cultural y procesos globales. México, Cámara de los diputados LIX Legislatura, UNAM, CRIM, Editorial Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2006, 368 pp.Páginas 203-206Héctor Vega DeloyaCárcel Ortí, Vicente, La Iglesia y la transición española. Valencia, Edicep C. B., 2003, 342 pp.Páginas 206-207Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (éd., De l´anarquisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIe siècles. Régards 9, París, Publidix, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 2006, 460 pp.Páginas 208-210Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezChuse, Loren, Mujer y flamenco. Sevilla, Signatura Ediciones, 2007, 228 pp.Páginas 210-212Gema León RavinaCores Trasmonte, Baldomero; Luis Porteiro Garea, A Coruña, TresCtres, 2005, 260 pp.Páginas 212-213Israel Sanmartín BarrosDíez Torre, Alejandro R., Trabajan para la eternidad. Colectividades de Trabajo y Ayuda Mutua durante la Guerra Civil en Aragón. Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2009, 540 pp.Páginas 213-216José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaGonin, Jean Marc; Guez, Olivier, La caída del Muro de Berlín, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2009, 367 pp.Páginas 216-217Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezHardy, Jane, Poland´s new capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2009, 258 pp.Páginas 217-218Daniel Alcalde GüelfoKaplan, Robert D., Por tierra, mar y aire. Las huellas globales del ejército americano. Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2008, 542 pp.Páginas 218-220David Molina RabadánMartínez, Jesús Manuel, Salvador Allende. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2009, 402 pp.Páginas 220-223Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínTravaglio, Marco, La scomparsa dei fatti. Milano, Collana Pamphlet, Il Sagiatore, 2006, 316 pp.Páginas 223-225Flavia PascarielloZertal, Idith; Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War for Israeli´s Settlements in The Occupied Territories, 1967-2007. Nueva York, Nation Books, 2009, 531 pp.Páginas 225-227Javier Lión Bustillo

  16. Porosity characterization of fresh and altered stones by ultrasound velocity and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Porosity is the main physical feature dealing with rocks durability and storage capacity. The analysis of this parameter is key factor in predicting rock performances (Molina et al., 2011). There are several techniques that can be applied to acquire the widest information range possible about pores (e.g. size, shape, distribution), leading to a better understanding of decay processes and trapping capacity. The coupling of a detailed minero-petrographic analysis with physical measures such as ultrasounds and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) proved to be a valid tool for understanding the porous network and its evolution during weathering processes. Both fresh and salt-weathered samples were analysed to investigate the modification triggered in the porous network by crystallization. The ageing process was induced using a Na2SO4 saturated saline solution with the partial continuous immersion method (Benavente et al., 2001). The study was addressed to four sedimentary lithotypes: 1) Arenaria Macigno, a greywacke made up of thickened clasts of quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar cemented by micritic calcite and phyllosilicates; 2) Breccia Aurora, a calcareous breccia with nodules of compact limestone and micritic cement joints; 3) Rosso Verona, a biomicrite where the compact bio-micrite matrix is cut by clay minerals veins; and 4) Vicenza Stone, an organogenic limestone rich in micro- and macro foraminifera, algae, bryozoans and remains of echinoderms, with iron oxides. An appropriate description of the porous network variation and recognition of the origin of secondary porosity was attained. The study defined that the pore shape and distribution (anisotropy coefficient K) has a fluctuation up to the 50% after weathering treatments and pore-size distribution (defined in a range between 0,0025 - 75 μm), allowing modelling the mechanisms of water transport and evaluating decay susceptibility of these lithotypes. Molina E, Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L

  17. Reseñas de Libros

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    José Antonio Ruiz Gil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beck, Ulrich; Grande, Edgar, La Europa Cosmopolita. Sociedad y Política en la Segunda Modernidad. Barcelona, Paidós, 2006, 392 pp.Páginas 187-189José Antonio Ruiz GilCastells, Manuel (ed., La sociedad red: una visión global. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2006, 558 pp.Páginas 189-191David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Nacionalismo, Franquismo y Nacionalcatolicismo. Madrid, Editorial Actas, 2008, 220 pp.Páginas 191-193Ricardo Martín de la GuardiaDiamond, Jared, Colapso, Por qué unas sociedades perduran y otras desaparecen. Madrid, Debate, 2006, 854 pp.Páginas 193-195Daniel Alcalde GüelfoFumaroli, Marc, El Estado cultural (ensayo sobre una religión moderna. Barcelona, Acantilado, 2007, 147 pp.Páginas 195-197José Antonio Ruiz GilGarí, Manuel; Pastor, Jaime y Romero, Miguel (eds., 1968. El mundo pudo cambiar de base. Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata, 2008, 365 pp.Páginas 197-199Ana Domínguez RamaMann, James, Los Vulcanos. El gabinete de guerra de Bush: Cheney, Powell, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz, Armitage. Granada, Almed, 2007, 498 pp.Páginas 199-201David Molina RabadánMartín Muñoz, Gema, Iraq. Un fracaso de Occidente (1920-2003. Barcelona, Tusquets, 2003, 323 pp.Páginas 201-202José María Torrente GisbertMuñoz Aunión, Antonio, La política común europea de derecho de asilo. Valencia, Tirant Lo Blanc. 2007, 268 pp.Páginas 202-205José Joaquín Fernández AllesRey Tristán, Eduardo (dir., Memorias de la violencia en Uruguay y Argentina. Golpes, dictaduras, exilios (1973-2006. Santiago de Compostela, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela-CIEAM, 2007, 382 pp.Páginas 205-206Silvina JensenShlaim, Avi, El Muro de Hierro. Israel y el mundo árabe. Granada, Almed, 2003, 778 pp.Páginas 207-208José María Torrente GisbertWallerstein, Immanuel, Utopística o las opciones históricas del siglo XXI. Madrid, Siglo XXI Editores, 1998, 91 pp.Páginas 208-209Manuel Pérez Salinas

  18. Clarín and Jovellanos Clarín y Jovellanos

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    Yvan LISSORGUES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarín wrote a juvenile and stirring ode, «Oda a Jovellanos» in 1875; since then , the famous writer from Gijón has always been a intelectual reference for Clarín troughout his life. The inauguration of the statue of Jovellanos and the celebration, three years later, of the Centenary of the Institute he founded prompted two heartfelt articles. Clarín engages into a lyric confession about his close and affectionate relationship with Jovellanos and carves out with strong feelings the genuine and multifaceted personality of the famous writer. Clarín also states that his is —spiritually impelled— to write an erudite book about the life and the work of —the illustrious writer from Asturias—. Faced with crisis of the end of the century, Clarín dwells on the reformist efforts accomplished in the previous century to bring back « Las Indias en casa», a requirement which is felt both as dramatic and compelling for a potential regeneration of the nation. The well known writer is one of the main characters («heroes», of the tale titled «Tirso de Molina» based on the story ofA partir de una juvenil y exaltada «Oda a Jovellanos» (1875, el ilustrado gijonés sigue siendo para Clarín a lo largo de toda su vida una referencia intelectual y moral. La inauguración en Gijón en 1891 de la estatua de Jovellanos y la conmemoración, tres años después, del centenario del Instituto fundado por el prócer gijonés, dan lugar a dos sentidos artículos, en los que Clarín declara su afecto personal y su deseo de escribir una obra sobre el asturianismo. Frente a la «crisis de fin de siglo», recuerda los esfuerzos del reformista del siglo pasado para hacer «las Indias en casa», imperativo ya dramáticamente insoslayable para una posible regeneración. El grande hombre es uno de los «héroes» del cuento «Tirso de Molina», cuyo tema es la posteridad de los «nombres ilustres».

  19. Water depth selection during foraging and efficiency in prey capture by the egrets Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae in an urban lagoon in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Seleção de profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e eficiência na captura de presas por Casmerodius albus e Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae em uma lagoa urbana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Aline B. Moreno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water depth selection during foraging, the efficiency in prey capture, and the food items captured by Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. The work was conducted at an urban lagoon, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Four transects were made each month (two in the morning and two in the afternoon for six months. When the birds were detected foraging, the water depth and the types of prey captured were recorded. There was no significant relationship between the foraging efficiencies of the two species. However, they differed in relation to the water depth when foraging, and also in the food items captured. Casmerodius albus captured mainly fishes while Egretta thula captured mainly invertebrates. The results suggest that the differences in water depth when foraging and the food items captured allow a differential use of the food resources available by C. albus and E. thula at Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas.Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a seleção de profundidade durante o forrageamento, a eficiência na captura de presas e os itens alimentares capturados por Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. O trabalho foi realizado em uma lagoa urbana, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas. Durante seis meses foram realizadas quatro transecções (duas de manhã e duas à tarde. Quando as aves foram avistadas forrageando, foram registradas a profundidade da água e o tipo de presa capturada. Não foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significativa entre a eficiência de forrageamento para as duas espécies de aves. Entretanto, as espécies diferiram significativamente em relação à profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e também em relação aos itens alimentares capturados. Casmerodius albus capturou principalmente peixes, enquanto E. thula capturou principalmente invertebrados. Os resultados sugerem que diferenças na profundidade da água durante o

  20. Reseñas de Libros

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    Daniel Alcalde Güelfo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Achcar, Gilbert, El choque de barbaries, terrorismo y desorden mundial. Barcelona, Icaria-Antrazyt, 2007, 197 pp.Páginas 213-214Daniel Alcalde GüelfoDel Arco Blanco, Miguel Ángel, Hambre de Siglos. Mundo rural y apoyos sociales del franquismo en Andalucía Oriental (1936-1951. Granada, Comares Historia, 2007, 513 pp.Páginas 214-217Mª Candelaria Fuentes NavarroBen-Ghiat, Ruth; Fuller, Mia (eds., Italian Colonialism. New York, Palgrave MacMillan, 2005, 266 pp.Páginas 217-219Karl J. TrybusBlack, Edwin, IBM y el Holocausto: La alianza estratégica entre la Alemania nazi y la más poderosa corporación norteamericana. Buenos Aires, Atlántida, 2001, 508 pp.Páginas 219-220Flavia PascarielloCasassas, Jordi (coord., La construcción del presente. El mundo desde 1848 hasta nuestros días. Barcelona, Ariel, 2005, 696 pp.Páginas 220-223Alfonso Pinilla GarcíaFerguson, Niall, La guerra del mundo. Los conflictos del siglo XX y el declive de Occidente (1904-1953. Barcelona, Debate, 2007, 888 pp.Páginas 223-225David Molina RabadánGentile, Emilio, Fascismo di pietra. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2007, 284 pp.Páginas 225-227Jan NelisKelly, Eamonn, La década decisiva. Tres escenarios para el futuro del mundo. Barcelona, Granica, 2007, 318 pp.Páginas 227-228David Molina RabadánLuzzatto, Sergio, The Body of Il Duce: Mussolini’s Corpse and the Fortunes of Italy. New York, Metropolitan Books, 2005, 258pp.Páginas 228-230Karl J. TrybusSánchez Blanco, Ángel, Organización Intermunicipal. Madrid, Iustel, Biblioteca de Derecho Municipal, 2006, 258 pp.Páginas 230-232José Joaquín Fernández AllesSantacreu Soler, José Miguel; Aura Murcia, Federico y Millán Llin, Vicente, El municipi del liberalisme: Sant Vicent del Raspeig 1806-1848. Simat de la Valldigna, Edicions La Xarxa, 2004, 156 pp.Páginas 232-235Antonio J. Piqueres Díez