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Sample records for chorion

  1. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  3. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity

    OpenAIRE

    Marceau, Kristine; McMaster, Minni T. B.; Smith, Taylor F.; Daams, Joost G.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Valerie S. Knopik

    2016-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order multiples. The main aim was to assess how frequently chorionicity has been examined in relation to heritability estimates, and to assess which phenotypes may be most sensitive to, or affected by, bias ...

  4. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  5. Transabdominal chorion villus biopsi ved abnormt ultralydfund i 2. trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P K; Henriques, U;

    1990-01-01

    . Three patients with abnormal ultrasonic findings in the second trimester were, therefore, submitted to transabdominal chorion villus biopsy and, in all three cases, a karyotype was available within 48 hours. Chorion villus biopsy in the second (and third) trimester is indicated in pregnancies in which...

  6. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; McMaster, Minni T B; Smith, Taylor F; Daams, Joost G; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order multiples. The main aim was to assess how frequently chorionicity has been examined in relation to heritability estimates, and to assess which phenotypes may be most sensitive to, or affected by, bias in heritability estimates because of chorionicity. Consistent with the theory that some chorionicity effects could lead to overestimation and others to underestimation of heritability, there were instances of each across the many phenotypes reviewed. However, firm conclusions should not be drawn since some of the outcomes were only examined in one or few studies and often sample sizes were small. While the evidence for bias due to chorionicity was mixed or null for many outcomes, results do, however, consistently suggest that heritability estimates are underestimated for measures of birth weight and early growth when chorionicity is not taken into account. PMID:26944881

  7. Chorionic Villus Sampling and Marked Membrane Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Akhlaghpoor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The major concern about the invasive prenatal diagnostic tests is the"nfrequency of procedure induced pregnancy loss. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS is the invasive"ntest of choice in the first trimester after the 10th gestational week. Our experience suggests"nmarked chorioamniotic separation is an uncommon finding after the 10th gestational week. This"nstudy assesses the rate of marked membrane separation in a 10 to 14-week gestational period"nand its effect on post CVS fetal loss."nPatients and Methods: Forty-one patients (5.2% were selected among 782 patients as cases"nwith marked membrane separation (mean maternal age, 26.9 years. CVS procedures were"nperformed with a 20-gauge Chiba needle attached to a 20-ml syringe under ultrasound guidance."nFollow-up was performed by phone call and clinical visits until 24 weeks of gestation. For the"ncontrol group, the follow-up was performed for only 2 weeks. Early fetal loss in the first two"nweeks of post procedural period, and late fetal loss from 2 weeks after procedure till the 24th"ngestational week were considered as CVS complications."nResults: We detected 2.4% early fetal losses after the procedure. Fourteen cases voluntarily"nunderwent therapeutic abortion due to beta-thalassemia or hemophilia. One fetus with"nmicrocephaly was spontaneously aborted in the 21st gestational week. Twenty-five neonates"nwere delivered alive at term and one prematurely at the 32nd week. Marked membrane separation"nhad no significant effect on early post CVS fetal loss rate."nConclusion: The procedure does not have a major impact on the early post CVS fetal loss in"npatients with marked membrane separation.

  8. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    OpenAIRE

    I.W. Santos; Binsfeld, L. C.; Weiss, R. R.; Kozicki, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg) for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G): (1) receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n = 30), (2...

  9. Four years' cytogenetic experience with the culture of chorionic villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, B; Bouman, K; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Stoepker, M; Mantingh, A; Beekhuis, [No Value; de Jong, B

    2000-01-01

    In 1958 chorionic villus samples, investigated by culture method, we found 137 (7%) abnormalities. The abnormal results were classified in certain abnormal (generalised abnormal at high probability) and uncertain abnormal (potentially confined to the placenta) results. Certain abnormal were 73 cases

  10. OBSERVATIONS ON VASCULAR PATTERN OF CHORIONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF PLACENTA

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    Yousuf Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  11. Feasibility and safety of transabdominal chorionic villus sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is the technique of choice for prenatal diagnosis prior to 12 weeks gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, and pattern of complications following first trimester Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (TA-CVS). Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from Jan 2007 to July 2008. Couples at risk of giving birth to a child with genetic disorder were identified and counselled. Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling was done using double needle technique under ultrasound guidance. Immediate and late complications were followed up. Data was analysed using SPPS-10. Results: On 200 cases chorionic villus sampling was done as an outdoor procedure. Most common indication was thalassaemia trait 75 (37.5%). Most procedures were done between 12-13 weeks. All placental positions including 104 (52%) posterior and 71 (35.5%) anterior were approachable. Most aspirations were easy, however, in 30 (15%) the aspiration was difficult. Overall success rate was 100%. In 158 (79%) of the cases sample yield was good. One (0.5%) patient had vaginal bleeding and three (1.5%) had placental haematoma formation. Most patients (84%) experienced mild pain during the procedure. The procedure related miscarriage occurred in 2 (1%) patients while another patient developed this complication after 6 weeks. Conclusion: First trimester TA-CVS is an accurate and safe invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure. Placentas in almost any position can be approached without any significant risk to mother and the foetus. (author)

  12. Chorionic Villus Sampling Complications in Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia Major

    OpenAIRE

    R Monzavi Sani; F Savadkuhi; Z Rohani

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Early diagnosis of thalassemia with chorionic villus sampling has an important role in fetal evaluation. Because of the increasing risk of fetal loss and other probable risks, it seems there are some considerations about the safety of this method. Since different studies have mentioned variable complications of this method for the mother and her fetus and also the fact that this information is limited in most areas of our country, this study was performed to compare the ...

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis by Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis forms only a small part of day-to-day family practice, but the techniques are of critical importance to couples at risk of having a child affected by genetic disorder. Second trimester amniocentesis will probably be replaced by first trimester chorionic villus biopsy and recombinant DNA technology, but the ethical and moral problems related to prenatal diagnosis are not so easily solved. Family physicians need to examine their own attitudes toward the handicapped before the...

  14. Beta-Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Malignant Lymphoma : An Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Senba, Masachika; Watanabe, Masami

    1991-01-01

    We present a rare case of a 77-year-old Japanese man with malignant lymphoma associated with production of beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the cytoplasms of lymphoma cells in the lymph nodes. By immunoperoxidase staining, numerous tumor cells were reacted with beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. To the best of our knowledge, production of beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the cytoplasm of lymphoma cells has not been reported. This patient evidences that...

  15. [Demonstration and evolution of chorionic gonadotropin in ewes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M C; Martal, J

    1979-02-26

    Occurrence of ovine Chorionic Gonadotropin (oCG) is demonstrated in placenta and amniotic fluid with the use of a radioreceptor assay (corpus luteum membranes) in ewes. Identification of oCG is possible as early as 15th day of pregnancy. It should be secreted at a constant rate, and its maximum concentration is recorded on the 130th day. This hormonal factor might be one of the major components accountable for high progesteronemia observed during the 100 last days of pregnancy. PMID:110484

  16. Chorionic plate arterial function is altered in maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, C.E.; Higgins, L.; Cowley, E.J.; Greenwood, S. l.; Mills, T.A.; Sibley, C. P.; Wareing, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise Chorionic Plate Artery (CPA) function in maternal obesity, and investigate whether leptin exposure reproduces the obese CPA phenotype in normal-BMI women. Study design CPA responses to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U46619 (pre/post leptin incubation), to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the occurrence of tone oscillations (pre/post leptin incubation) were assessed in 46 term placentas from women of normal (18.5–24.9) or obese (>30) Body Mass Index ...

  17. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPERATION AND PURIFICATION OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHaifeng; XuYutai; 等

    1995-01-01

    Separation and purification of human chorionic gonadotropion(HCG) in the urine sample of early pregnant women by D3520 resin adsorption chromatography is reported.The crude product obtained by DEAE-Cellulose 23 and DEAE-Sephadex A50 column chromatography showed a high activity of HCG. Further purification of the sample by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G75 column gives a final preparation of 6000-6500 IU/mg.The preparation meets the requirements of the pyrogn test in Chinese Law of Pharmacopeia.

  18. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  19. Bleeding as a consequence of chorion villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D T; Jeavons, B; Preston, C; Slater, E; Symonds, E M

    1989-03-01

    A series of 4 separate studies were conducted to assess the incidence and short term consequence of bleeding associated with chorion villus sampling. Results support previous reports that risk of foetal-maternal transfusion as suggested by a rise in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) can occur. This occurrence is not consistent and need not be obvious even after therapeutic abortion. It is also transient and did not complicate mid-trimester neural tube screening or subsequent course of pregnancy. Eighty-seven percent of blood contaminating villus samples are of maternal origin. Following diagnosis 37% of patients reported some vaginal bleeding. This is mainly in the form of spotting which did not preclude normal pregnancy. Foetal loss occurred in 4 of the patients when bleeding considered heavier than spotting continued. In rhesus negative patients prophylactic anti-D gamma-globulin is advised, since neither Kleihauer counts nor MSAFP estimation reliably detect all foetal-maternal transfusions. PMID:2472129

  20. Chorionic Villus Sampling Complications in Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Monzavi Sani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Early diagnosis of thalassemia with chorionic villus sampling has an important role in fetal evaluation. Because of the increasing risk of fetal loss and other probable risks, it seems there are some considerations about the safety of this method. Since different studies have mentioned variable complications of this method for the mother and her fetus and also the fact that this information is limited in most areas of our country, this study was performed to compare the complications of this procedure with other reports."nPatients and Methods: This prospective case series study was performed in the chorionic villus sampling (CVS center of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences from October 2003 till July 2006. One-hundred thirty seven patients who were referred to this center were sampled and examined by sonography regarding early complications of CVS in mothers and fetuses and deformities in their neonates. "nResults: The most common early complication of CVS was subchorionic hematoma (6.5%, of which one case finally resulted in placenta abruption and abortion. The fetal loss rate after CVS was the same as the abortion rate following subchorionic hematoma. In this study, we did not find any chorioamnionitis, oligohydramnios and fetal loss during the sampling. Furthermore, in the follow up control of their neonates, there were neither limb deficiency and oromandibular defects nor cutaneous hemangioma."nConclusion: Results show that minor complications of CVS such as subchorionic hematoma can be dangerous and may increase the risk of fetal loss. In addition, this study agrees that sampling after 10 weeks of pregnancy on the hands of an expert is a safe procedure.    

  1. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  2. CYTOGENETIC PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS ON 66 CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLES IN IRAN

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    P. Mehdipour

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 66 chorionic villus samples were cytogenetically investigated. The samples consisted of 30 experimental cvs from spontaneously aborted materialand 36 from live gestations.80% of the samples were successfully grown, of the 30 cases 40% (12 and 33% (10contained a normal female and a normal male karyotype, respectively, 3.3% (1 and3.3% (1 had abnormal karyotypes (47,XX, + 21; 47, XY, + 18, respectively, and 16% (6 of the cultures did not grow of the 36 CVS, 80. 5% of the trophoblasts grew. 50% and 30.5% had normal karyotypes with 46, XY and 46, XX chromosome constitutions respectively, of those with a male karyotype, one case was revealed to have two mitoses with 47+Xy, +21 karyotype and was considered to be a Mosaic with a minor abnormal clone. One case (2.7% was a twin; 5.5% of the samples did not grow and 11.1% of the villi were inadequate. No serious complications occurred after CVS. 12 girls and 9 biys were delivered at term and cytogenetic findings on the CVS were postnatally confirmed for normal cases and even for a Mosaic case.

  3. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  4. Human chorionic ganodotropin binding sites in the human endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of high-affinity and low-capacity specific binding sites for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been reported in porcine, rabbit and rat uteri. The authors have identified the hCG binding sites in the human endometrium collected from 35-42-year-old ovulatory and anovulatory women. The binding characteristics of hCG to endometrial tissue preparations from ovulatory and anovulatory women showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed the dissociation constant of specific binding sites in the ovulatory women to be 3.5x10-10 mol/l and in anovulatory women to be 3.1x10-10 mol/l. The maximum binding capacity varied considerably between ovulatory and anovulatory endometrium. Among the divalent metal ions tested Zn2+ effected a remarkable increase in [125I]hCG binding to the endometrium, whereas Mn2+ showed a marginal increase and other metal ions did not have any effect. Data obtained with human endometrium indicate an influence of the functional state of the ovary on [125I]hCG binding to endometrium. 14 refs., 3 figs

  5. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  6. Development of ovine chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-deficient pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Callie M; Goetzmann, Lindsey N; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Jeckel, Kimberly M; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V

    2016-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone (CSH), a placenta-specific secretory product found at high concentrations in maternal and fetal circulation throughout gestation, is significantly reduced in human and sheep IUGR pregnancies. The objective of this study was to knock down ovine CSH (oCSH) expression in vivo using lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA to test the hypothesis that oCSH deficiency would result in IUGR of near-term fetal lambs. Three different lentiviral oCSH-targeting constructs were used and compared with pregnancies (n = 8) generated with a scrambled control (SC) lentiviral construct. Pregnancies were harvested at 135 days of gestation. The most effective targeting sequence, "target 6" (tg6; n = 8), yielded pregnancies with significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in oCSH mRNA (50%) and protein (38%) concentrations, as well as significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in placental (52%) and fetal (32%) weights compared with the SC pregnancies. Fetal liver weights were reduced 41% (P ≤ 0.05), yet fetal liver insulin-like growth factor-I (oIGF1) and -II mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) 82 and 71%, respectively, and umbilical artery oIGF1 concentrations were reduced 62% (P ≤ 0.05) in tg6 pregnancies. Additionally, fetal liver oIGF-binding protein (oIGFBP) 2 and oIGFBP3 mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas fetal liver oIGFBP1 mRNA concentration was not impacted nor was maternal liver oIGF and oIGFBP mRNA concentrations or uterine artery oIGF1 concentrations (P ≥ 0.10). Based on our results, it appears that oCSH deficiency does result in IUGR, by impacting placental development as well as fetal liver development and function. PMID:26887431

  7. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the...

  8. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trohimovych O.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  9. Usefulness of chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis of thalassaemia: a clinical study in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Dasgupta

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Thalassaemia is a prevalent condition in Eastern India. Chorionic villus sampling is an effective and safe method for early diagnosis of fetal thalassaemia that helps to prevent birth of thalassaemic babies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 790-794

  10. Influence of chorionicity on perinatal outcome in a large cohort of Danish twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldenburg, Anna; Rode, Line; Bødker, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. Methods A cohort was retrieved from local ultrasound databases at 14 obstetric departments in Denmark, comprising all twin pregnancies with two live fetuses scanned between weeks 11 to 14 in the period 1 January 2004 to 31...

  11. Secretion of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin by non-small cell lung cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Varma Seema; Vivekanandarajah Abhirami; Khattri Saakshi; Kong Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We describe a case of non-small cell lung cancer that was found to stain positive for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. Only a few case reports have described lung cancers that secrete beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian man presented with symptoms of weakness, fatigue and weight loss for the past two months. On examination, he was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy, and radiologic workup revealed n...

  12. Physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membranes sterilized by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membranes sterilized by γ-irradiation. Investigation on physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membrane as well as the total number of bacteria contained were done on irradiated and unirradiated membranes. Parameters observed to evaluate the membranes were tensile strength, water vapour transmission rate, Aw, infrared spectra and total bacterial count before irradiation. These membranes will be used as biological burn dressing. The effects of storage time up to 1 month at room temperatures, i.e. 29 +- 20C on mechanical properties of freeze-dried membranes were also done. No significant change could be observed on physical and chemical properties of radiation sterilized membranes compared to unirradiated ones (p. 0.1). To protect the physical properties of freeze-dried membranes it is suggested that the membranes be processed as quickly as possible after delivery. (author). 10 figs, 7 refs

  13. A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Lu

    Full Text Available Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis during placental development. Employing global and trophoblast-specific Fzd5-null and Gcm1-deficient mouse models, combining trophoblast stem cell lines and tetraploid aggregation assay, we demonstrate here that an amplifying signaling loop between Gcm1 and Fzd5 is essential for normal initiation of branching in the chorionic plate. While Gcm1 upregulates Fzd5 specifically at sites where branching initiates in the basal chorion, this elevated Fzd5 expression via nuclear β-catenin signaling in turn maintains expression of Gcm1. Moreover, we show that Fzd5-mediated signaling induces the disassociation of cell junctions for branching initiation via downregulating ZO-1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 expressions in trophoblast cells at the base of the chorion. In addition, Fzd5-mediated signaling is also important for upregulation of Vegf expression in chorion trophoblast cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Fzd5-Gcm1 signaling cascade is operative during human trophoblast differentiation. These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis.

  14. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with preeclampsia; mccpm should therefore be regarded and reported as a hypoxia-associated placental lesion. PMID:17535086

  15. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    OpenAIRE

    Stančić Ivan B; Bošnjak Darko V; Radović Ivan B; Stančić Blagoje L.; Harvey Roger B; Anderson Robin C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty) is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal) or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on the...

  16. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Murhekar Kanchan; Anuratha Jayaram; Majhi Urmila; Rajkumar Thangarajan

    2009-01-01

    Context: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG), a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas. Its role in disease progression remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor. Setting and Design: A hospital-based, immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty formali...

  17. Synthesis of oxytocin in amnion, chorion, and decidua may influence the timing of human parturition.

    OpenAIRE

    Chibbar, R; Miller, F D; Mitchell, B F

    1993-01-01

    Despite the widespread clinical use of oxytocin (OT) as a potent and specific stimulant of labor, previous research data have not supported a role for OT in the physiology of normal human parturition. We have demonstrated synthesis of OT mRNA in amnion, chorion, and decidua using Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assays, and in situ hybridization. Probes directed towards both the 3' and 5' ends of the gene have been used. Levels were highest in decidua with considerably less in ...

  18. A test of maternal human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy as an adaptive filter of human gestations

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, Tim A; Saxton, Katherine B.; Pearl, Michelle; Currier, Robert; Kharrazi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The risk of abnormalities and morbidity among live births increases with advanced maternal age. Explanations for this elevated morbidity invoke several maternal mechanisms. The relaxed filter stringency (RFS) hypothesis asserts that mothers, nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, reduce the stringency of a screen of offspring quality in utero based on life-history traits of parity and interbirth interval (IBI). A separate line of research implicates human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...

  19. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  20. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha Gupta; Kedige, Suresh D.; Kanu Jain

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have ...

  1. Method of sampling chorionic villi in first trimester of pregnancy under guidance of real time ultrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R H; Modell, B; Petrou, M; Karagözlu, F; Douratsos, E

    1983-01-01

    Samples of chorionic villi were obtained in the first trimester by aspiration using a cannula passed transcervically under the guidance of real time ultrasound. In initial studies in 47 anaesthetised patients immediately before therapeutic abortion a method was developed giving a success rate of 89%. In 10 patients successful sampling was performed as an outpatient procedure without anaesthesia. In all, seven diagnostic procedures were undertaken and four of the five unaffected pregnancies co...

  2. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies. PMID:27321641

  3. An unexpected reason for elevated human chorionic gonadotropin in a young woman. Cervical squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Aynur; Bozdag, Zehra; Tepe, Neslihan B; Ozcan, Husiyen C

    2016-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin has been used for decades, in addition to specific investigations, to detect pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, as well as congenital defects. Rarely, it can be elevated in  non-trophoblastic tumors such as squamous cell cancers and germ cell tumors. A 33-year-old Asian Syrian female had irregular menses accompanied with feelings of heaviness in the vagina. In addition to routine investigations, we measured the serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) level (based on the patient's complaint of amenorrhea), which was 50.05 ml UI/ml. Cervical biopsy revealed a non-keratinized large cell squamous carcinoma. After excluding other causes, ß-hCG elevation was explained by the ectopic secretion of cancer cells line. Cervical biopsy was suggestive of large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and positive for human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. As a result, we manage the possibility of ectopic secretion of ß-HCG from non- trophoblastic disease. PMID:27464870

  4. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  5. [Exclusion of Sandhoff disease (Tay-Sachs 0 variant) by chorion biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veszprémi, B; Baranyai, Z; Klujber, L; Arany, A

    1992-04-01

    Transcervical chorionic villus sampling with ultrasound guidance at the 11-th week of pregnancy was made at a woman with the history of one lethal case of Sandhoff disease. The total hexosaminidase and the hexosaminidase A were determined. At the 16-th week amniocentesis was performed and the characteristic enzymes were determined from the amniotic cell culture. The results of the examinations made possible to advise the patient to carry out the pregnancy. The examinations after delivery confirmed the newborn to be a carrier. PMID:1522989

  6. Quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin with the Abbott IMx immunochemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, R J; Leerkes, B; Bertschi, I

    1990-01-01

    The analytical performance of the Abbott IMx automated system was studied and initial results from the human chorionic gonadotropin assay are presented: Within run and between day precision was good, the majority of all CVs lying between 3 and 5%; Patient results showed excellent comparability with our routine method; No significant specimen-related carry-over was detected; The automated IMx dilution protocol was found to be superior to the manual procedure; The usefulness of the instrument in routine use and as a "Stat" analyzer was very good. PMID:2179460

  7. A 26-Year Experience in Chorionic Villus Sampling Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Paula; Mota-Freitas, Maria Manuela; Santos, Rosário; Silva, Maria Luz; Soares, Gabriela; Fortuna, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the trends of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) referred for prenatal genetic diagnosis in the past two and a half decades in a Portuguese Center. Our cohort of 491 CVS was mostly performed by the transcervical method at the 12th gestational week. Data collected within the framework of this study relate to the following: sampling method, referral reason versus abnormality and incidence of procedure-related pregnancy loss, that declined to about 0.5% over the last 15 years. The year 2000 represented a change in referral reasons for chorionic tissue collection, shifting from almost exclusively for cytogenetic testing to an increasing number of molecular tests for monogenic disorders. Herein, success rates as well as cytogenetic and/or molecular DNA results are presented. These latter include not only tests for several monogenic disorders, but also aneuploidy and maternal cell contamination screening. This retrospective analysis reiterates that CVS is a safe and reliable first trimester technique for prenatal diagnosis in high genetic risk pregnancies. PMID:26237480

  8. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1996-01-01

    Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (s-beta-hCG) is a widely used tumor marker in patients with testicular neoplasia. When elevated in patients with an enlarged testis it is considered as a strong indication of a germ cell tumor. Elevation of S-hCG-like material (S-hCG-1) has been reported in...

  9. 1ST-TRIMESTER MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AS A MARKER FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1992-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis has initiated a study on the possibilities of first-trimester screening for fetal chromosomal disorders. We report on maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS-hCG) measurements in 1348 pregnancies with a chromosomally normal fetus and 53 pregnanc

  10. Mussel adhesive enhances the immobilization of human chorionic gonadotrophin to a solid support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, V A; Silva, T; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    1996-10-15

    Polystyrene microtiter plates coated with 0.30 microgram/ well of the adhesive polyphenolic protein purified from the mussel Aulacomya ater showed enhanced capacity to immobilize antigens such as human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Uncoated and coated wells were activated with different amounts of hCG (from 2 to 500 ng), blocked with bovine serum albumin, and tested with anti-hCG monoclonal antibodies and antimouse IgG conjugated with peroxidase. The reading at 492 nm of the uncoated wells activated with 500 ng of hCG was similar to that obtained with coated wells but using 5 to 10 ng of antigen. The coating procedure also resulted in better sensitivity to detect low concentration of monoclonal antibodies and better signal-to-noise ratio. The capacity of the mussel coating to immobilize hCG, as well as the immunoreactivity of the attached antigen, remained stable for several months. PMID:8921186

  11. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with {beta}-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Moumita [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Kamalika [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sen, Souvik [Malda Town Divisional Railway Hospital, Malda 732102 (India); Lahiri, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added {beta}-emitting isotopes of {sup 61}Cu (3.3 h), {sup 62}Zn (9.2 h), {sup 90}Nb (14.60 h) and {sup 99}Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid.

  12. Stimulation of vitellogenin uptake in Stage IV Xenopus oocytes by treatment with chorionic gonadotropin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian fragments from Xenopus laevis were incubated with various concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and Stage IV oocytes were subsequently tested for their ability to incorporate vitellogenin. Such oocytes displayed incorporation rates up to 350% greater than controls. This was accompanied by increased endocytotic activity. hCG-stimulated uptake is dose dependent and reaches a maximum at 100 IU/ml, at which concentration ovulation also occurs. At 100 IU/ml of hCG, there is a lag period of at least 12 h between gonadotropin treatment and increased vitellogenin incorporation. Because hCG has little effect on isolated (dissected) cultured Stage IV oocytes which have lost their follicle cells, it is postulated that intact follicle cells are required for the induction of vitellogenin uptake

  13. Kinetic Studies on the Total Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) IRMA Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a two chains glycoprotein hormone normally found in blood and urine, only during pregnancy. It is secreted by placental tissue, beginning with the primitive trophoblast, almost from the time of implantation. The kinetics of the interaction between the hCG antigen and two matched antibodies, one labelled with radioactive isotope 125I (tracer) and the other is unlabelled and attached to a solid support (tube) , are studied using, two-sites (sandwich) Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) technique. A new method for determining the rate constants, using an advanced computer program (RKY) based on the Nelder-Mead optimisation principle is introduced. The rate constants, at three variable temperatures and three different antigen concentrations as well as the half time of exchange (t) were calculated

  14. Choriocarcinoma with negative urinary and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β HCG : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Reeti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This was a rare case where a patient presented clinically as a case of post abortal sepsis and ultrasound showing the picture of an intramural degenerating fibroid. Her serum and urine both were negative for b human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG. Patient succumbed to choriocarcinoma 1 month later. Failure to detect urinary and serum bHCG lead to maternal mortality due to the choriocarcinoma. The failure to detect, certain degradation products of HCG which may predominate in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, by many common HCG testing kits lead to the error of diagnosis. Only 3 of the 7 common commercial serum HCG tests appropriately detects nicked HCG and its free bHCG, DPC immulite assay, being the most sensitive method. Though of rare occurrence, this awareness is important for diagnosis and follow-up of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and could have been life saving in our case.

  15. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, A J; Jensen, P K; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    1988-01-01

    First trimester prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was attempted in 350 pregnancies after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling. The cytogenetic investigation was performed using both a short-term method (24 h incubation) and cell culture. Adequate samples were obtained in 99.1 per cent and in all...... these cases the fetal karyotype was established. A chromosome abnormality was found in 2.0 per cent of cases. A discrepancy between the karyotype obtained after 24 h incubation and the karyotype in cell culture was observed in 2.3 per cent. Maternal cell contamination in the cultures was confirmed in 13...... cytogenetic investigation until the problems with karyotype discrepancy and maternal cell contamination have been further clarified....

  16. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  17. Determination of chorionic gonadotrophin. Comparison of biological, immunological and radioimmunological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of analysis were used to quantify chorionic gonadotrophic hormone: biological determination (rana-reaction); immunological determination (simplified pregnosticon test of the Organon Teknika laboratories); radioimmunological determination (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA kits). While the immunochemical technique is specially suited to analysis of the urine, the radioimmunological measurement is carried out on the plasma. This method is extremely sensitive; when traditional biological and immunological methods are used the quantity of CGH detectable is of the order of some hundreds or at best a few tens of international units. The radioimmunological method is a thousand times more sensitive and can therefore measure CGH in amounts of the milli-unit order. Until recently it was not specific enough to differentiate between CGH and LH, but not long ago a β CGH-specific antibody was discovered and it is now possible to detect small amounts of CGH in the presence of LH

  18. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  19. Evidence for, and Associated Risks with, the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplemented Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen A; Cole, Laurence A

    2016-11-01

    Trend diets can be commonplace amongst those who are trying to lose weight but in most cases there is some shred of evidence to suggest they might be of some benefit. Seldom is there a diet which is such a fad that it is not only completely unfounded but also potential harmful. The human chorionic gonadotropin or "hCG diet" is such a diet, which after half a century still has no evidence to support its efficacy; in fact all scientific publications subsequent to the original article counter these claims. In this short communication, we review the literature and present data on exactly what some of the hCG diet preparations actually contain and highlight that, based on current data, these may do more harm than good. It is worrying that more consideration is not given to the possible danger of administration of hCG preparations to individuals without an evidence-based rational. PMID:27010890

  20. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu

    2010-12-01

    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  1. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-fang Yan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  2. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagayama, Y; Wadsworth, H L; Chazenbalk, G D; Russo, D.; Seto, P; Rapoport, B

    1991-01-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction we constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese ...

  3. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin. PMID:25756311

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya; Mitwally Mohamed F; Casper Robert F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI). After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in timing ...

  5. Angiogenic properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion allografts: therapeutic potential for soft tissue repair and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Koob, Thomas J; Lim, Jeremy J.; Massee, Michelle; Zabek, Nicole; Rennert, Robert; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Li, William W

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic wounds are associated with a number of deficiencies in critical wound healing processes, including growth factor signaling and neovascularization. Human-derived placental tissues are rich in regenerative cytokines and have been shown in randomized clinical trials to be effective for healing chronic wounds. In this study, PURION® Processed (MiMedx Group, Marietta, GA) dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane tissue allografts (dHACM, EpiFix®, MiMedx) were evaluated for prope...

  6. Association between altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) production and the occurrence of cryptorchidism: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Chedane, Carole; Puissant, Hugues; Weil, Dominique; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Coutant, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Background An increase in cryptorchidism has been reported in many countries. One mechanism could be low fetal testosterone production possibly secondary to altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) release. Our Objective was to compare hCG values from maternal blood between boys with cryptorchidism and normal boys. Methods Total hCG and α-fetoprotein (AFP) values [12–16 weeks of gestation; from the double test for Down syndrome screening) were compared between cases of cryptorchi...

  7. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E2, progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E2, and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  8. Polymer nanoparticles as fluorescent labels in a fluoroimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) was developed for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG). It is based on fluorescent polymer nanoparticles (PFNPs) coated with anti-β-HCG monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich type of fluoroimmunoassay. The PFNPs were synthesized by precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linker, azobisisobutyronitrile as the radical initiator, and fluorescein as the fluorophore. Anti-β-HCG monoclonal antibody was labeled with the PFNPs and then used in a FIA of β-HCG in human serum samples using low-fluorescent transparent 96-well microtiter plates. The calibration graph for β-HCG is linear over the range from 1. 25 to 300 mIU mL-1 with a detection limit of 0. 3 mIU mL-1 (3σ). The relative standard deviation for seven parallel measurements of 10 mIU mL-1 of β-HCG is 3. 8%. The method has the specificity of an immunoassay and the sensitivity of fluorescent nanoparticle label technology. (author)

  9. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p=0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p>0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.(Author)

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in Sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p= 0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p> 0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values. (Authors)

  11. Solid-phase competitive and sandwich-type erythro-immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Guesdon, J L; Avrameas, S; Talwar, G P

    1985-06-25

    A simple '1-step' competitive erythro-immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) employing V-shaped well microtitration plates coated with monoclonal anti-beta-hCG antibody has been described. hCG of the test sample competes with the antigen-coupled sheep erythrocytes for binding to the antibody on the solid surface. The assay is able to detect up to 31.25 ng hCG/ml. A higher sensitivity enabling detection up to 0.25 ng hCG/ml is attained by the sandwich erythro-immunoassay using a chimera antibody prepared by coupling monoclonal anti-alpha-hCG antibody to an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. This assay is amenable to the qualitative as well as quantitative use as described. The urinary components do not interfere in the assay. Results obtained by this assay on 47 human urine samples correlated well with the values obtained by '2-step' sandwich enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. PMID:2409175

  12. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  13. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  14. Pituitary and chorionic gonadotrophic control of ovarian function during early pregnancy in equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, V E; Allen, W R

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of FSH, LH, chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) and progesterone were measured during early pregnancy in mares and donkeys carrying normal intraspecies and transferred extraspecies conceptuses. A secondary rise in progesterone concentrations occurred in normal intraspecies horse and donkey pregnancy soon after the appearance of CG but FSH concentrations continued to fluctuate and were not influenced by CG production. In donkeys carrying transferred horse conceptuses FSH concentrations fell sharply and progesterone concentrations rose steeply, coincidental with the appearance of abnormally high levels of CG. In horses carrying donkey conceptuses, on the other hand, there was a complete absence of CG production and in 7 of the 8 mares studied there was no secondary progesterone rise; FSH levels fluctuated as in the intraspecies pregnancies. Pregnancy continued to term in only 1 of 8 mares carrying a donkey conceptus despite attempts to maintain it in 4 animals by exogenous progestagen therapy. Our findings indicate that pituitary FSH, not CG, stimulates secondary follicular growth during normal equine pregnancy and the LH-like activity of CG induces ovulation of these follicles to form secondary corpora lutea. PMID:6820064

  15. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody interaction in BIAcore

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Banerjee Ashish; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2004-03-01

    Kinetic studies of macromolecular ligand-ligate interaction have generated ample interest since the advent of plasmon resonance based instruments like BIAcore. Most of the studies reported in literature assume a simple 1 : 1 Langmuir binding and complete reversibility of the system. However we observed that in a high affinity antigen-antibody system [human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody (hCG-mAb)] dissociation is insignificant and the sensogram data cannot be used to measure the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. At low concentrations of mAb the complete sensogram could be fitted to a single exponential. Interestingly we found that at higher mAb concentrations, the binding data did not conform to a simple bimolecular model. Instead, the data fitted a two-step model, which may be because of surface heterogeneity of affinity sites. In this paper, we report on the global fit of the sensograms. We have developed a method by which a single two-minute sensogram can be used in high affinity systems to measure the association rate constant of the reaction and the functional capacity of the ligand (hCG) immobilized on the chip. We provide a rational explanation for the discrepancies generally observed in most of the BIAcore sensograms.

  16. Value of human chorionic gonadotropin compared to CEA in discriminating benign from malignant effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamerz, R; Stoetzer, O J; Mezger, J; Brandt, A; Darsow, M; Wilmanns, W

    1999-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is expressed in germ cell tumors and urothelial, breast, lung and colon cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate if the determination of HCG in comparison with CEA is able to discriminate between malignant and benign effusions. Effusion and partially serum samples of 61 patients with benign (g.i., heart/kidney isnuff.) and 116 patients with malignant diseases (g.i., gynec., lung, misc., CUP) were investigated. HCG was specifically determined by an IRMA using 2 monoclonal antibodies, CEA by a conventional double Ab RIA. Cytological staining was preformed using the Pappenheim-method on cytospin preparations. Significant differences (p gynec. (32.1%) gynec. (60%) pleural effusions with high specificity (90% at 5 IU/l) but low sensitivity of 31% increasing in g.i., lung and gynecologic cases, CEA a more general TM with higher sensitivity of 45% increasing in g.i., gynecologic and lung cases (sp. 100% at 9 ng/ml) both adding significantly to cytology-negative effusions. PMID:10470169

  17. Chorionicity and Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies: The Prenatal Environment of Twins and Their Resemblance Across a Large Number of Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Overbeek, L I H; Rozendaal, L; McMaster, M T B; Glasner, T J; Bartels, M; Vink, J M; Martin, N G; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I

    2016-05-01

    There are three types of monozygotic (MZ) twins. MZ twins can either share one chorion and one amnion, each twin can have its own amnion, or MZ twins can-like dizygotic twins-each have their own chorion and amnion. Sharing the same chorion may create a more similar/dissimilar prenatal environment and bias heritability estimates, but most twin studies do not distinguish between these three types of MZ twin pairs. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of chorion sharing on the similarity within MZ twin pairs for a large number of traits. Information on chorion status was obtained for the Netherlands twin register (NTR) by linkage to the records from the database of the dutch pathological anatomy national automated archive (PALGA). Record linkage was successful for over 9000 pairs. Effect of chorion type was tested by comparing the within-pair similarity between monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) MZ twins on 66 traits including weight, height, motor milestones, child problem behaviors, cognitive function, wellbeing and personality. For only 10 traits, within-pair similarity differed between MCMZ and DCMZ pairs. For traits influenced by birth weight (e.g. weight and height in young children) we expected that MC twins would be more discordant. This was found for 5 out of 13 measures. When looking at traits where blood supply is important, we saw MCMZ twins to be more concordant than DCMZ's for 3 traits. We conclude that the influence on the MZ twin correlation of the intra-uterine prenatal environment, as measured by sharing a chorion type, is small and limited to a few phenotypes. This implies that the assumption of equal prenatal environment of mono- and DC MZ twins, which characterizes the classical twin design, is largely tenable. PMID:26410687

  18. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  19. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murhekar Kanchan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG, a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas. Its role in disease progression remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor. Setting and Design: A hospital-based, immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from histopathologically confirmed cases of gastric carcinoma were immunostained using an indigenously developed antibody against βHCG. Tumors with diffuse reactivity to βHCG were considered as positive. Those with occasional, focal or no reactivity to βHCG were considered as negative. Statistical Analysis: Differences in βHCG staining were compared according to the histological grade and surgical stage using the χ2 test. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the time till the onset of development of an adverse outcome after surgery (defined as death, local or distant metastasis was compared between the bHCG positive and negative tumors. Results: Twenty-eight (18.7% of the 150 specimens were βHCG positive. No association was found between the histological grade (P=0.49 and the surgical stage (P=0.19 with βHCG positivity. The median disease-free survival after surgery was not different among bHCG positive and negative tumors. Risk of an adverse outcome after surgery was significantly associated with the stage of the tumor (Hazard ratio=2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.4. No association was observed with grade or βHCG positivity. Conclusion: βHCG immunoreactivity was observed in about one-fifth of the gastric cancers. bHCG reactivity, however, played no role in the biological behavior.

  20. The transabdominal chorionic villus sampling puncture guided by color Doppler ultrasound during early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the operation of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) guided by color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) via abdomen puncture during early pregnancy and investigate the advertences during the operation. Methods: CVS guided by CDU probe via abdomen puncture were operated on 28 pregnant women who had the indications of antenatal diagnosis. CDU was used to observe the implantation position of the fo1iaceous villis and help setting mark of the puncture point and puncture range on body surface before operation. The needle was punctured under real-time ultrasound guidance and villis were aspirated during the operation: The choice of the right time of puncture and the operation skills were emphasized in the study. Results: The CVS puncture approach should be set through CDU ob servation, which attend to avoid the surrounding blood vessels, intestinal canal and surrounding important organs. The puncture point should be chosen in a point where lobif0rmed villis distributed wider and with a larger scope. The operations were performed from 10 to13 weeks of pregnancy, with an average of 11 weeks. Among these 28 cases, 9.6 were successfully drawn materials in one time, 1 in twice and l failure, with the total ratio of achievement was 96.4%. For all the cases, fetal heart pulsating could be seen by real-time CDU observation fight after the operation, and no larger hematoma echo in the placental site occurred. Ultrasound reexamined one week after the operation, fetal heart pulsation could be found in all cases, and no abortion cases occurred after regular follow-up in 25 continued pregnant patients. Conclusion: Abdominal CVS puncture guided by CDU probe is conveniently operated, safe and available in clinic. It is an important method for antenatal diagnosis during early pregnancy. The puncture localization, skills and the time are the key points for the success in obtaining the materials. (authors)

  1. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  2. Binding domains of stimulatory and inhibitory thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies determined with chimeric TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagayama, Y; Wadsworth, H L; Russo, D.; Chazenbalk, G D; Rapoport, B

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relative effects of thyrotropin (TSH) and TSH receptor autoantibodies in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease on three TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor extracellular domain chimeras. Each chimera binds TSH with high affinity. Only the chimera with TSH receptor extracellular domains ABC (amino acids 1-260) had a functional (cAMP) response to thyroid stimulatory IgG. The chimeras with TSH receptor domains CD (amino acids 171-360) and DE (amino...

  3. Separation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and immunoglobulin G by a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongmo; Chae, Junseok

    2009-04-01

    This report describes a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column that effectively preseparates raw samples for medical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The minicolumn is constructed of polydimethylsiloxane fabricated on a glass slide. The minicolumn separates 300 ng/ml of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) from an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich solution (100 μg/ml) in 7.7 min, with 2.23 resolution and 0.018 mm plate height. The complete analyte discrimination shows potential for the sample preparation stage of POCT devices for cancer screening, prognosis, and monitoring.

  4. Evaluation of melengestrol acetate and equine chorionic gonadotropin for out-of-season breeding in sheep on Prince Edward Island.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a recommended protocol of oral melengestrol acetate (MGA) to intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), for out-of-season breeding of sheep on Prince Edward Island. One hundred and twenty ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 groups in a factorial design and were treated with either an intravaginal MPA sponge or oral MGA. Ewes received either an intramuscular injection of eCG or a saline ...

  5. Human chorionic gonadotropin and implantation%人绒毛膜促性腺激素与胚胎种植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈晓燕; 徐少元

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)is a glycoprotein hormone comprised of 2 subunits a and b that are noncovalently joined. HCG is primarily produced by the embryo and later by the syncytiotrophoblast. HCG has been detected at variable levels both in pre-implantation embryo culture media in vitro and in women serum after fertilization around implantation period or early pregnancy. HCG is not only considered to assess embryo competence both in anatomic and biochemical,but also contributes to improve luteal function and endometrial modification or placenta construction for supporting early pregnancy.

  6. Spontaneous and induced chromosome breakage in chorionic villus samples: a cytogenetic approach to first trimester prenatal diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, J; Murer-Orlando, M; McGuire, M; Zahed, L; Sheridan, R J; Berry, A C; Bobrow, M

    1989-01-01

    Patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) syndrome exhibit a high level of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, with hypersensitivity to gamma radiation and radiomimetic chemicals at the chromosomal and cellular level. Previously pregnancies at risk for AT have been screened solely by analysis of amniotic fluid samples. In this report we describe a cytogenetic approach to the prenatal diagnosis of AT using chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Levels of spontaneous and induced (gamma radiation and bleomycin) chromosome breakage were established in direct, semidirect, and culture preparations of CVS samples from normal pregnancies. The methods developed were then successfully applied to the screening of a pregnancy at risk for AT. Semidirect preparations showed normal levels of chromosome breakage, and this result was further confirmed in chorion, amniotic fluid, and lymphocyte cultures. In chorion villus samples, gamma radiation is probably the easiest and most reliable way of discriminating between unaffected fetuses and those with AT. PMID:2468772

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin: Different glycoforms and biological activity depending on its source of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the first hormonal message from the placenta to the mother. It is detectable in maternal blood two days after implantation and behaves like a super LH agonist stimulating progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. In addition to maintaining the production of progesterone until the placenta itself produces it, hCG also has a role in myometrial quiescence and local immune tolerance. Specific to humans, hCG is a complex glycoprotein composed of two highly glycosylated subunits. The α-subunit is identical to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH, TSH), contains two N-glycosylation sites, and is encoded by a single gene (CGA). By contrast, the β-subunits are distinct for each hormones and confer both receptor and biological specificity, although LH and hCG bind to the same receptor (LH/CG-R). The hCG ß-subunit is encoded by a cluster of genes (CGB) and contains two sites of N-glycosylation and four sites of O-glycosylation. The hCG glycosylation state varies with the stage of pregnancy, its source of production and in the pathology. It is well established that hCG is mainly secreted into maternal blood, where it peaks at 8-10weeks of gestation (WG), by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST), which represents the endocrine tissue of the human placenta. The invasive extravillous trophoblast (iEVT) also secretes hCG, and in particular hyperglycosylated forms of hCG (hCG-H) also produced by choriocarcinoma cells. In maternal blood, hCG-H is elevated during early first trimester corresponding to the trophoblastic cell invasion process and then decreases. In addition to its endocrine role, hCG has autocrine and paracrine roles. It promotes formation of the ST and angiogenesis through LH/CG-R but has no effect on trophoblast invasion in vitro. By contrast, hCG-H stimulates trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis by interacting with the TGFß receptor in a LH/CG-R independent signalling pathway. hCG is largely used in antenatal screening

  8. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  9. A thicker chorion gives ova of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) the upper hand against Saprolegnia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songe, M M; Willems, A; Sarowar, M N; Rajan, K; Evensen, Ø; Drynan, K; Skaar, I; van West, P

    2016-07-01

    Since the ban of malachite green in the fish farming industry, finding alternative ways of controlling Saprolegnia infections has become of utmost importance. Much effort has been made to elucidate the mechanisms by which Saprolegnia invades fish eggs. Little is known about the defence mechanisms of the hosts, making some eggs more prone to infection than others. One clue might lie in the composition of the eggs. As the immune system in the embryos is not developed yet, the difference in infection levels could be explained by factors influenced by the mother herself, by either transferring passive immunity, influencing the physical aspects of the eggs or both. One of the physical aspects that could be influenced by the female is the chorion, the extracellular coat surrounding the fish egg, which is in fact the first major barrier to be overcome by Saprolegnia spp. Our results suggest that a thicker chorion in eggs from Atlantic salmon gives a better protection against Saprolegnia spp. In addition to the identification of differences in sensitivity of eggs in a fish farm set-up, we were able to confirm these results in a laboratory-controlled challenge experiment. PMID:26644366

  10. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work. PMID:25643124

  11. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women wi...

  12. False negative NIPT results: Risk figures for chromosomes 13,18 and 21 based on chorionic villi results in 5967 cases and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); M. Srebniak (Malgorzata); J. Polak (Joke); F.A.T. de Vries (Femke); L.C. Govaerts (Lutgarde); M. Joosten (Marieke); A. Go (Attie); M.F.C.M. Knapen (Maarten); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytog

  13. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  14. Amniotic membrane is a potential regenerative option for chronic non-healing wounds: a report of five cases receiving dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugala, Andrew; Sui, Audrey; Plummer, Malgorzata; Altman, Igor; Papineau, Elaine; Frandsen, Devn; Hill, Danielle; Ennis, William J

    2016-08-01

    A case series of five patients with a total of six chronic non-healing wounds (>30 day duration) were non-randomly selected to evaluate the performance, safety and handling properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft, an amniotic membrane scaffolding product. The patients had lower extremity wounds that had previously failed standard of care within a university outpatient/inpatient wound healing programme. Five wounds treated with dehydrated amnion/chorion membrane allograft showed a mean 43% area reduction from baseline (51% median) at 3 weeks into treatment and completely healed with a 64-day median time to closure (SD ±27·6 days). One wound worsened at 3 weeks and was found to have a complete central vein obstruction that was treated with long-term mild compression but still eventually healed at 6 months. Removing this outlier, the four responding wounds had a 72% mean and 69% median change in area from baseline, at the 3 week point. All five patients received only one application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft, and there were no adverse events. The product was easy to use, administer and handle. In summary, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft appears to be a safe, effective and easy to use therapy for chronic non-healing wounds. This study describes the details of these clinical cases and provides an overview of the current evidence on the use of amniotic tissue in clinical practice. PMID:25974156

  15. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have d

  16. Atypical Presentations of Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Roles of Imaging, β-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Measurement, and p57 Immunostaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sara A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Ghamande, Sharad; Chaffin, Joanna; Browne, Paul

    2016-03-01

    In modern practice , the diagnosis of molar pregnancy is made at an early gestational age. The opportunity to diagnose gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) using sonography alone occurs less frequently. The classic appearance of a "snowstorm" in the endometrial cavity and bilateral theca lutein cysts still applies to the diagnosis of second-trimester GTD. The diagnosis of first-trimester GTD requires increased clinical suspicion. If the sonographic appearance of the pregnancy is atypical, GTD should be included in the differential diagnosis. Additional nonimaging criteria such as serial quantitative β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, pathologic examination, and p57 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C protein) immunostaining can accurately confirm the diagnosis of GTD. PMID:26860483

  17. Inhibin and activin modulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone from cultured human placental cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Petraglia, F; Vaughan, J.; Vale, W

    1989-01-01

    Although it is clear that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone play fundamental roles in pregnancy, the regulation of placental production of these hormones remains to be defined. Recent evidence suggests that the human placenta expresses proteins related to inhibin (alpha beta subunits) or activin (beta beta subunits). Inhibin and activin (follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein) possess opposing activities in several biological systems including pituitary follicle-stim...

  18. A prospective, randomised comparative study of weekly versus biweekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft in the management of diabetic foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Zelen, Charles M; Serena, Thomas E.; Robert J. Snyder

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if weekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft reduce time to heal more effectively than biweekly application for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. This was an institutional review board-approved, registered, prospective, randomised, comparative, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial. Patients with non-infected ulcers of ≥ 4 weeks duration were included for the study. They were randomised to receive weekly or biweekly app...

  19. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human.

  20. Effect of adding human chorionic gonadotropin to frozen thawed embryo transfer cycles with history of thin endometrium

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    Robab Davar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo implantation process is a complex phenomenon and depends on fetal and maternal factors interaction. Endometrial thickness is needed for successful implantation. Objective: We designed this study in order to assess adding human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG to the conventional protocol in endometrial preparation in women with thin endometrium and a history of in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET failure. Materials and Methods: The non-randomized clinical trial study (quasi experimental design was performed on 28 patients. Participants were women who were candidate for frozen-thawed (ET and had two previous failed ET cycles because of thin endometrial. HCG was administrated (150 IU, intramuscular from the 8th day of cycle and when endometrial thickness reached at least 7mm HCG was discontinued and frozen thawed ET was done. Results: Totally 28 patients were included. The mean ± SD age of participants was 30.39±4.7. The mean of endometrium thickness before and after HCG were 5.07±0.43 and 7.85±0.52, respectively p<0.001. Also, there were five clinically and chemically pregnant women. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that adding HCG to the conventional preparation method was an effective protocol and significantly improved endometrial thickness and pregnancy outcomes in women with previous embryo transfer failure because of thin endometrium.

  1. The effect of β-human chorionic gonadotropin, Nitric oxide and endothelin-1 on pregnancy induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the role of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), nitric oxide (NO) and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), serum β-HCG and ET-1 were determined by radioimmunoassay, and plasma NO was determined with Cortas' method in 58 patients with PIH, 27 normal pregnant women and 20 normal non-pregnant women. Results: the levels of β-HCG and ET-1 in patients with PIH were significantly higher than those in healthy pregnancies (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the β-HCG and ET-1 levels; the higher the β-HCG and ET-1 levels, the more severe of the PIH. The levels of serum NO in patients with moderate and severe PIH decreased significantly than those in healthy pregnancies (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the β-HCG and ET-1 levels (r=+0.577, P<0.01). There was a negative correlation between the NO and ET-1 (r=-0.608, P<0.01). The results suggest that the dysfunction of the placental cells may be associated with the endothelial cell damage in PIH patients

  2. A controlled study of human chorionic gonadotrophin induced ovulation versus urinary luteinizing hormone surge for timing of intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A R; Bernadus, R E; Voorhorst, F J; Vermeiden, J P; Schoemaker, J

    1991-10-01

    Forty-eight patients in a programme of intrauterine insemination (IUI) were randomized in a cross-over study. All were stimulated with clomiphene citrate (CC) and inseminated either after follicular rupture induced by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) or after a spontaneous urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The HCG was administered when follicles of 18-22 mm in diameter were observed on ultrasound and IUI was performed 37-40 h thereafter. The monitoring of a urinary LH peak was carried out using a rapid urinary LH test. IUI took place approximately 22 h after detection of the LH surge. Overall, the pregnancy rates were 9.3% (4/43) after HCG induced ovulation and 20.5% (9/44) after spontaneous ovulation (P = 0.12). Analysis of mid-cycle events showed that following sonographic criteria, the HCG injection was performed significantly earlier in the cycle compared with the spontaneous LH surge. In addition, the mean diameter of the preovulatory follicles was significantly smaller and insemination was substantially earlier in the HCG induced cycles. These findings suggest that a beneficial effect arises from allowing the natural process of final follicular maturation to occur. PMID:1752926

  3. Evaluation of radioimmunoassays using mono- and polyclonal antibodies for the quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five commercial kits for the quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were evaluated for use in an In Vitro Fertilization program. We focused on practicability, precision, sensitivity and the early detection of pregnancy. The IRE method uses purified antiserum against complete hCG and requires overnight incubation. Precision is poor but hCG results agree closely with the other assays. Three other kits use a β-subunit specific antiserum (Amersham, Becton-Dickinson, Clinical Assays). All these assays have acceptable precision especially in their mid-range. The Amersham assay has the shortest assay time, while the Clinical Assays method requires the least manipulation. The Becton Dickinson assay is precise, less sensitive and has the highest frequency of slightly elevated hCG levels in males and non pregnant females. The Hybritech kit is an immunoradiometric assay based on two monoclonal antibodies. It was tested with a two-step incubation procedure needing a longer assay time than the β-subunit specific assays but it has the best precision at low hCG levels and is the most sensitive test with the least interference in samples obtained from males and non-pregnant females. For the early detection of pregnancy all assays performed equally well

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  5. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  6. Mutations in a novel, cryptic exon of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene cause male pseudohermaphroditism.

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    Nina Kossack

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male pseudohermaphroditism, or Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH, is an autosomal recessive disorder in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype, characterized by a predominantly female phenotype, a blind-ending vagina, absence of breast development, primary amenorrhea, and the presence of testicular structures. It is caused by mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR, which impair either LH/CG binding or signal transduction. However, molecular analysis has revealed that the LHCGR is apparently normal in about 50% of patients with the full clinical phenotype of LCH. We therefore searched the LHCGR for novel genomic elements causative for LCH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study we have identified a novel, primate-specific bona fide exon (exon 6A within the LHCGR gene. It displays composite characteristics of an internal/terminal exon and possesses stop codons triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD in LHCGR. Transcripts including exon 6A are physiologically highly expressed in human testes and granulosa cells, and result in an intracellular, truncated LHCGR protein of 209 amino acids. We sequenced exon 6A in 16 patients with unexplained LCH and detected mutations in three patients. Functional studies revealed a dramatic increase in the expression of the mutated internal exon 6A transcripts, indicating aberrant NMD. These altered ratios of LHCGR transcripts result in the generation of predominantly nonfunctional LHCGR isoforms, thereby preventing proper expression and functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The identification and characterization of this novel exon not only identifies a new regulatory element within the genomic organization of LHCGR, but also points toward a complex network of receptor regulation, including events at the transcriptional level. These findings add to the molecular diagnostic tools for LCH and extend our understanding of the endocrine regulation of sexual differentiation.

  7. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight. DESIGN: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors. RESULTS: Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  8. Comparison of Pregnancy Rate in Simultaneous Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Administration with Intrauterine Insemination Vs. Standard intrauterine Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Molaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Artificial insemination (AI has been used to treat infertile couples for approximately 200 years. Time interval between administration of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG and intrauterine insemination (IUI is one of controversial subjects in AI. Fertility rate is in the highest level on the day before ovulation. The aim of study is to compare pregnancy rate in standard IUI versus simultaneous HCG administration with IUI. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, 141 women 20-35 years selected for IUI among patients referring to infertility clinic of Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2013.they were entered into study in two groups of simultaneous (n= 71 and standard (n = 70. After ovulation stimulation by clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG and creating up to 3 dominant follicles in each patient, a single dose of HCG was administered; thereafter, IUI was done in the simultaneous group instantly and 34-40 hours following HCG injection in the standard group. Results: In the standard and simultaneous groups, mean pregnancy rate per patient was 25.7% and 21.1% respectively (p= 0.52 and pregnancy rate per IUI cycle was 16.4% and 15.3% respectively (p= 0.82 that was not significantly different. Furthermore, between two groups in terms of age, the number of mature follicles, and endometrial thickness, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Although difference in pregnancy rate between two groups was not statistically significant, simultaneous HCG with IUI is a comfort method for patients due to less cost and fewer patient's referrals to clinic.

  9. A unique case of growth hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin treatment in a 45,X male with Y: autosome translocation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareri, Arianna; Iezzi, MariaLaura; Salvatore, Alessia; Ligas, Claudio; D'Alessandro, Elvira

    2016-07-01

    Maleness associated with a 45,X karyotype is a rare condition in childhood. It is usually diagnosed in adult age because of infertility. We report a unique case of an unbalanced translocation t(Y;21) in a 14-year-old boy with 45,X karyotype referred because of short stature, thin habitus and puberty delay. Hormone analysis showed low serum levels of basal testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and gonadotrophins. Diagnosis of GH deficiency and puberty delay were made. He was treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and GH therapy, respectively, for 6 and 24 months. PMID:27054600

  10. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clulow John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  11. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin adjunct to an antagonist protocol in assisted reproductive technology: a randomized trial study.

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    Marzieh Aghahosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adding low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin, as an LH active supplement, to a GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. In this parallel-group randomized clinical trial, 137 infertile female outpatients aged 20 - 39 years were randomized into two groups: hCG group and non-hCG group. All patients received r-FSH (150-300 IU and then a GnRH-antagonist, Cetrorelix (0.25 mg/day. Concomitantly with Cetrorelix, patients in the hCG group received low-dose hCG (200 IU daily, but the patients in the non-hCG group did not. 10,000 IU Urinary hCG (10,000 IU was injected to all patients, and ICSI was performed after oocyte retrieval. The primary outcome of this study was comparing the pregnancy rates between two study groups. Other differences between two groups such as serum estradiol concentration, fertilization rate, etc. were considered as secondary outcomes. A total of 130 patients completed this trial. No significant difference was detected between pregnancy rates of the two groups (P=0.52 as well as the fertilization, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.11, P=0.75 and P=0.06 respectively. The only significant difference between two groups was a higher concentration of estradiol in the hCG-treated patients (P<0.05. HCG-treated patients experienced a shorter treatment duration and a lower r-FSH required dose than the non-hCG group, but none of these differences were statistically significant (P=0.19 and P=0.10, respectively. The findings of the current study did not support advantages of adding low-dose hCG to GnRH antagonist plus r-FSH protocol in an unselected population of patients. Well-designed trials with a larger sample size for specific patients' subgroups are warranted.

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  13. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  14. First-trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, J M

    1992-06-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis has initiated a study on the possibilities of first-trimester screening for fetal chromosomal disorders. We report on maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS-hCG) measurements in 1348 pregnancies with a chromosomally normal fetus and 53 pregnancies with a chromosomally abnormal fetus. The median MS-hCG concentration in 24 pregnancies with Down's syndrome was 1.19 multiples of the normal median (MoM). The MS-hCG distributions in normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies did not differ significantly (t-test: t = 1.945, p greater than 0.05). We also found no difference between normal pregnancies and pregnancies with other chromosomal disorders (six cases of trisomy 18, MoM = 0.80; four cases of sex chromosome abnormality, MoM = 1.01; 17 cases of chromosomal mosaicism in chorionic villi, MoM = 1.11). Selecting an upper limit at the 90th centile could detect 25 per cent of pregnancies with Down's syndrome. We conclude that, in the first trimester, MS-hCG as a screening factor for Down's syndrome is of minor value. However, MS-hCG could be a useful factor in a first-trimester screening programme based on a combination of markers. PMID:1387477

  15. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? ... Last reviewed: August, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? ...

  16. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different genetic conditions, including: Down syndrome Hemoglobinopathies Tay-Sachs disease Talk to your health care provider about ... chap 11. Read More Amniocentesis Biopsy Rh incompatibility Tay-Sachs disease Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: ...

  17. A randomized three-way cross-over study in healthy pituitary-suppressed women to compare the bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Pregnyl®) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, B.M.J.L.; Geurts, T.B.P.; Odink, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of s.c. and i.m. administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG; Pregnyl®). In a randomized, single centre, three-way cross-over study, 18 healthy pituitary-suppressed volunteers were assigned to single HCG injections of 5000 and 1

  18. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E;

    2009-01-01

    endometrium from women with ectopic and intrauterine gestations could be used to identify candidate diagnostic biomarkers for EP. The aim of this study was to further investigate the decidual gene with the highest fold increase in EP, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3). Decidualized endometrium from...... chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels. Immortalized endometrial epithelial cells were cultured with physiological concentrations of hCG. CRISP-3 mRNA and protein expression were greater in endometrium from ectopic when compared with intrauterine pregnancies (P < 0.05). CRISP-3 protein was localized to...... epithelium and granulocytes of endometrium. CRISP-3 serum concentrations were not different in women with ectopic compared with intrauterine pregnancies. CRISP-3 expression in endometrium was not related to the degree of decidualization or to serum progesterone levels. Endometrial CRISP-3 expression was...

  19. Fluorescence-based immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin based on polyfluorene-coated silica nanoparticles and polyaniline-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin antigen (hCG). It is based on the use of silica nanoparticles coated with a copolymer (prepared from a fluorene, a phenylenediamine, and divinylbenzene; PF.SiO2) that acts as a fluorescent label for the secondary monoclonal antibody to β-hCG antigen. In parallel, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with polyaniline, and these magnetic particles (Fe3O4.PANI) served as a solid support for the primary monoclonal antibody to β-hCG antigen. The PF.SiO2 exhibited strong fluorescence and good dispersibility in water. A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay was developed that enables hCG concentrations to be determined in the 0.01–100 ng·mL−1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 3 pg·mL−1. (author)

  20. Squelching of ETS2 transactivation by POU5F1 silences the human chorionic gonadotropin CGA subunit gene in human choriocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rangan; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2012-05-01

    The subunit genes encoding human chorionic gonadotropin, CGA, and CGB, are up-regulated in human trophoblast. However, they are effectively silenced in choriocarcinoma cells by ectopically expressed POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1). Here we show that POU5F1 represses activity of the CGA promoter through its interactions with ETS2, a transcription factor required for both placental development and human chorionic gonadotropin subunit gene expression, by forming a complex that precludes ETS2 from interacting with the CGA promoter. Mutation of a POU5F1 binding site proximal to the ETS2 binding site does not alter the ability of POU5F1 to act as a repressor but causes a drop in basal promoter activity due to overlap with the binding site for DLX3. DLX3 has only a modest ability to raise basal CGA promoter activity, but its coexpression with ETS2 can up-regulate it 100-fold or more. The two factors form a complex, and both must bind to the promoter for the combination to be transcriptionally effective, a synergy compromised by POU5F1. Similarly, in human embryonic stem cells, which express ETS2 but not CGA, ETS2 does not occupy its binding site on the CGA promoter but is found instead as a soluble complex with POU5F1. When human embryonic stem cells differentiate in response to bone morphogenetic protein-4 and concentrations of POU5F1 fall and hCG and DLX3 rise, ETS2 then occupies its binding site on the CGA promoter. Hence, a squelching mechanism underpins the transcriptional silencing of CGA by POU5F1 and could have general relevance to how pluripotency is maintained and how the trophoblast lineage emerges from pluripotent precursor cells. PMID:22446105

  1. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  2. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  3. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, AsIII) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of AsIII on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of AsIII on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent AsIII-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of AsIII were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to AsIII than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by AsIII in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to AsIII-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to AsIII cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of AsIII on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent AsIII-mediated cytotoxicity in C-cells, not in A

  4. Is beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin production by transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder a marker of aggressive disease and resistance to radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biopsies from 75 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (25 Ta-T1; 45 T2-T4, 5M) were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG). Only 5 Ta-T1 tumours contained a small number of β-HCG positive cells but 24 invasive tumours and all patients with metastases showed increased numbers of positive cells. A significant correlation was found between β-HCG immunoreactivity and tumour category. In 30 patients with muscle-invasive disease (T2-T4,NO,MO) who were treated with radical radiotherapy a significant correlation was observed between response to treatment and β-HCG expression; β-HCG positive tumours did not respond to treatment. A difference in survival was found between patients with tumours negative for β-HCG compared with patients with positive tumours, all treated with radical radiotherapy. The results indicate that β-HCG expression increases with tumour invasiveness and the use of immunohistochemistry may prove a useful means of identifying radioresistant and aggressive forms of bladder cancer. (Author)

  5. Stereological and morphometric analysis of collagen and seminiferous tubules in testes of patients with cryptorchidism submitted or not to treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Quantify the distribution of collagen and analyze the seminiferous tubules diameter in the testis of patients with cryptorchidism, to verify if the previous use of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG affects these structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of parenchymal tissue of cryptorchid testis obtained during peroperative biopsies were collected from 26 patients. Sixteen samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with picrosirius red to evidence fibers of collagen system. The quantification of these fibers was determined by stereological methods, using a test system M-42. To obtain seminiferous tubules diameter we used 10 of the 26 samples. These samples were embedded in Epon and the analyses were carried out in semi-thin sections, stained with toluidin blue. The selected results of each group were statistically analyzed and compared by the student's t and Tukey-Kramer's tests. RESULTS: The testicular interstitium and lamina propria of patients treated with hCG showed statistically significant less collagen system fibers, when compared to the testes of patients nontreated (0.30% versus 0.39%, p = 0.0079. The seminiferous tubules diameters were not statistically significant different between the testes of patients treated and nontreated with hCG (67.5 versus 59.35 µm, p = 0.0609. CONCLUSIONS: hCG use in the cryptorchidism could delay, at least temporarily, a progressive growth of fibers of collagen system. We did not find statistically significant difference in the seminiferous tubular diameters between treated and nontreated patients.

  6. False Negative NIPT Results: Risk Figures for Chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 Based on Chorionic Villi Results in 5967 Cases and Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV, some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytogenetic studies of CV, we tried to estimate this risk. 5967 CV samples of pregnancies at high risk for common aneuplodies were cytogenetically investigated in our centre between January 2000 and December 2011. All cases of fetal trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were retrospectively studied for the presence of a normal karyotype or mosaicism < 30% in short-term cultured (STC- villi. 404 cases of trisomies 13, 18 and 21 were found amongst 5967 samples (6,8%. Of these 404 cases, 14 (3,7% had a normal or low mosaic karyotype in STC-villi and therefore would potentially be missed with NIPT. It involved 2% (5/242 of all trisomy 21 cases and 7.3% (9/123 of all trisomy 18 cases. In 1:426 (14/5967 NIPT samples of patients at high risk for common aneuploidies, a trisomy 18 or 21 will potentially be missed due to the biological phenomenon of absence of the chromosome aberration in the cytotrophoblast.

  7. Gestational age at delivery and neonatal outcome in uncomplicated twin pregnancies: what is the optimal gestational age for delivery according to chorionicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Sung, Ji-Hee; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neonatal outcome according to the gestational age at delivery and to determine the optimal timing for delivery in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies delivered at or beyond 35 weeks of gestation from 1995 to 2013. The primary outcome was neonatal composite morbidity, which was defined as when either one or both twins have one or more of the followings: fetal death after 35 weeks gestation, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, mechanical ventilator requirement, respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal death. To determine the optimal gestational age for delivery according to chorionicity, we compared the neonatal composite morbidity rate between women who delivered and women who remained undelivered at each gestational week in both monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Results A total of 697 twin pregnancies were included (171 monochorionic and 526 dichorionic twins). The neonatal composite morbidity rate significantly decreased with advancing gestational age at delivery and its nadir was observed at 38 and ≥39 weeks of gestation in monochorionic and dichorionic twins, respectively. However, the composite morbidity rate did not differ between women who delivered and women who remained undelivered ≥36 and ≥37 weeks in monochorionic and dichorionic twins, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that the optimal gestational age for delivery was at ≥36 and ≥37 weeks in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies, respectively. PMID:26866030

  8. A Novel Targeted Therapy of Leydig and Granulosa Cell Tumors through the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Using a Hecate-Chorionic Gonadotropin β Conjugate in Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bodek

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antitumoral efficacy, endocrine consequences, and molecular mechanisms underlying cell death induced by the Hecate-chorionic gonadotropin (CGβ conjugate, a fusion protein of a 23-amino acid lytic peptide Hecate with a 15-amino acid (81-95 fragment of the human CGβ chain. Transgenic (TG mice expressing the inhibin α-subunit promoter (inhα/Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag transgene, developing luteinizing hormone (LH receptor (R expressing Leydig and granulosa cell tumors, and wild-type control littermates were treated either with vehicle, Hecate, or Hecate-CGβ conjugate for 3 weeks. Hecate-CGβ conjugate treatment reduced the testicular and ovarian tumor burden (P < .05, whereas a concomitant increase (testis; P < .05 or no change (ovary in tumor volumes occured with Hectate treatment. A drop in serum progesterone, produced by the tumors, and an increase in LH levels occured in Hecate-CGβ treated mice, in comparison with vehicle and Hecate groups, providing further support for the positive treatment response. Hecate-CGβ conjugate induced a rapid and cell-specific membrane permeabilization of LHR-expressing cells in vitro, suggesting a necrotic mode of cell death without activation of apoptosis. These results prove the principle that the Hecate-CGβ conjugate provides a novel specific lead into gonadal somatic cell cancer therapy by targeted destruction of LHR-expressing tumor cells.

  9. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between abnormal levels of maternal serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin (b-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL) measured in early pregnancy and future poor pregnancy outcome is fairly well established. Little is known on how such prognostic information can be used to avoid future complications of pregnancy and improve their outcome. We undertook a prospective study, which was designed to assess the efficiency of maternal serum biochemical markers b-HCG and HPL for the detection of different pregnancy and labor complications. The blood samples were taken from pregnant patients who attended the antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, from December 2001 to October 2002. These patients were selected randomly. A total of 200 Omani women, none diabetic, with singleton pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks gestation were recruited into the study. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, unless ultrasonography showed a discrepancy of more than 14 days. Excluded from the study were pregnancies with fetal anomalies, multiple gestations and insulin dependent maternal diabetes. Biochemical analysis of both maternal serum markers was performed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory using an automated immunometric technique supplied by Beckman Coulter for b-HCG and manual radioimmunoassay utilizing a gamma radiation scintillation counter for HPL. Both assays underwent internal, trilevel quality controls. The selected patients were monitored for the following complications: pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (birth weight <10th per centile for gestation), low Apgar score (7 or less) and emergency cesarean section. 75 patients did not develop any pregnancy complications and delivered vaginally. This was our control group. 85 patients developed one of the above mentioned problems

  10. A prospective, randomised comparative study of weekly versus biweekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft in the management of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelen, Charles M; Serena, Thomas E; Snyder, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if weekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft reduce time to heal more effectively than biweekly application for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. This was an institutional review board-approved, registered, prospective, randomised, comparative, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial. Patients with non-infected ulcers of ≥ 4 weeks duration were included for the study. They were randomised to receive weekly or biweekly application of allograft in addition to a non-adherent, moist dressing with compressive wrapping. All wounds were offloaded. The primary study outcome was mean time to healing. Overall, during the 12-week study period, 92·5% (37/40) ulcers completely healed. Mean time to complete healing was 4·1 ± 2·9 versus 2·4 ± 1·8 weeks (P = 0·039) in the biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively. Complete healing occurred in 50% versus 90% by 4 weeks in the biweekly and weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·014). Number of grafts applied to healed wounds was similar at 2·4 ± 1·5 and 2·3 ± 1·8 for biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·841). These results validate previous studies showing that the allograft is an effective treatment for diabetic ulcers and show that wounds treated with weekly application heal more rapidly than with biweekly application. More rapid healing may decrease clinical operational costs and prevent long-term medical complications. PMID:24618401

  11. A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba Andrew J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. Methods Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU, or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. Results The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU, 100% of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35% for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms. In addition to having a greater number of responders (P  Conclusion There is a clear dichotomy between the two hormones’ physiological responses on gamete production and stimulation of amplexus. Understanding how these two hormones influence physiology and reproductive behaviors in amphibians will have direct bearing on establishing similar breeding protocols for endangered species.

  12. The Higher Response of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiotensin-II to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Qu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin-II (AT-II to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation. Results: After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed. Conclusion: The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861.

  13. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  14. Dose- and time-related changes in aerobic metabolism, chorionic disruption, and oxidative stress in embryonic medaka (Oryzias latipes): Underlying mechanisms for silver nanoparticle developmental toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuan, E-mail: uyuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing (China); Zhou Qunfang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely employed in commercial products, and are thus inevitably released into the aquatic environment. Many studies have indicated that AgNPs could induce toxicological effects on embryonic fish. To understand the mechanism of AgNP developmental toxicity, we determined the effects of AgNPs on the egg membrane, aerobic metabolism, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) generation in early-life medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). AgNP treatment at 62.5-1000 {mu}g/L caused significant increase in retarded development and abnormalities. Destruction of the surface ornamentation and egg envelope was observed at a higher AgNP concentration ({>=}125 {mu}g/L) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism, and superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the treated embryos. In contrast, the total reduced glutathione level decreased. A high thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration was generated upon AgNP exposure from day 1 to day 7 postfertilisation. The biochemical parameters suggested that oxidative stress was induced by the AgNPs. Unexpectedly, a dose-dependent reduction in ROS and {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation upon high AgNP exposure ({>=}250 {mu}g/L) was observed. Although the morphological damages induced by the AgNPs were irreversible, restorable antioxidant defenses were noted in the well-developed embryos. This finding supported the idea that the stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis is a critical window to chemical exposure or environmental stress. Overall, the results suggested that hypoxia, disturbed egg chorion, and oxidative stress are mechanistically associated with AgNP toxicity in embryonic fish.

  15. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS AI. In experiment 3, extended progesterone treatment combined with eCG increased the size of the dominant follicle (P = 0.01). Both extended progesterone treatment (P = 0.02) and eCG (P = 0.03) increased pregnancy per AI. In conclusion, an extended progesterone treatment stimulated follicular growth postpartum and improved fertility only in cows with low BCS. PMID:26944539

  16. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Nalini; Sharma, Shilpa; Arora, Puneet Rana; Gupta, Shalu; Rani, Kumkum; Naidu, Padmaja

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH) 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816), the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588), fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390), and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991). CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. PMID:27382235

  17. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  18. Preliminary evidence for associations between second-trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated oestriol levels with pregnancy outcome in Down syndrome pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, P A

    1998-04-01

    Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester Down syndrome risk to define the screen-positive group, 42 affected pregnancies were screen-positive (medians: AFP = 0.79 MOM, hCG = 2.13 MOM, uE3 = 0.62 MOM, age 34.6 years) and 14 pregnancies were screen-negative (medians: AFP = 0.82 MOM, hCG = 1.57 MOM, uE3 = 0.92 MOM, age 24.2 years). Four affected pregnancies were associated with in utero death and each of these cases was associated with relatively extreme values of AFP, hCG, and uE3, including the three highest levels of hCG in the entire series of Down syndrome pregnancies. Twenty-nine (15 screen-positive and 14 screen-negative) affected pregnancies resulted in liveborns. Down syndrome pregnancies had a significantly shorter gestational term than controls, and Down syndrome babies were also lighter than controls, even after adjustment for sex and gestational age. In affected pregnancies, a low uE3 level appeared to be associated with a greater chance of a small-for-gestational age baby. No correlations could be demonstrated between AFP or hCG levels and gestational age-adjusted term weight. Based on this small series, it would appear that uE3 may be particularly useful in detecting those Down syndrome cases associated with small-for-gestational age fetuses. A very high hCG value may indicate a higher probability of fetal death. PMID:9602476

  19. Dose- and time-related changes in aerobic metabolism, chorionic disruption, and oxidative stress in embryonic medaka (Oryzias latipes): Underlying mechanisms for silver nanoparticle developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely employed in commercial products, and are thus inevitably released into the aquatic environment. Many studies have indicated that AgNPs could induce toxicological effects on embryonic fish. To understand the mechanism of AgNP developmental toxicity, we determined the effects of AgNPs on the egg membrane, aerobic metabolism, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen (1O2) generation in early-life medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). AgNP treatment at 62.5–1000 μg/L caused significant increase in retarded development and abnormalities. Destruction of the surface ornamentation and egg envelope was observed at a higher AgNP concentration (≥125 μg/L) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism, and superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the treated embryos. In contrast, the total reduced glutathione level decreased. A high thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration was generated upon AgNP exposure from day 1 to day 7 postfertilisation. The biochemical parameters suggested that oxidative stress was induced by the AgNPs. Unexpectedly, a dose-dependent reduction in ROS and 1O2 generation upon high AgNP exposure (≥250 μg/L) was observed. Although the morphological damages induced by the AgNPs were irreversible, restorable antioxidant defenses were noted in the well-developed embryos. This finding supported the idea that the stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis is a critical window to chemical exposure or environmental stress. Overall, the results suggested that hypoxia, disturbed egg chorion, and oxidative stress are mechanistically associated with AgNP toxicity in embryonic fish.

  20. Salmo salar: morfología ultraestructural de la pared del corion en ovas normales y con problemas de eclosión Salmo salar: ultrastructural morphology of chorion, from normal and with hatching problems ova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jaramillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El “corion duro” es un fenómeno de reciente ocurrencia y se caracteriza porque algunos alevines con ojo no son capaces de degradar el corion que les rodea o lo hacen sólo de manera parcial, produciéndose en ambos casos la muerte del alevín. Este fenómeno ha causado fracasos reproductivos importantes en algunas pisciculturas del sur de Chile, desconociéndose hasta ahora la razón de su ocurrencia. En este estudio se realizaron mediciones del grosor del corion de Salmo salar así como de las fibras que forman parte de éste en ovas fertilizadas, no fertilizadas, con desarrollo normal y ovas que no lograron eclosionar. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las leves variaciones observadas en el grosor del corion entre los diferentes estados de desarrollo de las ovas estudiadas no explican la ocurrencia del “corion duro”. Sin embargo, la disposición de las fibras proteicas que forman el estrato interno del corion parece ser la respuesta a este fenómeno. Las ovas que no eclosionan presentan “corion duro” y exhiben un estrato interno carente de poros a diferencia de lo que se observa en las ovas que desarrollan normalmente y que logran la eclosión. Se propone que problemas en la síntesis de alguna de las sub-unidades que forman la coriogenina serían los responsables de la formación de un estrato interno carente de poros, siendo ésta la razón del “corion duro”.Either eyed alevins unable to digest the chorion or those digesting it partially, are both suffering the “hard chorion” phenomenon; in both cases alevins can not survive producing high mortality rates. During recent years, the salmon farming industry in Southern Chile has been facing massive mortality events caused by “hard chorion”. Since “hard chorion” is a recently observed phenomenon there are no literature reporting its origin. The aim of this study was to find differences in the ultrastructure of chorion fibers from Salmo salar ova at different

  1. 应用SNP微阵列检测稽留流产组织绒毛染色体异常%SNP microarray analysis of retention abortion chorionic villus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲红; 任晨春; 田英; 王文靖; 王承缙; 陈淑琴; 梁玥宏; 张海霞; 张月香

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare villus cell culture and karyotype analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology for the detection of chorionic villus chromosome in patients with retention of abortion.Methods Forty cases were analyzed with the two methods.Results Chorionic villus culturing was successful in 29 cases,among which 10 were found to have an abnormal karyotypes.For the SNP microarray analysis,all 40 cases were successful,among which 16 were shown to have an abnormal molecular karyotype.Conclusion SNP microarray technology is highly accurate and specific,which is particularly suitable for the detection of chromosomal deletions or duplications,uniparental disomy,lowpercentage mosaicism and other chromosomal abnormalities.It has provided an effective supplement to the conventional chorionic villus culture and karyotype analysis.%目的 比较用绒毛细胞培养核型分析与单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)微阵列技术对稽留流产绒毛进行染色体检测的优缺点.方法 对确诊为稽留流产的40位孕妇应用上述两种方法检测绒毛染色体.结果 绒毛培养成功29份,发现核型异常10例;SNP微阵列均检测成功,发现异常分子核型16例.结论 SNP微阵列检测准确率高,特异性强,尤其能检测微缺失或重复、单亲二倍体、低比例嵌合体等染色体异常,是对传统的绒毛细胞培养核型分析的有效补充.

  2. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    OpenAIRE

    N. K. J. Pandey; Gupta, H. P.; Shiv Prasad; S. K. Sheetal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 μg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 15...

  3. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, T. B.; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J; Nielsen, S I; Kamby, C.; Maase, H von der

    1999-01-01

    The rate of reduction in the concentration of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) following chemotherapy for germ cell tumours may follow a complex pattern, with longer apparent half-life during later stages of chemotherapy, even in patients treated successfully. The commonly used half-life of less than 3 days for hCG to monitor the effect of chemotherapy in patients with germ cell tumours of the testis may represent too simple a model. 125I-labelled hCG was injected intravenously in 27...

  4. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7 decrease sFlt1 release in normal but not preeclamptic chorionic villi: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorefield Cheryl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired. Factors released from the placenta including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PLGF, soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt1, and soluble endoglin (sEng are regulatory molecules of placental development and function. While the renin angiotensin system has been shown to regulate angiogenic factors in other research fields, these mechanisms have not been extensively studied during pregnancy. Methods We evaluated the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II and angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] on the release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, and sEng from placental chorionic villi (CV. CV were collected from nulliparous third-trimester normotensive and preeclamptic subjects. CV were incubated for 0, 2, 4, and 16 hours with or without Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM or Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. The release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, sEng, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and human placenta lactogen (HPL was measured by ELISA. Results The release of sFlt1, PLGF, sEng from normal and preeclamptic CV increased over time. Release of sFlt1 and sEng was significantly higher from preeclamptic CV. VEGF was below the detectable level of the assay in normal and preeclamptic CV. After 2 hours, sFlt1 release from normal CV was significantly inhibited with Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM and Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. There was a time-dependent increase in HPL indicating that the CV were functioning normally. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a critical inhibitory role of angiotensin peptides on sFlt1 in normal pregnancy. Loss of this regulation in preeclampsia may allow sFlt1 to increase resulting in anti-angiogenesis and end organ damage in the mother.

  5. Inhibition of choriocarcinoma by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin nanoparticles containing antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of heparanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huining L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Liu Huining,1 Zhang Yi,1 Tang Dihong,2 Pan Yifeng,3 Xia Man,2 Yang Ting,2 Cai Jingting1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital, 3National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China Objective: To observe the influence of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG carrying heparanase (Hpa antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN, via the invasion, proliferation, and Hpa expression of JEG-3 cell lines and inhibitory effect of transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth. Methods: The different abilities of invasion and proliferation between transfected JEG-3 and untransfected JEG-3 were measured by Matrigel invasion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in vitro. The effect of Hpa ASODN transfection on the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The transplanted choriocarcinoma tumors were taken out to calculate the inhibitory effect on tumor growth of Hpa ASODN. Results: In this study, we found that: (1 the invasive ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN; (2 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN at 48 and 72 hours, the proliferative ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05; (3 the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein in JEG-3 cells was inhibited efficiently after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN (P < 0.05; and (4 Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN had an inhibitory effect on the transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth (P < 0.05 and was harmless on nude mice. Conclusion: Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN weakened the invasive and

  6. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4-dextran- anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin, a new generation choriocarcinoma-specific gene vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jingting

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cai Jingting1,2, Liu Huining1, Zhang Yi11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG nanoparticles as a gene vector for cellular transfections.Study design: Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The configuration, diameter, and iron content of the nanoparticles were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, light scatter, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence were used to evaluate immunoreactivity. The efficiency of absorbing DNA and resisting deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I digestion when bound to Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles to absorb heparanase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN nanoparticles in different cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry. The tissue distribution of heparanase AS-ODN magnetic nanoparticles in choriocarcinoma tumors transplanted in nude mice was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Results: TEM demonstrated that the shape of nanoparticles is irregular. Light scatter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 75.5 nm and an iron content of 37.5 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed when the concentration of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was <37.5 µg/mL. Fe3O4-dextran nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to combine with β-HCG antibody. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of binding

  7. Chromosome karyotype analysis of chorionic villi in 84 patients with early spontaneous abortion%84例自然流产绒毛细胞培养及染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈素岩; 张金艳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨自然流产患者绒毛细胞培养及染色体核型分析的重要性及临床意义,为下次妊娠做出指导。方法:对84例患者在无菌条件下取绒毛组织,进行细胞培养及染色体核型分析。结果:实施染色体核型分析的患者84例,女胎明显多于男胎,有统计学意义;异常核型43例,正常核型41例,二者男女性别比例无统计学意义;异常核型以染色体数目异常为主(83.72%),以三体最常见(58.33%)。结论:绒毛细胞培养染色体核型分析具有临床意义,对下次妊娠指导起了重要作用,为优生工作的开展提供了重要指标。%Objective:To investigate the importance and clinical significance of chromosome karyotype analysis from chorionic villi in patients with spontaneous abortion, and to provide guidance for the next pregnancy.Methods:chorionic villi cultivation and chromosome karyotype analysis were done from 84 cases of spontaneous abortion.Results:Among 84 cases of fetus, the female fetal were significantly more than male fetal, with statistical significance.43 cases of abnormal karyotype and 41 cases with normal karyotype were checked out. The ratio of sex had no statistical significance;Numerical abnormality was the majar part of chromosome abnormality (83.72%),and the most common cases were autosomal trisomies (58.33%).Conclusion: Chromosome karyotype analysis from chorionic villi has clinical significance.And it had important function for the next pregnancy guidance.It could provide the important index for the development of the eugenic work.

  8. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in fetal vessels in pregnant smokers may lower the blood flow to the fetus and result in lower birth weight, length, and head circumference. The present study measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in fetal umbilical and...... chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified in...... endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P< or =0.001) and a smaller head...

  9. Significance of chorionic villus karyotype analysis for abnormal early pregnancy ultrasound screening%早孕期超声筛查异常行绒毛核型分析的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坚柱; 谢英俊; 陈宝江; 陈健生; 林少宾

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早孕期超声筛查异常行绒毛核型分析的意义.方法 对65例早孕期超声筛查发现异常的孕妇行绒毛核型分析.结果 在65例早孕期超声筛查异常孕妇的胎儿绒毛核型中,检出异常核型28例,异常率为43.08%,主要为18-三体、21-三体和45,X.在异常的超声指征中,全身皮下水肿7例,5例核型异常;全身皮下水肿合并其他异常9例,8例核型异常;胚胎停育11例,6例核型异常;鼻骨异常合并其他异常3例,2例核型异常;NT增厚18例,4例核型异常;NT增厚合并其他异常6例,4例核型异常;多发畸形8例,3例核型异常;淋巴水囊瘤1例有核型异常.结论 早孕期超声筛查异常孕妇的胎儿染色体异常率高,对其行绒毛核型分析是必要的.%Objective: To study the significance of chorionic villus karyotype analysis for abnormal early pregnancy ultrasound screening. Methods: Chorionic villus karyotype analysis were done for 65 cases of abnormal early pregnancy ultrasound screening of pregnant women. Results: 28 cases of abnormal karyotypes were detected in 65 cases of fetal chorionic villus karyotypes from pregnant women with abnormal early pregnancy ultrasound screening. The abnormal rate was 43.08%, the mainly abnormal karyotypes were trisomy 18, trisomy 21 and 45, X. Of the indications of abnormal ultrasound systemic subcutaneous edema was found in 7 cases, 5 cases of them had abnormal karyotypes; systemic subcutaneous edema associated with other abnormalities in 9 cases, 8 cases with abnormal karyotypes; embryo damage in 11 cases, 6 cases with abnormal karyotypes; nasal bone abnormalities associated with other abnormalities in 3 cases, 2 cases with abnormal karyotypes; nuchal translucency thickening in 18 cases, 4 cases with abnormal karyotypes; nuchal translucency thickening associated with other abnormalities in 6 cases, 4 cases with abnormal karyotypes; multiple malformations in 8 cases, 3 cases with abnormal karyotypes; lymph

  10. Iodine-123-labeled radiotracers for cardiovascular and testicular imaging studies: labeling of phenyl fatty acids for myocardial studies, fibronectin for thrombus localization, and human chorionic gonadotropin for testicular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and evaluation of iodine-123-labeled compounds for potential applications in certain imaging studies are described. A new method utilizing an organothallium intermediate has been developed to radioiodinate phenyl fatty acids. The method is simple, and consistently high yields (80 to 90%) can be obtained on a routine basis. The biodistribution patterns of the product prepared by this method were found to be very similar to those produced by the direct electrophilic substitution method. Radioiodinated fibronectin (FN) localized in experimental thrombi and pulmonary emboli. In dogs the deep-vein thrombi could be visualized within 3 hr of postinjection of the tracer. Radioiodinated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) localized in rat testes which permitted the scintigraphic visualization of scrotal as well as abdominal testes in rats. The localization appears to be receptor mediated

  11. Epitope mapping from real time kinetic studies – Role of cross-linked disulphides and incidental interacting regions in affinity measurements: Study with human chorionic gonadotropin and monoclonal antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonavinakere Seetharam Srilatha; P Tamil Selvi; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2005-06-01

    Real time kinetic studies were used to map conformational epitopes in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The epitopes were identified in the regions (5–14 and 55–62). The association rate constant (+1) was found to be altered by chemical modification of hCG, and the ionic strength of the reaction medium. Based on these changes, we propose the presence of additional interactions away from the epitope-paratope region in the hCG-MAb reaction. We have identified such incidental interacting regions (IIRs) in hCG to be the loop region 35–47 and 60–84. The IIRs contribute significantly towards the of the interaction. Therefore, in a macromolecular interaction of hCG and its MAb, is determined not only by epitopeparatope interaction but also by the interaction of the nonepitopic-nonparatopic IIRs. However, the specificity of the interaction resides exclusively with the epitope-paratope pair.

  12. Genetic diagnosis of chorionic villi from first-trimester miscarriages by SNP array%早期自然流产绒毛组织SNP-array遗传学诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春玉; 胡平; 王艳; 杨吟秋; 徐青; 骆潇洁; 李璃; 孟露露; 马定远; 许争峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical value of single nucleotide polymor-phism array ( SNP-array) in the genetic diagnosis of chorionic villi from first-trimester miscar-riages. Methods:A cohort of 82 patients with first-trimester miscarriage undergoing dilation and curettage were enrolled in this study. Karyotyping by standard G-banding analysis was carried out on the cultured chorionic villi cell, while SNP-array analysis was performed on genomic DNA extracted from chorionic villi. Results:72 of 82 cases were successfully analyzed by G-banding karyotyping and the remaining 10 cases were failed,while SNP-array analysis succee-ded in all of the 82 cases. G-banding detected 35 normal and 37 abnormal karyotypes. SNP-ar-ray detected 30 cases of normal and 52 abnormal karyotypes. SNP-array revealed 6 abnormal chromosomes in 10 cases without G-banding analyses. Analyses from 12 cases by G-banding were discordant with those by SNP-array. SNP-array detected 4 cases of uniparental disomies ( UPD) . Conclusion:SNP-array could be used for genetic diagnosis of the first-trimester mis-carriages,due to its high-accuracy,high-throughput and rapid-analysis.%目的:初步探讨单核苷酸多态性阵列( SNP-array)在早期流产绒毛遗传学诊断中的临床应用价值。方法:选取临床诊断为早期自然流产的82例患者,刮宫术后获取绒毛组织,行常规绒毛细胞培养G显带核型分析,并同时提取绒毛组织DNA进行SNP-ar-ray检测,比较两者的检测结果。结果:常规绒毛细胞培养G显带核型诊断成功率87.8%(72/82),SNP-array诊断成功率为100%(82/82)。 G显带分析获得结果72例,核型正常35例,核型异常37例,异常率51.4%(37/72)。82例SNP-array分析结果中,核型正常30例,核型异常52例,异常率63.4%(52/82)。 G显带分析失败的10例标本中, SNP-array检出6例异常;G显带与SNP-array结果不符的12例中,包括2例全基因组单亲二倍体( uniparental disomy,UPD),2例是部分染色

  13. Treatment of cystic ovarian disease in dairy cattle. Comparative observation of the effects of an intramuscular injection of corticosteroids and an intravenous injection of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, T; Ono, H

    1977-01-01

    Of 67 cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD), 34 were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg of betamethasone of 10 mg of dexamethasone (CC) and 33 intravenously with a combination of 3,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin and 125 mg of progesterone (HCG -P). Pregnancy rates and intervals between treatment and conception were 32.4% and 32.1 +/- 30.5 days, respectively, in the CC-treated cows and 30.3% and 51.6 +/- 29.5 days in the HCG -P-treated ones. Cows which had not responded to gonadotropin treatment showed a considerably higher pregnancy rate when treated with CC and a lower pregnancy rate when administered with HCG -P than those which had received no treatment before. There was a trend that the earlier a cow was treated, the more readily she recovered. CC injection gave a satisfactory result even when performed long after calving. The estrous behaviour seemed to be related with prognosis in cows with COD. In both CC-treated and HCG -P-treated cows, the pregnancy rate was the highest in cows showing anestrus and the lowest in those exhibiting irregular estrus. PMID:64331

  14. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K. J.; Gupta, H. P.; Prasad, Shiv; Sheetal, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 µg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 1500 IU i.m., n=8), and Group 4 (progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device at 958 mg, n=8). All the treatme nts were given on 5th daypostbreeding and in Group 4 intra-vaginally implanted device was withdrawn on 9th day (i.e., implant inserted for total 4 days) of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 5, 10, 15, and day 20 of estrous cycle, and plasma was separated for progesterone estimation. Results: Accessory corpus luteum was not formed in crossbred cows of Group4 and control group. However, total 6 and 8 accessory corpora lutea were found in Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. In pregnant cows, the plasma progesterone concentration increased continuously from day 0 to day 20. In non-pregnant cows, it increased from day 0 to day 15 and then declined. The conception rate on day 60 in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 was 37.5%, 50%, 75%, and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Treating repeat-breeder cows with hCG is effective in increasing conception rate by developing accessory corpora lutea and higher progesterone level.

  15. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  16. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  17. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE3) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE3 were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p3 weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE3 between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67±27.44, vs 54.65±126.36, 46.45±30.08 vs 51.33±38.50 and 8.01±11.01 vs 6.68±7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP or 2.1 MOM and E3 2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other. Among screen positive 26 patients, three and nine were normal karyotype and normal phenotype, respectively and five patients had still births. Reamining 9 patients underwent terminations. In conclusion, compared with the other group's data even in Koreans (Whang et al, and Song et al, 1996

  18. 人绒毛膜促性腺激素对实验性大鼠乳腺癌化学预防作用的分析%Chemical Prevention Role of Human Chorionic Gonadochopin on Experimental Rat Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艺; 王菡; 陆迪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study human chorionic gonadochopin( hCG )on experimental rat breast cancer chemoprevention role. Methods 50 female SD rats with no birth were selected and randomly divided into early hCG intervention group,late hCG intervention group,tamoxifen( TAM )group,exposure group,and blank control group, 10 in each group. Cancer formation of the 5 groups were analyzed and compared. Results Breast tumors occurred in every group,the biggest diameter of the tumor visible was about 1. 8 cm, smallest was 0. 5 cm. Cancer rate of early hCG intervention group and exposure group was significantly different (P0.05 ). Cancer rate of late hCG intervention group and exposure group was not significantly different ( P >0.05 ). Differences in mammary gland,mammary terminal buds, catheter, vesicular buds and matured Lob leaflets of the 5 groups were statistically significant( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion hCG can effectively reduce the cancer rate of the experimental rats.%目的 探讨人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)对实验性大鼠乳腺癌的化学预防作用.方法 将未经产的50只SD雌性大鼠随机分为hCG早干预组,hCG晚干预组,他莫昔芬(TAM)组,暴露组,空白对照组,各10只,对5组的成癌情况进行对比分析.结果 各组均有乳腺肿瘤发生,肉眼可见的肿瘤最大直径约1.8 cm,最小直径约0.5 cm.hCG早干预组与暴露组的成癌率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与TAM组的成癌率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).hCG晚干预组与暴露组的成癌率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).5组大鼠乳腺、乳腺终末芽苞、终末导管、泡状芽苞和Lob成熟的小叶相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 hCG能够有效地降低实验性大鼠的成癌率.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1081 - Chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... repeated in 14 days if the animal's behavior or examination of the ovaries per rectum indicates retreatment... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  20. Messenger RNAs encoding the beta subunits of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) luteinizing hormone (gpLH) and putative chorionic gonadotropin (gpCG) are transcribed from a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, G B; Heilman, D F; Hoss, A J; Bunick, D; Lund, L A

    2001-06-01

    Neither gene locus nor gene sequence characterizations have been reported for the beta subunits of guinea pig (gp) LH and putative gp chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Descriptions of this locus would allow comparison with functionally relevant molecular genetic features of other species' homologous loci including the single-copy equid LH/CGbeta gene and the primate LHbeta-CGbeta gene cluster locus. Contiguous cDNA and genomic DNA fragments spanning the entire mature coding sequence of gpLHbeta mRNA, gpCGbeta mRNA and a homologous gpLH/CGbeta gene were amplified using PCR methodologies. With the exception of one silent mutation, the two cDNA and the genomic sequences were identical where they overlapped. Comparison of guinea pig coding sequence with LHbeta, CGbeta and LH/CGbeta sequences of other vertebrate species revealed the following order of similarity expressed as per cent coding sequence identity: rhinoceros LHbeta (83.6%)>pig LHbeta (81.8%)>donkey LH/CGbeta=bovine LHbeta (81.5%)> horse LH/CGbeta (80.6%)>dog LHbeta (79.7%)>human LHbeta (78.2%)>rat LHbeta (77.9%)>human CGbeta (75.8%)>turkey LHbeta (52.7%); values that are generally consistent with recently postulated phylogenetic relationships. Like the consensus mammalian LHbeta gene, the 5'-flanking region of the gpLH/CGbeta gene contains a single TATA sequence 37 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The first in-frame stop codon occurred at codon position +122 which is consistent with the 121 amino acid residue length of the consensus mammalian mature LHbeta peptide. To estimate gene copy number, full-length gpLHbeta cDNA was radiolabeled and hybridized to Southern blots of guinea pig genomic DNA digested with a panel of six restriction endonucleases. The resulting simple hybridization pattern strongly suggested that there is a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene. Northern analysis of total pituitary RNA using the same probe indicated that gpLHbeta transcript size is indistinguishable from that of consensus

  1. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  2. Interleukin-10 modifies the effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the activity and expression of prostaglandin H synthase-2 and the NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in cultured term human villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, F; Caruso, A; Challis, J R

    1999-12-01

    The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), two inflammatory cytokines in amniotic fluid, have been shown to rise during chorioamnionitis. This is probably related to activation of the immune system in order to intensify the inflammatory process and to protect the maternal and fetal organism from infectious agents. These cytokines activate the PG biosynthetic pathway in several tissues, but few studies have examined effects on PG-metabolizing enzymes. When PGs are produced by increased synthesis and/or decreased metabolism at the chorio-decidual interface, labor can be induced. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is known to act as an antiinflammatory cytokine. The goals of this study were to evaluate the interaction of IL-10 with IL-1beta and TNFalpha on PG synthesis and to determine the effects of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNFalpha on PG metabolism using purified cultures of villous trophoblast and chorion trophoblast cells prepared from placentas of patients at term. Cells were treated with IL-1beta and TNFalpha with or without IL-10 for various times up to 24 h. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding PGH synthase-2 (PGHS-2) and NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) were quantified by Northern blotting, and PGE2 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) output in the medium was measured by RIA. IL-1beta increased PGHS-2 mRNA and PGE2 output from villous and chorion trophoblasts and decreased PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblasts (all P < 0.05). These effects were reversed by IL-10. We found no change in PGHS-2 mRNA or PGE2 output in either trophoblast type treated with TNFalpha, but TNFalpha reduced PGDH mRNA in villous trophoblast, and this effect was reversed by IL-10 (both P < 0.05). We conclude that proinflammatory cytokines can influence PG output through effects on PG synthesis and metabolism and that these effects may be opposed by an antiinflammatory cytokine. These interactions may be

  3. Gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina: purificação, caracterização e resposta ovariana em ovinos e suínos Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: purification, characterization and ovarian activity in ewes and gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG foi purificada e caracterizada com respeito ao grau de pureza e atividade biológica. A pureza de quatro preparações foi determinada por eletroforese e a atividade biológica pelo incremento do peso ovariano de ratas imaturas (40 - 50g e pela indução de ovulação em ovelhas e leitoas. A análise eletroforética revelou a presença de três bandas polipeptídicas. A atividade biológica media foi de 313 UI/mg de proteína. Sessenta e cinco (65 ovelhas, fora da estação reprodutiva, foram divididas ao acaso em dois grupos os quais receberam implantes vaginais de esponjas impregnadas com acetato de medroxiprogesterona por um período de l l a 14 dias. No grupo I (55 ovelhas, foram injetadas (IM 500UI do eCG purificado no momento da retirada das esponjas, enquanto que no grupo II (10 ovelhas foram injetadas 500UI de eCG comercial. Uma semana após a aplicação do eCG as ovelhas foram submetidas a um exame laparoscópico para avaliar o número de ovulações. Obteve-se uma média de 2,1 ± 0,3 e 1,8 ± 0,3 ovulações (P>0,05 para as ovelhas dos grupos I e II, respectivamente. De 120 leitoas pré-púberes, com peso médio de 87,2 kg, 90 (grupo I foram injetadas com 500UI do eCG purificado e, às 72 horas, 500UI de hCG (gonadotrofina coriônica humana, e 30 leitoas (grupo II não receberam injeção hormonal. Observou-se a presença de 25,9 ± 22,2 e 0,0 corpora lutea (PEquine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG was purified and characterized with respect to its purity and bionological activity. The purity of four preparations was determined by electrophoresis, and the biological activity by increasing of the ovarian weight ot immature female rats (40-50g and induction ot ovulation of ewes and gilts. Electrophoretic analysis revealed three polipeptidic bands. The mean biological activity was 313UI/mg of protein. Sixty-five ewes, not in reproductive season, were divided randomly in two groups that received vaginal

  4. Optimal timing for human chorionic gonadotrophin administration from the point of view of the mature/immature oocytes ratio in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles%从超排周期所获成熟卵与不成熟卵比例的临床结局评议hCG诱发排卵最佳时机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2012-01-01

    In current controlled ovarian stimulation protocol, usage of recombination follicle stimulating hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue can to avert from the dominant follicle selection mechanism which results in single follicle maturation and ovulation. Because of this progress, multiple follicles can he recruited and develop simultaneously, so that more oocytes could he retrieved. Whereas because of the absence of endogenous luteinizing hormone surge, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has to be administrated to trigger final follicle maturation and induce ovulation. At the end of follicular phase, there would he a series of ovulatary follicles with different diameters. It is tricky to determine optimal timing of hCG administration due to lack of synchronization. The current criteria for hCG administration is arbitrary and not uniformed. Each IVF program would draft their own criteria and determine the timing according to the characteristics of each cycle. And in particular cases, immature oocyte rate is unbearable because of inappropriate hCG trigger timing. So far the relationship between hCG administration and IVF/ICSI outcome remains uncertain. It is seemingly that, generally the " trigger window" does exist and is not bitterly rigid. Based on our experience, oocytes with superior development capacity are aspirated from fairly large follicles with a diameter between 20 and 22 mm. At the same time, character of the patient, hormone levels and endometrium advancement should be considered. Because lack of knowledge of folliculogenesis and insufficiency of current monitoring methods, the exact timing of hCG administration could not be pinpointed. In the future, the development of perifollicular vascularization evaluation and serum/follicular anti-Mullerian hormone measurement will assist in identifying the optimal timing of hCG administration.

  5. CD4、CCR5、CXCR4和DC-SIGN分子在 HIV-1感染者及正常人晚孕胎盘及早孕绒毛的表达%Experssion ofCD4, CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in chorionic villi and human placentae with or without HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓梅; 董杉; 彭淋; 蔡卫平; 禤庆山; 王辉; 王自能; 王声湧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of HIV-1 receptors CD4, co-receptors CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in human placenta and chorionic villi and to explore the mechanism of in-utero transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1( HIV-1). Methods 11 placentas from HIV-1 seropositive women, 13 placentas from normal placentas and 10 cases of early pregnancy abortion villi were collected. Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the expression of CD4, CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN. Results There were individual differences of CD4 expression in placenta , the positive rate of the three groups was 70.00% , 61. 54% and 72. 73% , respectively. There was no statistical difference among three groups. All of CXCR4, CCR5, and DC-SIGN had positive expression in the placenta, they all located at the trophoblast cells and stromal of villi. The level of CXCR4, CCR5, and DC-SIGN expression in chorionic villi from first trimester were lower than those in placentas from the third trimester, the difference among the three groups was significant (t1=-4. 09,P1<0.001;t2 =-4. 80,P2<0. 001;t3 = -4. 57,P3 =0. 001). Conclusions With the expression of CD4, CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN, placenta possessed the molecular basis of HIV-1 infection. There are individual differences in the expression of CD4 molecules in trophoblast cells. The expressions of CCR5 , CXCR4 and DC-SIGN molecules in the placenta from the third trimester were higher than those in chorionic villi from first trimester, which might be related with the fact that most of MTCT occurred at the third trimester stage.%目的 明确CD4、CCR5、CXCR4和DC-SIGN分子在HIV-1不同感染状态晚孕胎盘和早孕绒毛的存在及表达情况,为探索HIV-1宫内传播的分子机制提供理论依据.方法 收集11例HIV-1感染孕妇胎盘、13例正常孕妇胎盘和10例早孕流产绒毛,免疫组化检测并比较3组孕妇胎盘或绒毛组织中HIV-1相关受体CD4、CCR5、CXCR4和DC -SIGN分子的存在

  6. 基于高通量测序的染色体组拷贝数分析技术在流产胚胎组织遗传学诊断中的应用价值%Application of copy number variation analysis based on next-generation sequencing in the genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚红; 蔡莉蓉; 祝建疆; 杨锴; 闻小慧; 曾雯; 陈佳靓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of copy number variation analysis based on next-generation sequencing (NGS-CNVA) in the genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi. Methods From August 2012 to May 2014, chorionic villi from 74 cases of missed abortion at 6-13 gestational weeks in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital were collected and analyzed by karyotype analysis and NGS-CNVA. The results of the two methods were compared. Results (1) Karyotype analysis was carried out for the villi from the 74 missed abortion patients. Thirty cases were euploid, 26 cases were aneuploid, while 18 cases had structural abnormalities. The resolution of the karyotyping was 320 bands and the average report time was 22 days. (2) All of the 74 samples obtained NGS-CNVA results and the report time was 7-10 days. (3) The NGS-CNVA results of 56 cases were consistent with karyotype. Among them, 28 cases (28/56, 50%) had no copy number variants (CNV), and 19 cases (19/56, 34%)had CNV between 1 Mb and 10 Mb. 9 cases (9/56,16%) had CNV≥10 Mb found by NGS-CNVA, but not found by karyotyping. (4) According to the results of NGS-CNVA, karyotype were reviewed. The reviewed results found 7 cases with CNV<10 Mb and 3 cases with CNV≥10 Mb in 30 cases which got normal karyotype results at the first analysis. (5) Among the 18 cases of structural abnormalities, 6 cases were Robertsonian translocation. Sequencing technology could confirm the specific area of chromosome deletion/duplication in 8 cases, but could not locate them. Conclusions NGS-CNVA has lower failure rate, higher resolution, lower specimen requirement and shorter report time than karyotype analysis when used for the genetic analysis of missed chorionic villi . NGS-CNVA could be a useful genetic analysis method for the missed abortion villi.%目的:探讨基于高通量测序的染色体组拷贝数分析(NGS-CNVA)技术在流产胚胎组织遗传学诊断中的价值。方法选择2012年8月至2014年5月间在

  7. Application of copy number variation analysis based on next-generation sequencing in the genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi%基于高通量测序的染色体组拷贝数分析技术在流产胚胎组织遗传学诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚红; 蔡莉蓉; 祝建疆; 杨锴; 闻小慧; 曾雯; 陈佳靓

    2016-01-01

    genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi. Methods From August 2012 to May 2014, chorionic villi from 74 cases of missed abortion at 6-13 gestational weeks in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital were collected and analyzed by karyotype analysis and NGS-CNVA. The results of the two methods were compared. Results (1) Karyotype analysis was carried out for the villi from the 74 missed abortion patients. Thirty cases were euploid, 26 cases were aneuploid, while 18 cases had structural abnormalities. The resolution of the karyotyping was 320 bands and the average report time was 22 days. (2) All of the 74 samples obtained NGS-CNVA results and the report time was 7-10 days. (3) The NGS-CNVA results of 56 cases were consistent with karyotype. Among them, 28 cases (28/56, 50%) had no copy number variants (CNV), and 19 cases (19/56, 34%)had CNV between 1 Mb and 10 Mb. 9 cases (9/56,16%) had CNV≥10 Mb found by NGS-CNVA, but not found by karyotyping. (4) According to the results of NGS-CNVA, karyotype were reviewed. The reviewed results found 7 cases with CNV<10 Mb and 3 cases with CNV≥10 Mb in 30 cases which got normal karyotype results at the first analysis. (5) Among the 18 cases of structural abnormalities, 6 cases were Robertsonian translocation. Sequencing technology could confirm the specific area of chromosome deletion/duplication in 8 cases, but could not locate them. Conclusions NGS-CNVA has lower failure rate, higher resolution, lower specimen requirement and shorter report time than karyotype analysis when used for the genetic analysis of missed chorionic villi . NGS-CNVA could be a useful genetic analysis method for the missed abortion villi.

  8. Impact of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on outcome of in vitro fertilization%HCG注射日孕酮水平和体外受精-胚胎移植妊娠结局的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 胡晓东; 莫美兰; 彭月婷; 曾勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the impact of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization in controlled ovarian hyperstmiulation.Methods:Retrospective analysis the 889 cycles of IVF -ET which were used with down regulation long protocol in our reproductive medical centre from October 2009 to March 2011,and 56 cycles of FET which had given up fresh embryo transfer because of high progesterone levels from October 2009 to November 2011.All the patients were divided into three groups according to serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration,group A:P < 3.17nmol/L 657 cycles; group B:3.17nmol/L≤P <4.76nmol/L 181 cycles; group C:P≥4.76nmol/L 77 cycles.Results:Compared with the other two groups,P≥ 1.5ng/ml group significantly reduced implantation and pregnancy rates but the average follical diameter and the actopic pregnancy rate was significantly higher (P < 0.01).There were no statistical differences in the number of fetilization rates,embryos cleavage rates,high quality embryos rates.Compared with C group,the patients giving up fresh embryo transfer because of high progesterone levels have higher clinical pregnancy rates of frozen thawed embryo transfer cycles.Conclusions:In controlled ovarian hyperstmiulation,the increase of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin admin istration has effect only on clinical pregnancy outcome of IVF-ET,without affecting on clinical pregnancy rate of thawed embryo transfer.Therefore,the patients who have high progesterone levels maybe considered giving up fresh embryo transfer and freezing total embryo.%目的 探讨在控制性超排卵中,HCG注射日孕酮水平与体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)妊娠结局的关系.方法 回顾性分析2009年10月至2011年3月在我院生殖中心采用长方案垂体降调节行IVF-ET的889个新鲜周期,以及2009年10月至2011年11月因HCG日P≥4.76nmol/L而取

  9. 21 CFR 522.1079 - Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... freeze-dried powder to be reconstituted with 5 milliliters of sterile aqueous diluent. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in swine—(1) Amount. 400 I.U. serum.... (i) Gilts. For induction of fertile estrus (heat) in healthy prepuberal (noncycling) gilts. (ii)...

  10. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  11. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for chorionic gonadotropin in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of RIAs that measure hCG levels in human urine has been limited principally because of cross-reactivity with human LH. Recently, antisera generated to antigenic determinants on the intact hCGβ subunit and its carboxyl-terminal peptide have been shown to exhibit substantially reduced human LH cross-reactivity. To take maximal advantage of these antisera and to minimize interference by nonspecific substances in urine, a procedure for extracting and concentrating hCG from 24-h urine samples was developed. The procedure involves preparation of a standard kaolin-acetone urine concentrate and adsorption of the hCG in the concentrate to Concanavalin A covalently linked to agarose for purification and subsequent RIA. In urine samples obtained from patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, there was a direct correlation between hCG levels measured by RIA and those estimated by mouse uterine weight bioassy. In individual subjects, hCG levels were determined in serum and urine obtained the same day. When hCG was clearly detectable in the serum at levels greater than 1 ng/ml, the quantity of hCG measured in the urine concentrate exceeded 500 ng/24 h. The concentrates prepared from the urine of normal persons contained an hCG-like glycoprotein substance with antigenic determinants similar to those of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hCGβ. As the range of hCG immunoreactivity measured in the urine concentrates of normal subjects was 6 to 52 ng/24 h, specific and sensitive detection of urinary hCG could be accomplished in patients whose sera contained hCG undetectable by conventional RIA. Partial purification and concentration of urinary hCG by this procedure with subsequent RIA provides a sensitive and reliable method for detecting hCG in urine

  12. 妊娠早期检测血清E2、P、HCG的动态变化对妊娠结局的预测价值%Dynamic Changes of Serum Estradiol,Progesterone and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Predictive Value of Early Pregnancy Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚衍; 曾玖芝; 陈德新; 万虹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠早期检测孕酮(P)、雌二醇(E 2)、血绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)的动态变化对妊娠结局的预测价值。方法选择自然周期监测排卵后怀孕者228例,根据妊娠结局分为3组:正常妊娠组、流产组、宫外孕组。以排卵日为0d,首次检测排卵后15~17d 的血清雌二醇、孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素,间隔2~3d 后第2次检测,再间隔7d 第3次检测,间隔10d 以上第4次检测。比较不同间隔时间3种激素的差异。进一步比较雌二醇差值的增减比例。结果正常宫内孕组雌二醇、绒毛膜促性腺激素呈增长趋势,孕酮变化较小。流产组雌二醇、孕酮下降,绒毛膜促性腺激素有增有降,且增幅明显小于正常宫内孕组。宫外孕组雌二醇波动小,孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素呈下降趋势。雌二醇增加者在正常宫内孕组为91.3%,流产组为6.12%,宫外孕组为73.17%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论在妊娠早期尚不能靠B 超确定妊娠结局前,检测血清雌二醇、孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素的动态变化对妊娠结局有预测价值。%Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of serum estradiol(E 2 ),progesterone(P)andhuman chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)on the predictive value of early pregnancy. Methods Choose 228 pregnant women after ovulation monitoring in natural cycle. According pregnancy outcomes,they were divided into 3 groups: normal pregnancy group,abortion,ectopic preg-nancy group. Set the ovulation day is 0 day,test the serum level of E 2 ,P and HCG on 15 ~ 17 day firstly,the second test after 2 ~3 days,third test after 7 days,and last test after 10 days. Compare the differences of hormonal on different intervals in three groups. Results E 2 and HCG had growing trends in normal pregnancy group,however P had small changes. E 2 and P decreased in abor-tion group,P was fluctuated,and the increase was significantly less than in the normal group. P and HCG were

  13. Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development%人胚胎源性人绒毛促性腺激素在胚胎培养液中的水平与早期胚胎发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英; 张仁礼; 韩冬; 刘彩霞; 蔡佳杰; 毕燕玲; 闻安民; 全松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Methods Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. Results In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). Conclusion ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.%目的:探讨人胚胎源性人绒毛促性腺激素(HCG)在第3天胚胎培养液中的表达及其与早期胚胎发育间的关系。方法收集IVF-ET患者体外第3天单个培养胚胎培养液,通过ELISA方法检测培养液中HCG浓度,比较其与胚胎数目、分级、碎片等传统评分间的关系。结果在60个病人的163份第3天胚胎培养液标本中,胎源性HCG的检测率是93.8%(153/163),表达浓度是0.85±0.43 mIU/ml。HCG浓度与胚胎卵裂球细胞数呈正相关。随着细胞数增加,培养液中HCG表达也提高(P<0.05)。随着胚胎形态评分级别的下降,培养液中HCG表达下降(P<0.05)。结论 ELISA方法能检测出第3天胚胎培养液中胎源性HCG的微量表达。胚胎培养液中胎源性HCG水平与传统胚胎形态评估有相关性,提示它有可能作为新的评估胚胎发育的无创性方法。

  14. Complicações materno-fetais da biópsia de vilo corial: experiência de um centro especializado do Nordeste do Brasil Fetal and maternal complications of chorionic villus sampling: results from a specialized center in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vieira Lopes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar complicações maternas e fetais após realização de biópsia de vilo corial (BVC para diagnóstico pré-natal de alterações genéticas, na cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: série de 958 gestantes de risco para cromossomopatias, submetidas à BVC realizada entre a nona e a 24ª semanas de gestação, por via transabdominal, utilizando agulha espinhal 18G 3½, guiada por ultra-sonografia, entre 1990 e 2006. As variáveis para a análise de complicações imediatas foram cólicas uterinas, hematoma subcoriônico, punção acidental da cavidade amniótica, dor no local da punção, amniorrexe, desconforto abdominal, bradicardia fetal e sangramento vaginal, e para complicações tardias, dor abdominal, sangramento vaginal, amniorrexe, infecção e abortamento espontâneo. Complicações obstétricas e fetais (parto prematuro, descolamento prematuro de placenta, placenta prévia e malformações anatômicas fetais foram também estudadas. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se o chi² e o teste t de Student ou Mann-Whitney; o nível de significância foi 5%. RESULTADOS: a média de idade das gestantes foi 36,3±4,9 anos. Complicações imediatas foram encontradas em 182 (19% casos (cólica uterina em 14%, hematoma subcoriônico em 1,8% e punção amniótica acidental em 1,3% e tardias em 32 (3,3% casos (sangramento vaginal em 1,6%, dor abdominal em 1,4%, amniorrexe em 0,3% e aborto espontâneo em 1,6%. Não foi observado descolamento prematuro de placenta, placenta prévia ou malformação fetal. CONCLUSÕES: a BVC revelou-se procedimento simples e seguro. A BVC pode ser utilizada em gestantes que necessitam de diagnóstico pré-natal devido ao risco de anomalias genéticas.PURPOSE: to evaluate fetal maternal complications after chorionic villus sampling (CVS for prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders in pregnant women of Salvador (BA, Brazil. METHODS: case-series study of 958 pregnancies with high risk for chromosomal

  15. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and laparoscopic artificial insemination on embryo, endocrine, and luteal characteristics in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Wolfe, B A; Long, J A; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    1997-07-01

    The effects of gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) on embryo quality, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and luteal progesterone content were examined in the domestic cat. These data were compared to similar historical data reported for naturally estrual, mated queens. All queens in this study (n = 32) were treated with eCG followed by 1) natural breeding (eCG-NB), 2) NB and hCG (eCG-NB-hCG), 3) NB and a sham AI procedure (eCG-NB-sham AI), or 4) hCG and actual AI (eCG-hCG-AI). Queens ovulating in response to treatment were ovariohysterectomized, and oviducts and uteri were flushed to collect embryos. Ovarian structures were recorded, corpora lutea (CL) were excised and evaluated for progesterone content, and serum was analyzed for estradiol-17beta and progesterone. Follicle and CL numbers ranged from 0 to 28 and 2 to 42 per cat, respectively, and treatment means did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. Embryos were recovered from oviducts and uterine horns in all treatment groups, and recovery ranged from 60-96%. Mean embryo number per queen ranged from 8.2 +/- 2.6 to 23.2 +/- 3.8 and did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. However, the proportions of unfertilized oocytes were greater (p or = 0.05) among treatments. Compared to historical controls (naturally estrual, mated queens), eCG-NB queens produced > 4 times as many good-quality embryos and blastocysts. Similarly, eCG-hCG-AI-treated queens produced > 4 times the number of oocytes and embryos, although a high proportion of these were poor quality and did not develop to blastocysts. Together, these results indicate that queens treated with eCG are capable of consistently producing many good-quality embryos, at least half of which develop to blastocysts in culture. These data support the use of eCG in felids and suggest that other factors are responsible for reduced pregnancy success and small litter sizes following assisted reproduction. PMID:9209095

  16. 南昌地区妊娠14~20周妇女血清甲胎蛋白和游离绒毛膜促性腺激素的MOM值测定及临床应用%Detection and clinical application of MOM values of serum alpha-fetoprotein and free human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women during 14~20 gestational weeks in Nanchang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖华; 刘艳秋; 刘淮

    2011-01-01

    目的:运用计算出的AFP及F-βHCG的MOM值与目前采用的MOM值对孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,期待能更有效地筛查出南昌地区胎儿神经管缺陷及唐氏综合征高危孕妇.方法:依据2005~2007年到江西省妇幼保健院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇各孕周AFP、F-βHCG的中位数,计算出AFP、F-βHCG的MOM值,用计算出的MOM值(研究组)和目前采用的MOM值(对照组)分别对2008年来该院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,对筛查出的高危孕妇进行羊水检测和随访,比较两种MOM值对胎儿神经管缺陷畸形和唐氏综合征筛查的阳性率、假阴性率及假阳性率.结果:神经管缺陷畸形、唐氏综合征阳性率研究组高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);假阴性率研究组与对照组比较,结果无统计学意义;假阳性率研究组较对照组降低,结果具有统计学意义,(神经管缺陷畸形P<0.05,唐氏综合征P<0.01).结论:应用本地区MOM值进行神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,能更有效地筛查出本地区的神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征胎儿.%Objective: To screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome by calculated MOM values and values currently used of serum alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free β human chorionic gonadotropin (F - β HCG) in pregnant women, in order to screen out the high risk pregnant women of fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome in Nanchang region.Methods: The MOM values of AFP and F - β HCG were calculated according to the medians of AFP and F - β HCG in pregnant women of different gostational weeks who visited the prenatal diagnosis outpatient of the hospital from 2005 to 2007, then the calculated MOM values ( study group) and the MOM values currently used ( control group) were used to screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome among the pregnant women who visited the prenatal

  17. The relationship between the single level of serum human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) at 14~15th day after embryo transfer and the multiple-pregnancy, the gender of fetal, the clinic abortion%胚胎移植术14~16天后单次血HCG值与多胎,胎儿性别和临床流产之关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾婵维; 王树玉; 马延敏; 兰永连; 周丽颖; 刘英; 张军; 余兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between serum human chorionic gonadotrop (HCG) at 14 days - 16 days after embryo transfer and pregnancy outcome in long run. Methods: The pregnancy outcomes of 329 cases whose gestational sacs were detected and the serum HCG levels of 14 days - 16 days after fresh cycle IVF/ICSI - ET were retrospectively analyzed. Among 329 cases, there were 145 case detected the serum HCG level at the 14th day after embryo transfer, 102 cases detected the serum HCG level at the 15th day after embryo transfer and 82 cases at the 16th day after embryo transfer. According to the day of detecting serum HCG. We divided the 329 cases into four groups by their outcomes: multiple pregnancy, singleton female infant, singleton male infant, clinical abortion. And according the day of detecting serum HCG we compared their levels of serum HCG after embryo transfer using One - Way ANOVA test. Results: 1. The levels of serum HCG went down according to multiple pregnancies, singleton female infants, singleton male infants, clinical abortions. There was the significant difference between multiple pregnancies and other groups. 2. At the 14th day after embryo - transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and singleton male infants, clinical abortions but there was no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions. 3. At 15th and 16th day after embryo -transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and clinical abortions but no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions.There was also no significant difference between singleton female infants and singleton male infants. Conclusion: 1. The levels of serum HCG at the 14 - 16th day after embryo - transfer were correlated with their pregnancy outcome. The mean levels of serum HCG step down according multiple pregnancy, singleton female

  18. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    cycles of chemotherapy was administered. The patient has been in remission for 24 months. PPC was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in both cases. Gestational origin of the tumor was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis (polymorphic microsatellite markers). CONCLUSION: The...

  19. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  20. Development of a radioreceptor assay for human chorion gonadotropin: Application in normal and pathological pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats testes were homogenised, and the binding capacity of several dilutions of these were tested with iodine125-labelled human choriongonadotropin. Investigations about binding over a period of 36 hrs. with 3 different temperatures, inhibition tests and cross reaction analyses for determining the specificity were carried out. 2 assay systems could be developed. The highly sensitive assay was applied at early pregnancy, at suspected disturbed or ectopic gravidity and allowed to measure the hCG-serum concentration above the physiological basal secretion of hLH. The less sensitive assay was used for measuring hCG in later stages of pregnancy, chorionepitheliomas and other hCG producing tumours. With the highly sensitive and specific assay, hCG was determinable 8 to 10 days post conceptionem. (orig.)

  1. THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AND TYROSINE PROTEIN KINASE ON THE GROWTHOF HYBRIDOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShou-Wei; LIUShah-Ling; CAOZe-Yi; CHENMan-Ling

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the production and development of receptor monoclonal antibodies (McAB) have been attentively studied. Wc observed the effects of human ehorionicgonadotropin (HCG) and tyrosinc protein kinase (TPK) on the growth of two hybridoma

  2. Radioimmunodetection of choriocarcinoma in nude mouse by radiolabeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin. beta. -subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nozomu (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    Photoscans and organ radioactivity were assessed with radiolabeled antibodies to hCG or hCG-..beta.. subunit in nude mice bearing hCG-producing tumors. /sup 125/I-anti hCG or /sup 125/I-anti-hCG-..beta.. subunit was administered to nude mice bearing an hCG-producing tumor, GCH-lnu. Measurement of radioactivity revealed specific accumulation of both antibodies into the tumor. Especially the accumulation of /sup 125/I-anti hCG-..beta.. subunit on the 3rd day of administration was high, being about 4 times higher than the nonspecific accumulation in the liver. The localization of hCG in the tumor was examined by the indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase method using anti-hCG. and anti hCG-..cap alpha.. subunit, and hCG-..beta.. subunit. The immunoperoxidase reaction was positive, and the accumulation of these radiolabeled antibodies in the tumor is suggested to be an immunologically specific phenomenon. The tumor in the tumor-bearing nude mouse injected with /sup 131/I-anti hCG or /sup 131/I-anti hCG-..beta.., subunit could be visualized as a hot area by external scintigraphy. Especially, the tumor image produced by the accumulation of anti hCG-..beta.. subunit was very clear against the background radiation.

  3. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, S.G.; Braunstein, G.D. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and (35S)methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable (35S)methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable (35S)methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells.

  4. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and [35S]methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable [35S]methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable [35S]methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells

  5. 77 FR 55481 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of... Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  6. 77 FR 55413 - New Animal Drugs; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone; Oxymorphone; Oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug... Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR parts 510 and 522 are amended as... Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  7. Myth vs. Fact: The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500 calories per day on the diet. Experts worry that this diet puts people’s health at risk. In general, women need 1,600 to 2,400 calories per day and men need 2,000 to 3,000 calories per day to maintain a healthy weight. Following a healthy diet when eating only ...

  8. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  9. ABNORMAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE CHORION AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Farhud; H Sadighi ; M.R. Mohammad Hassani ; A. Samavat; R. Zakizadeh ; Z. Yazdani

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias, because of climatic, geographic and ecological conditions, are the most common among the genetically endemic in Iran, especially m provinces adjacent to the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. There are over 14,000 cases of thalassemia major reported in Iran. Data, collected by the Iranian Ministry of Health, and analyzed at the Department of Human Genetics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, showed relative distribution of 3194 patients referring for the iron chelating drug, disferal, in 24 provinces in Iran. 3304 cases were studied for sex and age groups. Higher percentages and sex ratios were observed in each age group and further clarified as the age increased. 3386 cases were considered for ABO and Rh blood groups. Significant high incidence of group 0 (41.228% was followed by groups A (29.090% and B (23.2 13%, and group AB with the lowest (6.467%. A significant low incidence of Rh negative was also observed (6.852%.

  10. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  11. Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis in 481 Amniocentesis, Chorion Villi Sample and Cordocentesis Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Budak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a total of 481 amniocentesis , cordocentesis and corion villi sample specimens from patients who were referred to the Prenatal Diagnostic Laboratory of Department of Medical Biology and Genetics Department of Medical Faculty of University of Dicle, between 1999 and 2001. A total of 24 specimens were found cytogenetically abnormal, of which 11 were trisomy 21 ( Down Syndrome, two were Down Syndrome with Robertsonian type of translocation between chromosome 14 and 21, one was mosaic Down Syndrome , one was balanced translocated chromosome carrier, two were Turner Syndrome, one was triple X syndrome, two were triploidy, one was partial trisomy 3, one was derivative chromosome, one was nonrepetitive numerical and structural abnormality, and one was marker chromosome. Unfortunately, we could not have results in 15 of culture samples. There were no false positive and false negative results.

  12. Midtrimester serum B-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the subsequent development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami Tabrizi N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the commonest conditions peculiar to pregnancy, to describe the occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in pregnancy. It is about seven times more frequent in first gestation and uncommon before 20 week's gestation. Serum BhCG levels were prospectively determined in 260 midtrimester singleton pregnancies where admitted from October 1999 until September 2000 at Mirza Kouchak Khan hospital, prenatal clinic. Obstetric chart review was undertaken after delivery to identify cases in which pre eclampsia developed. The median maternal age was 26.0 years, and the median gestational age at the time of blood collection was 19.0 weeks. Of these, 17 cases (6.5 percent had pre eclampsia. The median level of the BhCG was 35060.5 mlu/ml in those with pre eclampsia, whereas that in those without pre eclampsia was 33755.1 mlu/ml. The difference was not significant (P=0.28. Although elevated midtrimester serum BhCG levels in clinically normal patients was reported in severaly pre eclampsia women, this is not a good test for early detection of mild pre eclampsia.

  13. Graded hyperthyroidism and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration in patients with trophoblastic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroid hormone and basal and post TRH stimulated levels of TSH were measured in 48 female subjects of mean age 29.3 ± 9.2 and mean gravida 2.9 ± 2.6 with trophoblastic disease (TD), both benign and malignant. Normal pregnant women (n=21) served as controls. Twenty-five patients showed a normal response to TRH (Group i) while the rest (Group ii) had subnormal response while thyroid hormone levels were increased. Two subgroups iiA and iiB were formed within Group ii on the basis of the free T4 levels (measured by equilibrium dialysis) falling below or above the 25th percentile. hCG levels were higher in Group ii than in Group i and a stepwise significant increase in the mean level of this hormone was observed in Group i to iiA and iiB. Significant correlation between hCG levels and those of thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine were found in TD patients as a whole, but not within the different subgroups. Clinical signs were minimal, with proximal muscle weakness and fine finger tumours observed in 10 patients in Group iiB. The study shows that the incidence of biochemical hyperthyroidism is higher than was reported before sensitive methods for TSH measurement were available, and postulates that increased hCG concentrations in themselves and/or abnormal metabolic variants of hCG produced by trophoblastic tumours may act as thyroid stimulators in this condition. 64 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Correlation between second trimester beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels and pregnancy outcome in high risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Women with bad obstetric history and unexplained elevation of serum beta hCG during second trimester are at an increased risk for PIH and IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2358-2361

  15. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch Tadhg; O'Toole Daniel; Maharaj Chrisen H; Carney John; Jarman James; Higgins Brendan D; Morrison John J; Laffey John G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms ...

  16. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (estrus not detected until 8 mo of age, i.e. delayed puberty) is the major reason for culling about 30% of the total number of gilts selected for reproduction at the large breeding farm units in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). It is important to determine whether...

  17. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...... seminiferous tubule function. It is not known if inhibin B can be used to demonstrate early damage of seminiferous tubules in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism....

  18. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Figueiredo; Roman Paiva; Luiz Ernandes Kozicki; Fernanda Kaercher; Romildo Romualdo Weiss; Ivo Walter dos Santos; Priscilla Ricabone Muradas

    2011-01-01

    The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm) and swollen ut...

  19. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG (p<0.05.The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.

  20. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Demetriou; Abu-Amero, S.; A. C. Thomas; Ishida, M; AGGARWAL, R.; Al-Olabi, L.; Leon, L. J.; Stafford, J. L.; Syngelaki, A; Peebles, D.; Nicolaides, K. H.; Regan, L; Stanier, P; Moore, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. Objective The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of e...

  1. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGβ and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGβ and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... intervals between sampling. From our data that showed high correlation of hCGβ and PAPP-A in the first and second sample, we found no reason to recommend retesting. However, new studies should clarify whether PAPP-A should be collected early, and hCGβ late, in the first trimester of pregnancy....

  2. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGß and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGß and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... intervals between sampling. From our data that showed high correlation of hCGß and PAPP-A in the first and second sample, we found no reason to recommend retesting. However, new studies should clarify whether PAPP-A should be collected early, and hCGß late, in the first trimester of pregnancy....

  3. High-resolution Elemental Mapping of Human Placental Chorionic Villi Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, Tracy; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Howard, Louisa; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Ornvold, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The placenta is the organ that mediates transport of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microanalysis is a tool for imaging the distribution and quantity of elements in biological tissue, which can be used to study metal transport across biological membranes. Our aims were to pilot placental biopsy specimen preparation techniques that could be integrated into an ongoing epidemiology birth cohort study without harming rates of sample acquisition. We studied the effects of fixative (formalin or glutaraldehyde) and storage duration (30 days or immediate processing) on metal distribution and abundance and investigated a thaw-fixation protocol for archived specimens stored at -80 A degrees C. We measured fixative elemental composition with and without a placental biopsy via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify fixative-induced elemental changes. Formalin-fixed specimens showed hemolysis of erythrocytes. The glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution in HEPES buffer (GTA-HEPES) had superior anatomical preservation, avoided hemolysis, and minimized elemental loss, although some cross-linking of exogenous Zn was evident. Elemental loss from tissue stored in fixative for 1 month showed variable losses (a parts per thousand 40 % with GTA-HEPES), suggesting storage duration be controlled for. Thawing of tissue held at -80 A degrees C in a GTA-HEPES solution provided high-quality visual images and elemental images

  4. Placental-Derived Mesenchyme Influences Chorionic Gonadotropin and Progesterone Secretion of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Trophoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Giakoumopoulos, Maria; Siegfried, Leah M.; Dambaeva, Svetlana V.; Garthwaite, Mark A.; Glennon, M. Clay; Golos, Thaddeus G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of early placental development in humans are difficult because of limitations on experimental material availability from the perimplantation period. We used a coculture system to determine the effects of various effector cell types on trophoblast differentiation. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing H1 human embryonic stem cells were used in co-suspension with human term placental fibroblasts (TPFs) and dermal fibroblasts (CI2F) to form combination embryoid bodies (EBs...

  5. Medico-legal and ethical approach to the legal interruption of pregnancy after aspiration biopsy of the chorionic villi and early amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, B; Krstic, A; Popovic, D; Cvejic-Jancic, O

    1988-01-01

    According to article 191 of the 1974 Yugoslavian Constitution, men have the right to decide freely on the birth of a child. According to the Law of conditions and proceedings for permitting abortion (1978), pregnant women are allowed to make the decision to abort freely up to the 10th week of pregnancy. Between the 10th and 20th week there are medical, eugenic, and moral indications for abortion; medical indication being disease or a high risk to the other of the mother; eugenic indications being heredity deformities in the fetus or heavy abnormalities; and moral indications being pregnancies caused by the commission of a crime like rape or incest. In the region of Vojvodina, population 2 million, there were 25,000 live births and twice as many abortions. The traditions of Yugoslavia are that fetuses have a right to life including a high quality of life free from disease and genetic abnormalities. Doctors are relied upon to take the greatest responsibility in terms of doing the ethical things for a pregnant woman and the fetus. Modern medical technology allows doctors and patients to have ever greater amounts of information so that an informed decision can be made about the health and well being of the mother and the fetus. PMID:2979476

  6. Pig endometrium expresses the polyol pathway enzymes necessary to convert glucose to fructose prior to implantation with a shift to chorion expression post-implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose and fructose are abundant hexose sugars in pig conceptuses (embryo/fetus and associated placenta). While glucose is mostly catabolized for energy, in vitro studies implicate fructose as a substrate for the biosynthesis of glycoaminoglycans, phospholipids, and nucleic acids as well as a signa...

  7. Use of human chorionic gonadtropin and alpha-fetoprotein radioimmunoassays: specificity and apparent half-life determination after delivery and in patients with germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specificity of commercially available hCG and hCG-β antibodies (anti-hCG-β from N.I.A.M.D.D. (SB6), Serono (S), Biosigma (B), Union Carbide (UC) (I.R.E.) and anti-hCG from Union Carbide) were compared. Using 125I-hCG (CR 115), the crossreactivity with LH (LER 960) was 5.5% for SB6, 0.25% for S and 0.3% for B. In the homologous hCG system UC, crossreactivity was 0.06% with hCG-β and 1.2% with LH, in the hCG-β system UC, it was 2.2% with hCG and 0.01% with LH. Parallel standard curves for hCG, the 2nd I.R.P. hCG and hCG-β were found exclusively with the 125I-hCG, anti-hCG-β system S. Consequently accurate estimates of the total hCG or hCG-β content in serum and standardization with the 2nd I.R.P. is possible. This system is the most useful for clinical purposes. The serum half-life of hCG was calculated in 10 pregnant women after delivery and was found to be 10 to 34h. AFP half-life time, determined by the double antibody radioimmunoassay was 4.0+-1.8 (+- SD) days in pregnant women after delivery (n=60) and 3.8+-0.9 days in neonates during the first 16 days of life (n=26). Altogether, apparent half-life determinations were carried out in 29 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours. The results indicate that half-life determinations of hCG and AFP may have a predictive value with respect to the monitoring of therapy. (Auth.)

  8. The impact of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) on growth and food conversion efficiency in Royal Danio, Barilius bakeri Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Jomol; Natarajan, P

    2016-03-01

    In aquaculture, growth hormones attract many researchers as they play a key role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. In this study, we observed the influence of hCG on growth in Barilius bakeri, a common ornamental fish endemic to the Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Juveniles of B. bakeri 2.19 ± 0.92 g were selected and stocked in the experimental tanks of size 90 x 45 x 45 cm. Water quality parameters were examined periodically and were maintained under tolerable limits. The feeds were formulated at 40% protein level. Different levels of hCG i.e. @ 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 ppm were tested for both short term and long term. Fishes were fed with experimental diets twice daily at the rate of 5% body weight. Fishes were examined fortnightly and their length and weight documented. Their gross body compositions were also analyzed. The results of the study were subjected to ANOVA using statistical package SPSS version 10.1. Feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG showed the best result in providing percentage gain in length, weight and SGR. The FCE, FAE, PER and protein digestibility values were highest in fishes given feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG. PMID:27145636

  9. Serum insulin-like factor 3 is highly correlated with intratesticular testosterone in normal men with acute, experimental gonadotropin deficiency stimulated with low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Mara Y; Lin, Kat; Bay, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    To study the potential role for using serum biomarkers, including insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, antimüllerian hormone, and inhibin B, as correlates of intratesticular T (IT-T) concentrations in men....

  10. Serum biomarkers for predicting pregnancy outcome in women undergoing IVF: human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, and inhibin A level at 11 days post-ET

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Shin, Mi Sun; Yi, Gwang; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum hCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels measured at 11 days post-ET for predicting pregnancy outcome in women participating in IVF. Methods Between May 2005 and April 2008, sera were obtained from 70 infertile women who underwent IVF-ET at 11 days post-ET and stored. HCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels were measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The predictive accuracy of hCG, progesterone, ...

  11. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G;

    2007-01-01

    . PATIENT(S): Patients under observation previously had been recruited into two concurrently performed, independent, randomized controlled trials (comparing hCG with GnRH-agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist multiple-dose protocols in normal responder patients) encompassing a......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...... ET was 18.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-36.7) and 30.0% (95% CI, 14.5-51.9) after hCG and GnRH-agonist triggering, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per patient starting a frozen-embryo replacement cycle was 16.1% (95% CI, 7.1-32.6) and 26.1% (95% CI, 12.5-46.5) for hCG and Gn...

  12. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING ~(32)P-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Genetic effects of ultrasound on fetus havebeen extensively studied since ultrasonograph waswidely appliedin obstetric practice.In recent years,there have been reports onin vivomolecular geneticeffects of diagnostic ultrasound[1-4].In vitroexperi-ments have found that single-stranded breaks(ssbs)and double-stranded breaks(dsbs)in DNA are themain indices for DNA lesions induced by ultra-sound[5].But,no reports on whether ultrasound cancausein vivossbs and dsbs in DNAare available.Tofurther explore the potent...

  13. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne; Jørgen Secher, Niels

    2013-01-01

    University Hospitals (2001-09). The association between delivery interval and adverse outcome parameters were compared for monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) twins by multiple linear regression. Predictors were studied by logistic regression. Results: There were 554 twin pairs: 57 MC and 485 DC. We...

  14. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote axon survival in a rat model of optic nerve crush injury

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, SOKJOONG; RHO, SEUNGSOO; KIM, GIJIN; Kim, So-Ra; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; KANG, MYUNGSEO; Lew, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underly...

  15. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (tR) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG R = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  16. Twin births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Elise; Oldenburg, Anna; Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann; Rasmussen, Steen; Skibsted, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    To assess morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancy deliveries, according to chorionicity and mode of delivery.......To assess morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancy deliveries, according to chorionicity and mode of delivery....

  17. 人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)对杂交黄牛、水牛受胎率的影响%Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) on Pregnancy Rate in Hybrid Yellow Cattle and Water Buffalos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴师; 李华慧; 覃现才; 宾娟容

    2011-01-01

    近年来,广西象州县的多个牛人工授精品改点的受胎率,黄牛为33%~51%,水牛为35%~55%,母牛的受胎率仍有较大的提升空间.该试验利用HCG能够促进母牛卵泡发育和排卵这一特性,在母牛发情时肌肉注射HCG后进行输精,并观察其对母牛受胎率的影响,以及是否能够提高牛人工授精的效果.试验结果表明,使用HCG能够明显提高牛人工授精的受胎率,同时也提高了工作效率.

  18. Levels of the epidermal growth factor-like peptide amphiregulin in follicular fluid reflect the mode of triggering ovulation: a comparison between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist and urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Westergaard, Lars Grabow; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis;

    2011-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation triggered with either urinary hCG or GnRH agonist (GnRH-a). Controls: 15 FF samples from small antral follicles (3-9 mm) and 12 FF samples from natural cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular fluid concentration of AR, P(4), E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B...

  19. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Ejdrup Bredkjaer, Helle; Westergaard, Lars Grabow;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...

  20. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T B; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J;

    1999-01-01

    days (3.6-6.8 days), whereas four out of five patients not achieving long-term remission had half-lives shorter than 3 days. After the third treatment cycle, eight patients who achieved long-term remission had hCG half-lives longer than 3 days (7.4-17.0 days). In these patients, the plasma...... disappearance of [125I]hCG was equivalent to that of hCG. Thus, the slow decline of hCG represented a slow plasma disappearance rather than a hCG production from vital tumour cells and could, consequently, not be used to select patients for additional or intensified chemotherapy. The concept of a fixed half...

  1. Designing a Long Acting Erythropoietin by Fusing Three Carboxyl-Terminal Peptides of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β Subunit to the N-Terminal and C-Terminal Coding Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analog of EPO was designed by fusing one and two CTPs to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of EPO (EPO-(CTP3, respectively. This analog was expressed and secreted efficiently in CHO cells. The in vitro test shows that the activity of EPO-(CTP3 in TFI-1 cell proliferation assay is similar to that of EPO-WT and commercial rHEPO. However, in vivo studies indicated that treatment once a week with EPO-(CTP3 (15 μg/kg dramatically increased (~8 folds haematocrit as it was compared to rHuEPO. Moreover, it was found that EPO-(CTP3 is more effective than rHuEPO and Aranesp in increasing reticulocyte number in mice blood. The detected circulatory half-lives of rHuEPO, Aranesp, and EPO-(CTP3 following IV injection of 20 IU were 4.4, 10.8, and 13.1 h, respectively. These data established the rational for using this chimera as a long-acting EPO analog in clinics. The therapeutic efficacy of EPO-CTP analog needs to be established in higher animals and in human clinical trials.

  2. Regulation of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase expression and activity in the hypophysectomized rat ovary: Interactions between the stimulatory effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and the luteolytic effect of prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD) catalyzes an obligatory step in the conversion of pregnenolone and other 5-ene-3 beta-hydroxysteroids into progesterone as well as precursors of all androgens and estrogens in the ovary. Since 3 beta-HSD is likely to be an important target for regulation by pituitary hormones, we have studied the effect of chronic treatment with LH (hCG), FSH, and PRL on ovarian 3 beta-HSD expression and activity in hypophysectomized adult female rats. Human CG (hCG) [10 IU, twice a day (bid)], ovine FSH (0.5 microgram, bid), and ovine PRL (1 mg, bid) were administered, singly or in combination, for a period of 10 days starting 15 days after hypophysectomy. In hypophysectomized rats, PRL exerted a potent inhibitory effect on all the parameters studied. In fact, PRL caused a 81% decrease in ovarian 3 beta-HSD mRNA content accompanied by a similar decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity and protein levels. In addition, ovarian weight decreased by 40% whereas serum progesterone fell dramatically from 1.92 nmol/liter to undetectable levels after treatment with PRL. Whereas hCG alone had only slight stimulatory effects on 3 beta-HSD mRNA, protein content and activity levels, treatment with the gonadotropin partially or completely reversed the potent inhibitory effects of oPRL on all the parameters measured. FSH, on the other hand, had no significant effect on 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. In situ hybridization experiments using the 35S-labeled rat ovary 3 beta-HSD cDNA probe show that the inhibitory effect of PRL is exerted primarily on luteal cell 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. On the other hand, it can be seen that hCG stimulates 3 beta-HSD mRNA accumulation in interstitial cells

  3. Effect of intrauterine insemination after injecting human chorionic gonadotropin at different times on pregnancy rate%注射hCG后不同时间行宫腔内人工受精对妊娠率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江梅; 靳镭; 徐婕; 聂睿; 彭芳昕

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨注射hCG后不同时间行宫腔内人工受精(Intrauterine insemination,IUI)对妊娠率的影响.方法:回顾性分析同济医院生殖中心472对夫妇实施IUI治疗的561个周期.根据注射hCG后行IUI的不同时间分为2组:hCG后24 hIUI组和36 h IUI组,比较两组IUI后的排卵时间及其对妊娠率的影响.结果:hCG后24 h IUI 359个周期和hCG后36 h IUI 202个周期的妊娠率分别为10.86%、10.89%,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义;两组24 h内排卵的344个周期妊娠率为13.08%,明显高于24 h内未排卵的217个周期妊娠串7.37%,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义.结论:影响IUI结局的因素并非注射hCG后IUI的时间,而是IUI后的排卵时间,距排卵时间越近妊娠率越高.阴道B超联合尿LH半定量试纸检测可以较准确预测排卵时间,有利于提高其周期妊娠率.

  4. Association of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on antral follicle count and oocyte production in Holstein and Tabapuã heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévea de Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of rbST and eCG prior to ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (OPU improves oocyte yield and quality in Tabapuã and Holstein heifers. The study was conducted in two phases, 20 days apart, in a change-over design. The dominant follicle was ablated two days (D-2 before two treatments: stimulation (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, 500 mg of rbST (Boostin® on D0 and 500 IU of eCG (Folligon on D2; and control (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, in which heifers received injections of the excipient. Heifers were aspirated on D4. Oocytes were subjected to a well established commercial in vitro embryo production protocol (Vitrogen® and embryos were evaluated seven days after fertilization. There was an effect from the interaction of treatment and breed, so that hormonal stimulation increased antral follicle count (2-8 mm in Tabapuã (29.9±2.6 to 41.4±2.6, but not in Holstein heifers (14.4±2.6 to 15.5±2.6. Tabapuã heifers had higher mean antral follicle count than Holsteins (35.6±1.8 vs. 15.0±2.1. The number of viable oocytes was not increased by stimulation in Tabapuã (from 4.7±1.0 to 5.2±1.1 in control and simulation, respectively or in Holstein heifers (1.3±1.9 to 2.0±1.6 in control and simulation, respectively. There was no difference in the percentage of heifers with more than five viable oocytes in the group treated (33 vs 27%. The number of blastocysts was not affected by treatment (1.75 vs. 1.00 in hormonal stimulation and control, respectively. The increase in antral follicle count in the stimulated Tabapuã heifers did not reflect upon oocyte yield. The differential breed response to the hormonal treatment underscores the need for additional tests, especially for the Holstein breed, in order to enhance OPU efficiency.

  5. La biopsia de vellosidades coriónicas como técnica de diagnóstico prenatal The biopsy of chorionic villi as a prenatal diagnostic technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Gloria Díaz Martínez; Manuela de la C. Valdés Abreu; Aníbal Dalmau Díaz

    1996-01-01

    Se realiza una revisión actualizada sobre la técnica de biopsia de vellosidades coriónicas a partir de la literatura aparecida en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, y de la Literatura Cubana de Medicina desde 1989 hasta 1994. Se dan a conocer los aspectos históricos relacionados con la técnica de biopsia de vellosidades coriónicas y las técnicas relacionadas con su aplicación. Se concluye que a pesar de ser una técnica invasiva, de alto costo y riesgo obstétrico, es útil en el diagnóstico de...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Leydig cell hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormones that control male sexual development and reproduction. In females, luteinizing hormone triggers the release of egg cells from the ovary (ovulation). Chorionic gonadotropin is produced ...

  7. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  8. Complicações materno-fetais da biópsia de vilo corial: experiência de um centro especializado do Nordeste do Brasil Fetal and maternal complications of chorionic villus sampling: results from a specialized center in the Northeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Vieira Lopes; Kleber Pimentel; Alessandro de Moura Almeida; Eduardo Costa Matos; Maria Betânia Pereira Toralles

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar complicações maternas e fetais após realização de biópsia de vilo corial (BVC) para diagnóstico pré-natal de alterações genéticas, na cidade de Salvador (BA). MÉTODOS: série de 958 gestantes de risco para cromossomopatias, submetidas à BVC realizada entre a nona e a 24ª semanas de gestação, por via transabdominal, utilizando agulha espinhal 18G 3½, guiada por ultra-sonografia, entre 1990 e 2006. As variáveis para a análise de complicações imediatas foram cólicas uterinas, he...

  9. Efecto de diferentes dosis de gonadotrofina coriónica equina sobre la respuesta reproductiva de hembras ovinas con un tratamiento para inducción de celos Effect of different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on reproductive performance in sheep with oestrus induction treatment cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, R.; Teruel, M.; J Cabodevila; S Callejas

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de eCG en un tratamiento para inducción de celos en borregas (Ensayo 1) y ovejas (Ensayo 2) (Frisona x Corriedale) en anestro estacional sobre variables reproductivas. Se utilizaron esponjas intravaginales con 60 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona por 10 días y al retiro de las mismas se administraron 300 UI (grupo G300) ó 500 UI (grupo G500) de eCG. El porcentaje de celo no fue diferente entre grupos (Ensayo 1 = 100%; E...

  10. Gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina: purificação, caracterização e resposta ovariana em ovinos e suínos Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: purification, characterization and ovarian activity in ewes and gilts

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo; João Carlos Deschamps; Vilceu Bordignon; Cláudio Alves Pimentel; José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes

    1995-01-01

    A gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG) foi purificada e caracterizada com respeito ao grau de pureza e atividade biológica. A pureza de quatro preparações foi determinada por eletroforese e a atividade biológica pelo incremento do peso ovariano de ratas imaturas (40 - 50g) e pela indução de ovulação em ovelhas e leitoas. A análise eletroforética revelou a presença de três bandas polipeptídicas. A atividade biológica media foi de 313 UI/mg de proteína. Sessenta e cinco (65) ovelhas, fora da es...

  11. The effect of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor on the proliferation of human chorionic cells in vitro%表皮生长因子和成纤维细胞生长因子对绒毛细胞体外增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 赵坤; 谢梅青; 谢建生; 姚吉龙; 古艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective; To study the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells. Methods: 12 samples of human first trimester villus tissue and 16 samples villus tissue of reappear a-bortion were used. The confluent cells were digested, cultured with different concentrations of EGF, FGF, EGF + FGF or for 24, 48 and 72h. The proliferation and apoptosis of cells were detected by MTT method and TUNEL staining. Results: The speed of cell growth was increased with the concentration of 10. Ong/ml EGF and FGF ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion; EGF or FGF can control the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells. EGF or FGF significantly promoted the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells at a definite concentration. The cooperation of EGF and FGF exhibits the best result.%目的 探讨表皮生长因子(EGF),成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF),对人绒毛滋养层细胞体外生长的调控作用.方法 对12例人早孕绒毛离体组织及16例复发性流产绒毛进行体外分离培养,细胞汇合后消化,做细胞增殖试验,在相同的生长期加入EGF,FGF,EGF+FGF培养24,48,72h,用MTT法、DNA切口末端标记法测定EGF,FCF对2组绒毛滋养层细胞的作用.结果 10.0ng/ml EGF及FGF刺激细胞生长,EGF +FGF刺激细胞生长的作用最强,10.0ng/ml EGF,FCF不刺激细胞凋亡,两组结果具有一致性,MTT法、DNA切口末端标记法结果一致.结论 人滋养层细胞的生长受到EGF,FGF的调控,EGF及FGF具有促进细胞增殖作用;EGF,FGF联合应用具有最佳的协同效应.

  12. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; Analise de luteotrofina humana e de gonadotrofina corionica humana, recombinante e natural, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia em fase reversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de

    2009-07-01

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t{sub R}) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG < alpha-hLH < hCG < hLH < -beta-hCG < beta-hLH. With basis on these conditions, a total of eleven preparations were studied: the International Standard of recombinant hLH-WHO 96/602, a commercial recombinant and two highly purified pituitary hLH, a recombinant and two urinary hCG preparations and four heterogeneous urinary products containing hLH + hFSH. All hLH preparations showed very similar retention times for the main peak (t{sub R} = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  13. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of hCG. Ovulation, follicular regression and luteinization were observed in the two treatments animals, and one new follicular wave emerged within two to three days after the hormonal treatments. Small size corpus luteum and progesterone concentrations under 1ng/mL showed lower luteal activity.

  14. Efecto de diferentes dosis de gonadotrofina coriónica equina sobre la respuesta reproductiva de hembras ovinas con un tratamiento para inducción de celos Effect of different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on reproductive performance in sheep with oestrus induction treatment cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Catalano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de eCG en un tratamiento para inducción de celos en borregas (Ensayo 1 y ovejas (Ensayo 2 (Frisona x Corriedale en anestro estacional sobre variables reproductivas. Se utilizaron esponjas intravaginales con 60 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona por 10 días y al retiro de las mismas se administraron 300 UI (grupo G300 ó 500 UI (grupo G500 de eCG. El porcentaje de celo no fue diferente entre grupos (Ensayo 1 = 100%; Ensayo 2 = 81,2%. En el Ensayo 1 se observó una tendencia a diferir en el porcentaje de borregas que ovularon (G300 = 50,0%; G500= 90,0%. P=0,06 y una diferencia significativa en el porcentaje de preñez (G300 = 20,0%; G500 = 70,0%. PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of seasonally anoestrus hoggets (Trial 1 and ewes (Trial 2 (Frisona x Corriedale treated with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxiprogesterone acetate during 10 days and different doses of eCG. At the end of treatment, 300 IU of eCG (group G300 or 500 IU of eCG (group G500 were injected intramuscularly. Oestrus rate was not different between groups (Trial 1= 100%; Trial 2= 81.2%; P>0.05. In the trial 1, the percentage of hoggets that ovulated tended to differ between groups (G300= 50.0%; G500= 90.0%; P=0.06 and the pregnancy rate was signifi cant different (G300= 20.0%; G500= 70.0%; P<0.05. In the trial 2, the pregnancy and the fertility rates were signifi cant different between groups G300 and G500 (6.3 and 9.1 vs 56.3 and 60.0% respectively; P<0.05. It was concluded that the use of 300 UI of eCG in a treatment of oestrus induction of seasonally anoestrus hoggets and ewes affect negatively the reproductive performance compared with the use of 500 UI of eCG.

  15. 激光捕获显微切割技术诊断石蜡切片中早期胚胎成分与亲权关系的研究%Separation of chorionic villi from paraffin-embedded early abortion materials and confirmation of parent-child relationship by laser capture microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艮平; 李彩霞; 郝建文; 万立华; 胡兰; 韩俊平; 杨帆

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过激光捕获显微切割技术捕获石蜡切片中胚胎绒毛细胞,进行低体积扩增,实现胚胎个体分型,证实亲子关系.方法 通过激光捕获显微技术捕获石蜡切片上胚胎绒毛细胞,设置20、30、40个细胞数目组,分别捕获不同数目绒毛细胞,利用低体积扩增仪进行1.5μl体系PCR扩增,采用3130遗传分析仪得出胚胎个体分型图谱,并比较各细胞数目组胚胎个体识别的检出率、等位基因丢失率和非特异性扩增情况.最后进行实际案例应用.结果 捕获20个胚胎绒毛细胞即可获得胚胎个体分型,40个细胞数目组的胚胎分型检出率最高,等位基因丢失率和非特异性扩增率最低.20个细胞数目反之.结论 激光捕获显微切割技术结合低体积扩增技术可应用于石蜡切片,实现胚胎与母体成分的精确分离并确证亲权关系.%Objective It remains difficult to genotype the mixture of maternal and embryo from early abortion tissues to investigate forensic evidence and confirm parent-child relationship. Our study was aimed to confirm the parent-child relationship by using laser capture microdissection ( LCM) to capture the embryonic villi cells in paraffin-embedded section for genotyping embryonic individual via ultralow volume PCR amplification. Methods Embryonic villi cells in the paraffin sections was captured by LCM technology. With the setting of cell numbers at 20, 30 and 40 cells as a group, villus cells of different cell numbers were captured and subjected to PCR amplification at low volume of 1. 5 μl by using 3130 Genetic Analysis instrument to yield embryonic genotyping maps. The artificial alleles, detection rate and allelic dropout rate of each group were compared. The technology was also applied on an actual case. Results Embryonic villi cells in the paraffin sections were captured by LCM technology. With the setting of cell numbers at 20, 30 and 40 cells for group, villus cells of different cell numbers were captured and subjected to PCR amplification at low volume of 1. 5 jμ1, and embryonic genotyping maps were obtained. The rate of embryo genotyping in the group of 40 cells was the highest whereas the rate of allele loss and non-specific amplification was the lowest. Vise versa for the group of 20 cells. Conclusion LCM combined with the low volume amplification technique can be applied to paraffin-embedded tissue sections to achieve accurate separation of the embryo and maternal components and obtain conclusive evidence for parental rights.

  16. Detection of chromosome aneuploidy and copy number variation in abortion fetus or chorionic villi using NGS technology%NGS技术检测自然流产胚胎或绒毛染色体非整倍体及拷贝数变异的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳; 毕川; 高雅; 季刚; 汪凌云; 张红云; 李云; 王军; 王威

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索新一代测序技术(NGS)在检测自然流产胚胎或绒毛组织染色体非整倍体和拷贝数变异(CNV)应用中的价值.方法 选择20例自然流产患者的绒毛进行染色体核型分析,同时应用NGS技术进行染色体非整倍体和拷贝数变异的检测,并以染色体核型分析结果为“金标准”进行NGS方法的评估.后于201 3年共收集1 074例自然流产胚胎或绒毛组织,应用NGS技术完成染色体非整倍体和CNV的检测,并对检测结果进行分析.结果 20例自然流产样本的NGS结果与核型分析结果对比,检测灵敏度和特异性均为100%.临床检测的1 074例流产组织样本中,42例样本DNA不符合质控标准,实际完成检测1032例.1 032例组织样本中阳性445例(43.12%),其中非整倍体369例(82.92%),以16、X、22、21、15、1 8号染色体高发;CNV共76例(17.08%),阳性样本集中发生在8-12w.阴性587例(56.88%).根据孕妇年龄将样本分为三组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 NGS技术用于检测流产组织的非整倍体和拷贝数变异具有较高的灵敏度和特异性,是适用于临床的有效检测方法.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and luteinizing hormone triggers these cells to produce androgens. Androgens, including testosterone, are the hormones that control male ... chorionic gonadotropin. In males, the overactive receptor causes excess production of testosterone, which triggers male sexual development ...

  18. Learning about Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thalassemia, which affects mainly individuals of Southeast Asian, Chinese and Filipino ancestry, results in fetal or newborn ... can be done around the 11th week of pregnancy using chorionic villi sampling (CVS). This involves removing ...

  19. Anti-influenza activity in the Indian seaweeds - A preliminary investigation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Rodrigues, R.; Kotnala, S.

    Antiviral activity in four commercially important seaweeds namely; Spatoglossum asperum J. Ag., Padina tetrastromatica Hauck, Sargassum tenerrimum J. Ag. and Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kuetz was studied on fragments of chorion...

  20. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proteins called tumor markers , such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). When these tumor ... that there is a testicular tumor. Rises in AFP or HCG can also help doctors tell which ...

  1. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor marker ... places in the body, and blood levels of AFP, β-hCG, and LDH). Type of cancer. Size ...

  2. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases blood levels of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). Teratoma: Teratomas are germ cell tumors with areas that, ... There are 3 main types of teratomas: Mature teratomas are tumors formed by cells similar to cells ...

  3. Contribution à l’étude de l’utilisation répétée de la gonadotrophine chorionique équine (eCG) dans le contrôle de la reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Drion, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Various molecules including steroids, prostaglandins, peptides and glycoproteins are largely used in reproduction programs in domestic mammals. Treatments including pituitary gonadotrophins (Follitropin —FSH-, Lutropin —LH-, human menopausal Gonadotrophin —hMG-) and placental gonadotrophins (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin —hCG-, equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin —eCG- also called Pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin —PMSG-) are used for a long time to treat infertility or as a way to better control ...

  4. Computational placental pathology: using placental geometry to assess placental function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jenny (Jiazhen)

    2009-01-01

    Placental pathologists diagnose disease based on examining the placenta. It is hypothesized that poor blood vessel coverage may be detrimental to fetal development and may lead to low birth weight. In this project, geometrical measures of the placental structure are computed based on the total area of vessels and the vessel coverage on an important part of the placenta known as the chorionic plate. Vessel coverage is measured by the average of the distance from every point on the chorionic pl...

  5. Progestin Exposure Before Gonadotropin Stimulation Improves Embryo Development after In Vitro Fertilization in the Domestic Cat1

    OpenAIRE

    Pelican, Katharine M.; Spindler, Rebecca E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary A.; Howard, JoGayle

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of progestin priming and ovarian quiescence on response to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation in the cat. Because a subpopulation of cats routinely ovulated spontaneously, there also was the opportunity to examine the ovary's reaction to the added impact of endogenously secreted progestagen. Queens were given 1) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) only (control; n = 9 cats), 2) GnRH antagonist (antide) injections fo...

  6. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) f...

  7. GETDB: 104433 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 104433 Link to Original y[*] w[*] P{GawB}NP3263 / FM7c 6E4 Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 104433 CG ... ipe in stg 15 ubiquitous since L1. also in chorion shell . adepitherial cells and ring in disc, wing pouch, ... 15 Larval GFP ubiquitous since L1. also in chorion shell . Larval X-gal adepitherial cells and ring in disc, ...

  8. Endocrine effects of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH throughout controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF: a dose–response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Leif; Smitz, J; Loft, A; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF.......To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF....

  9. A modest but significant effect of CGB5 gene promoter polymorphisms in modulating the risk of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Nagirnaja, Liina;

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland.......To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland....

  10. Uso da gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina em receptoras de embriões para avaliar o incremento da progesterona endógena no dia da inovulação e sua correlação com a taxa de prenhez Use of equine chorionic gonadotrophin in heifers embryo receptors to evaluate the increment of endogenous progesterone in the inovulation day in relation to pregnancy rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martins Rodrigues; Elias Nunes Martins; Alencariano José da Silva Falcão; Gentil Vanini de Moraes; Egon José Fuck; Rejane Machado Cardozo; Ciro Moraes Barros

    2002-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar a influência da administração de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG) em receptoras de embrião na formação de corpos lúteos acessórios e a correlação com o índice de prenhez. Utilizaram-se 64 novilhas de 18 a 30 meses de idade, mestiças Simental, com peso médio de 400 kg, as quais foram avaliadas por palpação retal, entre os dias 7 e 12 após a manifestação do cio, considerado como cio base. Neste intervalo de 7 a 12 dias após o cio, defi...

  11. Uso da gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina em receptoras de embriões para avaliar o incremento da progesterona endógena no dia da inovulação e sua correlação com a taxa de prenhez Use of equine chorionic gonadotrophin in heifers embryo receptors to evaluate the increment of endogenous progesterone in the inovulation day in relation to pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martins Rodrigues

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar a influência da administração de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG em receptoras de embrião na formação de corpos lúteos acessórios e a correlação com o índice de prenhez. Utilizaram-se 64 novilhas de 18 a 30 meses de idade, mestiças Simental, com peso médio de 400 kg, as quais foram avaliadas por palpação retal, entre os dias 7 e 12 após a manifestação do cio, considerado como cio base. Neste intervalo de 7 a 12 dias após o cio, definido como dia zero (D0, os animais que se encontravam com corpo lúteo fisiológico foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em 4 tratamentos, sendo que os animais do tratamento 1 (controle, n=21, receberam solução fisiológica, via intramuscular (IM; no tratamento 2 (n=14 receberam 200 UI de eCG (FOLLIGON® - Intervet, via IM; no tratamento 3 (n=16, receberam 400 UI de eCG, via IM; e no tratamento 4 (n=13, receberam 600 UI de eCG, via IM. Transcorridos 2 dias (D2 da aplicação do eCG, administrou-se 2 mL de prostaglandina F2 alfa (PROSOLVIN® - Intervet por animal. Em seguida, observou-se a manifestação de cio e, 7 dias após a sua detecção, avaliou-se os animais, por ultrassonografia, para seleção das fêmeas aptas a receber os embriões congelados. Vinte e três dias após a inovulação, procedeu-se ao diagnóstico de prenhez por ultrassonografia. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 para a taxa de prenhez. Concluiu-se que o uso de eCG em receptoras de embrião congelado não melhorou os índices de aproveitamento das receptoras nem a taxa de prenhez.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (eCG administration in embryo receptors on the formation of accessory corpus luteum and correlation with the pregnancy rate. Sixty-four beef cattle heifers -18 to 30 months old were used, ½ Simental, with 400 kg of average live weight. The heifers were evaluated through rectal palpation between days 7 to 12 after heat detection, considered as heat base. In this interval from 7 to 12 days after the heat, defined as zero day (D0, the animals identified with physiological corpus luteum were divided in four treatments. The animals in treatment 1 (control, n=21 received physiologic solution intramuscle (IM; in treatment 2 (n=16 received 200 IU of eCG (FOLLIGON - Intervet, IM; in treatment 3 (n=14 received 400 IU of eCG IM; and in treatment 4 (n=13 received 600 IU of eCG IM. Two days after (D2 eCG application all the animals received 2.0 mL of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PROSOLVIN - Intervet. Following, the animals' heat manifestation was observed, and, seven days after heat detection, the animals were evaluated for ultrasonography to select females able to receive frozen embryos. Twenty-three days after inovulation, the pregnancy diagnostic was detected through ultrasonography. There was no statistic difference (p > 0.05 for pregnancy rate. These results show that eCG used in receptors of frozen embryos neither improved the receptors' performance rate, nor the pregnancy rate.

  12. Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanya, Andrew Ndegwa; Dimova, Ivanka; Koller, Tobias; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration PMID:27046154

  13. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  14. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  15. Release of LHRH-activity from human fetal membranes upon exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin and isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisner, A.M.; Poisner, R.; Becca, C.R.; Conn, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that superfused chorion laeve (fetal membranes) release LHRH-like immunoreactivity upon exposure to angiotensin II. They have now studied the effects of other agonists on the release of LHRH-activity and something of its chemical nature. Fetal membranes were obtained from placentas delivered by cesarean section, the amnion stripped from the chorion, and the chorion superfused in an Amicon thin-channel device with the maternal surface facing up. The whole device was submerged in a 37 C water bath and perfused with a modified Locke's solution at 0.4 - 1.0 ml/min. LHRH-activity was measured by radioimmunoassay using three different antisera against LHRH. The release of LHRH-activity was stimulated by 6-10 min exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin, and isoproterenol. Extracts of chorion were studied using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and ultrafiltration with Amicon PM-10 filters. The bulk of the LHRH-activity appeared as a higher molecular weight form (about 70,000 daltons). Since oxytocin has been reported to release PGE/sub 2/ from chorion, it may release LHRH-activity by virtue of liberating endogenous PGE/sub 2/. The chemical nature of the LHRH-activity is presently under investigation.

  16. Impact of a new national screening policy for Down's syndrome in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Petersen, Olav Bjørn;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a screening strategy in the first trimester, introduced in Denmark during 2004-6, on the number of infants born with Down's syndrome and the number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses, and to determine detection and false positive rates in the...... newborn infants with Down's syndrome diagnosed prenatally and postnatally and number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses carried out. Secondary outcomes measured were number of women screened in 2005 and 2006, screen positive rate, and information on screening in 2005 and 2006 for infants with...... a postnatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome. RESULTS: The number of infants born with Down's syndrome decreased from 55-65 per year during 2000-4 to 31 in 2005 and 32 in 2006. The total number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses carried out decreased from 7524 in 2000 to 3510 in 2006. The...

  17. Impact of a new national screening policy for Down's syndrome in Denmark: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Petersen, O.B.; Sundberg, K.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a screening strategy in the first trimester, introduced in Denmark during 2004-6, on the number of infants born with Down's syndrome and the number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses, and to determine detection and false positive rates in the...... newborn infants with Down's syndrome diagnosed prenatally and postnatally and number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses carried out. Secondary outcomes measured were number of women screened in 2005 and 2006, screen positive rate, and information on screening in 2005 and 2006 for infants with...... a postnatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome. RESULTS: The number of infants born with Down's syndrome decreased from 55-65 per year during 2000-4 to 31 in 2005 and 32 in 2006. The total number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses carried out decreased from 7524 in 2000 to 3510 in 2006. The...

  18. Hypothetical role of prostaglandins in the onset of preterm labor after fetal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Francesco; Noia, Giuseppe; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    Preterm labor is one of the most important factors limiting the advancement of fetal surgery programs. While prostaglandins (PGs) have long been indicated as the key factor in the initiation of labor in humans, there is significant evidence showing that the chorionic membrane acts as a powerful barrier between the decidua/myometrium and amniotic PGs during normal pregnancy. After either open or endoscopic fetal surgery the imperfect, non-hermetical closure of the chorion permits leakage of PGs from the amnionic sac, allowing them to reach the decidua and myometrium. The surgical wound in the chorionic barrier could be the major factor involved in preterm labor and delivery after human fetal surgery. PMID:17135752

  19. A re-assessment of biochemical marker distributions in T21 affected and unaffected twin pregnancies in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Tørring, Niels

    biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) in twin pregnancies relative to singleton pregnancies and establish improved screening procedure for chromosomal anomalies such as trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies. METHODS A total of 4843...... unaffected and 47 trisomy 21 affected twin pregnancies were included in the study. Chorionicity specific medians were generated for PAPP-A and free β-hCG from gestational age 8 to 14 weeks. Multiple of the median for each of the markers were calculated. Detection rates (DR) and false-positive rates (FPR....... Allowing for gestation and chorionicity, twin pregnancies affected with trisomy 21 had higher levels of free β-hCG and lower levels of PAPP-A. Adding biochemistry into the risk assessment increased the DR for fetal trisomy 21 in dizygotic twin pregnancies from 78% to 90%, and decreased the FPR from 8.0% to...

  20. Modern Technologies In Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnostics On Hospital Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kaushanskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research provides analysis of results of preoperative examination of 680 patients with ectopic pregnancy depending on the range of surgical treatment. It has been shown that in case of progressive ectopic pregnancy the diagnostic significance of concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, transvaginal examination and laparos-copy depends on the duration of pregnancy. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is 3-4 weeks monitoring of p chorionic gonadotropin in blood serum (99.5%, transvaginal examination (58% and laparoscopy (78.5% are more informative. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is more than 4 weeks there is a high diagnostic value of monitoring p-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (99.5%, transvaginal examination (68% and laparoscopy (99,5%. The research has proved that pregnancy period of 3-4 weeks is optimal for laparoscopy and other operations

  1. Antenatal MRI diagnosis of massive subchorionic hematoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Sharma, Raju; Jain, Tarun; Vashisht, Sushma

    2007-01-01

    Massive subchorionic hematoma is a large maternal blood clot, which separates the chorionic plate from the villous chorion [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. It is an uncommon condition associated with poor perinatal prognosis and intrauterine growth retardation [Tan WH, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 1997;76:381-383, Nishijima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2005;20:23-26]. Ultrasound may not be able to differentiate this condition from other placental abnormalities [Kojima K, et al: Fetal Diagn Ther 2001;16:57-60]. We report a case of massive subchorionic hematoma where the antenatal diagnosis was made on MRI. PMID:17652925

  2. The vanishing twin: morphologic and cytogenetic evaluation of an ultrasonographic phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Vejerslev, L O; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Twin pregnancy was observed by ultrasonographic examination in the 6th week of gestation. After singleton term delivery a thickening of the membranes opposite to the main placenta showed degenerated chorionic villi embedded between one layer of amnion and chorion; no fetal parts were observed....... Villus cells from both placentas were mainly diploid; 2 of 30 were tetraploid. However, 19 of 30 cells from membranes overlying the satellite placenta were tetraploid. Marker analysis was consistent with duplication of a normal conception diploid chromosome complement as the mechanism for tetraploidy...

  3. Are there characteristics of the false-negative cases from the first trimester combined screening programme for Down syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjær; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2014-01-01

    based on screening results of false-negative cases. Screening results from false-negative cases show that maternal age is lower, nuchal translucency smaller, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level higher, β-human chorionic gonadotropin level lower and crown-rump length bigger than among true...... false-negative cases tend toward the values of unaffected pregnancies with lower maternal age, smaller nuchal translucency, higher pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level, lower β-human chorionic gonadotropin level and bigger crown-rump length than among true positive cases....

  4. Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Jiang Wei; Da Xing; Jian-Jun Lu; Huai-Min Gu; Guo-Yong Wu; Ying Jin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the present study is to compare the optical properties of normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion in vitro at 476.5, 488, 496.5, 514.5 and 532 nm. We believe these differences in optical properties should help differential diagnosis of human colon tissues by using optical methods.METHODS: In vitro optical properties were investigated for four kinds of tissues: normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion. Tissue samples were taken from 13 human colons (13 adenomatous, 13 normal). From the normal human colons a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion), and from the adenomatous human bladders a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion). The measurements were performed using a double-integratingsphere setup and the optical properties were assessed from these measurements using the adding-doubling method that was considered reliable.RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were significant differences in the absorption coefficients and scattering coefficients between normal and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength,and there were also significant differences in the two optical parameters between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength. And there were large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength, there were also large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength.There were large differences in the value ranges of the absorption coefficients, scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa,and there

  5. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  6. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (S.); W. Visser (Willy); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J. Visser (Theo); M. Medici (Marco); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on refere

  7. Risk of fetal loss associated with invasive testing following combined first-trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, C B; Gerds, T A; Rode, L;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the risk of fetal loss associated with chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC) following combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) for Down syndrome. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study (Danish Fetal Medicine Database, 2008...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  9. The place of retroviruses in perinatal pathology (review of literature)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Review deals with HIV infection in pregnant women and mechanisms of vertical transmission of virus from mother to fetus. The role of placenta as defensive barrier is evaluated, as well as pathological changes in villous chorion, which can lead to disturbance of its function.

  10. Optimizing heterologous expression in Dictyostelium : importance of 5 ' codon adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, EB; van Ravestein, A; van Peij, NNME; Heikoop, JC; van Haastert, OJM; Verheijden, GF; Linskens, MHK; Heikoop, Judith C.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Verheijden, Gijs F.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of heterologous proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum presents unique research opportunities, such as the functional analysis of complex human glycoproteins after random mutagenesis, In one study, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human follicle stimulating hormone were expressed in D

  11. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... the art for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  12. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular dystrophy . Because amniocentesis can cause a miscarriage in about 1 out of 200 cases, it is usually only recommended for pregnancies in which the risk of genetic disorders or other problems is high. Chorionic Villus ...

  13. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities (IDDs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular dystrophy . Because amniocentesis can cause a miscarriage in about 1 out of 200 cases, it is usually only recommended for pregnancies in which the risk of genetic disorders or other problems is high. Chorionic Villus ...

  14. Molecular genetic mutation analysis in Menkes-disease with prenatal diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    László, Aranka; Endreffy, Emoke; Tümer, Zeynep; Horn, Nina; Szabó, János

    from MD and prenatal diagnosis was done in this MD loaded family. METHOD: The 12th exon of ATP7A gene has been analyzed by dideoxy-finger printing (DDF), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct sequencing of exon 12. The specific mutation was screened from chorionic villi of the maternal aunt at the 14...

  15. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A; Freiesleben, N L C; Bangsbøll, S; Andersen, A Nyboe; Løssl, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top...

  16. Symptomatic hemorrhagic pleural effusion: A rare presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Alaraj, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Isolated unilateral pleural effusion is uncommon presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The pathogenesis of this syndrome involves an increased permeability of ovarian capillaries and mesothelial vessels triggered by the release of vasoactive substances by the ovaries under human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. Physicians should consider this potentially life-threatening diagnosis in all patients who undergo ovarian hyperstimulation. This case highlights a rare clinical manife...

  17. De Novo-Synthesized Retinoic Acid in Ovarian Antral Follicles Enhances FSH-Mediated Ovarian Follicular Cell Differentiation and Female Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Richards, JoAnne S; Shimada, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is the active form of vitamin A and is synthesized from retinol by two key enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). As the physiological precursor of RA, retinol impacts female reproductive functions and fertility. The expression of Adh1 and Adh5 as well as Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a7 are significantly increased in the ovaries of mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin/FSH. The RA receptor is expressed and localized in granulosa cells and is activated by endogenous RA as indicated by LacZ expression in granulosa cells of RA-responsive transgene-LacZ transgenic mice (RA reporter mice). Coinjection of the ADH inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole, with equine chorionic gonadotropin significantly decreases the number and developmental competence of oocytes ovulated in response to human chorionic gonadotropin/LH as compared with controls. Injections of RA completely reverse the effects of the inhibitor of ovulation and oocyte development. When mice were fed a retinol-free, vitamin A-deficient diet that significantly reduced the serum levels of retinol, the expression of the LH receptor (Lhcgr) was significantly lower in the ovaries of the vitamin A-deficient mice, and injections of human chorionic gonadotropin failed to induce genes controlling ovulation. These results indicate that ovarian de novo biosynthesis of RA is required for the follicular expression of Lhcgr in granulosa cells and their ability to respond to the ovulatory LH surge. PMID:27022678

  18. Aborting a Malformed Fetus: A Debatable Issue in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Khalid M AlFaleh

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocen...

  19. Noninvasive prenatal detection of genetic defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, Jessica Maria Elisabeth van den

    2016-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnostics is mainly based on obtaining fetal DNA through invasive procedures such as chorionic villi sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. These procedures are associated with a small, but significant risk of fetal loss. The discovery of the presence of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in

  20. Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation originates from the cytotrophoblast : proof from an unique case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, Ron; Nikkels, Peter G J; Elferink, Martin G; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Oppen, Carla; van Zon, Patrick; van Harssel, Jeske; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and direct karyotyping of cytotrophoblast were normal for a male fetus, but cultured chorionic villus mesenchymal cells and umbilical cord fibroblasts showed nonmosaic trisomy 18. This observation provides direct evidence for the cytotrophoblastic origin of cell-f

  1. Cleft palate and gonadotrophin deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillis, P H; Peeters, R.

    1984-01-01

    A boy who had previously had a cleft lip and palate repaired and bilateral orchiopexies presented at 16 years of age with delayed puberty. Isolated gonadotrophin deficiency and testicular hyporesponsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin were found. The possibility of bilateral cryptorchidism due to gonadotrophin deficiency should be considered in boys with either cleft lip or palate, or both.

  2. Autocorrelation and cross correlation between free hCGβ and PAPP-A in repeated sampling during first trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan; Newell, Paul; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Uldbjerg, Niels; Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Tabor, Ann; Sørsensen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, repeated sampling of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in the first trimester of pregnancy might improve performance of risk assessment of trisomy 21 (T21). To assess the performance of a screening test involving repeated...

  3. Probability distributions for measures of placental shape and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birthweight at delivery is a standard cumulative measure of placental growth, but is a crude summary of other placental characteristics, such as, e.g., the chorionic plate size, and the shape and position of the umbilical cord insertion. Distributions of such measures across a cohort reveal information about the developmental history of the chorionic plate which is unavailable from an analysis based solely on the mean and standard deviation. Various measures were determined from digitized images of chorionic plates obtained from the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004. Centroids (geometric centers) and umbilical cord insertions were taken directly from the images. Chorionic plate outlines were obtained from an interpolation based on a Fourier series, while eccentricity (of the best-fit ellipse), skewness, and kurtosis were determined from the method of moments. Histograms of each variable were compared against the normal, lognormal, and Lévy distributions. Only a single measure (eccentricity) followed a normal distribution. All others followed lognormal or ‘heavy-tailed’ distributions for moderate to extreme deviations from the mean, where the relative likelihood far exceeded those of a normal distribution. (paper)

  4. Laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-seq reveals that short cuboidal trophoblast cells of the porcine placenta possess a transcriptome consistent with a migratory cell type

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine placenta is classified as epitheliochorial with a diffuse distribution of chorionic villi that do not invade maternal tissues. Thus, the maternal and fetal bloodstreams are separated by six distinct tissue layers. The porcine fetal-maternal interface (FMI) is substantially folded to incr...

  5. High macrosomia rate in healthy fetuses after enlarged nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, E.; Pajkrt, E.; Snijders, R. J. M.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the association of the first trimester screening variables nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A), and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and birth weight, with a focus on the prediction of macrosomia. Metho

  6. Non-invasive prenatal molecular detection of a fetal point mutation for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; ZOU Xin; PAN Yi; LI Shuang-fei; LU Guang-xiu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Conventional prenatal diagnosis relies on invasive chorionic biopsy or amniocentesis, which increases the risk of miscarriage, and is undertaken at 11-20 weeks gestation.1 The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has, however, offered a new strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.2

  7. Placental Development in Ongoing Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Reus (Averil)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis three-dimensional ultrasound, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound, virtual reality and histologic examination of the chorionic villous vascularization were used to investigate early placental development in normal ongoing pregnancy as well as misca

  8. Paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Sibylle; Tschopp, Oliver; Jacky, Emanuel; Schmid, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a 31-year-old male with a metastatic germ cell tumour and massively elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) levels who presented with hyperthyroidism. As HCG is structurally closely related to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), it can activate the TSH receptor; grossly elevated levels may result in hyperthyroidism. After initiation of chemotherapy, HCG levels decreased and hyperthyroidism resolved.

  9. Maternal Characteristics, Mean Arterial Pressure and Serum Markers in Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuc, Sylwia; Maria P. H. Koster; Franx, Arie; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a previous study, we have described the predictive value of first-trimester Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-subunit of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (fβ-hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) for early onset preeclampsia (EO-PE; delivery

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, T.C.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Jones, C.J.P.;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial ...

  11. EFFECT OF TAMOXIFEN ON THE SECRETORY FUNCTION OF HUMAN TROPHOBLASTIC CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANGui-Zhen; CHUYun-Hong; ZHOUYu-Fen

    1989-01-01

    Gu et al observed the morphological damages and the suppressed secretion of HCG in vitro cultured human placental chorionic tissues caused by tamoxifen (20ug/ml).TarnoxiFeu blood concentrations, during oral administration. 20rag, b.i.d, in early pregnant

  12. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing...

  13. Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation originates from the cytotrophoblast: proof from an unique case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach, Ron; Nikkels, Peter G J; Elferink, Martin G; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Oppen, Carla; van Zon, Patrick; van Harssel, Jeske; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and direct karyotyping of cytotrophoblast were normal for a male fetus, but cultured chorionic villus mesenchymal cells and umbilical cord fibroblasts showed nonmosaic trisomy 18. This observation provides direct evidence for the cytotrophoblastic origin of cell-free fetal DNA and yields a biological explanation for falsely reassuring NIPT results. PMID:26185654

  14. Ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti (Anoplura, Echinophthiriidae by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores del Carmen Castro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti Werneck, 1955, mainly the external chorionic features of the egg, is described through electronic microscopy techniques. This species was first cited in Argentina, infesting Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1873. The morphological adaptations of adults and nymphs are described in both species of Proechinophthirus parasitic on Otariidae: P. fluctus (Ferris, 1916 and P. zumpti.

  15. Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation originates from the cytotrophoblast: proof from an unique case

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstenbach, Ron; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Martin G Elferink; Oudijk, Martijn A; Oppen, Carla; van Zon, Patrick; van Harssel, Jeske; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and direct karyotyping of cytotrophoblast were normal for a male fetus, but cultured chorionic villus mesenchymal cells and umbilical cord fibroblasts showed nonmosaic trisomy 18. This observation provides direct evidence for the cytotrophoblastic origin of cell-free fetal DNA and yields a biological explanation for falsely reassuring NIPT results.

  16. Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation originates from the cytotrophoblast : proof from an unique case

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstenbach, Ron; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Martin G Elferink; Oudijk, Martijn A; Oppen, Carla; van Zon, Patrick; van Harssel, Jeske; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and direct karyotyping of cytotrophoblast were normal for a male fetus, but cultured chorionic villus mesenchymal cells and umbilical cord fibroblasts showed nonmosaic trisomy 18. This observation provides direct evidence for the cytotrophoblastic origin of cell-free fetal DNA and yields a biological explanation for falsely reassuring NIPT results.

  17. First trimester combined screening - focus on early biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels

    2016-01-01

    First trimester combined screening (cFTS) for foetal trisomy 21 has become an established method in many countries. The screening is based on a combination of maternal-age-related risk, ultrasound (nuchal translucency) and two maternal serum biochemical markers, free beta human chorionic gonadotr...

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist assisted reproductive technology cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F.M. Youssef; F. van der Veen; H.G. Al-Inany; G. Griesinger; M.H. Mochtar; M. van Wely

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols for pituitary down regulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) allow the use of GnRH agonists for triggering final oocyte maturation. Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is stil

  19. Increased nuchal translucency with normal karyotype: a follow-up study of 100 cases supplemented with CGH and MLPA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, K V; Kirchhoff, M; Nygaard, U;

    2009-01-01

    karyotype on conventional karyotyping. METHODS: Chorionic villus samples from 100 fetuses with NT > or = 99(th) percentile and normal G-banding analysis and MLPA for detection of aneuploidies for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were included. Examinations were supplemented by HR-CGH and MLPA for syndromes...

  20. Invasive prenatal diagnostic practice in Denmark 1996 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christina H F; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Tabor, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health recommended in 2004 routine ultrasound scanning in week 12 with nuchal translucency measurement, combined with the double test to all pregnant women. Those who were found to have a risk of trisomy 21 higher than 1:300 were offered amniocentesis or chorionic vil...

  1. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte; Wright, Dave;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigate gestational age dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. Methods: Data arise from prospective...

  2. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan....

  3. Longer time-to-pregnancy in spontaneously conceived pregnancies is associated with lower PAPP-A and free β-hCG in first trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, I.; Uldbjerg, N.; Tabor, Ann;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and...

  4. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi w

  5. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Wanda K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal and (b predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal. Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms.

  6. Candidate Gene and MicroRNA Expression in Fetal Membranes and Preterm Delivery Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Hensley, Mark; Qiu, Chunfang; Abetew, Dejene F; Hevner, Karin; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    We investigated candidate gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in amnion and chorion in relation to risk of preterm delivery (PTD). Amnion and chorion were separated from placenta and collected at delivery from participants who delivered at term (N = 10) and from participants who delivered preterm following spontaneous labor (sPTL-PTD; N = 10), premature rupture of membranes (PPROM-PTD; N = 10), and preeclampsia (PE-PTD; N = 10). Expression of genes (metalloproteinase [MMP] 2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of MMP-1) and miRNAs (miR-199a*, -202*, -210, -214, -223, and -338) was profiled using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate relative risk ratios (RRR), 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Among controls, the expression of miR-199a*, -202*, and -214 was lower in the amnion compared with their expression in the chorion, whereas the expression of miR-210 was higher in the amnion compared with its expression in the chorion (all P values RRR: 31.10) and inversely associated with the risk of PE-PTD (RRR:6.55e-6), although individual associations were not statistically significant. In addition, in the amnion, the expression of miR-210 (RRR: 0.45; overall P value = .0039) was inversely associated with the risk of PE-PTD, and miR-223 was inversely associated with all subtypes of PTD (overall P value = .0400). The amnion and chorion differ in their miRNA expression. The expression of MMP-9, miR-210, and -223 in the amnion is associated with PTD risk. PMID:26507872

  7. TAT gene mutation analysis in three Palestinian kindreds with oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II; characterization of a silent exonic transversion that causes complete missplicing by exon 11 skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maydan, G; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Madsen, Pia Pinholt; Zeigler, M.; Raas-Rothschild, A.; Zlotogorski, A.; Gutman, A.; Korman, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency of the hepatic cytosolic enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) causes marked hypertyrosinaemia leading to painful palmoplantar hyperkeratoses, pseudodendritic keratitis and variable mental retardation (oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome). Parents may...... therefore seek prenatal diagnosis, but this is not possible by biochemical assays as tyrosine does not accumulate in amniotic fluid and TAT is not expressed in chorionic villi or amniocytes. Molecular analysis is therefore the only possible approach for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection. To this end....... Homozygosity for a c.1249C > T (R417X) exon 12 nonsense mutation (previously reported in a French patient) was identified in both patients from the third kindred, enabling successful prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected fetus using chorionic villous tissue....

  8. Impact of a new national screening policy for Down's syndrome in Denmark: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Sundberg, Karin; Tabor, Ann; NN, NN

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a screening strategy in the first trimester, introduced in Denmark during 2004-6, on the number of infants born with Down's syndrome and the number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses, and to determine detection and false positive rates in the...... newborn infants with Down's syndrome diagnosed prenatally and postnatally and number of chorionic villus samplings and amniocenteses carried out. Secondary outcomes measured were number of women screened in 2005 and 2006, screen positive rate, and information on screening in 2005 and 2006 for infants with...... detection rate in the screened population in 2005 was 86% (95% confidence interval 79% to 92%) and in 2006 was 93% (87% to 97%). The corresponding false positive rates were 3.9% (3.7% to 4.1%) and 3.3% (3.1% to 3.4%). CONCLUSION: The introduction of a combined risk assessment during the first trimester at a...

  9. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during follicle development in the rat ovary. Effects of gonadotropin stimulation and hypophysectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L;

    2012-01-01

    examined the ovaries of prepubertal rats, of prepubertal rats stimulated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and of hypophysectomised adult animals. Using quantitative reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridisation histochemistry and...... immunohistochemistry, we have demonstrated that the expression of the two clock genes is low and arrhythmic in ovarian cells during early gonadotropin-independent follicle development in prepubertal animals and in hypophysectomised animals. We have also demonstrated that the expression of the clock genes becomes...... rhythmic following eCG stimulation in the theca interna cells and the secondary interstitial cells and that, following additional hCG stimulation, the expression of the clock genes also becomes rhythmic in the granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings link the initiation of clock gene...

  10. Conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine in human placenta and fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovac, K; Bzik, L; Tislarić, D; Sekso, M

    1980-01-01

    Conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) was measured in vitro in human placenta and fetal membranes. T4 (5 micrograms/ml) was incubated in 0.15 mol/l phosphate buffer with tissue homogenates for 2 h at 37 degrees C, and the T3 and rT3 generated were determined in ethanol extract using RIA methods. The placenta and chorion homogenates converted more T4 to T3 than to rT3; the placenta was more active than the chorion. In both tissues the highest converting activity was found in microsomal fractions. PMID:7399397

  11. EXPRESSION OF P53 PROTEIN AND PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN IN HUMAN GESTATION TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄铁军; 王志忠; 方光光; 刘志恒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between p53 protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and benign or malignant gestational trophoblastic disease (MGTD). Methods: The histotomic sections of 48 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease and 24 patients of normal chorionic villi were stained using immunohistochemistry. The monoclonal antibodies were used to determine p53 protein and PCNA. Results: The frequency of p53 and PCNA positive expression were significantly different among the chorionic villi of normal pregnancy, hydratidiform mole (HM) and MGTD. But neither p53 nor PCNA has any relation with the clinical staging or metastasis of MGTD. Conclusion: Both P53 and PCNA are valuable in diagnosis of human gestational trophoblastic disease.

  12. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...... significantly from physiology and often results in insufficient hormonal support in early pregnancy and in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). An alternative approach is to use a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist which allows a more physiological trigger of ovulation and, most importantly...

  13. Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization to Identify DMD/BMD Deletion Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-li WANG; Yan-ping XIAO; Xiu-rong JIANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify the deletions in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Methods The exon-specific cosmid DNA probes (representing 18 exons) were used to perform one-color FISH on metaphase and interphase preparations. The peripheral blood samples from 9 normal people (4 males and 5 females) and 5 females from independent deletion DMD/BMD families, as well as 2 amniotic fluid specimens and 2 chorionic villus samples (CVS) from normal pregnant females were analyzed.Results 72%~100% of peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphases or interphases, 60%~70% of amniocyte interphases, and 95~99% of chorionic villus cell interphases showed expected signals. One suspected female was identified as deletion carriers and two were excluded.Conclusion FISH in combination with other available techniques allows efficient screening of DMD/BMD deletion carriers, which also lay the ground work for prenatal diagnosis for potential fetal carriers.

  14. AcEST: DK949585 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e OS=... 33 1.1 sp|Q21771|CPG3_CAEEL Chondroitin proteoglycan 3 OS=Caenorhabditi... 33 1.1 sp|Q99NB8|UBQL4_M...C12_DROME Defective chorion-1 protein, FC106 isoform OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=dec-1 PE=1 SV=2 Length = 950 Score = 37.0 bit...tein, FC125 isoform OS=Drosophila melanogaster GN=dec-1 PE=2 SV=2 Length = 1208 Score = 37.0 bits (84), Expect = 0.10 Identit...ion particle 54 kDa protein... 35 0.39 sp|Q9W0V1|PDPK1_DROME 3-phosphoinositide-dependent pro...SW-YPDG 173 >sp|P18171|DEC13_DROME Defective chorion-1 protein, FC177 isoform OS=Dro

  15. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  16. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  17. Prenatally Diagnosed Hemophilia in a Newborn: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovandaric, Miljana Zivojin; Jesic, Milos M

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is the most common inherited coagulation disorder, and approximately one-half of patients are diagnosed as newborns. For prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia A, genetic tests are performed using chorionic villi (biopsy PCR chorionic villi sampling [CVS]) at 10 weeks' of gestation. The result in this fetus demonstrated an inversion within intron 1 in part for hemophilia A. This male infant, who was his parents' first offspring, was born after an uneventful pregnancy. An uncle suffered from hemophilia A. This report describes a newborn who was prenatally diagnosed with hemophilia A. The timely diagnosis of hemophilia in a newborn enabled the provision of adequate therapy, which led to a favorable outcome. PMID:26107414

  18. Triple test role in identifying chromosomal disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Liteanu; Alina Zlavog; Artenie Vlad

    2011-01-01

    The triple test plays a very important role in identifying chromosomal disorders, in the prenatal screening of the second pregnancy trimester. The scope of our research resides in investigating the level of human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (markers that make-up the triple test), in the serum sampled and analysed from a group of 135 pregnant women. The observation of the above mentioned markers is made in order to identify the pregnancies tha...

  19. Role of human cytomegalovirus in the proliferation and invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts isolated from early placentae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Qin; Chen, Juanjuan; Yin, Zongzhi; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Wei; Qiao, Yuan; Chen, Suhua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its mechanism in extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) proliferation and invasion in vitro. Methods: Differential enzymatic digestion combined with gradient centrifugation, was used to isolate primary EVT from human chorionic villi collected from early placentae of healthy pregnant women. HCMV infection was determined by immunofluorescence staining of HCMVpp65 antigen expression. An MTT assay was used to examine the role of HCMV i...

  20. Conservative management of cervical pregnancy with intramuscular administration of methotrexate and KCl injection: Case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Petousis, Stamatios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Karavas, George; Palapelas, Vasileios; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a cervical pregnancy successfully treated with intramuscular injection of methotrexate (MTX) and intramniotic administration of potassium chloride. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our Department with the suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, gestational sac within the cervical canal and embryonic echo measuring crown rump length 1.5 mm. Serum beta human chorionic gonadotropine (β-HCG) was measured 28590 IU/L. No ca...

  1. Frequencies of fetal chromosomal abnormalities at prenatal diagnosis: 10 years experiences in a single institution.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. Y.; J.W. Kim; Y.M. Kim; Kim, J.M.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, B. Y.; Han, J. Y.; Kim, M. Y.; Yang, J. H.; Ryu, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present frequencies of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in 4,907 prenatal cytogenetic examinations at Samsung Cheil Hospital from 1988 to 1997 for 10 yr duration. Prenatal karyotypes were undertaken in 3,913 amniotic fluid samples, 800 chorionic villi samples, and 194 percutaneous umbilical blood samples. The frequency of fetal abnormal karyotypes was 3.1% (150 cases). Numerical chromosome abnormalities were 87 cases (1.8%) and structural aberrations of chromosomes were 63 cases (1.3%). In ...

  2. First-Trimester Combined Screening Is Effective for the Detection of Unbalanced Chromosomal Translocations at 11 to 12 Weeks of Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, ShangYu; Chang, Chialin; Cheng, PoJen; Hsiao, ChingHua; Soong, YungKuei; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The first trimester combined screening, which analyzes fetal nuchal translucency and levels of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in maternal serum, is routinely used to detect abnormal pregnancies associated with Down syndrome and other trisomy aneuploidies. Based on the hypothesis that major chromosomal translocations could lead to similar biochemical and developmental outcomes during early embryo development, we compared these mar...

  3. The Incidence and Type of Chromosomal Translocations from Prenatal Diagnosis of 3800 Patients in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilevska, M; Ivanovska, E; Kubelka Sabit, K; E. Sukarova-Angelovska; Dimeska, G

    2013-01-01

    Robertsonian and reciprocal chromosomal translocations are the most frequent type of structural chromosomal aberrations in the human population. We report the frequency and type of detected translocations in 10 years of prenatal diagnosis of 3800 prenatal samples. The materials came from amniocentesis and chorionic villus samples (CVS). We detected seven Robertsonian translocations (0.18%), eight autosomal reciprocal translocations (0.21%) and one sex chromosome translocation (0.03%). The ove...

  4. Sensitive radioimmunoassays using partially purified gamma globulins coupled to enzacryl (acrylamide polymer) solid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzacryl polythiolactone is a cross-linked acrylamide polymer with an active thiolactone group, capable of coupling to lysine, serine and tyrosine residues. Gamma globulins from antisera specific to human chorionic gonadotropin, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-foetoprotein or casein were isolated using Protein A Sepharose and were subsequently coupled to enzacryl. The resulting coupled antibodies were found to provide greater sensitivity and convenience in radioimmunoassay studies than conventional double antibody precipitation methods using the same antisera. (Auth.)

  5. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Rebordosa, Cristina; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors-acetaminophen, ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid-have endocrine-disruptive properties in the rainbow trout. In humans, aspirin blocks the androgen response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and, because hCG-stimulated androgen production in utero is crucial for...... normal testicular descent, exposure to COX inhibitors at vulnerable times during gestation may impair testicular descent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism....

  6. Sviluppo di una piattaforma per la diagnosi prenatale non invasiva di malattie genetiche in epoca gestazionale precoce

    OpenAIRE

    Capponi, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies and monogenic diseases is usually performed by amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling. However, these procedures are associated with 0.5%-2% risk of miscarriage. The discovery of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma in 1997 has provided a new source of fetal genetic material that can be safely obtained from maternal blood and successfully processed for non invasive genetic diagnosis (NIPD). In this study is described a new a...

  7. Serum screening in first trimester to predict pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and preterm delivery: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yan; Zhu, Fufan; Ding, Yiling

    2015-01-01

    Background Early assessment before the establishment of placental dysfunction has the potential to improve treatment and prognosis for clinical practice.The objective of the study is to investigate the accuracy of serum biochemical markers(Pregnancy- Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), Placental Protein 13 (PP13) used in first trimester serum screening in predicting preelampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm d...

  8. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasharma, K; Li, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generation and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, w...

  9. Genetic analysis of familial isolated growth hormone deficiency type I.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, J. A.; Parks, J. S.; Hjelle, B L; Herd, J E; Plotnick, L P; Migeon, C. J.; Seeburg, P H

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear DNA from individuals belonging to nine different families in which two sibs were affected with isolated growth hormone deficiency type I were studied by restriction endonuclease analysis. By using 32P-labeled human growth hormone or the homologous human chorionic somatomammotropin complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences as a probe, the growth hormone genes of affected individuals from all families yielded normal restriction patterns. Polymorphic restriction endonuclease sites (HincII and M...

  10. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  11. Perbaikan Fenotipe Pertumbuhan Anak Babi Lokal Melalui Penyuntikan Gonadotropin Sebelum Induk Dikawinkan (IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PHENOTYPE OF LOCAL PIGLET BY GONADOTROPHIN INJECTION OF SOW PRIOR TO MATING)

    OpenAIRE

    1Debby Jacqueline Jochebed Rayer; Muladno; Hera Maheshwari; Wasmen Manalu

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was designed to study the growth phenotypes of piglets born to sows injected withpregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) prior to mating inorder to improve endogenous secretions of pregnant hormones during pregnancy. The experimental sowsused in this study were 10 local breed sows with body weight ranges of 30-40 kg. Before mating, estrouscycles of the experimental sows were synchronized by injecting 3.75 mg prostaglandin twice with 14 days...

  12. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Andon Hestiantoro; Budi Wiweko; Robert H. Purwaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI), basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangu...

  13. Risk assessment adjusted for gestational age in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardosi, J.; Mongelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between errors in calculation of gestational age and assessment of risk of Down's syndrome and to analyse the implications for screening programmes. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of dating of gestational age by menstrual history v ultrasound scan. Computer program with maternal age and concentrations of alpha fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to calculate risk for a range of expected dates of delivery. Computer simulated prospectiv...

  14. Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J. F.; Birken, S; Krichevsky, A.; Wilcox, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone, secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast cells of the fertilized ovum, that enters the maternal circulation at the time of endometrial implantation. It is composed of two nonidentical subunits; alpha and beta, with molecular weights of 14 kD and 23 kD, respectively. Its alpha subunit is identical in primary structure to its glycoprotein homologs, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid-stimulating hormo...

  15. Advances in the management of metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours during the cisplatin era: a single-institution experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerl, A; Clemm, C.; Schmeller, N.; Hartenstein, R.; Lamerz, R.; Wilmanns, W.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term outcome was reviewed in 266 consecutive patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours treated at a single institution. The overall 3 year survival was 77%, and 3 year progression-free survival was 71%. Multivariate analysis identified the following clinical features as independent prognostic factors: the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, serum human chorionic gonadotropin > or = 10000 U l-1 and/or alpha-fetoprotein > or = 1000 ng ml-1, a mediastinal mass > 5...

  16. Breast carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yanyun; Liu, Mei; Li, Jinyu; Jing, Fangfang; Linghu, Ruixia; Guo, Xiaoqin; JIAO, SHUNCHANG; Yang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features (BCCF) is a rare variant of breast cancer, characterized by high expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in cancer cells such as multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast-like giant cells. The first case of BCCF was reported in 1981 by Saigo and Rosen. Only one case of BCCF was reported to show no component of breast ductal carcinoma, and only partially cancer cells, such as multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast-like giant cells, ex...

  17. Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expressions of Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Angiopoietins and Their Receptors During Follicular Development in Gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Takashi; Iijima, Koji; SASADA, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei; 清水, 隆

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenic factors are associated with angiogenesis during follicular development in the mammalian ovary. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between the vascular network and mRNA expressions of angiopoietins (Ang)-1, Ang-2 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and their receptors in follicles at different developmental stages during follicular development. Ovaries in gilts were collected 72 h after equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 1250 IU) treatment for histologi...

  18. Developmental Regulation of Human Cytomegalovirus Receptors in Cytotrophoblasts Correlates with Distinct Replication Sites in the Placenta▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maidji, Ekaterina; Genbacev, Olga; Chang, Hsin-Ti; Pereira, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV), the major viral cause of congenital disease, infects the uterus and developing placenta and spreads to the fetus throughout gestation. Virus replicates in invasive cytotrophoblasts in the decidua, and maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG)-CMV virion complexes, which are transcytosed by the neonatal Fc receptor across syncytiotrophoblasts, infect underlying cytotrophoblasts in chorionic villi. Immunity is central to protection of the placenta-fetal unit: infection can occur wh...

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of morquio disease type A using a simple fluorometric enzyme assay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui; Diggelen, Otto; Thoomes, R.; Huijmans, Jan; Young, E.; Mazurczak, T; Kleijer, Wim

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA new fluorogenic substrate, 4 methylumbelliferyl B-D-6-sulphogalactoside, was used for the assay of galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase activity in chorionic villi, cultured villus cells, and amniocytes. The fluorometric assay is much more convenient than the conventional assay using radiolabelled, sulphated oligosaccharides. Both types of substrate were used in the prenatal diagnosis of three pregnancies at risk for Morquio type A disease using amniocytes. These enzyme tests, as wel...

  20. The efficacy of recombinant versus urinary HCG in ART outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Eftekhar; Mohammad Ali Khalili; Elham Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) has been used as a replacement for the mid-cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge for several years. The recent arrival of recombinant DNA technology has made recombinant HCG (rHCG) accessible. Objective: To assess efficacy of rHCG compared to urinary HCG (uHCG) for triggering of ovulation and induction of final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive cycles. Materials and Methods: 200 patients who were candidate for ICSI were randomly divided i...

  1. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  2. The relationship between ovarian vascularity and the duration of stimulation in in-vitro fertilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Bassil, Salim; Wyns, Christine; Toussaint-Demylle, Dominique; Nisolle, Michelle; Gordts, Stéphane; Donnez, Jacques

    1997-01-01

    The role of transvaginal pulsed colour Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of ovarian vascularity was studied in 196 in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The changes in ovarian blood flow after gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) down-regulation and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) stimulation were determined. The data obtained showed that the ovarian blood flow was significantly improved by oestradiol secretion (P = 0.05) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administratio...

  3. Revisiting ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: Towards OHSS free clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Banker; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid development and application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and ovulation-induction drugs may lead to ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Young age, low body mass index (BMI), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), previous OHSS, high follicle count, and elevated serum estradiol (E2) are the certain factors that predispose women to OHSS. Many strategies have been used to reduce or avoid OHSS. Use of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increases ovarian vascular permeab...

  4. Expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in mouse and human reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Clement, Christian Alexandro; Thorup, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    were unstained or faintly stained. Pubertal female mice were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting before and after injection with FSH and LH followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection after a 48-h period. PR immunolocalization to the oviduct cilia was...... postovulatory signaling events and suggest a sensory role for oviduct cilia in the process of oocyte transport/fertilization....

  5. Injectable polymer microspheres enhance immunogenicity of a contraceptive peptide vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Chengji; Stevens, Vernon C.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced contraceptive peptide vaccines suffer from the unavailability of adjuvants capable of enhancing the antibody response with acceptable safety. We sought to overcome this limitation by employing two novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere formulations to deliver a synthetic human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) peptide antigen co-synthesized with a T-cell epitope from tetanus toxoid, C-TT2-CTP35: surface-conjugated immunogen to induce phagocytosis; and encapsulated peptide ...

  6. Relationship between the serum B-HCG and preeclempsia and itsseverity

    OpenAIRE

    Z Basirat; Sh. Barat; M.Haji Ahmadi

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Preeclampsia as the most common complication of pregnancies has unknown physiopathology. Because the role of serum Beta-human Chorionic Gonadotropin (B-hCG) in pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not well known, we decided to determine the correlation between serum concentration of B-HCG and preeclampsia .Materials and Methods: This case-control study performed on two groups of 40 preeclamptic nulliparous and 40 healthy term pregnant women at obstetrics and gynecology w...

  7. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Ana Marcella; Test, Victor J.; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 26-year-old man with metastatic choriocarcinoma who presented with hyperthyroidism associated with elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG) and respiratory failure secondary to diffuse lung metastasis. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the concentration of B-HCG dramatically decreased and the patient became euthyroid, allowing us to discontinue antithyroid medications. The patient's hyperthyroidism was caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by high B-HCG levels, ...

  8. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen,; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; De Schryver, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. Howe...

  9. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasum, Miro; Orešković, Slavko; Ježek, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous forms of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) are nearly always reported between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) producing pituitary adenoma. The syndrome has been previously reported in rare instances of increased production of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) such as multiple pregnancies, hydatiforme mole, polycystic ovary disease and elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyreoidism. High lev...

  10. In-vitro maturation and cryopreservation of oocytes at the time of oophorectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Melanie L.; Kirsty Douglas; Ryan, John P.; Jason Tan; Roger Hart

    2015-01-01

    A 27 year old female presented for fertility preservation prior to undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. She had previously undergone a radical laparoscopic hysterectomy for cervical carcinoma seven months earlier. A trans-vaginal oocyte aspiration was not advisable due to a vaginal recurrence of the disease. Due to a polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) priming with no human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) trigger was performed prior to oophorectomy followed by ex-...

  11. Structural features of free and covalently bound glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates act in many cellular functions and biological processes such as cell-cell recognition and adhesion, inflammation, fertilization, signal transduction, and development. In this context, structural information is required to understand molecular mechanisms involving carbohydrates. The placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) indirectly stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone during the first trimester of pregnancy, until the placenta itself acq...

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of placental site trophoblastic tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fengying; Zheng, Wenli; Liang, Qingchun; Yin, Tuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor in a 36 year old Chinese woman, 31 months following a prior normal pregnancy. Her clinical presentation and ultrasound findings were uncharacteristic; and the final definitive diagnosis was established based on histological examination in conjunction with immunohistochemistry studies and a normal beta human chorionic gonadotropin level. The tumor exhibited high grade histological features with tumor necrosis, nuclear atypia and hig...

  13. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear.

  14. Simple method for backyard production of snakehead (Channa striata Bloch) fry

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakov, W.A.A.W.; Ali, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The snakehead (Channa striata ) is a common freshwater fish species in Malaysia. Details are given of a simple technique for breeding this species, suitable for small-scale farmers practising backyard aquaculture. Two techniques were used to induce spawning - the first used water level manipulation to simulate rain and the second used injected with human chorionic gonadotropic hormone. The former, more natural, spawning technique was found to provide a viable alternative for the small-scale f...

  15. The Camel Tick, Hyalomma (Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae: Description of the Egg and Redescription of the Larva by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ahmed Montasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the egg of Hyalomma (H. dromedarii for the first time and adds more features to the larva using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in order to extend our knowledge on these acarine stages to be useful for further taxonomical or control studies. With the purpose of presenting exact description of acarine eggs, it is preferable to examine them both with and without SEM processing. SEM processing caused partial removal of the chorion which makes the egg shell clear and easily observed. The study revealed rough surface of egg shell which was surrounded by the chorion. The egg shell was perforated particularly at poles. The chorion appeared as a finely perforated cloth. Different forms of bumps were noticed between egg shell and chorion. Length, width, l/w ratio and pore diameter of the egg were measured. SEM investigation of the larva revealed smooth scutum with slight irregular ornamentation and horizontally folded extensible cuticle with vertical ridges. At least 2 types of cuticular openings were noticed on the extensible cuticle of the idiosoma. The first type was represented by 1 pair on dorsal side and 2 pairs on ventral one. It was surrounded with thick integumental ring and guarded with 2 internal lips. The second type was numerous, slit-like and without rings or lips. Dorsolateral plate of the hypostome carried numerous oval, tile-like and elevated denticles while ventral one carried 4 rows of posteriorly directed retrograde conical denticles. Mouth enclosed 2 cheliceral digits, each terminated with 3 lobes. Each lobe is supported with 2 or 3 conical denticles which were externally directed to the posterior. Haller`s organ on the tarsus of the first pair of legs consisted of anterior pit and posterior capsule. The pit contained 6 conical sensillae while the capsule opening had extensively branched margin. Measurements of the whole body, idiosoma, scutum, eye, capitulum, hypostome, palp, cuticular pores, legs and

  16. First-trimester risk calculation for trisomy 13, 18, and 21: comparison of the screening efficiency between 2 locally developed programs and commercial software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free ß-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGß), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in...... calculation programs to assess whether the screening efficacies for T13, T18, and T21 could be improved by using our locally estimated medians....

  17. STR DNA genotyping of hydatidiform moles in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xing-Zheng; Hui, Pei; Chang, Bin; Gao, Zhi-Bin; LI Yan; WU, BING-QUAN; Bo ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evacuate whether short-tandem-repeat (STR) DNA genotyping is effective for diagnostic measure to precisely classify hydatidiform moles. Methods: 150 cases were selected based on histologic features that were previously diagnosed or suspected molar pregnancy. All sections were stained with hematoxylin as a quality control method, and guided the microscopic dissection. DNA was extracted from dissected chorionic villi and paired maternal endometrial FFPE tissue sections. Then, STR ...

  18. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, M.; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C; Kremer, J A M; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone or hCG levels, or both, are low and the natural process is insufficient, so the luteal phase is supported with either progesterone, hCG or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Luteal phas...

  19. Distinction between early normal intrauterine pregnancies and pathological pregnancies by means of a logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M

    1992-01-01

    The probability of an unclear very early pregnancy being a normal intrauterine pregnancy was estimated using a logistic model. Five diagnostic measures of prognostic value were identified in the model: (i) daily change in human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), (ii) results of transvaginal ultrasound, (iii) vaginal bleeding, (iv) serum progesterone level and (v) risk score for ectopic pregnancy. With the use of this model, the probability of a normal intrauterine pregnancy has been estimated as 96.7%. PMID:1551947

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) affects 10% to 15% of monochorionic pregnancies. In the absences of timely diagnosis and intervention perinatal loss or long term developmental delay can be expected in over 90% of cases. Establishing chorionicity in the first trimester followed by serial ultrasounds beginning at 16 weeks of gestation and intervention with placental laser ablation before the development of advance disease overall survival rates can be expected in 70% to 80% of cases. PMID:26165181

  1. 46,XY,DUP(10Q) IN DIRECT CVS PREPARATION AND MOSAIC 48,XXXY,DUP(10Q) IN CVS LONG-TERM CULTURE AND FETAL TISSUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIJMONS, RH; SIKKEMARADDATZ, B; KLOOSTERMAN, MD; BRIET, JW; DEJONG, B; LESCHOT, NJ

    1995-01-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) was performed on a 40-year-old woman at 9 1/2 menstrual weeks because of advanced maternal age. The direct preparation showed 46,XY,dup(10)(q11.2q23.2). CVS long-term culture and fetal tissue revealed a rare additional abnormality: 48,XXXY,dup(10)(q11.2q23.2). This ab

  2. Short-Term Pharmacological Suppression of the Hyperprolactinemia of Infertile hCG-Overproducing Female Mice Persistently Restores Their Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Laura D.; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S.; Ilpo T Huhtaniemi; Rulli, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop...

  3. Prenatal Investigation of a Familial Partial Monosomy 10q

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marisa; Marques, Bárbara; Brito, Filomena; Ferreira, Cristina; Furtado, José; Ventura, Catarina; Nunes, Luis; Kay, Teresa; Caetano, Paula; Correia, Hildeberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of a prenatal study of a familial partial monosomy 10q. Distal 10q deletions are rare and the majority are terminal deletions involving bands 10q25 and 10q26. Patients typically present with facial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, developmental and mental retardation, genitourinary anomalies and digital anomalies. Methods: Conventional cytogenetic analysis in metaphases obtained by chorionic villi long term cu...

  4. Hyperemesis gravidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, L O; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Djursing, H;

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the literature available, no certain proof can be found that human chorion gonadotropin, progesterone, oestradiol, ACTH, thyreoid patrameters or vitamin B6 are of causal significance for hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Hyperemesis gravidarum has undoubtedly a considerable psychologic...... pregnancy usually runs a normal course. All of the forms of treatment are dominated by the tendency to spontaneous remission and great placebo effect. Antihistamines, antiemetics, ginger, change of environment, hypnotherapy and psychotherapy appear to be the best forms of treatment....

  5. Adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off the evaluation of clinical significance and pathologic correlation of echogenic adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy, which is separated from ipsilateral ovary, we performed a retrospective analysis of 15 proved tubal pregnancies. All showed hematosalpinx containing blood coagulum and chorionic villi with intact fallopian tube.The echogenicity of the adnexal mass was considered to represent the nonclotted or clotted blood within the fallopian tube. We conclude that the discrete, echogenic adnexal mass is the suggestive finding of unrupturedtubal pregnancy

  6. Strategy for reliable prenatal detection of normal male carriers of the fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Halley, Dicky; Ouweland, Ans; Deelen, Wouter; Verma, Chandra; Oostra, Ben

    1994-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome identifying full mutations has been described. Here we report on a case of a prenatal test concerning a normal male carrier of the fragile X syndrome. Southern blot analysis of the fragile X gene resulted in the identification of a premutation in DNA isolated from the chorionic villus sample. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)based assay the CGG repeat length was determined to be 82 CGG repeat units. Confirmation of this premutation in...

  7. Coexistence of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Choriocarcinoma: Complete Response to Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    GUNDUZ, SEYDA; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Uysal, Mukremin; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Tatli, Murat; Arslan, Deniz; Coskun, Hasan Senol; BOZCUK, Hakan; Savas, Burhan; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Gastric choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and usually accompanies gastric adenocarcinoma. The prognosis is poor due to the aggressive course of the disease. A 57-year-old female patient with weight loss and abdominal pain was examined. The patient was operated following the examination, and pathological analysis revealed the presence of a gastric adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies to beta-human chorionic gon...

  8. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Openshaw, Mark R.; Harvey, Richard A.; Sebire, Neil J; Baljeet Kaur; Naveed Sarwar; Michael J Seckl; Fisher, Rosemary A.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a “liquid biopsy” in patients wit...

  9. Clinical Variables Affecting The Pregnancy Rate of Intracervical Insemination Using Cryopreserved Donor Spermatozoa: A Retrospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Jun Chen; Li-Ping Wu; Hai-Lian Lan; Li Zhang; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether several clinical variables can affect the pregnancy rate of intracervical insemination (ICI) using cryopreserved donor spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, age, years of infertility, cervicitis, urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, insemination number, uterus position, endometrial thickness and morphology, maximal follicle diameter, and the number of dominant follicles on the day of human chorionic gon...

  10. Molar Pregnancy with False Negative β-hCG Urine in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Christopher L.; Ladde, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This case describes an atypical presentation of molar pregnancy in an emergency department patient with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. The patient demonstrated clinical features of hydatidiform mole, including acute discharge of a large, grape-like vesicular mass, despite multiple negative urine pregnancy tests. These false-negative qualitative human chorionic gonadotropin assays were likely caused by the “high-dose hook effect” and may have delayed proper care of the patient, who displ...

  11. Embolization of uterine artery as an emergency treatment for vaginal bleeding due to ectopic cervical pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hari A; Indira B; Venkateswarlu J

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old, primigravida presented with a history of vaginal bleeding since 3 days. Two months ago she had conceived spontaneously. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed cervical pregnancy of 8 weeks duration. Parenteral methotrexate failed to terminate pregnancy and serum beta- human chorionic gonadotropin levels continued to rise. In order to achieve haemostasis, catheter angiography and bilateral uterine artery embolization were done followed by curettage of cervical canal. The patient recove...

  12. First-trimester prenatal diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, G. A.; Kruse, J. R.; Goldberg, J D; Chockkalingam, K; Gordon, R E; Blakemore, K J; Mahoney, M. J.; Desnick, R J

    1984-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease was made in two at-risk fetuses by the analysis of chorionic villi obtained at 9 and 11 menstrual weeks, respectively. The diagnoses were based on the absence of beta-hexosaminidase A activity as determined by: (1) specific enzyme assays, (2) anion-exchange chromatography, and (3) cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis. The enzymatic diagnoses were confirmed on fetal tissue as well as by ultrastructural demonstration of the first-trimester fetal neur...

  13. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Park, So Yeon; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Since the existence of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal circulation was discovered, it has been identified as a promising source of fetal genetic material in the development of reliable methods for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of fetal trisomy 21 (T21). Currently, a prenatal diagnosis of fetal T21 is achieved through invasive techniques, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. However, such invasive diagnostic tests are expensive, require expert technicians, and...

  14. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal RhD status using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma with TaqMan® real-time PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rekhviashvili, Tea

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis is now part of established obstetric practice in many countries. However, conventional methods of prenatal diagnosis of obtaining fetal tissues for genetic analysis, including amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, are invasive and constitute a finite risk to the unborn fetus1. At present, it is widely accepted that both intact fetal cells as well as cell-free fetal DN A are present in the maternal circulation and can be recovered for non-invasive prena...

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies: from fetoscopy to coelocentesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranca Damiani; Margherita Vinciguerra; Cristina Jakil; Monica Cannata; Filippo Cassarà; Francesco Picciotto; Giovanna Schillaci; Valentina Cigna; Disma Renda; Aldo Volpes; Francesca Sammartano; Samuela Milone; Adolfo Allegra; Cristina Passarello; Filippo Leto

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies involves the study of fetal material from blood, amniocytes, trophoblast coelomatic cells and fetal DNA in maternal circulation. Its first application dates back to the 70s and it involves globin chain synthesis analysis on fetal blood. In the 1980s molecular analysis was introduced as well as amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling under high-resolution ultrasound imaging. The application of direct sequencing and polymerase chain reactionbased meth...

  16. Tracking fetal development through molecular analysis of maternal biofluids☆

    OpenAIRE

    Edlow, Andrea G; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2012-01-01

    Current monitoring of fetal development includes fetal ultrasonography, chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for chromosome analysis, and maternal serum biochemical screening for analytes associated with aneuploidy and open neural tube defects. Over the last 15 years, significant advances in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) via cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids in maternal plasma have resulted in the ability to determine fetal sex, RhD genotype, and aneuploidy. Cff nucleic acids ...

  17. Synthesis of fucosyl-containing glycoproteins of the vitelline coat in oocytes of Ciona intestinalis (Ascidia).

    OpenAIRE

    F.Rosati; Cotelli, F.; De Santis, R.; A. Monroy; Pinto, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The sperm receptors of the ascidian oocyte are located at the outer surface of the vitelline coat (formerly called the chorion). The fucose residues are the receptor's most important components for sperm recognition and binding. We asked whether the fucosyl-containing glycoproteins of the vitelline coat are a product of the oocyte, the follicle cells, or the test cells. Ovaries of Ciona intestinalis were injected with L-[3H]fucose and the progress of its incorporation was followed by using au...

  18. Environmental Levels of para-Nonylphenol Are Able to Affect Cytokine Secretion in Human Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Bechi, Nicoletta; Ietta, Francesca; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Cencini, Marco; Galassi, Gianmichele; Serchi, Tommaso; Corsi, Ilaria; Focardi, Silvano; Paulesu, Luana

    2009-01-01

    Background para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is a metabolite of alkylphenols widely used in the chemical industry and manufacturing. It accumulates in the environment, where it acts with estrogen-like activity. We previously showed that p-NP acts on human placenta by inducing trophoblast differentiation and apoptosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of p-NP on cytokine secretion in human placenta. Methods In vitro cultures of chorionic villous explants from human pl...

  19. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is Up-Regulated in Human First-Trimester Placenta Stimulated by Soluble Antigen of Toxoplasma gondii, Resulting in Increased Monocyte Adhesion on Villous Explants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Mineo, José Roberto; Ietta, Francesca; Bechi, Nicoletta; Romagnoli, Roberta; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bevilacqua, Estela; Paulesu, Luana Ricci

    2008-01-01

    Considering the potential role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the inflammation process in placenta when infected by pathogens, we investigated the production of this cytokine in chorionic villous explants obtained from human first-trimester placentas stimulated with soluble antigen from Toxoplasma gondii (STAg). Parallel cultures were performed with villous explants stimulated with STAg, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), or STAg plus IFN-γ. To assess the role of placental MIF on monoc...

  20. Plasmodium falciparum induces a Th1/Th2 disequilibrium, favoring the Th1-type pathway, in the human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Fievet, Nadine; Moussa, M.; Tami, G.; Maubert, B.; Cot, Michel; Deloron, P.; Chaouat, G.

    2001-01-01

    During pregnancy, a local and systemic Th2 bias of maternal immunity favors Th1-dependent infections such as malaria. This study measured cytokines secreted in cultures of chorionic villi, placental blood cells (PBC), and serum in term placentas from 88 malaria-infected and -noninfected Cameroon women. Interleukin (IL)-2 and-4 were consistently low ; IL-1Beta, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-Beta2 were highest in PBC cultures. Malar...

  1. Left-sided gastroschisis with placenta findings: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yang; Farinelli, Christine K; Chang, Michael S; CARPENTER, PHILIP M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal-wall defect that typically occurs to the right of the umbilicus. Only twenty-one cases of left-sided gastroschisis have been described in the literature. Here we report a large left-sided gastroschisis with pulmonary hypoplasia, scoliosis, ventricular septal defect and absence of gallbladder. Section of placental membranes revealed vacuolization of the amnion, without increased macrophage infiltration of the chorion. Postmortem comparative genomic hybri...

  2. Цитогенетичний аналіз хоріону при вагітності, що не розвивається, за матеріалами регіонального репродуктивного центру

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, N. V.; Barkovsky, D. Ye.; Semenenko, I. V.; Kalabuchova, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Detection of chromosomal aberrations in patients during spontaneous abortion.Methods and results. Cytogenetic study of chorionic samples of the abortions on first trimester of pregnancy. According to the study, the karyotype anomalies were the cause of cardiac embryonic development in 59% of cases. Conclusion. Due to numerous cytogenetic researches of abortion material, anomalies of karyotype are the leading reason of embryonic destruction. The present paper summarizes results of cytogen...

  3. Manufacturing technology of irradiation denaturalized starch and its serosity performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn starch as raw material was irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to denaturalize and optimize the manufacturing condition. The serosity performance of the denaturalized corn starch, such as agglutinating strength, chorion, viscidity and the stability to heat, etc. were analyzed after irradiation treatment. Compared with chemical manufacturing technology, the irradiation method was much simpler and more environment friendly, Irradiated corn starch could meets the requirement of industrial application. (authors)

  4. First Trimester Aneuploidy Screening Markers in Women with Pre-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Padmalatha Gurram; Peter Benn; James Grady; Anne-Marie Prabulos; Winston Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), total β human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and nuchal translucency (NT) measurements differ in women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) compared to non-diabetic controls and to assess whether correction factors are needed for diabetic women in calculation of aneuploidy risks. Study Design: We performed a retrospective study of all women who underwent first trimester aneuploidy sc...

  5. Haemosiderosis in the placenta does not appear to be related to chronic placental separation or adverse neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Khong, T. Y.; Toering, T. J.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain the incidence and to review the obstetric and neonatal correlates of placental haemosiderosis. Secondly, to determine if placental haemosiderosis is due to blood contamination during placental handling. Methods: One hundred consecutive singleton placentas with and 113 consecutive singleton placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies without an indication for pathological examination were stained for iron to detect haemosiderosis in the membranes, chorionic plate and/or basal p...

  6. Ketoconazole Inhibits Ovulation as a Result of Arrest of Follicular Steroidogenesis in the Rat Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gal; Joseph Orly

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is a known inhibitor of steroidogenic P450 enzymes in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. Previous studies examined the potential clinical use of KCZ for attenuation of ovarian response to gonadotropin treatments. This study aimed to use the superovuating rat model to explore the effect of KCZ on ovarian steroidogenesis, follicular function, and development toward ovulation. METHODS Prepubertal rats were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human CG (hC...

  7. Ectopic Pregnancy-Derived Human Trophoblastic Stem Cells Regenerate Dopaminergic Nigrostriatal Pathway to Treat Parkinsonian Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tony Tung-Yin; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wang, Yu-Chih; Kao, Mi-Chun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Singh, Sher; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Lee, Jau-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Background Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i) to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; an...

  8. Etude de nouveaux biomarqueurs de toxicité induite par des micropolluants (benzo(a)pyrène et phtalate de bis(2-ethylhexyle)) sur des modèles de placenta humain

    OpenAIRE

    Wakx, Anaïs,

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pollutants is commonly evaluated using placenta as a barrier between mother and fetus. Here, we consider placenta as a target organ for toxic agents. To achieve this, we selected a trophoblastic cell model, which is adapted to toxicological studies. In clinical studies, pregnancy pathologies are associated to changes in human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretions. Our in vitro work links exposure to micropollutants (mono(2-ethylhexyl)p...

  9. Urethral metastasis from non-seminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe Johnathan; Chilka Sameer; Wah Tze; Agarwal Vijay; Stark Dan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We present a case of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testes with acute urinary retention secondary to urethral metastasis. This presentation, and similar cases of urethral metastasis from this tumor, have not been reported previously. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to hospital with a history of acute urinary retention. On examination he was found to have right testicular enlargement with raised β-human chorionic gonadotrophin, serum α-feto...

  10. Development of a protoplast based transformation system for genetic engineering of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Yunus, Abdul Masani

    2013-01-01

    The major aim of the thesis was to develop the prerequisites for efficient genetic engineering of oil palm by DNA microinjection with the long-term objective to generate transgenic oil palm producing recombinant proteins, PIPP (a chimeric antibody against human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), D12 (a human antibody against dental carries) and HSA (human serum albumin). The products will be synthesized in the leaf, mesocarp and kernel tissues of oil palm with the respects of plants must be stable...

  11. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  12. Human reproduction functions: Evaluation with radiobioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies reveal that the ovary is capable of responding to an adequate gonadotropic stimulus long before menarche. Similarly, the pituitary is capable of producing gonadotropins in response to an adequate hypothalamic signal before menarche. Recent studies in the primate confirm that the hypothalamus signals are temporarily different before menarche as compared to the reproductive years, so that if the luteotropic hormone (LRH) stimulus is pulsed to the pituitary at the required time sequence, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as ovulation can be achieved even in the immature monkey. HPL is another hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast that is also used to identify pregnancies at a higher risk of fetal demise. It shares structural similarities with the human growth hormone (hGH) and PRL. HPL is diabetogenic. Its effect is mediated through glucose metabolism. Circulating HPL is elevated during multiple gestations. Its circulating levels in fact correlate with the fetoplacental mass. It has a short half-life and the larger the fetoplacental mass, the higher the HPL level. Hyperglycemic states are associated with a decrease in HPL levels, and hypoglycemia is associated with elevated levels of HPL. RIA through the measurement of HPL has helped in the management of the high-risk fetus and its mother. Through RIA other fetoplacental hormones are identifiable and their levels are obtainable. There is a human chorionic ACTH, a human chorionic TSH, and a human chorionic PRL. These can be involved in health and disease

  13. Zika Virus Targets Different Primary Human Placental Cells, Suggesting Two Routes for Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Takako; Petitt, Matthew; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Michlmayr, Daniela; Wang, Chunling; Fang-Hoover, June; Harris, Eva; Pereira, Lenore

    2016-08-10

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to severe birth defects, but mother-to-fetus transmission routes are unknown. We infected different primary cell types from mid- and late-gestation placentas and explants from first-trimester chorionic villi with the prototype Ugandan and a recently isolated Nicaraguan ZIKV strain. ZIKV infects primary human placental cells and explants-cytotrophoblasts, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and Hofbauer cells in chorionic villi and amniotic epithelial cells and trophoblast progenitors in amniochorionic membranes-that express Axl, Tyro3, and/or TIM1 viral entry cofactors. ZIKV produced NS3 and E proteins and generated higher viral titers in amniotic epithelial cells from mid-gestation compared to late-gestation placentas. Duramycin, a peptide that binds phosphatidylethanolamine in enveloped virions and precludes TIM1 binding, reduced ZIKV infection in placental cells and explants. Our results suggest that ZIKV spreads from basal and parietal decidua to chorionic villi and amniochorionic membranes and that targeting TIM1 could suppress infection at the uterine-placental interface. PMID:27443522

  14. Experimental parameterisation of principal physics in buoyancy variations of marine teleost eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Mi; Folkvord, Arild; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Sundby, Svein

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the high buoyancy of pelagic marine eggs is due to substantial influx of water across the cell membrane just before ovulation. Here we further develop the theoretical basis by applying laboratory observations of the various components of the fertilized egg in first-principle equations for egg specific gravity (ρ(egg)) followed by statistical validation. We selected Atlantic cod as a model animal due to the affluent amount of literature on this species, but also undertook additional dedicated experimental works. We found that specific gravity of yolk plus embryo is central in influencing ρ(egg) and thereby the buoyancy. However, our established framework documents the effect on ρ(egg) of the initial deposition of the heavy chorion material in the gonad prior to spawning. Thereafter, we describe the temporal changes in ρ(egg) during incubation: Generally, the eggs showed a slight rise in ρ(egg) from fertilization to mid-gastrulation followed by a gradual decrease until full development of main embryonic organs just before hatching. Ontogenetic changes in ρ(egg) were significantly associated with volume and mass changes of yolk plus embryo. The initial ρ(egg) at fertilization appeared significantly influenced by the chorion volume fraction which is determined by the combination of the final chorion volume of the oocyte and of the degree of swelling (hydrolyzation) prior to spawning. The outlined principles and algorithms are universal in nature and should therefore be applicable to fish eggs in general. PMID:25122447

  15. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes of the oviparous kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula (Colubridae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    In reptilian sauropsids, fetal (extraembryonic) membranes that line the eggshell sustain developing embryos by providing for gas exchange and uptake of water and eggshell calcium. However, a scarcity of morphological studies hinders an understanding of functional specializations and their evolution. In kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula), scanning electron microscopy reveals two major fetal membranes: the chorioallantois and yolk sac omphalopleure. In early development, the chorioallantois contains tall chorionic epithelial cells, avascular connective tissue, and enlarged allantoic epithelial cells. During its maturation, the chorionic and allantoic epithelia thin dramatically and become underlain by a rich network of allantoic capillaries, yielding a membrane ideally suited for respiratory gas exchange. Yolk sac development initially is like that of typical lizards and snakes, forming an avascular omphalopleure, isolated yolk mass (IYM), and yolk cleft. However, unlike the situation in most squamates studied, the omphalopleure becomes transformed into a "secondary chorioallantois" via three asynchronous events: flattening of the epithelium, regression of the IYM, and vascularization by the allantois. Progressive expansion of chorioallantois parallels growing embryonic needs for gas exchange. In early through mid-development, external surfaces of both the chorionic and omphalopleure epithelium show an abundance of irregular surface protrusions that possibly increase surface area for water absorption. We postulate that the hypertrophied allantoic epithelial cells produce allantoic fluid, a viscous substance that facilitates water uptake and storage. Our findings are consistent with a previous study on the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but include new observations and novel functional hypotheses relevant to a reconstruction of basal squamate patterns. PMID:26335135

  16. Triploidy--Observations in 154 Diandric Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Brink Scholz

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform moles (HMs are abnormal human pregnancies with vesicular chorionic villi, imposing two clinical challenges; miscarriage and a risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. The parental type of most HMs are either diandric diploid (PP or diandric triploid (PPM. We consecutively collected 154 triploid or near-triploid samples from conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi. We used analysis of DNA markers and/or methylation sensitive-MLPA and collected data from registries and patients records. We performed whole genome SNP analysis of one case of twinning (PP+PM.In all 154 triploids or near-triploids we found two different paternal contributions to the genome (P1P2M. The ratios between the sex chromosomal constitutions XXX, XXY, and XYY were 5.7: 6.9: 1.0. No cases of GTN were observed. Our results corroborate that all triploid human conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi have the parental type P1P2M. The sex chromosomal ratios suggest approximately equal frequencies of meiosis I and meiosis II errors with selection against the XYY conceptuses or a combination of dispermy, non-disjunction in meiosis I and meiosis II and selection against XYY conceptuses. Although single cases of GTN after a triploid HM have been reported, the results of this study combined with data from previous prospective studies estimate the risk of GTN after a triploid mole to 0% (95% CI: 0-1,4%.

  17. Impairment of Angiogenic Sphingosine Kinase-1/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors Pathway in Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobierzewska, Aneta; Palominos, Macarena; Sanchez, Marianela; Dyhr, Michael; Helgert, Katja; Venegas-Araneda, Pia; Tong, Stephen; Illanes, Sebastian E.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), is a serious pregnancy disorder characterized in the early gestation by shallow trophoblast invasion, impaired placental neo-angiogenesis, placental hypoxia and ischemia, which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Here we hypothesized that angiogenic sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors pathway is impaired in PE. We found that SPHK1 mRNA and protein expression are down-regulated in term placentae and term chorionic villous explants from patients with PE or severe PE (PES), compared with controls. Moreover, mRNA expression of angiogenic S1PR1 and S1PR3 receptors were decreased in placental samples of PE and PES patients, whereas anti-angiogenic S1PR2 was up-regulated in chorionic villous tissue of PES subjects, pointing to its potential atherogenic and inflammatory properties. Furthermore, in in vitro (JAR cells) and ex vivo (chorionic villous explants) models of placental hypoxia, SPHK1 mRNA and protein were strongly up-regulated under low oxygen tension (1% 02). In contrast, there was no change in SPHK1 expression under the conditions of placental physiological hypoxia (8% 02). In both models, nuclear protein levels of HIF1A were increased at 1% 02 during the time course, but there was no up-regulation at 8% 02, suggesting that SPHK1 and HIF1A might be the part of the same canonical pathway during hypoxia and that both contribute to placental neovascularization during early gestation. Taken together, this study suggest the SPHK1 pathway may play a role in the human early placentation process and may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE. PMID:27284992

  18. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses (PVs are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  19. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Xiao, Shuo; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Mattson, Mark P; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2015-09-01

    Olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) is a glycoprotein highly expressed in the brain. Olfm1(-/-) female mice were previously reported to have reduced fertility. Previous microarray analysis revealed Olfm1 among the most highly upregulated genes in the uterine luminal epithelium upon embryo implantation, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. We hypothesized that Olfm1 deficiency led to defective embryo implantation and thus impaired fertility. Indeed, Olfm1(-/-) females had defective embryo implantation. However, Olfm1(-/-) females rarely mated and those that mated rarely became pregnant. Ovarian histology indicated the absence of corpora lutea in Olfm1(-/-) females, indicating defective ovulation. Superovulation using equine chorionic gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin rescued mating, ovulation, and pregnancy, and equine chorionic gonadotropin alone rescued ovulation in Olfm1(-/-) females. Olfm1(-/-) females had a 13% reduction of hypothalamic GnRH neurons but comparable basal serum LH levels and GnRH-induced LH levels compared with wild-type controls. These results indicated no obvious local defects in the female reproductive system and a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Olfm1(-/-) females were unresponsive to the effects of male bedding stimulation on pubertal development and estrous cycle. There were 41% fewer cFos-positive cells in the mitral cell layer of accessory olfactory bulb upon male urine stimulation for 90 minutes. OLFM1 was expressed in the main and accessory olfactory systems including main olfactory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, main olfactory bulb, and accessory olfactory bulb, with the highest expression detected in the axon bundles of olfactory sensory neurons. These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1(-/-) females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction. PMID:26107991

  20. Electro-microinjection of fish eggs with an immobile capillary electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Ryo; Yasui, Tatsuo; Memmel, Simon; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L

    2015-11-01

    Microinjection with ultra-fine glass capillaries is widely used to introduce cryoprotective agents and other foreign molecules into animal cells, oocytes, and embryos. The fragility of glass capillaries makes difficult the microinjection of fish eggs and embryos, which are usually protected by a hard outer shell, called the chorion. In this study, we introduce a new electromechanical approach, based on the electropiercing of fish eggs with a stationary needle electrode. The electropiercing setup consists of two asymmetric electrodes, including a μm-scaled nickel needle placed opposite to a mm-scaled planar counter-electrode. A fish egg is immersed in low-conductivity solution and positioned between the electrodes. Upon application of a short electric pulse of sufficient field strength, the chorion is electroporated and the egg is attracted to the needle electrode by positive dielectrophoresis. As a result, the hard chorion and the subjacent yolk membrane are impaled by the sharp electrode tip, thus providing direct access to the egg yolk plasma. Our experiments on early-stage medaka fish embryos showed the applicability of electro-microinjection to fish eggs measuring about 1 mm in diameter. We optimized the electropiercing of medaka eggs with respect to the field strength, pulse duration, and conductivity of bathing medium. We microscopically examined the injection of dye solution into egg yolk and the impact of electropiercing on embryos' viability and development. We also analyzed the mechanisms of electropiercing in comparison with the conventional mechanical microinjection. The new electropiercing method has a high potential for automation, e.g., via integration into microfluidic devices, which would allow a large-scale microinjection of fish eggs for a variety of applications in basic research and aquaculture. PMID:26649129

  1. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  2. Use of reduced doses of eCG applied by different routes in the TAI program in Santa Ines sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Dias Antunes-Melo; Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira; Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos; Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira; Lícia Mendes Mendonça; Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia; Thiago Santos Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to improve the cost-benefit ratio of the application of artificial insemination in fixed time (TAI) by the transcervical route in sheep, to test the dosage reduction and the use of the vulvar submucosa (VSM) route as an alternative for the application of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the efficiency of the synchronization protocol and fertility to artificial insemination (AI) and to measure the level of cortisol in ewes as a result the application of this b...

  3. Bruk av amniocenteser og chorionbiopsier i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Haugen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGInvasiv prenatal diagnostikk i form av amniocentese (fostervannsprøve og chorionbiopsi (morkakeprøveutføres i ca. 2% av alle svangerskap i Norge per år. Dette er betydelig færre undersøkelser ennhva som utføres i de andre nordiske land. De fleste får utført amniocentese pga. høy maternell alder(aldersindikasjon som her i landet er ≥ 38 år ved fødselstermin. Chorionbiopsi er forbeholdt kvinnermed kjente arvelige lidelser i familien, dvs. kvinner med høy risiko for å få et affisert foster. De undersøkelsersom foreligger over svangerskapsutfall samt forekomst av komplikasjoner etter amniocenteseog chorionbiopsi er hovedsakelig utført i andre land på kvinner med generelt lavere risiko ( ≥ 35 år ennfor dem som får utført invasiv prenatal diagnostikk i Norge. Pga. vår restriktive praksis kan ikke disseresultatene uten videre overføres til Norge. Vi mangler eksakte data over svangerskapsutfall og evt.komplikasjoner etter disse undersøkelsene i en norsk populasjon.Haugen G, van der Hagen CB. The use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in Norway.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYAmniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are performed in about 2% of all pregnancies in Norwaywhich is far less than in the other Nordic countries. Most of the amniocenteses are performed due toadvanced maternal age. In Norway this is defined as maternal age ≥ 38 years at term. Couples withknown chromosomal aberrations or genetic diseases in their families, i.e. women at a high risk of havingan affected fetus, are offered chorionic villus sampling. Earlier studies on complications and pregnancyoutcome following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been performed in other countriesmainly on women at a lower risk ( ≥ 35 years than for the women having such tests in Norway. We donot have data on pregnancy outcome and possible complications following amniocentesis and chorionicvillus sampling in a Norwegian

  4. Characteristics of thyroxine 5'-deiodination in cultured human placental cells. Regulation by iodothyronines.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidal, J T; Kaplan, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Human and rat placental homogenates convert L-thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3) via a pathway termed type II iodothyronine deiodination. To study regulation of this pathway, cell dispersions were prepared from human placental chorionic-decidual membrane. Dispersed cells deiodinated T4 and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3), but not T3, at the 5' position. The reaction was only slightly inhibited by 1 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil, enhanced by dithiothreitol, and substantially inhibited b...

  5. Choriocarcinoma syndrome を来した性腺外胚細胞腫瘍に対してModified BEP レジメンによる導入化学療法が奏効した1例

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 純平; 植村, 元秀; 加藤, 大悟; 永原, 啓; 木内, 寛; 辻村, 晃; 野々村, 祝夫

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study of a 46-year-old man with extra gonadal germ cell tumor with multiple lung metastases and very high levels (324, 100 mIU/ml) of the tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). He underwent chemotherapy with VP-16, ifosfamide and cisplatinum regimen, but on day 2, he noticed strong dyspnea. A chest X-ray showed bilateral infiltration of the lungs, and he was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from choriocarcinoma syndrome. After ARDS improved...

  6. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author)

  7. Growth and Development of the Uterus and Placenta of Superovulated Gilts

    OpenAIRE

    REVOLSON ALEXIUS MEGE; SYAHRUN HAMDANI NASUTION; NASTITI KUSUMORINI; WASMEN MANALU

    2007-01-01

    Forty eight gilts with average body weight of 107.83 + 5.08 kg were used in experiments to study the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as superovulation agent in gilts to increase piglet production. Four groups of twelve gilts were injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200, and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpens. On days 15, 35, and 70 of ges...

  8. Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi, M Z; Manshouri, T; Sakata, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) (residues 12-44 and 308-364) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind 125I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated alpha and beta subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-...

  9. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S.; Bonner, Wendy M.; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Couchman, John R.; Sorokin, Lydia M; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Ano...

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of Morquio disease type A using a simple fluorometric enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Van Diggelen, O P; Thoomes, R; Huijmans, J; Young, E; Mazurczak, T; Kleijer, W J

    1990-02-01

    A new fluorogenic substrate, 4 methylumbelliferyl beta-D-6-sulphogalactoside, was used for the assay of galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase activity in chorionic villi, cultured villus cells, and amniocytes. The fluorometric assay is much more convenient than the conventional assay using radiolabelled, sulphated oligosaccharides. Both types of substrate were used in the prenatal diagnosis of three pregnancies at risk for Morquio type A disease using amniocytes. These enzyme tests, as well as electrophoresis of glycosaminoglycans in the amniotic fluid, indicated affected fetuses in two pregnancies and a non-affected fetus in one. PMID:2111546

  11. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The main causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy are Graves' disease and chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-mediated hyperthyroidism. METHODS AND OUTCOMES......: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antithyroid drug treatments for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are...

  12. hCG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers apoptosis and reduces steroidogenic enzyme expression through activating transcription factor 6 in Leydig cells of the testis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo; Mark A. Lawson; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generally occurs in secretory cell types. It has been reported that Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), express key steroidogenic enzymes for the regulation of testosterone synthesis. In this study, we analyzed whether hCG induces ER stress via three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells and the testis. Treatment with hCG induced ER stress in mLTC-1 cells via the A...

  13. A nonsense mutation in the COL4A5 collagen gene in a family with X-linked juvenile Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Heiskari, N; Zhou, J; Jensen, U B; Tryggvason, K

    1995-01-01

    47 of the COL4A5 gene in a patient with a juvenile form of X-linked Alport syndrome with deafness. This two base deletion caused a shift in the reading frame and introduced a premature stop codon which resulted in an alpha 5(IV)-chain shortened by 202 residues and lacking almost the entire NC1 domain....... Prenatal diagnosis on chorionic villi tissue, obtained from one of the female carriers in the family, revealed a male fetus hemizygous for the mutated allele. A subsequent prenatal test in her next pregnancy revealed a normal male fetus. Prenatal diagnosis of Alport syndrome has not previously been...

  14. Characterization and histologic localization of human growth hormone-variant gene expression in the placenta.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Urbanek, M; Ray, J.; Tuan, R.S.; Cooke, N E

    1989-01-01

    The human growth hormone-variant (hGH-V) gene is one of five highly similar growth hormone-related genes clustered on the short arm of chromosome 17. Although the pattern of expression of the adjacent normal growth hormone (hGH-N) and chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) genes in this cluster are well characterized, the expression of the hGH-V gene remains to be defined. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the hGH-V gene is transcribed in the term placenta and expressed as two alterna...

  15. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  16. Identification of new ovulation-related genes in humans by comparing the transcriptome of granulosa cells before and after ovulation triggering in the same controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissing, M L; Kristensen, S G; Andersen, C Y;

    2014-01-01

    gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol during 2010-2012 at Holbæk Fertility Clinic. Nine paired samples of GC and 24 paired samples of follicular fluid (FF) were obtained before and after recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (rhCG) administration. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Nine...... ovarian cancer, while down-regulated genes mainly represented cell cycle and proliferation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Radical changes occur in the follicle during final follicle maturation after the ovulatory trigger: these range from ensuring an optimal milieu for the oocyte in meiotic arrest to the release...

  17. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...

  18. Présence de réceptacles séminaux chez les Caméléons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint Girons, H.

    1962-01-01

    La partie distale de l’oviducte des Caméléons montre, peu avant son débouché dans le cloaque, des réceptacles séminaux constitués par de simples tubes en doigt de gant, apparemment dépourvus d’activité sécrétrice, qui pénètrent dans le chorion. Des spermatozoïdes ont été trouvés en grand nombre dans

  19. Insulin-like factor 3 serum levels in 135 normal men and 85 men with testicular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, K; Hartung, S; Ivell, R;

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) serum levels were measured in 135 andrologically well-characterized normal men and 85 patients with testicular disorders to investigate how the hormone, which is a major secretory product of human Leydig cells, is related to testosterone (T), LH, and semen quality......, Klinefelter syndrome (n = 21), 0.12 (ND-0.78) ng/ml; men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and T substitution (n = 11), ND; and men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment (n = 5), 0.36 (0.13-0.73) ng/ml. Before testicular biopsy, two infertile men had blood...

  20. Chemical surface disinfection of eggs of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, J L; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2010-01-01

    . Effective disinfection was also recorded using 100 mg L−1 Actomar K30. Egg batch effect rather than initial bacterial concentration, disinfectant type or incubation method determined the survival of the eggs to hatching and survival of larvae. Because of the carcinogenic effect of glutaraldehyde, iodophor......-fertilization. Bactericidal effect of disinfection, survival to hatching, hatching success and larval abnormalities were assessed. Larval survival was recorded at 5-, 10- and 15-days post-hatch (dph). Although Baltic cod eggs have an unusually thin chorion, they could tolerate surface disinfection. A reduction in bacterial...

  1. Unusual combination of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dulce Tapadinhas Matos Ramilo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease comprises a heterogeneous group of lesions arising from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic cells. An elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin after evacuation of a molar pregnancy should suggest the hypothesis of a persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We present a rare case of coexistence of choriocarcinoma and placental-site trophoblastic tumor in the same tumor, whose diagnosis was made based on the correlation of morphological, microscopic and immunocytochemical studies, due to the difficulty in diagnosing these mixed tumors based on conventional histology only.

  2. Rate of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women determined by a monoclonal hepatitis B surface antigen immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotstein, Melissa G; Aide, Paula M; Coleman, Paul F; Sanborn, Mark R

    2002-09-01

    The rate of HBsAg in 6,976 B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG)-positive specimens, as determined by the Auszyme Monoclonal assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.), was 0.56% (39 of 6,986 repeatedly reactive [RR] and confirmed-positive specimens). All RR and confirmed specimens were hepatitis B virus positive by at least one additional test, yielding an assay specificity of 99.96%. The findings argue against unique attributes in the pregnant population that might produce inaccurate assay results. PMID:12202601

  3. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Ana Marcella; Test, Victor J; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 26-year-old man with metastatic choriocarcinoma who presented with hyperthyroidism associated with elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG) and respiratory failure secondary to diffuse lung metastasis. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the concentration of B-HCG dramatically decreased and the patient became euthyroid, allowing us to discontinue antithyroid medications. The patient's hyperthyroidism was caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by high B-HCG levels, as shown by the marked improvement of the patient's thyroid function panel after chemotherapy. PMID:26722165

  4. The diagnostic potential of maternal plasma in detecting fetal diseases by DNA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Biswajit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, DNA based investigations for fetal diseases are done by chorionic villous sampling and amniocentesis. Both are invasive techniques. Recently, molecular diagnosis has also been made possible in early pregnancy from maternal blood which is noninvasive and advantageous. Most of the researches have tried to identify the Y chromosome marker(s to detect a male fetus and paternally inherited allele. This is currently helpful to detect a very few genetic disorders including Rh D status in Rh negative women in early pregnancy and preeclampsia a few weeks preceding the clinical onset. This is a potential area for prenatal diagnosis in future.

  5. Screening and Testing in Multiples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie; Evans, Shara M

    2016-06-01

    The choice of screening or invasive procedure in twin pregnancies is a personal choice of whether the patient wishes to take a small risk of having a baby with a serious disorder versus a small risk of having a complication because she wishes to avoid that. How to interpret such risks has profound effects on the perceived value of techniques, either leading to a decision to screening or going directly to chorionic villus sampling. There are profound issues surrounding the data and the interpretation of the data. No single short review can exhaustively examine all of the issues. PMID:27235913

  6. Persistent ectopic pregnancy after linear salpingotomy: a non-predictable complication to conservative surgery for tubal gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Bangsgaard, Nannie; Ottesen, Bent

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The drawback of conservative surgery for ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the risk of persistent trophoblast. The purpose was to characterize patients who develop persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) after salpingotomy for EP and to assess prognostic factors. METHODS: The medical records of 417...... methotrexate (n = 23). Oral methotrexate failed in 4/19 cases while intramuscular (i.m.) methotrexate was successful in 4/4 cases. Women treated for PEP had a higher preoperative and a slower postoperative decline of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Both the preoperative and the early postoperative h...

  7. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study to assess the specificity of MR findings in persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) compared with common causes of elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels, such as ectopic pregnancy or missed abortion. Seventeen women with elevated HCG (12 with persistent GTN, five with missed abortion or ectopic pregnancy) were examined with a 1.5-T imager. Images (spin-echo and gradient-echo) were analyzed and results tested via 2 analysis for TIUV; integrity and signal intensity of the junctional zone, endometrium, and myometrium; vessel conspicuity; presence of theca lutean cysts; extrauterine mass; and cul de sac fluid

  8. Radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey gonadotropins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterologous double-antibody radioimmunoassay methods are described for the measurement of circulating levels of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) FSH and LH; the latter assay is also applicable to rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (CG) estimations. The FSH assay utilizes purified rat FSH for trace, either of two anti-human FSH antisera and a semipurified rhesus pituitary standard. The LH assay utilizes purified ovine LH for trace, an anti-human CG antiserum and the same rhesus pituitary standard. The use of these systems obviates the necessity of purifying rhesus gonadotropins which are required for the development of homologous radioimmunoassay systems. (U.S.)

  9. Rate of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women Determined by a Monoclonal Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Gotstein, Melissa G.; Aide, Paula M.; Coleman, Paul F.; Sanborn, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    The rate of HBsAg in 6,976 B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG)-positive specimens, as determined by the Auszyme Monoclonal assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.), was 0.56% (39 of 6,986 repeatedly reactive [RR] and confirmed-positive specimens). All RR and confirmed specimens were hepatitis B virus positive by at least one additional test, yielding an assay specificity of 99.96%. The findings argue against unique attributes in the pregnant population that might produce inaccurate a...

  10. [Laparoscopic radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion in the male patient: technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Mora, C; Cabrera, P; García-Mediero, J M; de Fata, F Ramón; González, J; Angulo, J

    2011-04-01

    Radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy remains the treatment of choice for muscle invasive bladder cancer and non-metastatic chorion-invasive high grade tumors resistant to treatment with intravesical chemotherapy. During the last decade the procedure has been refined and we have acquired the skills necessary to perform it using the laparoscopic approach. In this way, the oncologic and functional outcomes obtained can be compared to those of its open counterpart. This article describes in detail the technique of radical cystoprostatectomy and urinary diversion in the male patient conducted by our group in an attempt to improve the knowledge and spread of this always difficult procedure. PMID:21487170

  11. High-level expression of biologically active glycoprotein hormones in Pichia pastoris strains—selection of strain GS115, and not X-33, for the production of biologically active N-glycosylated 15N-labeled phCG

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Véronique; Gadkari, R.P; George, A.V.E.; Roy, R; Gerwig, G J; Leeflang, B.R.; Dighe, R R; Boelens, R.; Kamerling, J P

    2008-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for the production of recombinant glycoproteins. With the aim to generate biologically active 15N-labeled glycohormones for conformational studies focused on the unravelling of the NMR structures in solution, the P. pastoris strains GS115 and X-33 were explored for the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (phCG) and human follicle-stimulating hormone (phFSH). In agreement with recent investigations on the N-glycosylation of phCG, p...

  12. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of bilateral dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Indranil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysgerminoma accounts for only 1-3% of ovarian cancers and about 30-40% of all ovarian germ cell malignant tumors. Literature states that about 2% of nonpregnant patients with dysgerminomas present with elevated serum or urine levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Here, we report a 34 year-old multiparous woman presenting with an abdominal lump, ascites, and abdominal pain with elevated urinary and serum hCG levels. An abdominal ultrasound showed bilateral ovarian mass. An ultrasound-guided, transabdominal fine needle aspiration revealed dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells. Bilateral oophorectomy was done and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology.

  13. Differential diagnosis of early human pregnancies: impact of different diagnostic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, J; Bryman, I; Hahlin, M; Lindblom, B

    1992-01-01

    A total of 261 women in early pregnancy, either with mild symptoms of ectopic pregnancy (EP) or being at an increased risk for this condition, were included in a longitudinal study. The effectiveness of different diagnostic measures in obtaining correct final diagnoses was analyzed. In addition to clinical findings and symptoms, the use of serum human chorionic gonadotropin, serum progesterone, endovaginal sonography and a risk score for EP were all proven to be valuable in distinguishing normal intrauterine pregnancies from pathological pregnancies. PMID:1505809

  14. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: is HCG trigger history?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) protocol, it has become possible to trigger final oocyte maturation with a bolus of GnRHa. This leads to a significant reduction or complete elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome compared with human chorionic...... HCG trigger in normal- and high-responders. GnRHa trigger facilitates a tailored approach to subsequent luteal phase support, taking into account the ovarian response to stimulation. In the future, GnRHa is likely to be used for trigger in all women co-treated with GnRH antagonists....

  15. Familial complex chromosome rearrangement ascertained by in situ hybridisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster, C.; Miguez, L; R. Miró; Rigola, M A; Perez, A.; Egozcue, J.

    1997-01-01

    A complex familial chromosome translocation has been ascertained by combining classical cytogenetics and CISS (chromosomal in situ suppression). Cytogenetic analysis of a chorionic villus sample with G banding showed a 47,XX,-2, +der(2)t(2;22),+der(22)t(2;22) karyotype. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the parents by G banding and CISS showed a more complex translocation in the father: 46,XY,-2,-11,-22, +der(2) t(2;11)(q13;q23), +der(11) t(11;22) (q23;q11.2), +der(22) t(2;22) (q1...

  16. Hormone Stories in Argentina.Obesity in children and early diagnosis of pregnancy in the 1930s and 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rustoyburu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article inquires, from a gender perspective, knowledge production about hormones in Argentina, between the years 1930-1940. We understand that a historical analysis of scientific ideas and clinical practices allows explore how they involved on the social scenario which they belong, plus the institutional contexts where they are elaborated. We will focus on endocrinologist's Hospital de Niños de Buenos Aires perspective about obesity on childhood, and adipose genital síndrome, andearly diagnosis of pregnancy and chorionic gonadotropin hormone in the 1930s and 1940s

  17. Ovarian Stimulation Affects the Population of Mouse Uterine NK Cells at Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Dorfeshan; Mojdeh Salehnia; Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ovarian stimulation on endometrial mouse NK cell population. For superovulation, the female adult NMRI mice were injected i.p. with 10 IU of the pregnant mare serum gonadotropin followed 48 h later by an i.p. injection of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. Ovarian stimulated and nonstimulated mice were mated with fertile male. The presence of vaginal plug proved natural pregnancy, and this day was considered as day one of pregna...

  18. Cisplatinum dose dependent response in germ cell cancer evaluated by tumour marker modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, J; Christensen, T B; von der Maase, H

    1992-01-01

    This study presents an analysis on longitudinal tumour marker series in twenty-two patients with non-seminomatous germ cell cancers treated with cisplatinum (DDP) based combination chemotherapy. Series of alphafoetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH...... faster than AFP producing cells, and were 3-5-fold more sensitive to the chemotherapy given than AFP producing cells. Treatment response versus DDP dose appeared to be bi-phasic, but with no significant change in treatment efficiency within the given range of DDP doses....

  19. Additional first-trimester ultrasound markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, J; Nicolaides, K

    2010-09-01

    The first trimester (11-13 +6 weeks) ultrasound examination is useful for several reasons: determination of an accurate date of confinement, diagnostic purposes, and screening for fetal defects. Nuchal translucency measurement combined with maternal serum markers (free b-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) is the mainstay of first-trimester screening for chromosomal defects. However, over the past decade additional ultrasound markers have been developed that improve the performance of this type of screening. The novel markers include evaluation of the nasal bone, fronto-maxillary angle measurement, and Doppler evaluations of the blood flow across the tricuspid valve and in the ductus venosus. PMID:20638573

  20. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author)

  1. First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free β-hCG for Down Syndrome, Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shiefa, S.; Amargandhi, M.; Bhupendra, J.; Moulali, S.; Kristine, T.

    2012-01-01

    The first trimester screening programme offers a noninvasive option for the early detection of aneuploidy pregnancies. This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness at 11 + 0–13 + 6 weeks of gestation. A beneficial consequence of screening is the early diagnosis or trisomies 21, 18 and 13. At 11 + 0–13 +...

  2. Detection of Human Parvovirus B19 Nonstrutural Protein DNA by Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction in Gravida Serum and Pregnant Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) assay was developed to detect human parvovirus B19 DNA corresponding to the nonstructural protein in clinical specimens in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The sensitivity of this highly specific assay was up to 0. 005 fg of B19 DNA. Parvovirus B19 was identified in sera of 20 pregnant women with abnormal pregnant outcome. Among these 20 cases, intrauterine parvovirus infection did exist in 7 pregnant women because parvovirus B19 DNA was detected in the pregnant tissues of them such as placenta tissues,chorionic villi, amniotic fluid, fetal spleen, liver and abdominal fluids.

  3. Pro-inflammatory profile of preeclamptic placental mesenchymal stromal cells: new insights into the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rolfo

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PDMSCs derived from normal and preeclamptic (PE chorionic villous tissue presented differences in their cytokines expression profiles. Moreover, we investigated the effects of conditioned media from normal and PE-PDMSCs on the expression of pro-inflammatory Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and free β-human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βhCG by normal term villous explants. This information will help to understand whether anomalies in PE-PDMSCs could cause or contribute to the anomalies typical of preeclampsia. METHODS: Chorionic villous PDMSCs were isolated from severe preeclamptic (n = 12 and physiological control term (n = 12 placentae. Control and PE-PDMSCs's cytokines expression profiles were determined by Cytokine Array. Control and PE-PDMSCs were plated for 72 h and conditioned media (CM was collected. Physiological villous explants (n = 48 were treated with control or PE-PDMSCs CM for 72 h and processed for mRNA and protein isolation. MIF, VEGF and sFlt-1 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by Real Time PCR and Western Blot respectively. Free βhCG was assessed by immunofluorescent. RESULTS: Cytokine array showed increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PE relative to control PDMSCs. Physiological explants treated with PE-PDMSCs CM showed significantly increased MIF and sFlt-1 expression relative to untreated and control PDMSCs CM explants. Interestingly, both control and PE-PDMSCs media induced VEGF mRNA increase while only normal PDMSCs media promoted VEGF protein accumulation. PE-PDMSCs CM explants released significantly increased amounts of free βhCG relative to normal PDMSCs CM ones. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we reported elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PE-PDMSCs. Importantly, PE PDMSCs

  4. Urinary gonadotrophin peptide--isolation and purification, and its immunohistochemical distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Kardana, A.; M. E. Taylor; Southall, P. J.; Boxer, G. M.; Rowan, A. J.; Bagshawe, K. D.

    1988-01-01

    A urinary gonadotrophin peptide (UGP) was isolated and purified from semi-purified human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), prepared from pregnancy urine. The peptide showed hCG-B subunit activity and no hCG-alpha subunit activity as demonstrated by binding studies with the relevant antibodies. It had a molecular weight significantly less than hCG-B subunit. The peptide was linked to thyroglobulin and this conjugate used to immunise rabbits and mice. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-UGP and th...

  5. Fetal Kidney Anomalies: Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Nielsen, Marlene Louise;

    undergone postmortem examination. The approximately 110 genes included in the targeted panel were chosen on the basis of their potential involvement in embryonic kidney development, cystic kidney disease, or the renin-angiotensin system. DNA was extracted from fetal tissue samples or cultured chorion villus...... the nephronophthisis associated gene, TMEM67 and six fetuses had mutations in kidney developmental genes. For these fetuses kidney histology is presented. Conclusion and Perspectives In eight (14%) fetuses we identified a likely genetic cause of the kidney anomalies. Ten fetuses from eight families......, in which no mutations were identified, have been selected for exome sequencing in order to uncover novel genes associated to fetal kidney anomalies....

  6. Study on the immunosuppressants in the peripartum stages in sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic level of immunosuppressants such as alpha-fetoprotein(α-FP), gestation associated protein, progesterone, estradiol, chorionic gonadotropin, etc. of peripheral sera and the regulatory mechanism of cellular immunity in the peripartum stages in sows were determined by advanced radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunochemistry methods in this study. The effects on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro by the immunosuppressants mentioned above were tested by cell culture technology, respectively. The results were as follows: (1) α-FP: The level of α-FP of peripheral sera in the stage of ante-parturition was slightly higher than that of post-parturition in sows, but it didn't show statistical difference. The concentration of α-FP of peripheral sera in conceptus sows had no obvious effect on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro, and it indicated that α-FP was not the major immunosuppressant in the pregnancy of sows. However, the α-FP, whose concentration was equal to that of amniotic fluid, had obvious inhibition on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro. (2) Gestation associated protein: The level of gestation associated protein was maintained highly (100-162 mg/L) in peripheral sera and amniotic fluid in the stage of ante-parturition in sows, then descended gradually after parturition and disappeared step by step 5-10 d after parturition. The gestation associated protein, whose concentration were equal to that of peripheral sera and amniotic fluid, were added to lymphocyte culture in vitro, and the effect on lymphocyte activity was not observed yet. This showed that gestation associated protein was not the major immunosuppressant in the peripartum stage in sows. (3) Estradiol and progesterone: Estradiol or progesterone at the level of sera in pregnant sows, could lower the rate of lymphocyte transformation and the level of cellular immunity. (4) Chorionic gonadotropin: The level of chorionic gonadotropin of peripheral sera in the stage of ante-parturition was slightly higher than

  7. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  8. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  9. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  10. A case of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, K; Suzuki, Y; Makino, A; Murakami, I; Suzumori, K

    2001-01-01

    Massive subchorionic thrombohematoma is uncommon but associated with a poor perinatal prognosis. Placental enlargement was detected in a 25-year-old Japanese primipara woman with fetal growth retardation and oligohydramnios at 23 weeks' gestation. Ultrasonography (USG) showed an abnormal sonolucency within the placenta at 28 weeks' gestation, but could not give an unequivocal differentiation from placental abnormalities such as hematomas, cysts and other tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pointed to a large hematoma in the subchorionic region. Simultaneously, the amniotic fluid was brownish colored. From these findings, it was possible to have prenatal diagnosis of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma. At 32 weeks' gestation, the fetus died in utero and was stillborn 3 days later. Pathological findings for the placenta revealed a large hematoma diffused between the villous chorion and the chorionic plate, with wide necrosis of placental tissue, likely due to formation of multiple thrombi. The clinical and pathological findings were compatible with massive subchorionic thrombohematoma. MRI might be useful for the detection of massive subchorionic thrombohematoma and help its clinical management in combination with USG and pulse Doppler imaging. PMID:11125254

  11. Bisphenol A Alters β-hCG and MIF Release by Human Placenta: An In Vitro Study to Understand the Role of Endometrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mannelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA. As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2 was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%. After 24–48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF. The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β-hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta.

  12. Assessment of fetal cell chimerism in transgenic pig lines generated by Sleeping beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2014-01-01

    Human cells migrate between mother and fetus during pregnancy and persist in the respective host for long-term after birth. Fetal microchimerism occurs also in twins sharing a common placenta or chorion. Whether microchimerism occurs in multiparous mammals such as the domestic pig, where fetuses have separate placentas and chorions, is not well understood. Here, we assessed cell chimerism in litters of wild-type sows inseminated with semen of transposon transgenic boars. Segregation of three independent monomeric transposons ensured an excess of transgenic over non-transgenic offspring in every litter. Transgenic siblings (n = 35) showed robust ubiquitous expression of the reporter transposon encoding a fluorescent protein, and provided an unique resource to assess a potential cell trafficking to non-transgenic littermates (n = 7) or mothers (n = 4). Sensitive flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR provided no evidence for microchimerism in porcine littermates, or piglets and their mothers in both blood and solid organs. These data indicate that the epitheliochorial structure of the porcine placenta effectively prevents cellular exchange during gestation. PMID:24811124

  13. Comparative egg morphology of six species of the Albimanus section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L P; Duzak, D; Linley, J R

    1997-03-01

    Scanning electron micrographs were used to describe and compare structures of eggs obtained from wild-caught females of 6 species of the Albimanus section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) from South America, which includes important regional vectors of human malaria. Among species from the Oswaldoi Complex, eggs of Anopheles oswaldoi (Peryassu) were not differentiated from those of its sibling Anopheles konderi Galvão & Damasceno, and eggs of the former species from Brazil, Ecuador, and Suriname showed no regionally distinguishing characteristics. Eggs of Anopheles dunhami Causey were recognized by the reticulate beadwork of outer chorion on the dorsal plastron, 1 of several egg characters separating this species from the related Anopheles trinkae Faran and Anophels nuneztovari Gabaldón. In both species examined from the Strodei Complex, Anopheles strodei Root and Anopheles benarrochi Gabaldón, Cova Garcia & Lopez, the anterior frill forms a distinctive ventral crown separated from the floats. Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto), collected from 4 geographic sites, differed in the occurrence of perforated mounds on the dorsal plastron, but these chorionic structures and the extent of overlap of floats varied among eggs from single females. Changes among related species in the structure of the anterior frill and dorsal plastron are described for phylogenetic and developmental inferences. PMID:9103756

  14. Effect of Culture Medium Supplementation with b-mercaptoethanol and Amino Acid on Canine Intergeneric Embryo Development with Porcine Oocyte Cytoplasm Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda Heru Fibrianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of culture medium supplementation with mercaptoethanol ( MEand amino acid (AA on canine intergeneric embryo development with porcine oocyte cytoplasm. Porcine cumulusoocyte complexes (COCs were collected from slaughterhouse and matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 26.2mM NaHCO, 3.05 mM glucose, 0.91 mM sodium pyruvate, 0.57 mM L-cysteine, 75 mg/l kanamycin, 10 ng/ml 3epidermal growth factor, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG,and 10% (v/v porcine follicular fluid (pFF at 39 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO for 42-44 h and donor cell 2collected from ear skin afghanhound male dog. After somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, embryo developmentwere examined for cleavage rate and 144 hr for final development after cultured in media. The result shows that,amino acid and mercapoethanol addition in culture medium (NCSU-23 have no effect on embryo development.The development rate of embryo until 16 cell stage in NCSU and NCSU supplement are 4.67% and morula stage are3.73% and 4.67%.Key words : intergeneric clone embryo, canine, ( amino acid (AA

  15. Empty follicle syndrome-Still an enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty follicle syndrome (EFS, although rare with an incidence of 0.2-7%, is a frustrating condition where no oocytes are retrieved in in vitro fertilization (IVF, even though ultrasound and estradiol measurements show the presence of many potential follicles. It is a complex phenomenon that cannot be explained by low bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin alone; neither can it be reliably diagnosed by the measurement of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (bhCG on the day of oocyte retrieval (OR, except possibly when the bhCG concentration is very low. Here we report a case who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for her partner′s severe oligoasthenozoospermia. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH was done in her first cycle of ICSI, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist long protocol with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG. However, as we were unable to retrieve any oocytes, her COH protocol was changed in the subsequent cycle with a successful outcome.

  16. Incidental placental choriocarcinoma in a term pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gestational choriocarcinoma occurs in 1 in 40,000 pregnancies. Of all forms of gestational choriocarcinoma, placental choriocarcinoma is the most rare. Maternal choriocarcinoma is usually diagnosed in symptomatic patients with metastases. The incidental finding of a choriocarcinoma confined to the placenta with no evidence of dissemination to the mother, or infant is the least common scenario. Case presentation The patient is an 18 year-old Gravida 1 Para 1 African American female who delivered a viable 3641 g female infant at 39 weeks gestation. Her pregnancy course was complicated by gestational hypertension during the third trimester. Her placenta revealed intraplacental choriocarcinoma. She was then followed closely by the Gynecologic Oncology service with a weekly serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin value. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin values dropped from 3070 mIU/ml to less than 2 mIU/ml two months post partum. No chemotherapy was initiated. Metastasis was ruled out by chest x-ray and whole body computed tomography scan. To date, both mother and baby are well. Conclusion Due to the potential fatal outcome of placental choriocarcinoma, careful evaluation of both mother and infant after the diagnosis is made is important. The incidence of placental choriocarcinoma may actually be higher than expected since it is not routine practice to send placentas for pathological evaluation after a normal spontaneous delivery. The obstetrician, pathologist, and pediatrician should have an increased awareness of placental choriocarcinoma and its manifestations.

  17. Increased nuchal translucency and diaphragmatic hernia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, A; Balaouras, D; Psarra, N; Chitzios, D; Tzafettas, M; Balaouras, G; Vrachnis, N

    2015-01-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is present in 40% of fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia, including 80% of those that result in neonatal death and in 20% of the survivors. A 33-year-old nulliparous woman had first trimester scan at 12 weeks. The fetus had a NT of 2.3 mm, normal ductus venosus (DV), and tricuspid doppler and present nasal bone. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) was 0.59 MoM and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG) 2.56 MoM. The couple did not opt for chorionic villous sampling (CVS) and repeat ultrasound examination was advised. At 18 weeks, ultrasound revealed left sided diaphragmatic hernia. The couple consented for termination of the pregnancy. The molecular test showed normal karyotype and male gender. In such cases with intrathoracic herniation of abdominal viscera, the increased NT may be the consequence of venous congestion due to mediastinal compression. The prolonged compression of the lungs causes pulmonary hypoplasia. Increased NT with normal fetal karyotype is associated with structural fetal anomalies like diaphragmatic hernia and screening at 16-18 weeks is imperative. PMID:26054128

  18. Expression of natural antimicrobials by human placenta and fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A E; Paltoo, A; Kelly, R W; Sallenave, J-M; Bocking, A D; Challis, J R G

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth associated with infection is a major clinical problem. We hypothesized that this condition is associated with altered expression of natural antimicrobial molecules (beta-defensins (HBD), elafin). Therefore, we examined expression of these molecules and their regulation by proinflammatory cytokines in placentae and fetal membranes from term pregnancy. HBD1-3 and elafin were localized by immunohistochemistry in fetal membranes and placenta. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine mRNA expression in primary trophoblast cells treated with inflammatory molecules. HBD1-3 and elafin were immunolocalized to placental and chorion trophoblast layers of fetal membranes and placenta. Immunoreactivity was also observed in amnion epithelium and decidua. No differences were noted between samples from women who were not in labour compared to those in active labour. In in vitro cultures of primary trophoblast cells, HBD2 and elafin mRNA expression was upregulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta. These results suggest that the chorion and placental trophoblast layers may be key barriers to the progression of infection in the pregnant uterus. Natural antimicrobial expression may be altered in response to inflammatory mediator expression associated with the onset of labour and/or uterine infection, providing increased protection when the uterus may be particularly susceptible to infection. PMID:16513165

  19. Modulation of ligand selectivity associated with activation of the transmembrane region of the human follitropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanelli, Lucia; Van Durme, Joost J J; Smits, Guillaume; Bonomi, Marco; Rodien, Patrice; Devor, Eric J; Moffat-Wilson, Kristin; Pardo, Leonardo; Vassart, Gilbert; Costagliola, Sabine

    2004-08-01

    Recently, three naturally occurring mutations in the serpentine region of the FSH receptor (FSHr) (D567N and T449I/A) have been identified in three families with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). All mutant receptors displayed abnormally high sensitivity to human chorionic gonadotropin and, in addition, D567N and T449A displayed concomitant increase in sensitivity to TSH and detectable constitutive activity. In the present study, we have used a combination of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and molecular modeling to explore the mechanisms responsible for the phenotype of the three OHSS FSHr mutants. Our results suggest that all mutations lead to weakening of interhelical locks between transmembrane helix (TM)-VI and TM-III, or TM-VI and TM-VII, which contributes to maintaining the receptor in the inactive state. They also indicate that broadening of the functional specificity of the mutant FSHr constructs is correlated to their increase in constitutive activity. This relation between basal activity and functional specificity is a characteristic of the FSHr, which is not shared by the other glycoprotein hormone receptors. It leads to the interesting suggestion that different pathways have been followed during primate evolution to avoid promiscuous stimulation of the TSHr and FSHr by human chorionic gonadotropin. In the hFSHr, specificity would be exerted both by the ectodomain and the serpentine portion. PMID:15166252

  20. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  1. A Resource for the Transcriptional Signature of Bona Fide Trophoblast Stem Cells and Analysis of Their Embryonic Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Kuales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs represent the multipotent progenitors that give rise to the different cells of the embryonic portion of the placenta. Here, we analysed the expression of key TSC transcription factors Cdx2, Eomes, and Elf5 in the early developing placenta of mouse embryos and in cultured TSCs and reveal surprising heterogeneity in protein levels. We analysed persistence of TSCs in the early placenta and find that TSCs remain in the chorionic hinge until E9.5 and are lost shortly afterwards. To define the transcriptional signature of bona fide TSCs, we used inducible gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Eomes or Cdx2, and EomesGFP, to manipulate and monitor the core maintenance factors of TSCs, followed by genome-wide expression profiling. Combinatorial analysis of resulting expression profiles allowed for defining novel TSC marker genes that might functionally contribute to the maintenance of the TSC state. Analyses by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridisation validated novel TSC- and chorion-specific marker genes, such as Bok/Mtd, Cldn26, Duox2, Duoxa2, Nr0b1, and Sox21. Thus, these expression data provide a valuable resource for the transcriptional signature of bona fide and early differentiating TSCs and may contribute to an increased understanding of the transcriptional circuitries that maintain and/or establish stemness of TSCs.

  2. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  3. The fowl tick, Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae): description of the egg and redescription of the larva by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Ashraf A

    2010-12-01

    This scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the egg of Argas persicus was covered with chorion which appeared as a wrinkled layer containing regions of three textures. The first had elevated parts of slightly rough surface. The second had irregular smooth elevations; each carried numerous parallel horizontal foldings with vertical ridges. The last region had rough surface with irregularly shaped projections. Following the removal of the chorion, shell was observed to have one polar micropyle and numerous slit like openings. Length (L), width (W) and L/W ratio of the egg were measured. Investigation of larvae revealed extensively folded integument of idiosoma and spherical or elongated tubercles on dorsal plate. Mouth enclosed between ventral hypostome and two dorsal chelicerae. Hypostome carried four longitudinal rows of conical denticles. Each chelicera was made up of two segments; the basal one appeared as a pocket for the distal one. Haller's organ consisted of an anterior pit containing seven sensilla and a posterior capsule with four apertures. Distribution of chemo- and mechano-sensilla on the body was examined. Measurements of whole body, idiosoma, dorsal plate, capitulum, hypostome, palp and different types of sensilla both on the body and Haller's organ are also presented. PMID:20607364

  4. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. PMID:6198739

  5. Ultrastructural Changes of Corpus Luteum after Ovarian Stimulation at Implantation Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve multiple oocytes for in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction is induced by gonadotropins; however, it has several effects on oocytes and embryo quality and endometrium receptivity. The aim of this study was to assess ultrastructural changes of corpus luteum after ovarian induction using human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin during luteal phase at implantation period. Methods: Female NMRI mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into control and stimulated groups. In the control group, the mice were rendered pseudo pregnant and in the ovarian induction group, the mice were rendered pseudo pregnant after the ovarian induction. The samples were obtained from the ovary in each group at the same time during luteal phase at implantation period. Ultrastructural changes were assessed using electron microscopy study. Results: Our results displayed some identifiable changes in ultrastructure of corpus luteum in ovarian induction group. These changes included enhancement of the apoptosis and intercellular space, whereas the angio genesis was decreased. The findings indicated a decline in organelle density in the cytoplasm of ovarian induction, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and polyribosome. Furthermore, chromatin condensation of nuclei was observed in some cells. Conclusion: The ovarian induction using human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in some ultrastructural changes on the corpus luteum at implantation period, which could affect on the pregnancy rate.

  6. Phenylalanine metabolism regulates reproduction and parasite melanization in the malaria mosquito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Fuchs

    Full Text Available The blood meal of the female malaria mosquito is a pre-requisite to egg production and also represents the transmission route for the malaria parasite. The proper and rapid assimilation of proteins and nutrients in the blood meal creates a significant metabolic challenge for the mosquito. To better understand this process we generated a global profile of metabolite changes in response to blood meal of Anopheles gambiae, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. To disrupt a key pathway of amino acid metabolism we silenced the gene phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH involved in the conversion of the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. We observed increased levels of phenylalanine and the potentially toxic metabolites phenylpyruvate and phenyllactate as well as a reduction in the amount of tyrosine available for melanin synthesis. This in turn resulted in a significant impairment of the melanotic encapsulation response against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Furthermore silencing of PAH resulted in a significant impairment of mosquito fertility associated with reduction of laid eggs, retarded vitellogenesis and impaired melanisation of the chorion. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the downstream enzyme DOPA decarboxylase that coverts DOPA into dopamine, produced similar effects on egg melanization and hatching rate suggesting that egg chorion maturation is mainly regulated via dopamine. This study sheds new light on the role of amino acid metabolism in regulating reproduction and immunity.

  7. Invasive implantation and intimate placental associations in a placentotrophic African lizard, Trachylepis ivensi (scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2012-02-01

    In the viviparous lizard Trachylepis ivensi (Scincidae) of central Africa, reproducing females ovulate tiny ∼1 mm eggs and supply the nutrients for development by placental means. Histological study shows that this species has evolved an extraordinary placental pattern long thought to be confined to mammals, in which fetal tissues invade the uterine lining to contact maternal blood vessels. The vestigial shell membrane disappears very early in development, allowing the egg to absorb uterine secretions. The yolk is enveloped precocially by the trilaminar yolk sac and no isolated yolk mass or yolk cleft develops. Early placentas are formed from the chorion and choriovitelline membranes during the neurula through pharyngula stages. During implantation, cells of the chorionic ectoderm penetrate between uterine epithelial cells. The penetrating tissue undergoes hypertrophy and hyperplasia, giving rise to sheets of epithelial tissue that invade beneath the uterine epithelium, stripping it away. As a result, fetal epithelium entirely replaces the uterine epithelium, and lies in direct contact with maternal capillaries and connective tissue. Placentation is endotheliochorial and fundamentally different from that of all other viviparous reptiles known. Further, the pattern of fetal membrane development (with successive loss and re-establishment of an extensive choriovitelline membrane) is unique among vertebrates. T. ivensi represents a new extreme in placental specializations of reptiles, and is the most striking case of convergence on the developmental features of viviparous mammals known. PMID:21956253

  8. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in D...... intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss.......The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in...... conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no...

  9. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation Status of CpGs in Placental DNA and Maternal Blood DNA--Potential New Epigenetic Biomarkers for Cell Free Fetal DNA-Based Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hatt

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markers for cell free fetal DNA in the maternal blood circulation are highly interesting in the field of non-invasive prenatal testing since such markers will offer a possibility to quantify the amount of fetal DNA derived from different chromosomes in a maternal blood sample. The aim of the present study was to define new fetal specific epigenetic markers present in placental DNA that can be utilized in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted a high-resolution methylation specific beadchip microarray study assessing more than 450.000 CpG sites. We have analyzed the DNA methylation profiles of 10 maternal blood samples and compared them to 12 1st trimesters chorionic samples from normal placentas, identifying a number of CpG sites that are differentially methylated in maternal blood cells compared to chorionic tissue. To strengthen the utility of these differentially methylated CpG sites to be used with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE in PCR-based NIPD, we furthermore refined the list of selected sites, containing a restriction sites for one of 16 different methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. We present a list of markers on chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 with a potential for aneuploidy testing as well as a list of markers for regions harboring sub-microscopic deletion- or duplication syndromes.

  10. Egg donor pregnancy: a potential pitfall in DNA genotyping diagnosis of hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-09-01

    A 34-yr-old woman presented with missed abortion at 10 wk of estimated clinical gestational age and underwent dilation and curettage. Gross and microscopic evaluation of the uterine contents revealed the presence of mildly hydropic, dysmorphic chorionic villi, with occasional trophoblastic pseudo-inclusions. The morphologic features raised the suspicion for partial hydatidiform mole, and DNA genotyping was performed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification system. The chorionic villous tissue showed unique alleles - not present in the maternal decidual tissue - at 12 of the 15 short tandem repeat loci, and 8 loci showed 2 unique alleles, suggesting a diandric, paternal-only genome. In contrast, p57 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a normal staining pattern with positive nuclear staining in villous stromal cells and cytotrophoblasts. Review of the patient's medical records revealed that the pregnancy was conceived through in vitro fertilization with egg donor embryos, explaining the presence of unexpected alleles simulating a dispermic complete mole on DNA genotyping. This is the first case report illustrating that an egg donor pregnancy may mimic a complete hydatidiform mole on DNA genotyping. PMID:25083967

  11. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  12. Bisphenol A alters β-hCG and MIF release by human placenta: an in vitro study to understand the role of endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, C; Ietta, F; Carotenuto, C; Romagnoli, R; Szostek, A Z; Wasniewski, T; Skarzynski, D J; Paulesu, Luana

    2014-01-01

    A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA). As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2) was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%). After 24-48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( β -hCG) and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF). The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β -hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta. PMID:24737926

  13. Decorin expression is decreased in first trimester placental tissue from pregnancies with small for gestation age infants at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, P; van Zanten, D E; Eijsink, J J H; Borg, A J; Stevenson, J L; Kalionis, B; Chui, A K; Said, J M; Brennecke, S P; Erwich, J J H M

    2016-09-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR pregnancies are often associated with histological evidence of placental vascular thrombosis. The proteoglycans are important components and regulators of vascular homeostasis. Previous studies from our laboratory highlighted mRNA and protein expression differences in placental proteoglycan decorin (DCN), within a clinically well-characterised cohort of third-trimester idiopathic FGR compared with gestation-matched uncomplicated control pregnancies. We also showed that decorin contributes to abnormal angiogenesis and increased thrombin generation in vitro. These observations suggest that DCN gene expression may contribute to the etiology of FGR. Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used as a proxy for FGR and is defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of a birth weight curve. We therefore made use of a unique resource of first trimester tissues obtained via chorionic villus sampling during the first trimester to investigate the temporal relationship between altered DCN expression and any subsequent development of SGA. We hypothesized that placental DCN expression is decreased early in gestation in SGA pregnancies. Surplus chorionic villus specimens from 15 women subsequently diagnosed with FGR and 50 from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were collected. DCN mRNA and DCN protein were determined using real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Both DCN mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in placentae from first-trimester SGA-pregnancies compared with controls (p development of SGA. PMID:27577711

  14. Comparative radiochemical and radio-immunometrical study on trophoblast-dependent serum parameters under parturition, and radio-immunological detection of pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein [SP1] in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    77 deliveries were studied clinically and chemically bench-scale using data acquisition sheets applicable for computer operation. According to a catalog 30 normal, 32 abnormal and 15 births featuring EPH gestosis were clearly defined and classified. Radiochemical or radio-immunometrical methods were used to simultaneously analyse and evaluate statistically the following 'trophoblast-dependent serum parameters' in subpartem and postpartem maternal blood, and in aterialized or pooled venous-arterialized umbilicalchord blood in the case groups mentioned above: - 17 β-hydroxysteroid; NAD(P)-oxydoreductase (17 β-HSD; - free oestriol (fE3); -β-subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG); - Human Chorionic Somatomammatropin (hCS=hPL); - and pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein (SP1). A systematic study was made for the statistical correlations between trophoblast - dependent serum parameters and plancental and neonatal findings as well as for possible correlations between the serum parameters in both the maternal and fetal blood distribution spaces. (orig./MG)

  15. Study of Positive and Negative Consequences of Using GnRH Antagonist in Intrauterine Insemination Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the usefulness of premature luteinization hormone (LH surge preventionin an intrauterine insemination (IUI cycle by GnRH antagonist administration.Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with unexplained or mild male infertility or minimalto mild endometriosis were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. There weretwenty patients in group A (with GnRH antagonist and 40 patients in group B (without GnRHantagonist.In all of the participants, clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (CC+HMG wereused for ovarian stimulation. When at least one follicle with ≥ 16 mm diameter was seen, LH surgewas checked by a urinary LH kit. In patients with negative results, human chorionic gonadotropinwas continued in both groups, but in group A 0.25 mg Ganirelix SQ was administered for two days,,then in both groups human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected on the third day and IUIwas done 36-40 hours later. Ongoing pregnancy was the primary outcome.Results: Baseline characters and clinical parameters were similar in both groups with the exceptionof ≥14 mm follicles which were higher in group A (p value= 0.003. The pregnancy rate in bothgroups was not significantly different, although it was higher in group B (10% in group A and 15%in group B.Conclusion: At least in CC+HMG stimulated cycles for IUI, the occurrence of premature LHsurge could have a useful rule and GnRH antagonist administration could be an inappropriateintervention.

  16. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Kolstad, Henrik; Ernst, Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-10-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires. Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss. PMID:15383410

  17. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-10-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intraamniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient that favors the migration of neutrophils from the maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals that are released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and present in 3-5% of term placentas and in 94% of placentas delivered at 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in the fetal plasma concentration of interleukin-6, and associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multiorgan fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults: a risk factor for short- and long

  18. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  19. Clinical experience in humans with radiolabeled antibody for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal or monoclonal antibody and fragments of antibody, specific to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or to a melanoma cell surface antigen (MCSA) were injected into proven cancer patients. Using standard homeostasis parameters, and scanning techniques, the safety and efficacy of each antibody was evaluated. Antibody fragments were expected to clear faster from the circulation allowing for earlier imaging and a better target-to-non-target ratio. The technetium label may perturb the antiboby's kinetics so that clearance is more rapid for both whole antibody and fragments. After a statistical evaluation of all parameters measured pre and post injection it was concluded that no acute toxicity reactions were present in any patient studied. Scan results were not acceptable for a tumor detecting procedure used in routine practice. Tumor upake was seen in less than 10% of scans

  20. Salvage therapy in patients with germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most curable metastatic solid tumor. Initial chemotherapy is evidence based with risk stratification into three prognostic categories: good, intermediate, and advanced disease. Guidelines for disease management following progression after initial cisplatin combination chemotherapy are less clear. Options include salvage surgery for patients with anatomically confined relapse, standard-dose cisplatin combination chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin plus etoposide with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Proper interpretation of a presumed relapse can be complicated. Growing masses on imaging studies might reflect a growing teratoma. Persistent elevations of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are only an indication for salvage therapy if there is a definitive rise in the tumor marker. Elevated and rising serum hCG as the only evidence of recurrence can be because of cross reactivity with luteinizing hormone or usage of marijuana rather than progressive cancer. Elevated liver function tests can cause rising serum AFP. PMID:25993183

  1. Abnormal hCG levels in a patient with treated stage I seminoma: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick David G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a patient with treated Stage Ia seminoma who was found to have an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG on routine follow – up. This instigated restaging and could have lead to commencement of chemotherapy. Case presentation The patient was a bodybuilder, and following a negative metastatic work – up, admitted to injecting exogenous beta hCG. This was done to reduce withdrawal symptoms from androgen abuse. The patient remains well eight years post diagnosis. Conclusion This case highlights the need for surgical oncologists to conduct vigilant screening of young male patients with a history of testicular germ cell tumours and who may indulge in steroid abuse.

  2. Poor pregnancy outcome after octreotide treatment during pregnancy for familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Gitte O; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Iyore, Elisabeth; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Damm, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and an inappropriate insulinemic response. Treatment with octreotide (somatostatin analogue) reduces the prevalence of clinical significant hypoglycemia and might be beneficial during...... pregnancy. To our knowledge this is the first report of a woman with late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia experiencing pregnancies with and without octreotide treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian woman known to suffer from late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to a well...... following two pregnancies were terminated on parental request after a chorion villus biopsy revealed the mutation causing late familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. During the fourth pregnancy, in which the fetus also had the mutation, serial ultrasound examinations showed a small fetus with appropriate...

  3. Scanning probe and micropatterning approaches for biomolecular screening applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, L M

    2002-01-01

    Force mapping using atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for the simultaneous acquisition of topography and probe-sample interaction data. For example, AFM probes functionalised with an antigen can be employed to map the spatial distribution of recognition events on a substrate functionalised with the complementary specific antibody. However, this technique is currently limited to the detection of a single receptor-ligand species. Were the detection of multiple receptor-ligand interactions possible, AFM force mapping would offer greater scope as a sensitive tool for bioassay and screening applications. This thesis outlines developments in probe and substrate immobilisation methods to facilitate this process. We have developed an immobilisation strategy, which allows two antigen species, human serum albumin (HSA) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG) to be simultaneously present on an AFM probe. Single point force spectroscopy results have revealed the ability of such probes to discri...

  4. Monoclonal approach to investigate whether the idiotypic network plays a role in the formation of Graves' autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody (LE4) specific for a thyrotropin (TSH) epitope shared by beta subunits of bovine (b), ovine (o), and human (h) TSH was obtained by immunization of mice with mixtures of purified bTSH and hTSH. LE4 also bound the beta subunits of bovine, ovine, and human lutropin (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not the beta subunits of porcine LH and TSH. Preliminary studies with deglycosylated (dg) bTSH and dg-hCG indicated that part of the epitope may be carbohydrate. Preincubation of LE4 with [125I]bTSH inhibited the binding of the hormone to TSH receptor of bovine thyroid membranes in a dose-dependent manner. LE4 also inhibited TSH-induced mitogenesis of FRTL-5 cells. We conclude that LE4 binds to a site on the bTSH molecule that participates in high affinity binding of hormone to TSH receptor

  5. The effect of probiotics on broiler growth and intestinal morphology when used to prevent Campylobacter jejuni colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ştef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish the effect of probiotic microorganisms on growth performance and intestinal changes caused by Campylobacter jejuni colonization.In this respect, we used four probiotic microorganisms, namely: Lactobacillus paracasei JR, L. rhamnosus 15b, Y L. lactis and L. lactis FOA.The administration of probiotic microorganisms in different combinations and in different periods of growth does not significantly influence the bioproductive indices of broilers,that is,the total gain, feed intake and FCR (p>0.05. After studying the intestinal mucosa, it was concluded that the four microorganisms administered in broilers’s food determineschanges in the mucosa, inhibiting the development of Campylobacter jejuni,by the presence of smaller caliciform cells and the presence ofreduced leukocyte infiltration in the chorion of the mucosal.

  6. Placental Transmogrification of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Il Hwan; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Eom, Min Seob; Kim, Young Ju; Hwan, Joong Hwan [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Placental transmogrification is a very rare lung disease, where the alveoli resemble the chorionic villi of placenta, and this change is a characteristic finding. A 31-year-old female patient presented with cough and dyspnea that had begun 2 weeks prior to admission. Along with giant bulla found in the left upper lung field, subsegmental consolidation was also identified in the lingular segment on plain chest radiograph and CT scan. Wedge resection was performed to remove the bulla. Pathologic examination of the resected bulla revealed destruction of the normal structures and characteristic villous and papillary changes. These changes led to a diagnosis of placental transmogrification. We made an encounter of an unusual placental transmogrification which had different image findings from other reported transmogrification cases. Thus, we report an atypical placental transmogrification case where both consolidation and giant bulla coexist.

  7. Threatened miscarriage and intrauterine hematomas. Sonographic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, I; Campbell, S; Grudzinskas, J G

    1989-06-01

    In a prospective study of 406 women with threatened miscarriage (TMC), 22 (5.4%) had an intrauterine hematoma (less than 16 mL) noted ultrasonically, decreasing in size as the patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding. Twenty (91%) of the hematomas visualized were subchorionic and two (9%) were retroplacental. None of these women subsequently miscarried. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), Schwangerschafts protein 1 (SP1), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels measured in these patients were not significantly different in women with or without hematomas. We conclude that the presence of small intrauterine hematomas in women with TMC does not increase the risk of miscarriage. PMID:2472492

  8. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (tβ-HCG=4.845, tE=7.655, tP=11.390, PE=9.089, PP=2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  9. Ectopic pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Niziurski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of a pregnancy in a scar after Caesarean section is one of the rarest locations of ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis and/or treatment which is too late may lead to a uterine rupture, the necessity to remove the uterus and a significant increase in morbidity among mothers. The study presents a diagnostically difficult case of a 29-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with pregnancy in its seventh week, located in a scar after a Caesarean section, with highly increased values of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG concentration in blood serum. The pregnancy was removed and the wound was stitched during laparotomy, without a need to remove the uterus.

  10. Early abdominal pregnancy complicated by parasitic dermoid cyst: diagnosis by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and management by laparoendoscopic single-site surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Imoto, Sanae; Mori, Masahiko; Yamada, Junko; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    A 26-year-old primigravida patient was referred with suspicion of ectopic pregnancy 39 days after her last menstrual period. Her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin value was 3812 mIU/mL. As we suspected the existence of ectopic pregnancy with bilateral dermoid cysts, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery was performed. After dissection of dense pelvic adhesion, cystectomy was performed for a left ovarian dermoid cyst. Although there was a right ovary at the correct position, a parasitic dermoid cyst firmly attached to the peritoneal surface of cul-de-sac was identified. After excision of the parasitic dermoid cyst, early abdominal pregnancy tissue implanted in the peritoneal hollow of right deep pararectal space was identified under the guidance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and was excised. With systemic administration of methotorexate, the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:22935307

  11. Radioimmunodetection of human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficiency of radioimmuno-detection in locating the xenograft of human chorio-carcinoma in nude mouse. Methods: Radioimmuno-detection was performed using cocktail antibodies of 131I-labeled mouse anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibodies to locate the xenograft of human choriocarcinoma in nude mouse. Radioactivity in different tissues was measured and the tumor/non-tumor ratio was calculated. Normal mouse IgG was used as control IgG. Results: The accumulation of radioactivity in the xenograft area could be recognized as early as 24 h after the injection of the radiolabelled antibodies. 72-96 h after the injection, the xenograft could be clearly shown. The minimal shown xenograft was 0.8 cm in diameter. The tumor/non-tumor ratio increased with the time and was obviously higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Radioimmunodetection can efficiently locate human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse.

  12. Monoclonal approach to investigate whether the idiotypic network plays a role in the formation of Graves' autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LE4) specific for a thyrotropin (TSH) epitope shared by beta subunits of bovine (b), ovine (o), and human (h) TSH was obtained by immunization of mice with mixtures of purified bTSH and hTSH. LE4 also bound the beta subunits of bovine, ovine, and human lutropin (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not the beta subunits of porcine LH and TSH. Preliminary studies with deglycosylated (dg) bTSH and dg-hCG indicated that part of the epitope may be carbohydrate. Preincubation of LE4 with (/sup 125/I)bTSH inhibited the binding of the hormone to TSH receptor of bovine thyroid membranes in a dose-dependent manner. LE4 also inhibited TSH-induced mitogenesis of FRTL-5 cells. We conclude that LE4 binds to a site on the bTSH molecule that participates in high affinity binding of hormone to TSH receptor.

  13. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  14. Biotinylated Y chromosome specific probe for human sexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human chromosome DNA from WBC or fetus chorion samples were digested with Hae III and hybridized with biotinylated Y chromosome specific probe by Southern blotting, and hybridization signals were developed by the ABC (Avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex) system. The hybridization signal for 0.1 μg of male DNA could be detected clearly, while the signal for even 5 μg of female DNA could not. Parallel tests showed that the sexing results using 32P-labeled and biotinylated Y probe were identical. This suggests that the biotinylated Y probe can be applied to the determination of X-linked genetic diseases and sex abnormality, forensic analysis, sex determination of sportsmen and women, heterosexual transplanation of bone marrow, etc. It could become a convenient means for genetic diagnosis

  15. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morick, Danny; Faigenbaum, Or; Smirnov, Margarita; Fellig, Yakov; Inbal, Adi; Kotler, Moshe

    2015-05-15

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a member of the Betanodavirus genus that causes fatal diseases in over 40 species of fish worldwide. Mortality among NNV-infected fish larvae is almost 100%. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the susceptibility of fish larvae to NNV, we exposed zebrafish larvae to NNV by bath immersion at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days postfertilization (dpf). Here, we demonstrate that developing zebrafish embryos are resistant to NNV at 2 dpf due to the protection afforded by the egg chorion and, to a lesser extent, by the perivitelline fluid. The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. PMID:25746990

  16. Evolution of placental function in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    gas exchange. They evolved following duplications within the beta-globin gene family with convergent evolution occurring in ruminants and primates. In primates there was also an interesting rearrangement of a cassette of genes in relation to an upstream locus control region. Substrate transfer from...... placental lactogens from the growth hormone and prolactin genes. There has been a remarkable degree of convergent evolution with placental lactogens emerging separately in the ruminant, rodent, and primate lineages and chorionic gonadotropins evolving separately in equids and higher primates. Finally......, coevolution in the primate lineage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens can be linked to the deep invasion of the uterus by trophoblast that is a characteristic feature of human placentation....

  17. History of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for signaling pregnancy recognition is highly variable among species, and the signaling molecule itself varies between estrogens in pigs to chorionic gonadotrophin in primates. This chapter provides insight into the menstrual cycle of women and estrous cycles of rodents, dog, cat, pigs, sheep, rabbits, and marsupials, as well as the hormones required for pregnancy recognition. Pregnancy recognition involves specific hormones such as prolactin in rodents or interferons in ruminants and estrogens in pigs that in their own way ensure the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone which is the hormone of pregnancy. However, these pregnancy recognition signals may also modify gene expression in a cell-specific and temporal manner to ensure the growth and development of the conceptus. This chapter provides some historical aspects of the development of understanding of mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in several species of mammals. PMID:26450492

  18. The antigenic properties of human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antigenic properties of human prolactin (HPr) were studied using various methods of radio-immuno assay. The homologous system, the difficulty of which resides in the preparation of the tracer, easily permits measurement of physiological levels. In this system, blood prolactin in the monkey has an antigenicity comparable with that of human prolactin, whereas growth hormone and human chorionic somatotropin have feeble or nil antigenic relationship with HPr. Human, sheep and pig prolactins have variable antigenic cross-reactions depending on the immune serum used. These antigenic cross reactions may be applied to the isolation of amniotic prolactin. Human blood prolactin has several components of different molecular weight, but antigenicity comparable with that of pituitary HPr

  19. Regiospecificity of placental metabolism by cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, D J; Glover, D D; Tracy, T S

    1996-01-01

    The placenta possesses the ability to metabolize numerous xenobiotics and endogenous steroids. However, it is unknown whether regional differences in these enzymatic reactions exist in the human placenta. To this end, we undertook a study of four regions of the placenta, the chorionic plate, maternal surface, placental margin and whole tissue, to assess the activities of cytochrome P450 1A1 and 19A1 (aromatase) and glutathione S-stransferase in these fractions. No differences in either P450 1A1 or glutathione S-transferase activities were noted among any of the placental fractions. However, with respect to P450 19A1 activity, the placental margin differed significantly from all other fractions (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that whole tissue samples of the human placenta are adequate for placental cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase metabolism studies. PMID:8938464

  20. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood......Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...