WorldWideScience

Sample records for chorioamnionitis inhibits alveolar

  1. Modern Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Westover

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical chorioamnionitis continues to contribute to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years in understanding the pathophysiologic processes leading to chorioamnionitis. This review addresses the history, incidence, pathophysiology, host defenses, risk factors, diagnosis, and maternal and neonatal management of clinically evident chorioamnionitis. After a detailed review of the physiologic processes leading to clinical chorioamnionitis and sepsis, we present a modern management scheme designed to optimize perinatal outcome for both mother and fetus.

  2. Chorioamnionitis due to Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical chorioamnionitis can result either from the ascending organisms from vagina after rupture of membranes or via the blood stream. This report describes a case of chorioamnionitis caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, an unusual organism associated with this infection. A 19-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation presented with the complaints of fever, pain in the abdomen, and discharge per vaginum for the past 2 days. Watery, odorless, colorless, and discharge passing intermittently were noticed. A. haemolyticum was isolated from amniotic fluid. Upon induction, a healthy male baby weighing 1.9 kg was delivered. The patient was started on gentamicin and metronidazole for 8 days. Recovery was uneventful. The mother and baby were discharged on ninth day. Chorioamnionitis can result in significant maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hence, it is important to ascertain the prompt diagnosis and treatment of suspected cases. Increase in awareness of clinicians and laboratories will reduce misdiagnosis and facilitate appropriate treatment.

  3. Effects of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition on alveolarization and hyperoxia toxicity in newborn rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Méhats

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged neonatal exposure to hyperoxia is associated with high mortality, leukocyte influx in airspaces, and impaired alveolarization. Inhibitors of type 4 phosphodiesterases are potent anti-inflammatory drugs now proposed for lung disorders. The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of the prototypal phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram on alveolar development and on hyperoxia-induced lung injury. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Rat pups were placed under hyperoxia (FiO2>95% or room air from birth, and received rolipram or its diluent daily until sacrifice. Mortality rate, weight gain and parameters of lung morphometry were recorded on day 10. Differential cell count and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and cytokine mRNA levels in whole lung were recorded on day 6. Rolipram diminished weight gain either under air or hyperoxia. Hyperoxia induced huge mortality rate reaching 70% at day 10, which was prevented by rolipram. Leukocyte influx in bronchoalveolar lavage under hyperoxia was significantly diminished by rolipram. Hyperoxia increased transcript and protein levels of IL-6, MCP1, and osteopontin; rolipram inhibited the increase of these proteins. Alveolarization was impaired by hyperoxia and was not restored by rolipram. Under room air, rolipram-treated pups had significant decrease of Radial Alveolar Count. CONCLUSIONS: Although inhibition of phosphodiesterases 4 prevented mortality and lung inflammation induced by hyperoxia, it had no effect on alveolarization impairment, which might be accounted for by the aggressiveness of the model. The less complex structure of immature lungs of rolipram-treated pups as compared with diluent-treated pups under room air may be explained by the profound effect of PDE4 inhibition on weight gain that interfered with normal alveolarization.

  4. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  5. Cigarette Smoke Extract Inhibits the Proliferation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Augments the Expression of P21WAF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongxian JIAO; Qilin AO; Xiaona GE; Mi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is intimately related with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and alveolar epithelium is a major target for the exposure of cigarette smoke ex- tract. In order to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke extract on the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱand its relationship with P21WAF1, the alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cell line (A549) cells were chosen as surrogate cells to represent alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after interfered with different concentrations of cigarette smoke ex-tract. It was observed cigarette smoke extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The morphological changes, involving the condensation and margination of nuclear chromatin, even karyorrhexis, were observed by both Hoechst staining and electronic mi-croscopy. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the increased cell percentages in G1 and subG1phases after the cells were incubated with cigarette smoke extract. The expression of p21WAF1 protein and mRNA was also significantly increased as detected by the methods of Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱ and blocks them in G1/S phase. The intracellular accumulation of P21WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to cigarette smoke ex-tract-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  6. Chorioamnionitis and Lung Injury in Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong evidence that histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with a reduction of incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Short-term maturational effects on the lungs of extremely premature infants seem to be, however, accompanied by a greater susceptibility of the lung, eventually contributing to an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Genetic susceptibility to BPD is an evolving area of research and several studies have directly related the risk of BPD to genomic variants. There is a substantial heterogeneity across the studies in the magnitude of the association between chorioamnionitis and BPD, and whether or not the association is statistically significant. Considerable variation is largely dependent on differences of inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as on clinical and histopathological definitions. The presence of significant publication bias may exaggerate the magnitude of the association. Controlling for publication bias may conduct to adjusted results that are no longer significant. Recent studies generally seem to confirm the effect of chorioamnionitis on RDS incidence, while no effect on BPD is seen. Recent data suggest susceptibility for subsequent asthma to be increased on long-term followup. Additional research on this field is needed.

  7. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Weiden

    Full Text Available While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1 in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages.

  8. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in alveolar macrophages by adenovirus gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua; Connor, Ruth; Worgall, Stefan; Moore, John P; Leopold, Philip L; Kaner, Robert J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2002-08-01

    To assess the hypothesis that infection of alveolar macrophages (AM) with adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors might prevent subsequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in AM, AM isolated from normal volunteers were infected with increasing doses of first generation (E1(-)) Ad vectors, followed 72 h later by infection with HIV-1(JRFL), an R5/M-tropic strain that preferentially uses the CCR5 coreceptor. As a measure of HIV-1 replication, p24 Ag was quantified by enzyme-linked imunosorbent assay in supernatants on Days 4 to 14 after HIV-1infection. Pretreatment of the AM with an Ad vector resulted in a dose- and time-dependent suppression of subsequent HIV-1 replication. The Ad vector inhibition of HIV-1 replication was independent of the transgene in the Ad vector expression cassette and E4 genes in the Ad backbone. Moreover, it did not appear to be secondary to a soluble factor released by the AM, nor was it overridden by the concomitant transfer of the CCR5 or CXCR4 receptors to the AM before HIV-1 infection. These observations have implications regarding pulmonary host responses associated with HIV-1 infection, as well as possibly uncovering new therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection.

  9. Surface iron inhibits quartz-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Scherbart, Agnes M; Fenoglio, Ivana; Grendene, Francesca; Turci, Francesco; Martra, Gianmario; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P F; Fubini, Bice

    2011-01-14

    The mechanism of enhancement/inhibition of quartz toxicity induced by iron is still unclear. Here the amount of iron on a fibrogenic quartz (Qz) was increased by wet impregnation (Fe(NO(3))(3) 0.67 and 6.7 wt %). X-ray diffraction (XRD), XRF diffuse reflectance, UV-vis, and infrared (IR) spectroscopies revealed dispersed ferric ions, and hematite aggregates at the higher loading. Surface features relevant to pathogenicity and cell responses were compared not only to the original quartz but also to reference quartz DQ12. Surface charge (ζ-potential) was more negative on the original and low-loaded specimen than on the high-loaded one. DQ12 had a less negative ζ-potential than Qz, ascribed to the absence of aluminium present in Qz (1.7 wt %). All quartz specimens were able to generate HO(•) radicals, iron-loaded samples being more reactive than original quartz. Iron deposition inhibited the rupture of a C-H bond. All quartzes were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ cell line NR8383) to the same extent, irrespective of their surface state. Conversely, iron loading increased AMΦ viability (evaluated by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis). Qz was found to be much less cytotoxic than DQ12. The induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses (evaluated by HO-1 mRNA expression and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression) revealed a reduction in inflammogenicity upon iron loading and a more inflammogenic potency of DQ12 ascribed to undissociated SiOH interacting via H-bonding with cell membrane components. The results suggest that besides aluminium also iron at the quartz surface may have an inhibitory effect on adverse health responses.

  10. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  11. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    F. Azouzi; C. Chahed; Marzouk, M.; A. Ferjani; N. Hannechi; M. Fekih; Y. Ben Salem; J. Boukadida

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  12. Knockdown of flotillin-2 inhibits lung surfactant secretion by alveolar type Ⅱ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari; Deming Gou; Lin Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Lung surfactant is stored in lamellar bodies and exocytosed following fusion of the lamellar bodies with the plasma membrane of alveolar type Ⅱ (AT2) cells [1].A number of proteins have been shown to be involved in surfactant secretion including SNAREs,NSF,α-SNAP and annexin A2 [2,3].Lipid rafts enriched in SNAREs are crucial for surfactant secretion [4].

  13. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  14. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α reduces alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng; CAI Shan; CHEN Ping; CHEN Jian-bo; WU Jie; WU Shang-jie; ZHOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that lung cell apoptosis plays an important role in pathogenesis of cigarette-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α)is one of the most important cytokines which are involved in COPD.This study aimed at investigating the jnfluence of its inhibitor,recombinant human necrosis factor-alpha receptor Ⅱ:IgG Fc fusion protein(rhTNFR:Fc)on alveolar septal cell apoptosis in passive smoking rats.Methods Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into a normal control group,a passive smoking group,an rhTNFR:Fc intervention group and a sham intervention group.The passive smoking rats were treated by exposure to cigarette smoking daily for 80 days.Afcer smoking for one month the rhTNFR:Fc Intervention group was treated with rhTNFR:Fc by subcutaneous injection,the sham intervention group injected subcutaneousIv with a neutral preparation(normal saline 0.1 ml,manicol 0.8 ml,cane sugar 0.2 mg,Tris 0.024 mg as a control.Lung function was determined and the levels of TNF-α in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid(BALF)were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA).Lung tissue sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin(HE)were observed for study of morphological alternations.Mean linear intercept(MLI)and mean alveolar numbers(MAN)were measured and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)method was carried out to determine the percentage of positive cells and distribution of apoptotic cells.Results Increased MLI and decreased MAN were found in the passive smoking group compared with both the normal control group and the rhTNFR:Fc intervention group(P<0.05).Forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second(FEV0.3)/forced vital capacity(FVC)and peak expiratory flow(PEF)were lower in the passive smoking group than that in the normal control group(P<0.05).Compared with the sham intervention group,FEV0.3/FVC and PEF increased in the rhTNFR:Fc intervention

  15. Low pH Environmental Stress Inhibits LPS and LTA-Stimulated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley F. Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric aspiration increases the risks for developing secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cytokine elaboration through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs is an important mechanism in initiating innate immune host response. Effects of low pH stress, a critical component of aspiration pathogenesis, on the PRR pathways were examined, specifically toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2 and TLR4, using isolated rat alveolar macrophages (aMØs. We assessed the ability of aMØs after brief exposure to acidified saline to elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA stimulation, known ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. Low pH stress reduced LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine release (CINC-1, MIP-2, TNF-, MCP-1, and IFN-. LPS and LTA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations while Ca2+ chelation by BAPTA decreased LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine responses. BAPTA blocked the effects of low pH stress on most of LPS-stimulated cytokines but not of LTA-stimulated responses. In vivo mouse model demonstrates suppressed E. coli and S. pneumoniae clearance following acid aspiration. In conclusion, low pH stress inhibits antibacterial cytokine response of aMØs due to impaired TLR2 (MyD88 pathway and TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF pathways. The role of Ca2+ in low pH stress-induced signaling is complex but appears to be distinct between LPS- and LTA-mediated responses.

  16. Antibiotic Therapy for Chorioamnionitis to Reduce the Global Burden of Associated Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clark T.; Adami, Rebecca R.; Farzin, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In developed countries, great progress has been made to minimize the impact of chorioamnionitis, through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. In the global setting, where many women deliver outside the healthcare facilities, this diagnosis is frequently overlooked and not properly treated. In addition to its impact on maternal health, a significant proportion of neonatal morbidity and mortality can be prevented by both recognition and access to readily available treatment. With the increasing focus on saving the most vulnerable members of society, we echo the need for providing parturient women with suspected chorioamnionitis universal access to appropriate therapy. We describe known effective antibiotic therapies for chorioamnionitis and provide an overview of additional potential antimicrobial treatments that might be effectively implemented in areas with limited access to care. PMID:28352229

  17. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevents intestinal development during gestation in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim G A M Wolfs

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis is the most significant source of prenatal inflammation and preterm delivery. Prematurity and prenatal inflammation are associated with compromised postnatal developmental outcomes, of the intestinal immune defence, gut barrier function and the vascular system. We developed a sheep model to study how the antenatal development of the gut was affected by gestation and/or by endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis.Chorioamnionitis was induced at different gestational ages (GA. Animals were sacrificed at low GA after 2d or 14d exposure to chorioamnionitis. Long term effects of 30d exposure to chorioamnionitis were studied in near term animals after induction of chorioamnionitis. The cellular distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 was shown to be underdeveloped at low GA whereas endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevented the maturation of tight junctions during later gestation. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis did not induce an early (2d inflammatory response in the gut in preterm animals. However, 14d after endotoxin administration preterm animals had increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive cells and gammadelta T-cells which lasted till 30d after induction of chorioamnionitis in then near term animals. At early GA, low intestinal TLR-4 and MD-2 mRNA levels were detected which were further down regulated during endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis. Predisposition to organ injury by ischemia was assessed by the vascular function of third-generation mesenteric arteries. Endotoxin-exposed animals of low GA had increased contractile response to the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in responses to acetylcholine. The administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor completely restored endothelial dysfunction suggesting reduced NO bioavailability which was not due to low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.Our results indicate that the distribution of the tight

  18. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority.

  19. Characterization, anticancer drug susceptibility and atRA-induced growth inhibition of a novel cell line (HUMEMS) established from pleural effusion of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Satoshi

    2007-05-01

    We recently established a cell line derived from pleural effusion from a 13-year-old girl with primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS with a chromosomal translocation t[2;13]) in the breast tissue. The cell line was designated as HUMEMS. Cases of primary alveolar RMS swelling in the breast are extremely rare (about 0.2% of all RMSs). Therefore, the HUMEMS cell line is an important material for studying therapeutics for malignant tumors in children. The HUMEMS cell line we isolated consisted of two morphological subtypes. One type (SSN cells) is small in size and has a single nucleus. Another (LMN cells) is large in size and has two or more nuclei. Both SSN cells and LMN cells were immunohistochemically positive for desmin and slightly positive for myoglobin. Our data suggested LMN cells are well-differentiated SSN cells. Moreover, in some of the LMN cells, rapid cell contractions (1-5 times/10 sec) were observed. We investigated the anticancer drug susceptibility of the HUMEMS cell line with an oxygen electrode apparatus (Daikin, DOX-10, JPN) and effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) to the cell line. The atRA-treatment inhibited proliferation of the HUMEMS cells.

  20. TNF-α mediated increase of HIF-1α inhibits VASP expression, which reduces alveolar-capillary barrier function during acute lung injury (ALI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengjie; Tian, Yihao; Li, Doulin; Lv, Jiawei; Li, Qun; Kuang, Changchun; Hu, Pengchao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Su, Ke; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disorder associated with reduced alveolar-capillary barrier function and increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is widely associated with all types of modulations of cytoskeleton rearrangement-dependent cellular morphology and function, such as adhesion, shrinkage, and permeability. The present studies were conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms by which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) increases the tight junction permeability in lung tissue associated with acute lung inflammation. After incubating A549 cells for 24 hours with different concentrations (0-100 ng/mL) of TNF-α, 0.1 to 8 ng/mL TNF-α exhibited no significant effect on cell viability compared with the 0 ng/mL TNF-α group (control group). However, 10 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL TNF-α dramatically inhibited the viability of A549 cells compared with the control group (*pTNF-α for 24 hours displayed significantly increased cell permeability (*pinhibition of VASP expression increased the cell permeability (*pTNF-α in lung tissues and serum significantly increased at one hour, and the value reached a peak at four hours. Moreover, the Evans Blue absorption value of the mouse lung tissues reached a peak at four hours. The HIF-1α protein expression level in mouse lung tissues increased significantly at four hours and eight hours (**pTNF-α to inhibit VASP expression and to modulate the acute pulmonary inflammation process, and these molecules play an important role in the impairment of the alveolar-capillary barrier.

  1. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited nuclear factor-кB activation in alveolar macrophages by different mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-qing LI; Zhen-xiang ZHANG; Yong-jian XU; Wang NI; Shi-xin CHEN; Zhao YANG; Dan MA

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC)and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(PDTC)on the phosphorylation of IκB kinase(IKK)β,IKKα,and IκBa in alveolar macrophages(AM),and to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of NAC and PDTC as inhibitors of NF-κB activation.Methods:AM were collected from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.The AM were incubated for 1.5h with NAC and PDTC,and then stimulated for 90 min by either tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α or interleukin(IL)-1.Western blotting was used to detect the protein phosphorylation levels of IKKβ,IKKα,and IκBα.NF-κB activity was analyzed by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay.Resuits:NAC inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKβ,IKKα,and IκBα induced by TNF-α,but had no effect on the phosphorylation of IKKβ,IKKα and IκBα induced by IL-1.PDTC did not inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα induced by TNF-α or IL-1.Similarly,NAC inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α,but had no effect on the activation of NF-κB induced by IL-1.PDTC significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α and IL-1.The electrophoretic mobility shift assay also showed that PDTC and NAC do not directly inhibit NF-κB DNA binding activity in vitro.Conclusion:PDTC prevents the degradation of IκBα via the ubiquitylation-proteasome proteolytic pathway.NAC can inhibit the processes upstream of IKK activation induced by TNF-α,which results in the decline of NF-κB activity.

  2. Alveolar Macrophage Polarisation in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Almatroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer is multifaceted and conflicting. Alveolar macrophage secretion of proinflammatory cytokines has been found to enhance antitumour functions, cytostasis (inhibition of tumour growth, and cytotoxicity (macrophage-mediated killing. In contrast, protumour functions of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer have also been indicated. Inhibition of antitumour function via secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 as well as reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reduction of mannose receptor expression on alveolar macrophages may contribute to lung cancer progression and metastasis. Alveolar macrophages have also been found to contribute to angiogenesis and tumour growth via the secretion of IL-8 and VEGF. This paper reviews the evidence for a dual role of alveolar macrophages in lung cancer progression.

  3. A clinical prediction rule for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological chorioamnionitis (HC is an intrauterine inflammatory process highly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcome. HC is often clinically silent and diagnosed postnatally by placental histology. Earlier identification could facilitate treatment individualisation to improve outcome in preterm newborns. AIM: Develop a clinical prediction rule at birth for HC and HC with fetal involvement (HCF in preterm newborns. METHODS: Clinical data and placental pathology were obtained from singleton preterm newborns (gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks born at Erasmus UMC Rotterdam from 2001 to 2003 (derivation cohort; n = 216 or Máxima MC Veldhoven from 2009 to 2010 (validation cohort; n = 206. HC and HCF prediction rules were developed with preference for high sensitivity using clinical variables available at birth. RESULTS: HC and HCF were present in 39% and 24% in the derivation cohort and in 44% and 22% in the validation cohort, respectively. HC was predicted with 87% accuracy, yielding an area under ROC curve of 0.95 (95%CI = 0.92-0.98, a positive predictive value of 80% (95%CI = 74-84%, and a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI = 88-96%. Corresponding figures for HCF were: accuracy 83%, area under ROC curve 0.92 (95%CI = 0.88-0.96, positive predictive value 59% (95%CI = 52-62%, and negative predictive value 97% (95%CI = 93-99%. External validation expectedly resulted in some loss of test performance, preferentially affecting positive predictive rather than negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: Using a clinical prediction rule composed of clinical variables available at birth, HC and HCF could be predicted with good test characteristics in preterm newborns. Further studies should evaluate the clinical value of these rules to guide early treatment individualisation.

  4. Early Postnatal Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants : Effects of Chorioamnionitis and Timing of Antenatal Steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Jasper V.; Kornelisse, Rene F.; Rours, Ingrid G. I. J. G.; Passos, Valeria Lima; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest postnatal blood pressure in preterm infants to be decreased by chorioamnionitis and increased by antenatal steroids (AS). We examined the adjusted effects of both antenatal modulators on postnatal blood pressure (BP), with separate effects reported for histologic chorioamnio

  5. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebi Christoph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30, chorioamnionitis (n = 33 and asphyxia (n = 25 were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155 neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419. Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  6. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Cesar M.; Wells, Casey B.; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. PMID:25451985

  7. [A clinical study on the efficacy of ceftazidime and aspoxicillin in chorioamnionitis. Abdominal Infections Research Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimura, T; Hirayama, T; Oda, T; Saito, N; Sato, S; Numazaki, M

    1994-09-01

    Chorioamnionitis as a complication of threatened abortion and preterm labor and preterm PROM were treated with ceftazidime (CAZ) and aspoxicillin (ASPC) as a primary therapy. The following results were obtained. 1. Cases of threatened abortion and preterm labor (n = 25) and preterm PROM (n = 5) were treated with 2-4 g CAZ/day alone (n = 14) or in combination with 4 g ASPC/day (n = 16) along with a uterine contraction inhibitor (ritodrine hydrochloride etc. n = 28) and clinical evaluation was made. 2. In the cases of threatened abortion and preterm labor the efficacy ratio was 24/25 (96%). In the cases of preterm PROM, the latent period-delaying effect was observed in five out of the five patients. Upon analysis of the tocolysis index in the group of threatened abortion and preterm labor, the index values > or = 5 were observed in 12 out of 25 (60%), and the delivery incidence before the 35th week of gestation was 4/25 (16%). In all patients, the incidence of delivery after the 36th week of gestation was 24/30 (80%). 3. Bacteriological examinations showed a high detection rate for Gram-positive bacteria, and the combination effect between ASPC and CAZ was demonstrated against all 9 isolates examined. The above results indicated a high efficacy as well as safety of the combination of CAZ and ASPC as a primary therapeutic means against chorioamnionitis.

  8. Chorioamnionitis and increased galectin-1 expression in PPROM –an anti-inflammatory response in the fetal membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Kim, Sung-Su; Abbas, Asad; Han, Yu Mi; Hotra, John; Tarca, Adi L.; Erez, Offer; Wildman, Derek E.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Pineles, Beth; Montenegro, Daniel; Edwin, Samuel S.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S.; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Problem Galectin-1 can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation. We determined galectin-1 expression in the chorioamniotic membranes and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis. Methods of Study Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from women with normal pregnancy (n=5) and from patients with pre-term pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with (n=8) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n=8). Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were localized by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Galectin-1 mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected in the amnion epithelium, chorioamniotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and macrophages, chorionic trophoblasts, and decidual stromal cells. In patients with PPROM, galectin-1 mRNA expression in the fetal membranes was higher (2.07-fold, p=0.002) in those with chorioamnionitis than in those without. Moreover, chorioamionitis was associated with a strong galectin-1 immunostaining in amniotic epithelium, chorioamniotic mesodermal cells, and apoptotic bodies. Conclusions Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased galectin-1 mRNA expression and strong immunoreactivity of the chorioamniotic membranes; thus, galectin-1 may be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory responses to chorioamniotic infection. PMID:18691335

  9. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm birth after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005 than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM.

  10. Acute Histologic Chorioamnionitis Is a Risk Factor for Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Late Preterm Birth after Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. Methodology/Principal Findings The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005) than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. Conclusions/Significance The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM. PMID:24324586

  11. Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections.

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Crestani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 90% of cases. Although not specific, high-resolution computed tomography shows a characteristic “crazy paving” pattern. In most cases, bronchoalveolar lavage findings establish the diagnosis. Whole lung lavage is the most effective therapy, especially for auto-immune disease. Novel therapies targeting alveolar macrophages (recombinant GM-CSF therapy or anti-GM-CSF antibodies (rituximab and plasmapheresis are being investigated. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAP has improved in the past 20 yrs, but therapy for PAP still needs improvement.

  13. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare, chronic lung disease with bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma with predominance to lower and midzone. Although, etiology and pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, the mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium-phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type II cells resulting in the accumulation and forming of microliths rich in calcium phosphate (due to impaired clearance are considered to be the cause of the disease. Chest radiograph and high-resolution CT of thorax are nearly pathognomonic for diagnosing PAM. HRCT demonstrates diffuse micronodules showing slight perilobular predominance resulting in calcification of interlobular septa. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor-pulmonale. No therapy has been proven to be beneficial except lung transplantation.

  14. Stimulation of neoplastic mouse lung cell proliferation by alveolar macrophage-derived, insulin-like growth factor-1 can be blocked by inhibiting MEK and PI3K activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkinson Alvin M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, lung cancer kills more people than breast, colon and prostate cancer combined. Alterations in macrophage number and function during lung tumorigenesis suggest that these immune effector cells stimulate lung cancer growth. Evidence from cancer models in other tissues suggests that cancer cells actively recruit growth factor-producing macrophages through a reciprocal signaling pathway. While the levels of lung macrophages increase during tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer, and high pulmonary macrophage content correlates with a poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer, the specific role of alveolar macrophages in lung tumorigenesis is not clear. Methods After culturing either an immortalized lung macrophage cell line or primary murine alveolar macrophages from naïve and lung-tumor bearing mice with primary tumor isolates and immortalized cell lines, the effects on epithelial proliferation and cellular kinase activation were determined. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 was quantified by ELISA, and macrophage conditioned media IGF-1 levels manipulated by IL-4 treatment, immuno-depletion and siRNA transfection. Results Primary macrophages from both naïve and lung-tumor bearing mice stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. The lungs of tumor-bearing mice contained 3.5-times more IGF-1 than naïve littermates, and media conditioned by freshly isolated tumor-educated macrophages contained more IGF-1 than media conditioned by naïve macrophages; IL-4 stimulated IGF-1 production by both macrophage subsets. The ability of macrophage conditioned media to stimulate neoplastic proliferation correlated with media IGF-1 levels, and recombinant IGF-1 alone was sufficient to induce epithelial proliferation in all cell lines evaluated. Macrophage-conditioned media and IGF-1 stimulated lung tumor cell growth in an additive manner, while EGF had no effect. Macrophage-derived factors increased p-Erk1/2, p

  15. 香烟烟雾提取物抑制肺泡上皮细胞的增殖并诱导其凋亡%Cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and induces apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宗宪; 敖启林; 熊密

    2006-01-01

    in morphology, and the appearance of DNA fragmentation and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining assay at molecular level. It was found that CSE treatment resulted in the upregulation of Fas/APO-1 receptor and activation of caspase-3. CSE also initiated accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which was detected by laser confocal microscopy. Taken together, CSE could inhibit the cell growth and induce apoptosis of A549 cells through Fas receptor pathway.Oxidative stress caused by CSE may be the radical factor leading to apoptosis as well as cell growth inhibition in alveolar epithelial cells.

  16. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Esther A; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2013-06-18

    Alveolar fluid clearance driven by active epithelial Na(+) and secondary Cl(-) absorption counteracts edema formation in the intact lung. Recently, we showed that impairment of alveolar fluid clearance because of inhibition of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) promotes cardiogenic lung edema. Concomitantly, we observed a reversal of alveolar fluid clearance, suggesting that reversed transepithelial ion transport may promote lung edema by driving active alveolar fluid secretion. We, therefore, hypothesized that alveolar ion and fluid secretion may constitute a pathomechanism in lung edema and aimed to identify underlying molecular pathways. In isolated perfused lungs, alveolar fluid clearance and secretion were determined by a double-indicator dilution technique. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx were quantified by radionuclide tracing and alveolar Cl(-) imaging, respectively. Elevated hydrostatic pressure induced ouabain-sensitive alveolar fluid secretion that coincided with transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and alveolar Cl(-) influx. Inhibition of either cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC) blocked alveolar fluid secretion, and lungs of CFTR(-/-) mice were protected from hydrostatic edema. Inhibition of ENaC by amiloride reproduced alveolar fluid and Cl(-) secretion that were again CFTR-, NKCC-, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent. Our findings show a reversal of transepithelial Cl(-) and fluid flux from absorptive to secretory mode at hydrostatic stress. Alveolar Cl(-) and fluid secretion are triggered by ENaC inhibition and mediated by NKCC and CFTR. Our results characterize an innovative mechanism of cardiogenic edema formation and identify NKCC1 as a unique therapeutic target in cardiogenic lung edema.

  17. Protective effect of Ac-SDKP on alveolar epithelial cells through inhibition of EMT via TGF-β1/ROCK1 pathway in silicosis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haijing; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xianghong; Sun, Yue; Wang, Ruimin; Brann, Darrell; Yang, Fang

    2016-03-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical stage during the development of silicosis fibrosis. In the current study, we hypothesized that the anti-fibrotic tetrapeptide, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) may exert its anti-fibrotic effects via activation of the TGF-β1/ROCK1 pathway, leading to inhibition of EMT. To address this hypothesis, we first examined the effect of Ac-SDKP upon EMT using an in vivo rat silicosis model, as well as in an in vitro model of TGF-β1-induced EMT. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to examine colocalization of surfactant protein A (SP-A), fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vivo. Western blot analysis was used to examine for changes in the protein levels of E-cadherin (E-cad) and SP-A (epithelial cell markers), vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker), α-SMA (active myofibroblast marker), and collagen I and III in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Secondly, we utilized Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the protein expression of TGF-β1 and ROCK1 in in vivo and in vitro studies. The results revealed that Ac-SDKP treatment prevented increases in the expression of mesenchymal markers as well as TGF-β1, ROCK1, collagen I and III. Furthermore, Ac-SDKP treatment prevented decreases in the expression of epithelial cell markers in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Based on the results, we conclude that Ac-SDKP inhibits the transition of epithelial cell-myofibroblast in silicosis via activation of the TGF-β1/ROCK1 signaling pathway, which may serve as a novel mechanism by which it exerts its anti-fibrosis properties.

  18. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  19. Amniotic fluid sludge as a marker of intra-amniotic infection and histological chorioamnionitis in cervical insufficiency: a report of four cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, Cristina; Moreno, Esther; Gonzales, Ariel; Fabre, Ernesto; González de Agüero, Rafael; Oros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid sludge (AFS) is defined as the presence of particulate matter in the amniotic fluid in close proximity to the cervix. Although its prevalence is known to correlate with the risk of preterm delivery, initial reports describe a strong association between AFS and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis. However, AFS is also present in uncomplicated pregnancies, and its prevalence appears to increase with gestational age. Recent evidence debates the usefulness of AFS as a marker of early preterm delivery risk. We present four cases with AFS diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at admission for cervical insufficiency between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, with confirmed lower genital tract and intra-amniotic infections by amniocentesis and histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Our findings reinforce the presence of AFS as a useful marker of MIAC, chorioamnionitis and funisitis that increase the likelihood of preterm delivery at an extreme gestational age.

  20. [Dento-alveolar injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorsmit, R A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    1992-11-01

    Most dento-alveolar traumas can be managed by the dentist-general practitioner. Still, there are some specific injuries which should be treated by dental specialists. Some specific guidelines are given for the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of fracture of the coronal part of the root, intrusive luxation, abnormal position of the permanent tooth due to traumatic displacement of the deciduous tooth, ankylosis and tooth loss.

  1. Alveolar development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-07-01

    Gas exchange after birth is entirely dependent on the remarkable architecture of the alveolus, its formation and function being mediated by the interactions of numerous cell types whose precise positions and activities are controlled by a diversity of signaling and transcriptional networks. In the later stages of gestation, alveolar epithelial cells lining the peripheral lung saccules produce increasing amounts of surfactant lipids and proteins that are secreted into the airspaces at birth. The lack of lung maturation and the associated lack of pulmonary surfactant in preterm infants causes respiratory distress syndrome, a common cause of morbidity and mortality associated with premature birth. At the time of birth, surfactant homeostasis begins to be established by balanced processes involved in surfactant production, storage, secretion, recycling, and catabolism. Insights from physiology and engineering made in the 20th century enabled survival of newborn infants requiring mechanical ventilation for the first time. Thereafter, advances in biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology led to an understanding of the pulmonary surfactant system that made possible exogenous surfactant replacement for the treatment of preterm infants. Identification of surfactant proteins, cloning of the genes encoding them, and elucidation of their roles in the regulation of surfactant synthesis, structure, and function have provided increasing understanding of alveolar homeostasis in health and disease. This Perspective seeks to consider developmental aspects of the pulmonary surfactant system and its importance in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases related to alveolar homeostasis.

  2. Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fassett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (. Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%. From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, -value for trend <.001, Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, -value for trend <.001, Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, -value for trend <.001, and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, -value for trend <.001. The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%, term 138% (108%–173%], for Blacks [preterm 24% (−9%–81%, term 62% (30%–101%], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%, term 135% (114%–159%], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%, term 145% (109%–188%]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation.

  3. Amenaza de parto prematuro: Rotura prematura de membranas. Corioamnionitis Preterm labour: Premature rupture of membranes. Chorioamnionitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ochoa

    2009-01-01

    patients. They include antecedents of preterm labour, signs and symptoms, cervical alteration, etc. Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis involve the risk of preterm labour if they occur in early gestational ages.

  4. The relationship between meconium-stained amniotic fluid and chorioamnionitis%羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉琴; 刘群香; 蔡丹青

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎的关系及对围生儿的影响.方法:对2010年2~8月囚羊水Ⅱ~Ⅲ度粪染行胎盘病理检查的236例临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:在236例Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染病例中,胎盘病理检查有组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎病例多于无组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎病例,重度绒毛膜羊膜炎新生儿窒息发病率较尤急性绒毛膜羊膜炎和轻、中度急性绒毛膜羊膜炎病例高(P<0.05),有组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎与无组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎的胎盘病理表现基本相同(P>0.05).结论:Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎密切相关;绒毛膜羊膜炎引起绒毛及血管病变是导致羊水粪染、胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息原因之一.在临床工作中对羊水Ⅱ~Ⅲ度粪染病例应常规行胎盘病理检查,有利于诊断及指导孕产妇和新生儿的治疗.%Objective: To study on the relationship between meconium - stained amniotic fluid of Ⅱ ~ Ⅲ degree and chorioamnionitis and the effect of meconium - stained amniotic fluid on perinatal children.Methods: 236 patients who were done placental pathology because of Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium- stained amniotic fluid from February, 2010 to August, 2010 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Results: In 236 cases of Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium - stained amniotic fluid, the patients with histologically chorioamnionitis were more than the patients without histologically chorioamnionitis (64.41% ) by placental pathology, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia with severe chorioamnionitis was higher than those without acute chorioamnionitis and mild acute chorioamnionitis ( P < 0.05 ).The placental pathology was same between histologic chorioamnionitis and no histological chorioamnionitis (P > 0.05 ).Conclusion: Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium - stained amniotic fluid is closely related with the chorioamnionitis; Chorioamnionitis caused by vascular disease is one of the

  5. Legionella pneumophila infection induces programmed cell death, caspase activation, and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein in A549 alveolar epithelial cells: inhibition by methyl prednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koide Michio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila pneumonia often exacerbates acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI and ARDS. In this study, we investigated the precise mechanism by which A549 alveolar epithelial cells induced by L. pneumophila undergo apoptosis. We also studied the effect of methyl prednisolone on apoptosis in these cells. Methods Nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA fragmentation and caspase activation in L. pneumophila-infected A549 alveolar epithelial cells were assessed using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated triphosphate (dUTP-biotin nick end labeling method (TUNEL method and colorimetric caspase activity assays. The virulent L. pneumophila strain AA100jm and the avirulent dotO mutant were used and compared in this study. In addition, we investigated whether methyl prednisolone has any influence on nuclear DNA fragmentation and caspase activation in A549 alveolar epithelial cells infected with L. pneumophila. Results The virulent strain of L. pneumophila grew within A549 alveolar epithelial cells and induced subsequent cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The avirulent strain dotO mutant showed no such effect. The virulent strains of L. pneumophila induced DNA fragmentation (shown by TUNEL staining and activation of caspases 3, 8, 9, and 1 in A549 cells, while the avirulent strain did not. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein was released from A549 cells infected with virulent Legionella. Methyl prednisolone (53.4 μM did not influence the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila within alveolar epithelial cells, but affected DNA fragmentation and caspase activation of infected A549 cells. Conclusion Infection of A549 alveolar epithelial cells with L. pneumophila caused programmed cell death, activation of various caspases, and release of HMGB1. The dot/icm system, a

  6. The severity of chorioamnionitis in pregnant sheep is associated with in vivo variation of the surface-exposed multiple-banded antigen/gene of Ureaplasma parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Christine L; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P

    2010-09-01

    Ureaplasma species are the bacteria most frequently isolated from human amniotic fluid in asymptomatic pregnancies and placental infections. Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 are the most prevalent serovars isolated from men and women. We hypothesized that the effects on the fetus and chorioamnion of chronic ureaplasma infection in amniotic fluid are dependent on the serovar, dose, and variation of the ureaplasma multiple-banded antigen (MBA) and mba gene. We injected high- or low-dose U. parvum serovar 3, serovar 6, or vehicle intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at 55 days of gestation (term = 150 days) and examined the chorioamnion, amniotic fluid, and fetal lung tissue of animals delivered by cesarean section at 125 days of gestation. Variation of the multiple banded antigen/mba generated by serovar 3 and serovar 6 ureaplasmas in vivo were compared by PCR assay and Western blot. Ureaplasma inoculums demonstrated only one (serovar 3) or two (serovar 6) MBA variants in vitro, but numerous antigenic variants were generated in vivo: serovar 6 passage 1 amniotic fluid cultures contained more MBA size variants than serovar 3 (P = 0.005), and ureaplasma titers were inversely related to the number of variants (P = 0.025). The severity of chorioamnionitis varied between animals. Low numbers of mba size variants (five or fewer) within amniotic fluid were associated with severe inflammation, whereas the chorioamnion from animals with nine or more mba variants showed little or no inflammation. These differences in chorioamnion inflammation may explain why not all women with in utero Ureaplasma spp. experience adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. The Severity of Chorioamnionitis in Pregnant Sheep Is Associated with In Vivo Variation of the Surface-Exposed Multiple-Banded Antigen/Gene of Ureaplasma parvum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Christine L.; Dando, Samantha J.; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.; Payton, Diane; Moss, Timothy J.M.; Newnham, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the bacteria most frequently isolated from human amniotic fluid in asymptomatic pregnancies and placental infections. Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 are the most prevalent serovars isolated from men and women. We hypothesized that the effects on the fetus and chorioamnion of chronic ureaplasma infection in amniotic fluid are dependent on the serovar, dose, and variation of the ureaplasma multiple-banded antigen (MBA) and mba gene. We injected high- or low-dose U. parvum serovar 3, serovar 6, or vehicle intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at 55 days of gestation (term = 150 days) and examined the chorioamnion, amniotic fluid, and fetal lung tissue of animals delivered by cesarean section at 125 days of gestation. Variation of the multiple banded antigen/mba generated by serovar 3 and serovar 6 ureaplasmas in vivo were compared by PCR assay and Western blot. Ureaplasma inoculums demonstrated only one (serovar 3) or two (serovar 6) MBA variants in vitro, but numerous antigenic variants were generated in vivo: serovar 6 passage 1 amniotic fluid cultures contained more MBA size variants than serovar 3 (P = 0.005), and ureaplasma titers were inversely related to the number of variants (P = 0.025). The severity of chorioamnionitis varied between animals. Low numbers of mba size variants (five or fewer) within amniotic fluid were associated with severe inflammation, whereas the chorioamnion from animals with nine or more mba variants showed little or no inflammation. These differences in chorioamnion inflammation may explain why not all women with in utero Ureaplasma spp. experience adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:20519696

  8. Alveolar bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

  9. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  10. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In infected lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, opportunistic pathogens and mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) contribute to chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, cytokine release...... accumulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells, lacking CFTR. P. aeruginosa organisms were rarely present in inflamed alveoli. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic inflammation and remodeling is present in alveolar tissues of the CF lung and needs to be addressed by anti-inflammatory therapies....

  11. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-11-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing.

  12. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  13. IL-1α mediated chorioamnionitis induces depletion of FoxP3+ cells and ileal inflammation in the ovine fetal gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim G A M Wolfs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis increases IL-1 and provokes an inflammatory response in the fetal ileum that interferes with intestinal maturation. In the present study, we tested in an ovine chorioamnionitis model whether IL-1 is a major cytokine driving the inflammatory response in the fetal ileum. METHOD: Sheep bearing singleton fetuses received a single intraamniotic injection of recombinant ovine IL-1α at 7, 3 or 1 d before caesarian delivery at 125 days gestational age (term = 150 days. RESULTS: 3 and 7 d after IL-1α administration, intestinal mRNA levels for IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were strongly elevated. Numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T-lymphocytes and myeloidperoxidase+ cells were increased whereas FoxP3+ T-cells were detected at low frequency. This increased proinflammatory state was associated with ileal mucosal barrier loss as demonstrated by decreased levels of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein and disruption of the tight junctional protein ZO-1. CONCLUSION: Intraamniotic IL-1α causes an acute detrimental inflammatory response in the ileum, suggesting that induction of IL-1 is a critical element in the pathophysiological effects of endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis. A disturbed balance between T-effector and FoxP3+ cells may contribute to this process.

  14. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Balbir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  16. Megalin mediates transepithelial albumin clearance from the alveolar space of intact rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchäckert, Yasmin; Rummel, Sebastian; Vohwinkel, Christine U; Gabrielli, Nieves M; Grzesik, Benno A; Mayer, Konstantin; Herold, Susanne; Morty, Rory E; Seeger, Werner; Vadász, István

    2012-10-15

    The alveolo-capillary barrier is effectively impermeable to large solutes such as proteins. A hallmark of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is the accumulation of protein-rich oedema fluid in the distal airspaces. Excess protein must be cleared from the alveolar space for recovery; however, the mechanisms of protein clearance remain incompletely understood. In intact rabbit lungs 29.8 ± 2.2% of the radio-labelled alveolar albumin was transported to the vascular compartment at 37°C within 120 min, as assessed by real-time measurement of 125I-albumin clearance from the alveolar space. At 4°C or 22°C significantly lower albumin clearance (3.7 ± 0.4 or 16.2 ± 1.1%, respectively) was observed. Deposition of a 1000-fold molar excess of unlabelled albumin into the alveolar space or inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement or clathrin-dependent endocytosis largely inhibited the transport of 125I-albumin to the vasculature, while administration of unlabelled albumin to the vascular space had no effect on albumin clearance. Furthermore, albumin uptake capacity was measured as about 0.37 mg ml−1 in cultured rat lung epithelial monolayers, further highlighting the (patho)physiological relevance of active alveolar epithelial protein transport. Moreover, gene silencing and pharmacological inhibition of the multi-ligand receptor megalin resulted in significantly decreased albumin binding and uptake in monolayers of primary alveolar type II and type I-like and cultured lung epithelial cells. Our data indicate that clearance of albumin from the distal air spaces is facilitated by an active, high-capacity, megalin-mediated transport process across the alveolar epithelium. Further understanding of this mechanism is of clinical importance, since an inability to clear excess protein from the alveolar space is associated with poor outcome in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  17. Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Charles A; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A; Anderson, Gregory G; Petrache, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophage cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. A mannuronic-specific alginate lyase did not restore efferocytosis inhibited by exogenous guluronic-rich marine alginate, but had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to chronic airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate

  18. Clinical significance of histologic chorioamnionitis with a negative amniotic fluid culture in patients with preterm labor and premature membrane rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Woo; Park, Kyo Hoon; Jung, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) with a negative amniotic fluid (AF) culture on adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and inflammatory status in the AF compartment in women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 153 women diagnosed as having a preterm labor or PPROM (20–34 weeks) who delivered singleton gestations within 48 hours of amniocentesis. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were determined. The placentas were examined histologically. Results The prevalence of HCA with negative AF culture was 23.5% (36/153). The women with HCA but with a negative AF culture (group 2) and those with a positive AF culture (group 3) had a significantly lower mean gestational age at amniocentesis and delivery than those with a negative AF culture and without HCA (group 1). Women in group 3 had the highest levels of AF IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, followed by those in group 2, and those in group 1. Composite neonatal morbidity was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, but this was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders caused mainly by the impact of gestational age. Discussion In the women who delivered preterm neonates, HCA with a negative AF culture was associated with increased risks of preterm birth, intense intra-amniotic inflammatory response, and prematurity-associated composite neonatal morbidity, and its risks are similar to the risk posed by positive AF culture. PMID:28278303

  19. [Persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnsinck, C J; Koutris, M; Shemesh, H; Lobbezoo, F

    2015-02-01

    Dento-alveolar pain is common in the orofacial area. Persistent dento-alveolar pain could be experienced without an identifiable etiology with poor response to existing treatments. Confusion about the diagnosis and classification of persistent dento-alveolar pain (PDAP) disorders could explain the difficulties in treatment and unfavorable prognosis. Recently, initial steps were made to improve the taxonomy and diagnostic criteria for PDAP in order to improve clinical research and care.

  20. The role of probiotic on alveolar bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are microbes derived from the group of lactic acid bacteria that work to maintain the health of hosts. Probiotics can also be used to improve oral health. Periodontal disease is usually marked with gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption. Gram negative anaerobic bacteria that play important role in human periodontal disease are Porphyromonas gingivalis. (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis is a virulent bacteria in vivo or in vitro, and mostly found in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients. Purpose: This study is aimed to know the role of probiotics to inhibit the resorption of alveolar bone induced with P. gingivalis. Methods: This study used male wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I was control group (without treatment; group II was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days; group III was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and also injected with probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 for 5 days simultaneously; and group IV was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days and also injected by probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 in the next 5 days. After that, the samples were decapitated, taken their alveolar bone, and then were examined by immunohistochemistry to observe osteoclast activity in alveolar bone resorption by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP expression. All data were then analyzed statistically. Results: It is known that there were significant differences of TRAP expression among all those treatment groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It then can be concluded that probiotics can decrease osteoclast activity in periodontal tissue of wistar rats, so it can inhibit alveolar bone resorption.Latar belakang: Probiotik adalah mikroba dari golongan bakteri asam laktat yang bekerja mempertahankan kesehatan host dan probiotik dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kesehatan rongga mulut. Penyakit periodontal ditandai dengan adanya keradangan pada gingiva dan resobsi tulang

  1. Effect of two models of intrauterine growth restriction on alveolarization in rat lungs: morphometric and gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Zana-Taieb

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in preterm infants increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by arrested alveolarization. We evaluated the impact of two different rat models (nitric oxide synthase inhibition or protein deprivation of IUGR on alveolarization, before, during, and at the end of this postnatal process. We studied IUGR rat pups of dams fed either a low protein (LPD or a normal diet throughout gestation and pups of dams treated by continuous infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters, alveolar surface (Svap, mean linear intercept (MLI and radial alveolar count (RAC and transcriptomic analysis were determined with special focus on genes involved in alveolarization. IUGR pups regained normal weight at day 21 in the two treated groups. In the LPD group, Svap, MLI and RAC were not different from those of controls at day 4, but were significantly decreased at day 21, indicating alveolarization arrest. In the L-NAME group, Svap and RAC were significantly decreased and MLI was increased at day 4 with complete correction at day 21. In the L-NAME model, several factors involved in alveolarization, VEGF, VEGF-R1 and -R2, MMP14, MMP16, FGFR3 and 4, FGF18 and 7, were significantly decreased at day 4 and/or day 10, while the various factors studied were not modified in the LPD group. These results demonstrate that only maternal protein deprivation leads to sustained impairment of alveolarization in rat pups, whereas L-NAME impairs lung development before alveolarization. Known growth factors involved in lung development do not seem to be involved in LPD-induced alveolarization disorders, raising the question of a possible programming of altered alveolarization.

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, Viktor; Teske, Erik; Nikkels, Peter G J; Griese, Matthias; de Jong, Pim A; Grinwis, Guy; Theegarten, Dirk; Veraa, Stefanie; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Drent, Marjolein; Bonella, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an extremely rare lung disease in animals and humans. It is characterized by the deposition of a large amount of phospholipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli. There are several possible etiologies, both congenital and acquired. Alveolar macrophages p

  3. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Loercher, U. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Kitz, R. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Zielen, S. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Ahrens, P. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Koenig, R. [Inst. of Human Genetics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

  4. High CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function independently of pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Briva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired due to the accumulation of fluid in the lung airspaces. This life-threatening syndrome is treated with mechanical ventilation, which is adjusted to maintain gas exchange, but can be associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lung. Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a by-product of cellular energy utilization and its elimination is affected via alveolar epithelial cells. Signaling pathways sensitive to changes in CO2 levels were described in plants and neuronal mammalian cells. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether non-neuronal cells sense and respond to CO2. The Na,K-ATPase consumes approximately 40% of the cellular metabolism to maintain cell homeostasis. Our study examines the effects of increased pCO2 on the epithelial Na,K-ATPase a major contributor to alveolar fluid reabsorption which is a marker of alveolar epithelial function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that short-term increases in pCO2 impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption in rats. Also, we provide evidence that non-excitable, alveolar epithelial cells sense and respond to high levels of CO2, independently of extracellular and intracellular pH, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function, via activation of PKCzeta which phosphorylates the Na,K-ATPase, causing it to endocytose from the plasma membrane into intracellular pools. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells, through which CO2 is eliminated in mammals, are highly sensitive to hypercapnia. Elevated CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function, independently of pH, which is relevant in patients with lung diseases and altered alveolar gas exchange.

  5. Influência das intercorrências maternas e fetais nos diferentes graus de corioamnionite Influence of maternal and fetal intercurrences on the different degrees of chorioamnionitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Machado

    2012-04-01

    , fetal anthropometric parameters and conditions of the newborn on different degrees of chorioamnionitis. METHODS: We analyzed 90 placentas from deliveries performed at the General Hospital of Triângulo Mineiro Federal University with a diagnosis of inflammation in the anatomopathological exams. We reviewed the medical records to obtain relevant maternal and fetal information. The infections were classified as grade I - deciduitis; grade II - chorioamnionitis; grade III - chorioamnionitis and vasculitis; grade IV - neonatal sepsis and grade V - fetal death and pneumonitis. RESULTS: Among the pregnant women analyzed, 50.0% had no complications, 15.0% had ruptured membranes, 15.0% urinary tract infection, 7.5% hypertensive disorders, 7.5% transvaginal infection, 5.0% hematogenous infection, and 11.1% other complications. More than a half the neonates were males and 72.2% were born at term. Analysis of the degree of chorioamnionitis showed that 56.7% had grade I, 22.2% grade II, 4.4% grade III, 10.0% grade IV, and 6.7% grade V. Data were analyzed statistically by the Χ2 test for qualitative variables and by the Spearman test for correlation analysis. The higher grades of chorioamnionitis were observed in cases of maternal complications. We observed negative correlations between all parameters and the degree of fetal chorioamnionitis, which were significant regarding weight, length, thoracic circumference and Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The different patterns of chorioamnionitis were related to different maternal and fetal clinical features, affecting the life conditions of the newborn and the severity of morphological lesions found in stillbirths.

  6. Identification of porcine alveolar macrophage glycoproteins involved in infection of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Pol, J.M.A.; Godeke, G.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the receptor(s) for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against these cells. Hybridoma supernatants were selected for their ability to block PRRSV infection. Four MAbs, 1-8D2, 9.4C7, 9.9F2, and 3-3H2 inhibited i

  7. Recent advances in alveolar biology: evolution and function of alveolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgeig, Sandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Casals, Cristina; Clark, Howard W; Haczku, Angela; Knudsen, Lars; Possmayer, Fred

    2010-08-31

    This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two groups of surfactant proteins - the small molecular weight hydrophobic SPs, SP-B and -C, that regulate interfacial adsorption of the lipids, and the large hydrophilic SPs, SP-A and -D, which are surfactant collectins capable of inhibiting foreign pathogens. Further aiding pulmonary host defence are non-surfactant collectins and antimicrobial peptides that are expressed across the biological kingdoms. Linking to the first symposium session, which emphasised molecular structure and biophysical function of surfactant lipids and proteins, this review begins with a discussion of the role of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in shaping the evolution of SP-C in mammals. Transitioning to the role of the alveolus in innate host defence we discuss the structure, function and regulation of antimicrobial peptides, the defensins and cathelicidins. We describe the recent discovery of novel avian collectins and provide evidence for their role in preventing influenza infection. This is followed by discussions of the roles of SP-A and SP-D in mediating host defence at the alveolar surface and in mediating inflammation and the allergic response of the airways. Finally we discuss the use of animal models of lung disease including knockouts to develop an understanding of the role of these proteins in initiating and/or perpetuating disease with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Identification of an Autophagy Defect in Smokers’ Alveolar Macrophages1

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are essential for clearing bacteria from the alveolar surface and preventing microbial-induced infections. It is well documented that smokers have an increased incidence of infections, in particular lung infections. Alveolar macrophages accumulate in smokers’ lungs but they have a functional immune deficit. In this study, we identify for the first time an autophagy defect in smokers’ alveolar macrophages. Smokers’ alveolar macrophages accumulate both autophagosomes and p6...

  9. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  10. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  11. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  12. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  13. Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

  14. Metabolic shift in lung alveolar cell mitochondria following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein, an α,β unsaturated electrophile, is an environmental pollutant released in ambient air from diesel exhausts and cooking oils. This study examines the role of acrolein in altering mitochondrial function and metabolism in lung-specific cells. RLE-6TN, H441, and primary alveolar type II (pAT2) cells were exposed to acrolein for 4 h, and its effect on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates was studied by XF Extracellular Flux analysis. Low-dose acrolein exposure decreased mitochondrial respiration in a dose-dependent manner because of alteration in the metabolism of glucose in all the three cell types. Acrolein inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, leading to decreased substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN, H441, and pAT2 cells; the reduced GAPDH activity was compensated in pAT2 cells by an increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the regulatory control of the pentose phosphate pathway. The decrease in pyruvate from glucose metabolism resulted in utilization of alternative sources to support mitochondrial energy production: palmitate-BSA complex increased mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN and pAT2 cells. The presence of palmitate in alveolar cells for surfactant biosynthesis may prove to be the alternative fuel source for mitochondrial respiration. Accordingly, a decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and an increase in phospholipase A2 activity were found in the alveolar cells after acrolein exposure. These findings have implications for understanding the decrease in surfactant levels frequently observed in pathophysiological situations with altered lung function following exposure to environmental toxicants.

  15. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children with histomorphological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nema

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS are aggressive malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, related to skeletal muscle lineage. These are the most common soft tissue tumors in children. The diagnosis is made by microscopic analysis and ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, cytogenetics and molecular biology. We encountered a case of a 03 years old child who presented with a tender, reddish, soft swelling over cheek for three weeks. The FNAC was reported as a small round cell tumor, Probably Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET. The biopsy of tumor revealed a small round cell tumor with an alveolar pattern. Tumor giant cells were absent and mitotic figures were infrequent. Hence, differentials of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and PNET were rendered. Immunohistochemistry (IHC demonstrated desmin positivity. Thus, a final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was offered. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 775-778

  16. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castro Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics.

  17. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  18. Anti-inflammatory role of microRNA let-7c in LPS treated alveolar macrophages by targeting STAT3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hui Yu; Li Long; Zhi-Xiao Luo; Lin-Man Li; Jie-Ru You

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of microRNA (miRNA) let-7c and its function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alveolar macrophage cells. Methods: Real time PCR was performed to detect the expression of miRNA let-7c in the lung tissue of COPD patients and COPD model in mice. MiRNA let-7c was overexpressed in alveolar macrophages isolated from mice and its effect was measured by the production of pro-inflammation cytokines and the protein level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as well as phosphorylation level of STAT3 after LPS stimulation. Luciferase assay was used to detect the binding of miRNA let-7c and 3'UTR of STAT3. Results: MiRNA let-7c expression was significantly lower in patients with COPD compared with control group, and the similar result was found in COPD mice and LPS stimulated alveolar macrophages. Overexpression of miRNA let-7c in alveolar macrophages inhibited LPS-induced increasing of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β. Luciferase assay showed STAT3 was a targeting of miRNA let-7c in alveolar macrophages. Conclusions: MiRNA let-7c low expression in COPD can regulate inflammatory responses by targeting STAT3 in alveolar macrophage, which may provide a new target for COPD treatment strategies.

  19. Cultured alveolar epithelial cells from septic rats mimic in vivo septic lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S Cohen

    Full Text Available Sepsis results in the formation of pulmonary edema by increasing in epithelial permeability. Therefore we hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier function relative to alveolar epithelial cells from healthy animals. Male rats (200-300 g were sacrificed 24 hours after cecal ligation and double puncture (2CLP or sham surgery. Alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and plated on fibronectin-coated flexible membranes or permeable, non-flexible transwell substrates. After a 5 day culture period, cells were either lysed for western analysis of tight junction protein expressin (claudin 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, occludin, ZO-1, and JAM-A and MAPk (JNK, ERK, an p38 signaling activation, or barrier function was examined by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER or the flux of two molecular tracers (5 and 20 A. Inhibitors of JNK (SP600125, 20 microM and ERK (U0126, 10 microM were used to determine the role of these pathways in sepsis induced epithelial barrier dysfunction. Expression of claudin 4, claudin 18, and occludin was significantly lower, and activation of JNK and ERK signaling pathways was significantly increased in 2CLP monolayers, relative to sham monolayers. Transepithelial resistance of the 2CLP monolayers was reduced significantly compared to sham (769 and 1234 ohm-cm(2, respectively, however no significant difference in the flux of either tracer was observed. Inhibition of ERK, not JNK, significantly increased TER and expression of claudin 4 in 2CLP monolayers, and prevented significant differences in claudin 18 expression between 2CLP and sham monolayers. We conclude that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals form confluent monolayers with impaired barrier function compared to healthy monolayers, and inhibition of ERK signaling partially reverses differences between these monolayers. This model provides a unique

  20. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol assess...

  1. Chloride transport-driven alveolar fluid secretion is a major contributor to cardiogenic lung edema

    OpenAIRE

    Solymosi, Esther A.; Kaestle-Gembardt, Stefanie M.; Vadász, István; Wang, Liming; Neye, Nils; Chupin, Cécile Julie Adrienne; Rozowsky, Simon; Ruehl, Ramona; Tabuchi, Arata; Schulz, Holger; Kapus, Andras; Morty, Rory E.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a novel mechanism for the formation of cardiogenic lung edema, a potentially fatal complication of left heart disease that was previously attributed to passive fluid filtration across an intact alveolo-capillary barrier. Instead, we demonstrate that a major part of cardiogenic edema results from active epithelial secretion of Cl− and secondary fluid flux into the alveolar space. Transepithelial Cl− secretion is triggered by inhibition of epithelial Na+ uptake and mediated...

  2. Loss of p120 catenin aggravates alveolar edema of ventilation induced lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chen-yang; DAI Guo-feng; SUN Yu; WANG Yue-lan

    2013-01-01

    Background p120 catenin (p120ctn) is an adheren junction protein that regulates barrier function,but its role has not been explored in alveolar edema induced by ventilation.We measured stretch-induced cell gap formation in MLE 12 cells due to the loss of p120.We hypothesized that alveolar permeability was increased by high lung inflation associated with alveolar epithelia cell tight junctions being destroyed,which resulted from the loss of p120.Methods Cultured MLE12 cells were subjected to being stretched or un-stretched (control) and some cells were pretreated with pp2 (c-src inhibitor).After the end of stretching for 0,1,2,and 4 hours,the cells were lysed,and p120 expression and c-src activation was determined by Western blotting analysis.In vivo,SD rats were taken to different tidal volumes (Vt 7 ml/kg or 40 ml/kg,PEEP=0,respiratory rate 30-40 betas/min) for 0,1,2,and 4 hour and some were pretreated with pp2,and alveolar edema was calculated.Rerults It was found that p120 expression was reduced and c-src activation increased in a time-dependent and strain-dependent manner due to cyclic-stretch of the alveolar epithelial cells.These changes could be reversed by inhibition of c-src.We obtained similar changes in rats when they were subjected to large tidal volumes and the alveolar edema increased more than in rats in the low Vt group.Pretreated the rats with inhibition of c-src had less pulmonary edema induced by the high tidal volume ventilation.Conclusions Cyclic stretch MLE 12 cells induced the loss of p120 and may be the same reason by high tidal volume ventilation in rats can aggravate alveolar edema.Maintenance of p120 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilation induced lung injury (VILI).

  3. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  4. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  5. 蓝玉簪颗粒抑制脂多糖诱导大鼠肺泡巨噬细胞TNF-α产生及相关机制研究%Gentiana veitchiorum particles inhibited LPS induced pulmonary alveolar macrophages(AM)TNF-α production and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯颖; 曹蔚; 李涛; 刘水冰; 张晓楠; 李旭波; 田琼; 尤福生

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Gentiana veitchiorum particles on the expression of TNF-α in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) which induced by LPS, to explain the mechanism about anti-inflammatory action of Gentiana veitchiorum particles. METHODS: Purification of rat AM, TNF-α level in AM culture supematant was detected by ELISA. Western blot method for detecting the expression of TNF-α and pERK in the AM. While application of ERK antagonist (PD98059) in rat AM and the expression of TNFα was observed by Western blot. RESULTS: Gentiana veitchiorum particles can reduce the LPS induced AM TNF-α increase in dose dependent manner. Gentiana veitchiorum particles (100 mg/L) can significantly reduce the LPS induc ed pERK and TNF-α protein expression in AM. compared with LPS stimulation group, we found that ERK inhibitor ( PD98059 30 mol/L), Gentiana veitchiorum particles intervention and Gentiana veitchiorum particles + PD98059 groups' TNF-α expression were significantly reduced in rat AM. CONCLUSION: Gentiana veitchiorum particles can inhibit the LPS induced pulmonary AM TNF-α expression, one of the possible mechanism is to inhibit the extracailular signal transduction pathway.%目的:探讨蓝玉簪颗粒对脂多糖(LPS)诱导大鼠肺泡巨噬细胞(AM)内TNF-α表达及可能作用机制.方法:分离纯化AM,应用ELISA法检测蓝玉簪颗粒对LPS诱导的大鼠AM培养上清中的TNF-α水平的影响,应用Western blot方法检测大鼠AM内TNF-α及pERK蛋白表达水平,同时应用ERK拮抗剂(PD98059)观察AM内TNF-α蛋白表达.结果:蓝玉簪颗粒可剂量依赖的降低由于LPS刺激导致的AM培养上清内TNF-α含量升高;蓝玉簪(100 mg/L)颗粒可显著降低由于LPS刺激导致的AM细胞内pERK及TNF-α蛋白表达升高;ERK特异性抑制剂(PD98059 30 mol/L)及蓝玉簪颗粒干预,蓝玉簪颗粒+PD98059干预后,我们发现与LPS刺激组相比,大鼠AM中TNF-α表达显著降低.结论:蓝玉

  6. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles in Alveolar Bone Surgery Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sivolella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental implant surfaces and preventing biofilm formation, containing the risk of peri-implant infections. Modifying the structure or surface of bone grafts and membranes with Ag NPs may also prevent the risk of contamination and infection that are common when alveolar bone augmentation techniques are used. On the other hand, Ag NPs have revealed some toxic effects on cells in vitro and in vivo in animal studies. In this setting, the aim of the present paper is to summarize the principle behind Ag NP-based devices and their clinical applications in alveolar bone and dental implant surgery.

  8. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reisner, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2. Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic, making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3. Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  9. Bmp2 and Bmp4 accelerate alveolar bone development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mingming; Zhao, Yibing; Zhang, Fangming; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar bone remodeling is a continuous process that takes place during development and in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. However, detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in alveolar bone development is still lacking. This study aims at improving our understanding of alveolar bone formation and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) in this process. Mice at embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (PN) day 15.5 were selected to observe the process of alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone development was found to be morphologically observable at E14.5. Molar teeth isolated from mice at PN7.5 were pretreated with Bmp2, Bmp4, Noggin, or BSA, and grafted subcutaneously into mice. The subcutaneously implanted tooth germs formed alveolar bone indicating the role of the dental follicle in alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone formation was increased after pretreatment with Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not with Noggin. Gene expression levels in dental follicle cells from murine molars were also determined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of Runx2, Bsp, and Ocn were significantly higher in dental follicle cells cultured with Bmp2 or Bmp4, and significantly lower in those cultured with Noggin when compared with that of the BSA controls. Our results suggest that the dental follicle participates in alveolar bone formation and Bmp2/4 appears to accelerate alveolar bone development.

  10. Phagocytic properties of lung alveolar wall cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka,Akisuke

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose to define the mechanism of heavy metal intoxication by inhalation, morphologic observations were made on rat lungs after nasal instillation of iron colloid particles of positive and negative electric charges. Histochemical observation was also made on the liver and spleen of these animals. The instilled iron colloid particles reach the alveolar cavity easily, as can be seen in the tissue sections stained by Prussian blue reaction. Alveolar macrophages do take up them avidly both of positive and negative charges, though much less the positive particles than negative ones. In contrast, the alveolar epithelial cells take up solely positive particles by phagocytosis but not negative ones. Electron microscope observation revealed that the positive particles are ingested by Type I epithelial cells by pinocytosis and by Type II cells by phagocytosis as well. Then the iron colloid particles are transferred into the basement membrane by exocytosis. Travelling through the basement membrane they are again taken up by capillary endothelial cells by phagocytosis. Some particles were found in the intercellular clefts of capillary endothelial cells but not any iron colloid particles in the intercellular spaces of epithelial cells and in the capillary lumen. However, the liver and spleen tissues of the animals given iron colloid showed a strong positive iron reaction. On the basis of these observations, the mechanism of acute intoxication by inhaling heavy metal dusts like lead fume is discussed from the view point of selective uptake of alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial cells for the particles of the positive electric cha'rge.

  11. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Nigel P.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10−8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10−8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  12. Bis-enoxacin blocks rat alveolar bone resorption from experimental periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes F Rivera

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 10(9 cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day, bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day, alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day, or doxycycline (5 mg/day were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  13. Management of maxillary alveolar process fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukhrat Boymuradov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of maxillofacial traumas is reported steadily increasing, maxillary fractures being extremely severe. Maxillary alveolar process (AP and front teeth are traumatized more frequently than any other parts of the maxilla. Deprivation of teeth and AP post-traumatic flaw as well as loss of alveolar height not only create a cosmetic defect but also complicate subsequent prosthetics of the patients. The work was initiated to assess efficacy of “CollapAn L” in comparison with a combination of “Osteon”, an osteoplastic material, and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane in prevention of AP post-traumatic flaws and deformities. 60 patients aged from 16 to 47 with the comminuted fractures of maxillary AP emergently hospitalized were examined and treated. The findings showed that Combination of “Osteon” and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane is the one to increase efficacy of the treatment, facilitating preservation of and alveolar crest height and shape. In addition, preservation of bone tissue mineralization helps avoid risk of the bone wound inflammatory morbidity.

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha A; Omer, Saad Salem

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluates the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries in mandibular fractures, the duration of their recovery, and the factors associated with them. Fifty-two patients with mandibular fractures involving the ramus, angle, and body regions were included in this study; the inferior alveolar nerve was examined for neurological deficit posttraumatically using sharp/blunt differentiation method, and during the follow-up period the progression of neural recovery was assessed. The incidence of neural injury of the inferior alveolar nerve was 42.3%, comminuted and displaced linear fractures were associated with higher incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury and prolonged recovery time, and recovery of inferior alveolar nerve function occurred in 91%.Fractures of the mandible involving the ramus, angle, and body regions, and comminuted and displaced linear fractures are factors that increase the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries. Missile injuries can be considered as another risk factor.

  15. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide) composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was...

  16. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. LA PERFORACION DEL NERVIO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR POR LA ARTERIA MAXILAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanishree S Nayak; Ramachandra Bhat K; Prakash Billakanti Babu

    2011-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

  17. Recent advances in alveolar biology: Evolution and function of alveolar proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orgeig, S.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Casals, C.; Clark, H.W.; Hackzu, A.; Knudsen, L.; Possmayer, F.

    2010-01-01

    This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two gro

  18. Segment distraction to reduce a wide alveolar cleft before alveolar bone grafting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binger, T.; Katsaros, C.; Rucker, M.; Spitzer, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a method for reduction of wide alveolar clefts prior to bone grafting. This method aims to facilitate bone grafting and achieve adequate soft tissue coverage of the graft with attached gingiva. CASE REPORT: Treatment of a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate with a s

  19. 3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

  20. Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tiago Miguel Santos; Gomes, Joana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. This case report describes surgical treatment for paresthesia caused by a compressive phenomenon within the mandibular canal. The cause of the compression, a broken instrument left in the patient's mouth during previous endodontic therapy, was identified during routine radiography and computed tomography. Once the foreign object was removed by surgery, the paresthesia resolved quickly. This case highlights the potential for an iatrogenic mechanical cause of paresthesia.

  1. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  2. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tsong-Long, E-mail: htl@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ming-Chi [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Liang-Mou [Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  3. 右美托咪啶对异氟醚抑制切皮时患者体动反应的肺泡气最低有效浓度的影响%Effect of dexmedetomidine on minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane required to inhibit the body movement during skin incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀翔宇; 王世端; 刘英志; 周赞宫; 朱德璋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane required to inhibit the body movement during skin incision. Methods Forty-eight ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients aged 40-60 yr with body mass index of 22-27 kg/m2 undergoing elective upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group C, n = 15);low dose dexmedetomidine group (group D1, n = 17) and high dose dexmedetomidine group (group D2, n = 16). The patients were unpremedicated. Dexmedetomidine 0.4 and 0.8 μg/kg in normal saline (NS) 15 ml was infused over 15 min before induction of anesthesia in D1 and D2 groups respectively. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl-propofol-succinylcholine. The patients were mechanically ventilated after tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. MAC of isoflurane was determined by up-and-down technique. The initial end-tidal isofiurane concentration was set at 1.0%, 0.8% and 0.6% in C, D1 and D2 groups respectively. Each time the end-tidal isoflurane concentration was increased/decreased by 0.2%. Skin incision was made after 15 min of equilibration, when the twitch height returned to more than 90% of its control value. Movement of body and limbs including swallowing and coughing were carefully looked for when skin incision was made. MAC of isoflurane was the mean of end-tidal concentration of isoflurane of each crossover pair, and 95 % CI was calculated. Results MAC of isoflurane was significantly decreased in D1 and D2 groups as compared with group C and in group D2 as compared with group D1( P < 0.05 or 0.01 ). Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can significantly decrease MAC of isoflurane required to inhibit the body movement during skin incision in a dose-dependent manner.%目的 探讨右美托咪啶对异氟醚抑制切皮时患者体动反应的肺泡气最低有效浓度(MAC)的影响.方法 择期全身麻醉下行上腹部手术患者,年龄40~60

  4. Perawatan Pulpa Gigi Sulung Disertai Abses Dento Alveolar

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abses dento alveolar adalah kumputan pus yang berada pada tulang alveolar sekitar apeks gigi akibat kematian pulpa. Matinya pulpa dapat disebabkan bakteri, trauma, iritasi mekanis, termis maupun kimiawi. Pengaruh bakteri merupakan penyebab kerusakan jaringan pulpa yang terbesar. Perluasan infeksi ke dalam jaringan periapikal dapat melalui foramen apikalke jaringan periodontal sehingga terjadi inflarnasi. Bila virulensi bakteri meningkat disertai rendahnya pertahanan tubuh penderita dapat ...

  5. Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Donald; Massaro, Gloria Decarlo

    2004-12-01

    Lung tissue elastic recoil and the dimension and number of pulmonary gas-exchange units (alveoli) are major determinants of gas-exchange function. Loss of gas-exchange function accelerates after menopause in the healthy aged and is progressively lost in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter, a disease of midlife and later, though more common in men than in women, is a disease to which women smokers and never smokers may be more susceptible than men; it is characterized by diminished lung tissue elastic recoil and presently irremediable alveolar loss. Ovariectomy in sexually immature rats diminishes the formation of alveoli, and estrogen prevents the diminution. In the present work, we found that estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, the only recognized mammalian estrogen receptors, are required for the formation of a full complement of alveoli in female mice. However, only the absence of estrogen receptor-beta diminishes lung elastic tissue recoil. Furthermore, ovariectomy in adult mice results, within 3 wk, in loss of alveoli and of alveolar surface area without a change of lung volume. Estrogen replacement, after alveolar loss, induces alveolar regeneration, reversing the architectural effects of ovariectomy. These studies 1) reveal estrogen receptors regulate alveolar size and number in a nonredundant manner, 2) show estrogen is required for maintenance of already formed alveoli and induces alveolar regeneration after their loss in adult ovariectomized mice, and 3) offer the possibility estrogen can slow alveolar loss and induce alveolar regeneration in women with COPD.

  6. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M;

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of...

  7. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  8. Reversible transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, S I; Shannon, J M; Borok, Z; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1995-05-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells have been thought to be the progenitors of terminally differentiated type I (AT1) cells in the adult animal in vivo. In this study, we used an AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb VIII B2) to investigate expression of the AT1 cell phenotype accompanying reversible changes in expression of the AT2 cell phenotype. AT2 cells were isolated and cultured either on attached collagen gels or on gels detached 1 or 4 days after plating and maintained thereafter as floating gels. Monolayers on both attached and floating gels were harvested on days 4 and 8 and analyzed by electron microscopy for changes in morphology and binding of mAb VIII B2. Results indicate that: (1) alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) on attached gels develop characteristics of the AT1 cell phenotype, (2) AEC on gels detached on day 1 maintain features of the AT2 cell phenotype (and do not react with mAb VIII B2), and (3) the expression of AT1 cell phenotypic traits seen by day 4 on attached gels is reversed after detachment. We conclude that commitment to the AT1 and AT2 cell lineages requires continuous regulatory input to maintain the differentiated states, and that transdifferentiation between AT2 and AT1 cells may be reversible.

  9. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  10. Identification of an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monick, Martha M; Powers, Linda S; Walters, Katherine; Lovan, Nina; Zhang, Michael; Gerke, Alicia; Hansdottir, Sif; Hunninghake, Gary W

    2010-11-01

    Alveolar macrophages are essential for clearing bacteria from the alveolar surface and preventing microbe-induced infections. It is well documented that smokers have an increased incidence of infections, in particular lung infections. Alveolar macrophages accumulate in smokers' lungs, but they have a functional immune deficit. In this study, we identify an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages. Smokers' alveolar macrophages accumulate both autophagosomes and p62, a marker of autophagic flux. The decrease in the process of autophagy leads to impaired protein aggregate clearance, dysfunctional mitochondria, and defective delivery of bacteria to lysosomes. This study identifies the autophagy pathway as a potential target for interventions designed to decrease infection rates in smokers and possibly in individuals with high environmental particulate exposure.

  11. FGFR4 signaling couples to Bim and not Bmf to discriminate subsets of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Marco; Rakic, Jelena; Okoniewski, Michal; Bode, Peter; Niggli, Felix; Schäfer, Beat W

    2014-10-01

    Biological heterogeneity represents a major obstacle for cancer treatment. Therefore, characterization of treatment-relevant tumor heterogeneity is necessary to develop more effective therapies in the future. Here, we uncovered population heterogeneity among PAX/FOXO1-positive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma by characterizing prosurvival networks initiated by FGFR4 signaling. We found that FGFR4 signaling rescues only subgroups of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells from apoptosis induced by compounds targeting the IGF1R-PI3K-mTOR pathway. Differences in both proapoptotic machinery and FGFR4-activated signaling are involved in the different behavior of the phenotypes. Proapoptotic stress induced by the kinase inhibitors is sensed by Bim/Bad in rescue cells and by Bmf in nonrescue cells. Anti-apoptotic ERK1/2 signaling downstream of FGFR4 is long-lasting in rescue and short-termed in most non-rescue cells. Gene expression analysis detected signatures specific for these two groups also in biopsy samples. The different cell phenotypes are present in different ratios in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma tumors and can be identified by AP2β expression levels. Hence, inhibiting FGFR signaling might represent an important strategy to enhance efficacy of current RMS treatments.

  12. Influences of Fucoxanthin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Induced Periodontitis in Rat Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malur Anagha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC lipid transporter, ABCG1. An open label proof of concept Phase II clinical trial was conducted in PAP patients using rituximab, a chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte specific antigen CD20. Rituximab treatment decreased anti-GM-CSF antibody levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and 7/9 patients completing the trial demonstrated clinical improvement as measured by arterial blood oxygenation. Objectives This study sought to determine whether rituximab therapy would restore lipid metabolism in PAP alveolar macrophages. Methods BAL samples were collected from patients pre- and 6-months post-rituximab infusion for evaluation of mRNA and lipid changes. Results Mean PPARγ and ABCG1 mRNA expression increased 2.8 and 5.3-fold respectively (p ≤ 0.05 after treatment. Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2 (a key enzyme in surfactant degradation mRNA expression was severely deficient in PAP patients pre-treatment but increased 2.8-fold post-treatment. In supplemental animal studies, LPLA2 deficiency was verified in GM-CSF KO mice but was not present in macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Oil Red O intensity of PAP alveolar macrophages decreased after treatment, indicating reduced intracellular lipid while extracellular free cholesterol increased in BAL fluid. Furthermore, total protein and Surfactant protein A were significantly decreased in the BAL fluid post therapy. Conclusions Reduction in GM

  14. PAX3-FOXO1 and FGFR4 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Amy D; van der Ent, Martijn A; Grosveld, Gerard C

    2012-10-01

    We and others have identified FGFR4 as a direct transcriptional target of the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) specific fusion protein, PAX3-FOXO1. We hypothesized fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) may act as an effector of PAX3-FOXO1, contributing to PAX3-FOXO1 tumorigenic phenotypes. However, we demonstrate that enhanced expression of FGFR4 does not contribute to inhibited differentiation, enhanced proliferation, or transformation downstream of PAX3-FOXO1 in primary mouse myoblasts. Therefore we were unable to identify any contribution of up regulation of wild type FGFR4 to PAX3-FOXO1 driven tumorigenesis. Conversely, a constitutively active mutant of FGFR4 can enhance primary myoblast proliferation and transformation, indicating activating mutations of FGFR4 could contribute to the development and progression of ARMS. We sequenced the FGFR4 mRNA from five ARMS cell lines and identified no somatic mutations, nor any association with any human single nucleotide polymorphism within the FGFR4 coding region.

  15. RNA interference-mediated silencing of SOCS-1 via lentiviral vector promotes apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Qiu-Rui; Cheng, Ting; Wan, Huan-Ying; Zhou, Min

    2012-02-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) is a protein that negatively regulates cytokine and growth factor signaling. However, little is known regarding the precise role it plays in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to construct a recombinant lentiviral vector for RNA interference targeting the SOCS1 gene and to detect the expression in human alveolar epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference method was used to establish a SOCS1-negative cell line of alveolar origin (A549). Three pairs of complementary small hairpin RNA (shRNA) oligonucleotides targeting the SOCS1 gene were designed, synthesized and inserted into the pPll3.7 vector. Packaged lentivirus particles were obtained after 48 h, and the supernatant was used to transfect the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. The expression of the SOCS1 protein was detected by Western blotting. MTT assay was used to detect the cell proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells with SOCS1 knockdown. The recombinant plasmids were confirmed by sequencing. The lentivirus-containing supernatant effectively infected the A549 cell line, and the expression of SOCS1 protein was inhibited, which was confirmed by Western blotting in the target cells. MTT assay indicated the inhibition effect for cell proliferation of A549 cells in the SOCS1-RNA interference group, compared to the control group with no interference-mediated silencing of the SOCS1 gene. A lentiviral vector for RNA interference targeting the SOCS1 gene was successfully constructed, and cell survival tests showed that knockdown of the SOCS1 gene promotes the apoptosis of alveolar cells.

  16. Nitric oxide prevents alveolar senescence and emphysema in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Boe

    Full Text Available Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment induces arteriosclerosis and vascular senescence. Here, we report that the systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by L-NAME causes pulmonary emphysema. L-NAME-treated lungs exhibited both the structural (alveolar tissue destruction and functional (increased compliance and reduced elastance characteristics of emphysema development. Furthermore, we found that L-NAME-induced emphysema could be attenuated through both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Because PAI-1 is an important contributor to the development of senescence both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether L-NAME-induced senescence led to the observed emphysematous changes. We found that L-NAME treatment was associated with molecular and cellular evidence of premature senescence in mice, and that PAI-1 inhibition attenuated these increases. These findings indicate that NO serves to protect and defend lung tissue from physiological aging.

  17. Hemorragia alveolar associada a nefrite lúpica Alveolar hemorrhage associated with lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorragia alveolar, como causa de insuficiência respiratória, é pouco freqüente, com diversas etiologias possíveis. Entre elas, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que se apresenta geralmente como síndrome pulmão-rim, possui alta morbimortalidade. Acredita-se que a patogênese da microangiopatia, tanto renal como pulmonar, esteja associada ao depósito de imunocomplexos, que ativariam as vias de apoptose celular. Relatam-se dois casos de pacientes com nefrite lúpica que evoluíram com hemorragia alveolar associada à insuficiência respiratória necessitando de ventilação mecânica com evoluções totalmente distintas frente às terapias farmacológicas. O achado de anticorpos antimembrana basal em um dos casos evidencia a multiplicidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos possivelmente envolvidos, que poderiam justificar as respostas heterogêneas frente aos tratamentos disponíveis.Alveolar hemorrhage leading to respiratory failure is uncommon. Various etiologies have been reported, including systemic lupus erythematosus, which generally presents as pulmonary-renal syndrome. It is believed that the pathogenesis of microangiopathy is related to deposits of immune complexes that lead to activation of cellular apoptosis. The authors report two cases of alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure, both requiring mechanical ventilation. The two cases had opposite outcomes after pharmacological therapy. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in one of the cases demonstrates the multiplicity of physiopathological mechanisms that may be involved. This multiplicity of mechanisms provides a possible explanation for the heterogeneous responses to the available treatments.

  18. Imaging features of alveolar soft part sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Jin; Ping Zhang Co-first author; Xiaoming Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the imaging features of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). Methods The imaging features of 11 cases with ASPS were retrospectively analyzed. Results ASPS mainly exhibited an isointense or slightly high signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), and a mixed high signal on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). ASPS was partial, with rich tortuous flow voids, or “line-like” low signal septa. The essence of the mass was heterogeneous enhancement. The 1H-MRS showed a slight choline peak at 3.2 ppm. Conclusion The wel-circumscribed mass and blood voids, combined with “line-like” low signals play a significant role in diagnosis. The choline peak and the other signs may be auxiliary diagnoses.

  19. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to ketorolac tromethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Creticus P; Alappan, Narendrakumar; Shim, Chang; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced lung disease (DILD) is a common but frequently missed diagnosis. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion and familiarity with the clinical syndromes associated with DILD are important in making the diagnosis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostly commonly used classes of medications. NSAIDs are safe when used at prescribed doses. Side effects from use of NSAIDs are not uncommon and can affect almost every organ system in the body. NSAIDs are notorious for causing pulmonary toxicity, the common ones being bronchospasm and hypersensitivity reactions. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) secondary to NSAIDs is uncommon. Here, we report a case of DAH secondary to the use of ketorolac tromethamine.

  20. [Distraction osteogenesis of deficient alveolar bone prior to dental rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, D; Emodi, O; Aizenbud, D; Rachmiel, A

    2015-07-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation has become very common in treatment plans nowadays, yet many patients lack the vertical and horizontal bone dimensions required for endosseous implant insertion. Distraction osteogenesis is a technique in which bone is generated by progressive elongation of two bone fragments following an osteotomy or corticotomy. Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge as a treatment modality in implant dentistry is a very useful technique that allows for adequate bone formation suitable for implant insertion. Alveolar distraction can be unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional or horizontal. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be performed by using intraosseous distraction devices, intraosseous distraction implants or by extraosseous devices which are the most prevalent today. Distraction osteogenesis has many advantages such as gradual lengthening of the bone with no need for an autogenous bone graft and lack of the associated donor site morbidity as well as distraction of the surrounding soft tissue together with the transported bone. One of the major challenges when using alveolar distraction osteogenesis is controlling the vector of distraction, this problem should be further addressed in future researches. We describe different methods for alveolar distraction osteogenesis, including the surgical procedure, latency period, lengthening and consolidation period. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages and complications of the method. In this manuscript a case of mandibular alveolar deficiency following mandibular fracture and loss of teeth and the alveolar bone is presented. This patient was treated by alveolar distraction osteogenesis with excellent results. This patient was later rehabilitated . using endosseous implants as demonstrated by radiographs. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis provides a method to regain both hard tissue and soft tissue without additional grafting and is an efficient modality in cases of medium

  1. Fractura da cortical alveolar resultante da exodontia de dentes anquilosados

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa para obtenção do grau Licenciado em Medicina Dentária A anquilose dento-alveolar constitui uma condição patológica que consiste na fusão anatómica entre o cemento radicular e o osso alveolar propriamente dito, podendo ocorrer durante qualquer etapa do processo eruptivo. Os factores etiológicos da anquilose dento-alveolar ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, existindo diversas teorias que pretendem explicar o fenómeno. O objectivo...

  2. Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis co-existing with breast cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sawai, Toyomitsu; Umeyama, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Sumako; Matsuo, Nobuko; Suyama, Naofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disease characterized by excessive alveolar accumulation of surfactant due to defective alveolar clearance by macrophages. There are only a few published case reports of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurring in association with solid cancers. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously reported cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis associated with breast cancer. Case presentation. A 48-year-old Asian woman, a nons...

  3. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  4. Alveolar proteinosis in Behçet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetikkurt Cuneyt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 51-year-old man with Behçet's disease complained of fever, dry cough and dyspnea during exertion. Chest CT showed ground glass opacities with interstitial septal thickening in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL revealed amorphous and lipoproteinaceous material that was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain positive. Transbronchial biopsy specimen demonstrated PAS positive alveolar eosinophilic material consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF antibody was negative. Recent studies have reported anti-GMCSF not present in the the serum of patients with secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP but they have not reported so in patients with idiopathic PAP. We report a case of alveolar proteinosis in the setting of Behçet's disease with spontaneous remission.

  5. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  6. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  7. Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A. de; Castell, A.; Medrano, M. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Cabeza, L.F., E-mail: lcabeza@diei.udl.ca [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. {yields} The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. {yields} Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

  8. Modified Dento - Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for Rapid Canine Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction Osteogenesis claims to reduce the duration of treatment as well aid in conservation of anchorage. With the introduction of Dento- alveolar distraction retraction of canine can now be done in about 2-3 weeks with minimal loss of anchorage and little/no root resorption. However, surgical procedure required for dento-alveolar distraction can cause significant swelling and post operative discomfort. Our small modification in the surgical procedure drastically reduces the discomfort and improves patient compliance.

  9. Modified Dento - Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for Rapid Canine Retraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Patil; Sharadindu Kotrashetti; Sumit Yadev; Ketan Vhora

    2012-01-01

    Distraction Osteogenesis claims to reduce the duration of treatment as well aid in conservation of anchorage. With the introduction of Dento- alveolar distraction retraction of canine can now be done in about 2-3 weeks with minimal loss of anchorage and little/no root resorption. However, surgical procedure required for dento-alveolar distraction can cause significant swelling and post operative discomfort. Our small modification in the surgical procedure drastically reduces the discomfort an...

  10. Anaesthetic management of bilateral alveolar proteinosis for bronchopulmonary lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The most hazardous manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is progressive hypoxia for which bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL is the single most effective treatment. Unfortunately this procedure under general anesthesia itself increases the risk of hypoxia due to the need for one lung ventilation. It was therefore considered interesting to report the successful anaesthetic management of a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis for Bronchopulmonary lavage.

  11. Impact of the Oral Commensal Flora on Alveolar Bone Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, K; Novince, C.M.; Darveau, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of healthy periodontal tissues is affected by innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora. Recent comparisons of germ-free (GF) and normal specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice have revealed the impact of host immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora on alveolar bone height. Prior reports that alveolar bone height is significantly less in normal SPF mice compared with their age- and strain-matched GF counterparts sug...

  12. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neut...

  13. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  14. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christley, Scott; Emr, Bryanna; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Josh; Gatto, Louis; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary F.; An, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  15. Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis.

  16. Killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by human alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman-Davis, Judy M; O'Reilly, Philip; Davis, Ian C; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Davis, Glenda; Young, K Randall; Devlin, Robert B; Matalon, Sadis

    2002-05-01

    We investigated putative mechanisms by which human surfactant protein A (SP-A) effects killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by human alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from bronchoalveolar lavagates of patients with transplanted lungs. Coincubation of AMs with human SP-A (25 microg/ml) and Klebsiella resulted in a 68% decrease in total colony forming units by 120 min compared with AMs infected with Klebsiella in the absence of SP-A, and this SP-A-mediated effect was abolished by preincubation with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Incubation of transplant AMs with SP-A increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by 70% and nitrite and nitrate (NO(x)) production by 45% (from 0.24 +/- 0.02 to 1.3 +/- 0.21 nmol small middle dot 10(6) AMs(-1).h(-1)). Preincubation with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and abrogated the SP-A-mediated Klebsiella phagocytosis and killing. In contrast, incubation of AMs from normal volunteers with SP-A decreased both [Ca(2+)](i) and NO(x) production and did not result in killing of Klebsiella. Significant killing of Klebsiella was also seen in a cell-free system by sustained production of peroxynitrite (>1 microM/min) at pH 5 but not at pH 7.4. These findings indicate that SP-A mediates pathogen killing by AMs from transplant lungs by stimulating phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen-nitrogen intermediates.

  17. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis.

  18. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  19. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    . Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found...... burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity...... in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative...

  20. Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Stuart B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA. Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1α abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-Rα mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d, in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-Rα expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation.

  1. Inhaled unfractionated heparin improves abnormalities of alveolar coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in endotoxemia-induced lung injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zong-yu; WU Sheng-nan; ZHU Zhao-zhong; YANG Ba-xian; ZHU Xi

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome presents with not only local inflammation,but also pulmonary coagulopathy which is characterized by an alveolar procoagulant response,anticoagulant inhibition,fibrinolytic supression and fibrin deposition.We thus had hypothesized that if aerosolized unfractionated heparin was inhaled into alveolar spaces,it could block the procoagulant tendency,lessen depletion of coagulation factors,and even influence the inflammatory response.We also assessed the effects of different administration regimens of heparin.Methods Male Wistar rats were given inhaled heparin starting 30 minutes before (prophylactic heparin) or 2 hours after (therapeutic heparin) intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered at 6-hour intervals; control groups received inhaled normal saline with or without being exposed to LPS.Thrombin-antithrombin complexes,activated protein C,tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (t-PNu-PA),plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAl-1),tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage,and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity,and histology score were measured at three time-points.PAI-1/(t-PA + u-PA) was calculated based on the before-mentioned parameters.Statistical analysis was made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc test or Student's t test in the case of heterogeneity of variance.Results An alveolar procoagulant reaction,depressed fibrinolysis,and inflammatory response occurred in endotoxemia-induced lung injury.Local prophylactic application of heparin attenuated coagulation and early inflammation,promoted fibrinolysis,and reduced the histology score.Therapeutic application of heparin had similar,but weaker effects.Conclusions Intrapulmonary application of unfractionated heparin by inhalation might inhibit alveolar procoagulant reaction and the early inflammatory response,promote flbrinolysis,and alleviate pulmonary pathology in endotoxemia

  2. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  3. Hydrogen sulfide donor regulates alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in rats with acute lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-li; LIU Zhi-wei; LI Tian-shui; WANG Cong; ZHAO Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALl) is a common syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality in emergency medicine.Cell apoptosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ALl.Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a protective role during acute lung injury.We designed this study to examine the role of H2S in the lung alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in rats with ALl.Methods Sixty-nine male Sprague Dawley rats were used.ALl was induced by intra-tail vein injection of oleic acid (OA).NaHS solution was injected intraperitonally 30 minutes before OA injection as the NaHS pretreatment group.Single sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment group and control group were designed.Index of quantitative assessment (IQA),wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined.H2S level in lung tissue was measured by a sensitive sulphur electrode.Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and Fas protein was measured by immunohistochemical staining.Results The level of endogenous H2S in lung tissue decreased with the development of ALl induced by OA injection.Apoptosis and Fas protein in alveolar epithelial cells increased in the ALl of rats but NaHS lessened apoptosis and Fas protein expression in alveolar epithelial cells of rats with ALl.Conclusion Endogenous H2S protects rats from oleic acid-induced ALl,probably by inhibiting cell apoptosis.

  4. Composition of alveolar liquid in the foetal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T M; Boyd, R D; Platt, H S; Strang, L B

    1969-09-01

    1. Experiments were performed on foetal lambs at gestations between 125 days and term. The foetus was exteriorized at Caesarean section with the umbilical cord and placental attachment maintained intact. Samples of liquid from the alveolar parts of the lung were withdrawn through a tracheal cannula and samples of lung lymph, plasma and amniotic liquid were also obtained. Measurements were made of total osmolality, concentrations of electrolytes and urea, pH and P(CO2). Titrations were carried out with N/10 HCl and N/10 NaOH. The water content of the liquids was estimated and concentrations expressed per kg H(2)O.2. In alveolar liquid [H(+)], [K(+)] and [Cl(-)] were higher and [Ca(2+)], [phosphates] and [HCO(3) (-)] were lower than in plasma or lymph. In amniotic liquid osmolality [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and [Ca(2+)] were lower and [phosphates] higher than in plasma or lymph. Alveolar liquid/plasma ratios of [HCO(3) (-)], [Ca(2+)], [Cl(-)] and [K(+)] differed from ultra filtrate/plasma ratios of these ions.3. Titration curves demonstrated a very small amount of buffering in alveolar liquid at its in vivo pH of 6.27 mostly due to HCO(3) (-) at an average concentration of 2.8 mM/kg H(2)O.4. It is concluded that foetal alveolar liquid is not an ultrafiltrate of plasma nor a mixture of amniotic liquid and plasma ultrafiltrate, but a special material elaborated by the foetal lung.

  5. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  6. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. Seifeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CL/P is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material.

  7. Depressant effects of ambroxol and erdosteine on cytokine synthesis, granule enzyme release, and free radical production in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Young; Song, Jin Ho; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Han, Eun Sook; Lee, Chung Soo

    2003-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of ambroxol and erdosteine, bronchial expectorants, on the cytokine synthesis, granule enzyme release, and free radical production in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. Ambroxol and erdosteine significantly decreased the production of tumour necrosis factors-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. These drugs significantly reduced the production of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide and the release of acid phosphatase and lysozyme in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. Ambroxol and erdosteine showed no scavenging effect on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, whereas both drugs effectively decomposed nitric oxide. The results show that ambroxol and erdosteine may inhibit the responses, including cytokine synthesis and free radical production, in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. Unlike the production of reactive oxygen species, the inhibitory effect of ambroxol and erdosteine on the production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-activated alveolar macrophages may be accomplished by a scavenging action on the species and inhibition of the respiratory burst.

  8. Role of ICAM-1 in the aggregation and adhesion of human alveolar macrophages in response to TNF-α and INF-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sasaki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell adhesion is thought to play an important role at sites of inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that ICAM-1 surface expression on alveolar macrophages is increased in pulmonary sarcoidosis and that inflammatory granuloma formation is characterized by the aggregation of macrophages. The present study shows that ICAM-1 expression is significantly elevated on alveolar macrophages from patients with sarcoidosis in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon- γ (INF-γ compared with healthy controls. Aggregation and adhesion were significantly increased in alveolar macrophages treated with TNF-α and INF-γ, and significantly inhibited in those pretreated with a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1. Similarly, aggregation and adhesion were inhibited in macrophages treated with heparin, which then exhibited a wide range of biological activities relevant to inflammation. These results suggested that the surface expression of ICAM-1 on alveolar macrophages in response to TNF-α and INF-γ is important in mediating aggregation and adhesion. Additionally, heparin may be useful for developing novel therapeutic agents for fibrotic lung disease.

  9. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  10. Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev М.О.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

  11. Alveolar-filling growth pattern of sarcomatoid malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takamitsu; Tajima, Shogo; Takanashi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Neyatani, Hiroshi; Funai, Kazuhito

    2016-09-01

    A case of sarcomatoid malignant pleural mesothelioma showing extremely rare growth pattern is described. A 63-year-old man presented to our hospital with left pleural effusion. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed diffusely thickened left visceral and parietal pleura associated with intermingled pulmonary infiltrative shadowing. Biopsy of the pleura under general anaesthesia confirmed the diagnosis of sarcomatoid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The patient underwent left extra-pleural pneumonectomy. Histopathologically, the sarcomatoid spindle tumour cells changed their morphology to polygonal cells in the pulmonary parenchyma and grew upwards, filling the alveolar space without the destruction of its septa, showing an alveolar-filling growth pattern. The current report indicates a case of sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma that shows an alveolar-filling growth pattern, despite having not been thoroughly categorized in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  12. Electronic thermography for the assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratt, B M; Shetty, V; Saiar, M; Sickles, E A

    1995-08-01

    Neurosensory deficit is one of the major complications encountered in oral and maxillofacial surgery. OBJECTIVES. To determine the efficacy of electronic thermography in objectively assessing neurosensory deficits of the inferior alveolar nerve. STUDY DESIGN. Three studies were conducted measuring skin temperature over the chin region of the face at 0.1 degree C accuracy. RESULTS. (1) Thermal symmetry of the chin region in normal subjects (delta T = 0.2 degree C, SD = 0.02 degree C); (2) Induction of transient thermal asymmetry by local anesthetic injection (delta T = +0.4 degree C, SD = 0.2 degree C); (3) nine subjects with neurologic alterations of the inferior alveolar nerve (delta T = +0.5 degree C, SD = 0.2 degree C). Statistically significant differences were found between control group and experimental groups at p alveolar nerve injury or by pharmacologic nerve block.

  13. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the mandibular ramus and its surrounding tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, when it occurs in the head and neck, is primarily found in children. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is rarely seen in the oral lesion, comparing to the embryonal and the pleomorphic variants. This is a report of a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mandible in a ten-year old girl who complained of a non-painful swelling on the right cheek. The right lower 1st molar was mobile. Her radiographs revealed an extensive radiolucency with somewhat irregular border on the right mandibular ramus. The right mandibular 1st and 2nd molars lost their lamina dura and were floating. CT images revealed smooth-outlined soft tissue mass occupying the pterygomandibular space, the infratemporal space, and the masseteric muscle with thinning and perforation of the right mandibular angle and ramus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings established the final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

  14. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Kim, Kevin K

    2014-04-15

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-β, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis remains poorly defined. Profibrotic cytokines may activate epithelial cells with protein expression and functions that overlap with the functions of active fibroblasts. We found that alveolar epithelial cells undergoing TGF-β-mediated mesenchymal transition in vitro were also capable of activating lung fibroblasts through production of CTGF. Alveolar epithelial cell expression of CTGF was dramatically reduced by inhibition of Rho signaling. CTGF reporter mice demonstrated increased CTGF promoter activity by lung epithelial cells acutely after bleomycin in vivo. Furthermore, mice with lung epithelial cell-specific deletion of CTGF had an attenuated fibrotic response to bleomycin. These studies provide direct evidence that epithelial cell activation initiates a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation during progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of CTGF offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and limiting tissue fibrosis.

  15. Role of cytoskeleton in cytokine production from lung alveolar epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines are involved in both host defense and inflammatory lung injury. Recent work from our laboratory and others has demonstrated that in addition to classical immune cells, lung alveolar epithelial cells (or pneumocytes) can also produce cytokines in response to various stimuli. This new knowledge has advanced our view of the host defense system in the lung. The regulatory mechanisms of cytokine production have been studied in great detail at various cellular and molecular levels, but the mechanisms of intracellular cytokine transport are largely unknown. Our recent studies suggest that the cytoskeleton could play an important role in mediating intracellular cytokine trafficking. This could be an important regulatory step for cytokine production. For example, lipopolyssacharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from rat pneumocytes, which was further enhanced by a microfilament-disrupting agent. LPS also induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2(MIP-2), a chemokine for neutrophil recruitment and activation, from rat pneumocytes. This effect was enhanced by microtubule-disrupting agents. We speculate that both microfilaments and microtubules are involved in regulating cytokine transportation in pneumocytes through different mechanisms. Further investigation in on going in my laboratory. From a clinical perspective, if we understand the mechanisms regulating cytokine production and release from lung alveolar epithelial cells, we may be able to enhance or inhibit release of crucial cytokines depending on the clinical situation.

  16. Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients......Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients...

  17. Alveolar hemorrhage as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Bruna A; Barreto, Isabela G Menna; de Araujo, Isadora S Gomes; de Araujo, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage (AH) is a rare syndrome that can often occur in autoimmune diseases, blood clotting disorders, infection or by acute inhalation injury, presenting rapid evolution and high mortality, especially with late diagnosis and treatment. Among the autoimmune diseases, there are reported cases in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An early diagnosis is an essential tool in the successful management of this complication, requiring aggressive treatment based on vigorous immunosuppression and broad-spectrum antibiotic. We describe here a case of alveolar hemorrhage associated with glomerulonephritis as the open presentation in a patient with SLE.

  18. From alveolar diffuse atrophy to aggressive periodontitis: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeldemir, Esra; Toygar, Hilal Uslu

    2006-01-01

    Technologic advances in mechanics, electronics, physics, chemistry, and computer science have contributed to advances in dental medicine. Periodontology is not only a clinical science but is also directly related to the basic sciences. Research is conducted in laboratories rather than in clinics now. During the last century, aggressive periodontitis has received attention from numerous researchers because of its multifactorial features. This paper explores the long scientific journey of aggressive periodontitis, beginning with its first definition as alveolar diffuse atrophy. Perhaps in the future, "alveolar diffuse atrophy" will be referred to by another name or term. However, this journey will never end.

  19. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mefina Kuntjoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augmentation and vestibuloplasty was aimed to provide stability and retentive denture atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge. Case: A 65 years old woman patient complained about uncomfortable denture. Clinical evaluate showed flat ridge in the anterior mandible, flabby tissue and candidiasis, while residual ridge height was classified into class IV. Case management: Augmentation using autograph was conducted as the mandible vertical height is less than 15 mm. Autograph was used to achieve better bone quantity and quality. Separated alveolar ridge was conducted from left to right canine region and was elevated 0.5 mm from the previous position to get new ridge in the anterior region. The separated alveolar ridge was fixated by using T-plate and ligature wire. Three months after augmentation fixation appliances was removed vestibuloplasty was performed to increase denture bearing area that can make a stable and retentive denture. Conclusion: Augmentation and vestibuloplasty can improve flat ridge to become prominent.Latar belakang: Ridge mandibula yang atrofi pada umumnya mempersulit pembuatan restorasi prostetik terutama gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL. Residual alveolar ridge dan basal seat yang rendah menyebabkan gigi tiruan menjadi tidak stabil, menimbulkan ulser permanen, nyeri, neuralgia, dan kesulitan mengunyah. Tujuan: Augmentasi dan vestibuloplasti pada ridge mandibula yang atrofi dilakukan untuk menciptakan gigi tiruan yang stabil dan retentive. Kasus: Pasien wanita

  20. Thermal behavior of premises equipped with different alveolar structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajimi Nour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study of local thermal behavior. Vertical walls are equipped with alveolar structure and/or simple glazing in East, South and West frontages. Local temperature is assumed to be variable with time or imposed at set point temperature. Results principally show that the simple glazing number has a sensitive effect on convection heat transfer and interior air temperature. They also show that the diode effect is more sensitive in winter. The effect of alveolar structure and simple glazing on the power heating in case with set point temperature is also brought out.

  1. Alveolar hemorrhage as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Bruna A.; Barreto, Isabela G. Menna; de Araujo, Isadora S. Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage (AH) is a rare syndrome that can often occur in autoimmune diseases, blood clotting disorders, infection or by acute inhalation injury, presenting rapid evolution and high mortality, especially with late diagnosis and treatment. Among the autoimmune diseases, there are reported cases in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An early diagnosis is an essential tool in the successful management of this complication, requiring aggressive treatment based on vigorous immunosuppression and broad-spectrum antibiotic. We describe here a case of alveolar hemorrhage associated with glomerulonephritis as the open presentation in a patient with SLE. PMID:27994272

  2. Differential Regulation of Gene Expression of Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma-Derived A549 Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy appears to be promising for restoring damaged or irreparable lung tissue. However, establishing a simple and reproducible protocol for preparing lung progenitor populations is difficult because the molecular basis for alveolar epithelial cell differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated an in vitro system to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of alveolus-specific gene expression using a human alveolar epithelial type II (ATII cell line, A549. After cloning A549 subpopulations, each clone was classified into five groups according to cell morphology and marker gene expression. Two clones (B7 and H12 were further analyzed. Under serum-free culture conditions, surfactant protein C (SPC, an ATII marker, was upregulated in both H12 and B7. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5, an ATI marker, was upregulated in H12 and significantly induced in B7. When the RAS/MAPK pathway was inhibited, SPC and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. After treatment with dexamethasone (DEX, 8-bromoadenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, surfactant protein B and TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. We found that A549-derived clones have plasticity in gene expression of alveolar epithelial differentiation markers and could be useful in studying ATII maintenance and differentiation.

  3. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on AQP-5 expression of type I alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ebeling

    Full Text Available P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis.

  4. Micromolar sodium fluoride mediates anti-osteoclastogenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ujjal K Bhawal; Nobushiro Hamada; Ikuo Nasu; Hirohisa Arakawa; Koh Shibutani; Hye-Jin Lee; Kazumune Arikawa; Michiharu Shimosaka; Masatoshi Suzuki; Toshizo Toyama; Takenori Sato; Ryota Kawamata; Chieko Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated by the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone-lytic diseases. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on osteoclastogenesis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity that has been implicated in periodontitis. NaF strongly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of cathepsin K, interleukin (IL)-1b, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, which were up-regulated during P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis. Consistent with the in vivo anti-osteoclastogenic effect, NaF inhibited osteoclast formation caused by the differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The RANKL-stimulated induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 was also abrogated by NaF. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NaF inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by reducing the induction of NFATc1, ultimately leading to the suppressed expression of cathepsin K and MMP9. The in vivo effect of NaF on the inhibition of P. gingivalis-induced osteoclastogenesis strengthens the potential usefulness of NaF for treating periodontal diseases.

  5. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rennis Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

  6. DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thaku...l) Show Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. PubmedID 18226603 Title Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macropha...ges. Authors Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian A. Public

  7. Remodeling dynamics in the alveolar process in skeletally mature dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huja, Sarandeep S; Fernandez, Soledad A; Hill, Kara J; Li, Yan

    2006-12-01

    Bone turnover rates can be altered by metabolic and mechanical demands. Due to the difference in the pattern of loading, we hypothesized that there are differences in bone remodeling rates between the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes. Furthermore, in a canine model, the alveolar process of teeth that lack contact (e.g., second premolars) would have a different turnover rate than bone supporting teeth with functional contact (e.g., first molars). Six skeletally mature male dogs were given a pair of calcein labels. After sacrifice, specimens representing the anterior and posterior locations of both jaws were prepared for examination by histomorphometric methods to evaluate the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV; %), bone volume (mm2), mineral apposition rate (MAR; microm/day), and bone formation rate (BFR; %/year) in the alveolar process. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the BV/TV within the jaws. The bone volume within the alveolar process of the mandible was 2.8-fold greater than in the maxilla. The MAR was not significantly different between the jaws and anteroposterior locations. However, the BFR was significantly (Parchitecture.

  8. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  9. An unusual delayed complication of inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joanna; Marley, John

    2010-01-01

    Systemic and localised complications after administration of local anaesthetic for dental procedures are well recognised. We present two cases of patients with trismus and sensory deficit that arose during resolution of trismus as a delayed complication of inferior alveolar nerve block.

  10. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in an indium-processing worker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yong-long; CAI Hou-rong; WANG Yi-hua; MENG Fan-qing; ZHANG De-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the increasing number of workers engaged in liquid-crystal displays (LCD) manufacturer, lung diseases related to this occupational exposure are attracting more attention.Herein we report a case of interstitial lung disease in a LCD processing worker, which was pathologically confirmed as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

  11. Endodontic-related inferior alveolar nerve and mental foramen paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R

    1997-10-01

    Paresthesia is a condition that involves perverted sensations of pain, touch, or temperature. It has a variety of possible causes. This article presents a literature review and case reports of endodontically related inferior alveolar nerve and mental foramen paresthesia. Nondrug prevention methods and the dental uses of dexamethasone are also discussed.

  12. Complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis of the atrophic mandible.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdijk, F.B.; Meijer, G.J.; Strijen, P.J.; Koole, R.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the starting point for placement of dental implants, 45 patients suffering from atrophied edentulous mandibles, with a vertical height varying between 7.3 and 15.8mm, were treated by alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis (VDO). The mean follow-up period was 3 years, ranging from 1 to

  13. Complications in alveolar distraction osteogenesis of the atrophic mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdijk, F. B. T.; van Strijen, P. J.; Meijer, G.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the starting point for placement of dental implants, 45 patients suffering from atrophied edentulous mandibles, with a vertical height varying between 7.3 and 15.8 turn, were treated by alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis (VDO). The mean follow-up period was 3 years, ranging from 1

  14. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC0108

  15. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro; Foresta, Enrico; Falchi, Marco; De Angelis, Paolo; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  16. Alveolar echinococcosis localized in the liver, lung and brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyit Mehmet Kayacan; Kutigin Turkmen; Fatih Yakar; Kerim Guier; Sezai Vatansever; Suleyman Temiz; Bora Uslu; Dilek Kayacan; Vakur Akkaya; Osman Erk; Büent Saka; Aytac Karadag

    2008-01-01

    @@ Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval forms of echinococci. It has two main forms as the unilocular cystic form that is more commonly seen and caused by E. granulosus and the alveolar form that is rarely seen and caused by E.

  17. Green tea polyphenol blocks h(2)o(2)-induced interleukin-8 production from human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Isowa, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Liu, Mingyao; Wada, Hiromi

    2002-06-07

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung transplants. Reactive oxygen species may stimulate the production of neutrophil chemotactic factors such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), from alveolar epithelial cells, causing recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the reperfused tissue. Green tea polyphenol has potent anti-oxidative activities and anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing cytokine production. In the present study, we found that green tea polyphenol significantly inhibited IL-8 production induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549 line). It has been shown that mitogen activated protein kinases, such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and p44/42, could mediate IL-8 production from a variety of cell types. We further investigated the effect of green tea polyphenol on these protein kinases, and demonstrated that H(2)O(2)-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 but not p44/42 was inhibited by green tea polyphenol in A549 cells. We speculate that green tea polyphenol may inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 production from A549 cells through inactivation of JNK and p38.

  18. Hyperoxia increases the elastic modulus of alveolar epithelial cells through Rho kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kristina R; Roan, Esra; Ghosh, Manik C; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with acute lung injury are administered high concentrations of oxygen during mechanical ventilation, and while both hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation are necessary, each can independently cause additional injury. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to injury are not well understood. We hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells may be more susceptible to injury caused by mechanical ventilation because hyperoxia causes cells to be stiffer due to increased filamentous actin (f-actin) formation via the GTPase RhoA and its effecter Rho kinase (ROCK). We examined cytoskeletal structures in cultured murine lung alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12) under normoxic and hyperoxic (48 h) conditions. We also measured cell elasticity (E) using an atomic force microscope in the indenter mode. Hyperoxia caused increased f-actin stress fibers and bundle formation, an increase in g- and f-actin, an increase in nuclear area and a decrease in nuclear height, and cells became stiffer (higher E). Treatment with an inhibitor (Y-27632) of ROCK significantly decreased E and prevented the cytoskeletal changes, while it did not influence the nuclear height and area. Pre-exposure of cells to hyperoxia promoted detachment when cells were subsequently stretched cyclically, but the ROCK inhibitor prevented this effect. Hyperoxia caused thickening of vinculin focal adhesion plaques, and inhibition of ROCK reduced the formation of distinct focal adhesion plaques. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was significantly reduced by both hyperoxia and treatment with Y-27632. Hyperoxia caused increased cell stiffness and promoted cell detachment during stretch. These effects were ameliorated by inhibition of ROCK.

  19. Modulation of t1alpha expression with alveolar epithelial cell phenotype in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, Z; Danto, S I; Lubman, R L; Cao, Y; Williams, M C; Crandall, E D

    1998-07-01

    T1alpha is a recently identified gene expressed in the adult rat lung by alveolar type I (AT1) epithelial cells but not by alveolar type II (AT2) epithelial cells. We evaluated the effects of modulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) phenotype in vitro on T1alpha expression using either soluble factors or changes in cell shape to influence phenotype. For studies on the effects of soluble factors on T1alpha expression, rat AT2 cells were grown on polycarbonate filters in serum-free medium (MDSF) or in MDSF supplemented with either bovine serum (BS, 10%), rat serum (RS, 5%), or keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, 10 ng/ml) from either day 0 or day 4 through day 8 in culture. For studies on the effects of cell shape on T1alpha expression, AT2 cells were plated on thick collagen gels in MDSF supplemented with BS. Gels were detached on either day 1 (DG1) or day 4 (DG4) or were left attached until day 8. RNA and protein were harvested at intervals between days 1 and 8 in culture, and T1alpha expression was quantified by Northern and Western blotting, respectively. Expression of T1alpha progressively increases in AEC grown in MDSF +/- BS between day 1 and day 8 in culture, consistent with transition toward an AT1 cell phenotype. Exposure to RS or KGF from day 0 prevents the increase in T1alpha expression on day 8, whereas addition of either factor from day 4 through day 8 reverses the increase. AEC cultured on attached gels express high levels of T1alpha on days 4 and 8. T1alpha expression is markedly inhibited in both DG1 and DG4 cultures, consistent with both inhibition and reversal of the transition toward the AT1 cell phenotype. These results demonstrate that both soluble factors and alterations in cell shape modulate T1alpha expression in parallel with AEC phenotype and provide further support for the concept that transdifferentiation between AT2 and AT1 cell phenotypes is at least partially reversible.

  20. Alveolar bone measurement precision for phosphor-plate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILDEBOLT, CHARLES F.; COUTURE, REX; GARCIA, NATHALIA M.; DIXON, DEBRA; SHANNON, WILLIAM DOUGLAS; LANGENWALTER, ERIC; CIVITELLI, ROBERTO

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate methods for determining measurement precision and to determine the precision of alveolar-bone measurements made with a vacuum-coupled, positioning device and phosphor-plate images. Study design Subjects were rigidly attached to the x-ray tube by means of a vacuum coupling device and custom, cross-arch, bite plates. Original and repeat radiographs (taken within minutes of each other) were obtained of the mandibular posterior teeth of 51 subjects, and cementoenamel-junction-alveolar-crest (CEJ-AC) distances were measured on both sets of images. In addition, x-ray-transmission (radiodensity) and alveolar-crest-height differences were determined by subtracting one image from the other. Image subtractions and measurements were performed twice. Based on duplicate measurements, the root-mean-square standard deviation (precision) and least-significant change (LSC) were calculated. LSC is the magnitude of change in a measurement needed to indicate that a true biological change has occurred. Results The LSCs were 4% for x-ray transmission, 0.49 mm for CEJ-AC distance, and 0.06 mm for crest-height 0.06 mm. Conclusion The LSCs for our CEJ-AC and x-ray transmission measurements are similar to what has been reported. The LSC for alveolar-crest height (determined with image subtraction) was less than 0.1 mm. Compared with findings from previous studies, this represents a highly precise measurement of alveolar crest height. The methods demonstrated for calculating LSC can be used by investigators to determine how large changes in radiographic measurements need to be before the changes can be considered (with 95% confidence) true biological changes and not noise (that is, equipment/observer error). PMID:19716499

  1. MAPK-Mediated YAP Activation Controls Mechanical-Tension-Induced Pulmonary Alveolar Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary alveolar epithelium undergoes extensive regeneration in response to lung injuries, including lung resection. In recent years, our understanding of cell lineage relationships in the pulmonary alveolar epithelium has improved significantly. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pneumonectomy (PNX-induced alveolar regeneration remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that mechanical-tension-induced YAP activation in alveolar stem cells plays a major role in promoting post-PNX alveolar regeneration. Our results indicate that JNK and p38 MAPK signaling is critical for mediating actin-cytoskeleton-remodeling-induced nuclear YAP expression in alveolar stem cells. Moreover, we show that Cdc42-controlled actin remodeling is required for the activation of JNK, p38, and YAP in post-PNX lungs. Our findings together establish that the Cdc42/F-actin/MAPK/YAP signaling cascade is essential for promoting alveolar regeneration in response to mechanical tension in the lung.

  2. Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Prudente Bártholo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar proteinosis. Computed tomography of the thorax, bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy were performed. The histopathologic aspect was characteristic. The patient was discharged in good health conditions and remains asymptomatic to date.Proteinose alveolar é uma doença pulmonar incomum caracterizada pelo acúmulo de surfactante nas vias aéreas terminais e nos alvéolos, alterando a troca gasosa e, em alguns casos, promovendo insuficiência respiratória. Três formas clínicas e etiologicamente distintas de proteinose alveolar são reconhecidas: congênitas, secundárias e idiopáticas (mais de 90% dos casos são de etiologia idiopática. Neste relato, apresentamos um homem jovem que foi diagnosticado com proteinose pulmonar. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, broncoscopia e biópsia transbrônquica foram realizadas. O aspecto histopatológico foi característico. O paciente teve alta, com boas condições de saúde, e encontra-se assintomático nos dias de hoje.

  3. Pulmonary alveolar epithelial uptake of S-nitrosothiols is regulated by L-type amino acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granillo, Olivia M; Brahmajothi, Mulugu V; Li, Sheng; Whorton, A Richard; Mason, S Nicholas; McMahon, Timothy J; Auten, Richard L

    2008-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) effects are often mediated via S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation; SNO uptake has recently been shown to be mediated in some cell types via system L-type amino acid transporters (LAT-1, 2). Inhaled NO therapy may exert some biological effects via SNO formation. We therefore sought to determine if pulmonary epithelial SNO uptake depended on LAT or peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2). Both LAT-1 and PEPT2 proteins were detected by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry in L2 cells and rat lung. We tested SNO uptake through the transporters by exposing rat alveolar epithelial cells (L2 and type II) to RSNOs: S-nitrosoglutathione, S-nitrosocysteinylglycine (SNO-Cys-Gly), S-nitrosocysteine (CSNO), and to NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA-NONOate). SNO was detected in cell lysates by ozone chemiluminescence. NO uptake was detected by fluorescence in alveolar epithelial cells loaded with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate cultured in submersion and exposed to RSNOs and DEA NONOate. Addition of L-Cys but not D-Cys to RSNOs or DEA NONOate increased SNO and DAF-FM signal that was inhibited by coincubation with LAT competitors. Incubation of cells with PEPT2 substrate SNO-Cys-Gly showed no increase in SNO or DAF-FM signal unless incubated with L-Cys. This was unaffected by PEPT2 inhibition. We conclude that RSNOs (thionitrites, S-nitrosothiols) and NO enter alveolar epithelial cells predominantly by S-nitrosation of L-Cys, which is then imported through LAT.

  4. Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes have a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute histologoic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis: Patho-physiologic implication related to different clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether histo-topographic findings about the involved compartments (i.e., choriodecidua, amnion, chorionic-plate) of acute-histologic chorioamnionitis (acute-HCA) and/or funisitis according to the presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) are different between preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). The involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis were examined in 161 singleton preterm-births (preterm-PROM (n = 73). The study-population was divided into IAI(-)/FIRS(-), IAI(+)/FIRS(-), and IAI(+)/FIRS(+) groups according to the presence or absence of IAI (amniotic-fluid MMP-8 ≥ 23 ng/ml) and/or FIRS (umbilical-cord plasma CRP ≥ 200 ng/ml). Histological inflammation was not detected in any-compartment except choriodecidua in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with PTL while inflammation appeared in all-compartment0s (choriodeciduitis-46.2 %; amnionitis-23.1 %; funisitis-30.8 %; chorionic-plate inflammation-7.7 %) in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with preterm-PROM. IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group had a significantly higher frequency of inflammation in each-compartment than IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group in PTL (each-for P preterm-PROM (each-for P > 0.1). However, IAI(+)/FIRS(+) group had a significantly higher rate of inflammation in each compartment than IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group in both PTL and preterm-PROM (each-for P preterm-PROM had a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis in the IAI(-)/FIRS(--) group and in the change of involved compartments from IAI(-)/FIRS(-) to IAI(+)/FIRS(-).

  5. Retinoid induction of alveolar regeneration: from mice to man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, M; Gilthorpe, A; Stinchcombe, S; Maden, M

    2009-05-01

    The use of retinoids to induce human lung regeneration is under investigation in a number of studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Retinoic acid (RA) has complex pleiotropic functions during vertebrate patterning and development and can induce regeneration in a number of different organ systems. Studies of retinoid signalling during lung development might provide a molecular basis to explain pharmacological induction of alveolar regeneration in adult models of lung disease. In this review the role of endogenous RA signalling during alveologenesis is explored and data suggesting that a number of exogenous retinoids can induce regeneration in the adult lung are discussed. Current controversies in this area are highlighted and a hypothesis of lung regeneration is put forward. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of regeneration will be central for effective translation into patients with lung disease and may reveal novel insights into the pathogenesis of alveolar disease and senescence.

  6. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. PMID:27471408

  7. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician.

  8. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies.Results: In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement.Conclusions: The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.

  9. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  10. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  11. Alveolar type II epithelial cell dysfunction in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Yang

    Full Text Available The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2 play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL. We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064 induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target.

  12. Thermal behavior of premises equipped with different alveolar structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lajimi Nour; Boukadida Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of local thermal behavior. Vertical walls are equipped with alveolar structure and/or simple glazing in East, South and West frontages. Local temperature is assumed to be variable with time or imposed at set point temperature. Results principally show that the simple glazing number has a sensitive effect on convection heat transfer and interior air temperature. They also show that the diode effect is more sensitive in w...

  13. Bruxism elicited by inferior alveolar nerve injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Marcello; Coiana, Carlo; Secci, Simona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the history of a patient who received an injury to the right inferior alveolar nerve after placement of a dental implant, with bruxism noted afterward. The symptoms were managed by the use of an occlusal appliance worn at night and occasionally during the day, associated with increased awareness of parafunction during the day to reduce muscle pain and fatigue. Paresthesia of the teeth, gingiva, and lower lip persisted but were reduced during appliance use.

  14. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  15. Primary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma with Diffuse Alveolar Consolidation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mohammad Taheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that tend to develop in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues including the sinonasal or nasopharyngeal regions. Primary plasmacytoma of the lung is exceedingly rare and often presents as a solitary mass or nodule in mid-lung or hilar areas and diagnosed after resection. Herein, we report a case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma that presented with diffuse alveolar consolidation and diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy.

  16. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...... muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed no osteoinduction or osteoconduction in connection with sintered or unsintered Bio-Oss. A foreign body reaction was observed around both forms....

  17. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  18. Referral practice of military corpsmen regarding dento-alveolar trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda; Levin, Liran

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Israeli military corpsmens' practice of referral to professional treatment regarding traumatic dental injuries. The study consisted of 250 corpsmen during their military service. Questionnaire and slide show were used to present clinical photos with short history descriptions of dento-alveolar traumatic injuries. Participants were asked to indicate the preferred referral destination for each case to state the urgency of referral to the destination and to note their regional emergency department with an oral and maxillofacial surgery consultant and the nearest 24-h emergency dental clinic. Corpsmen immediately evacuated the wounded with full-thickness lip laceration (59%), tooth avulsion (79%), alveolar fracture (88%) and mandibular fracture (100%). Most corpsmen referred crown fracture to a dental clinic and alveolar- or mandibular-bone fracture to the emergency department. Tooth avulsion cases were equally distributed between the emergency department and dental clinic and full-thickness lip laceration between the emergency department and general medical office. Familiarity with the nearest 24-h emergency dental clinic was found in 38% and with the regional emergency department with an oral and maxillofacial surgery consultant in 57%. The knowledge of this group of military corpsmen regarding referral practices was encouraging. However, further continuing education with regards to the regionally available emergency services is needed. Special emphasis should be given to provide primary caregivers with the relevant education to improve their knowledge and ability of dealing dental trauma.

  19. Thermographic assessment of reversible inferior alveolar nerve deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, V; Gratt, B M; Flack, V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate thermography's potential as a diagnostic alternative for evaluating neurosensory deficits of the inferior alveolar nerve. Electronic thermography was used to evaluate the alterations in facial thermal patterns attendant to a conduction defect of the inferior alveolar nerve induced in 12 subjects using 2% lidocaine. The rates of onset and duration of sensory block, as visualized by thermography, were related to the results of conventional neurosensory testing. Comparison of the rate of response change within each measurement system revealed that changes in facial skin temperature manifest the induced deficit earlier than discriminative tests. Also, the prolonged elevation of thermal asymmetry suggested that electronic thermography has the ability to detect subtle changes in nerve function that are not discernible by physical neurosensory tests relying on patient response. Although cutaneous temperature increases were highest in the field of observation near the sensory distribution of the mental nerve, an inexplicable warming of the contralateral side of the face and neck was also observed. These attendant findings emphasize the need for further studies on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of facial thermal changes to better understand thermography's diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility for monitoring inferior alveolar nerve dysfunction.

  20. Pregnancy in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, José Osmar Bezerra de; Silveira, Cristiane Maria Cavalcante; Cunha, Aline Barreto da; Pinheiro, Valéria Goes Ferreira; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease that affects both lungs. It is characterized by the presence of small calculi (calcium phosphate) within the alveolar spaces. We report the case of a 26-year-old female whose diagnosis was based on characteristic findings on chest X-rays and high-resolution computed tomography scans. The patient, 28 weeks pregnant, was rehospitalized 10 months after the diagnosis, presenting hypoxemic acute respiratory failure and severe restrictive ventilatory defect on spirometry. After 32 completed weeks of gestation (228 days), she was submitted to cesarean section, and the outcome was successful for mother and newborn. PAM has a variable clinical course. It is suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and has been associated with positive family history. The etiology of PAM is unclear, and many authors speculate that there is a local enzymatic defect responsible for the intra-alveolar accumulation of calcium. Reports of patients with PAM who become pregnant are exceptional, and this is the first case described in Brazil. The course of this disease is usually slow and progressive, and patients typically die of cardiorespiratory failure. The present case illustrates the need to offer female patients, especially those with advanced disease, genetic counseling and orientation regarding the risks of pregnancy. Currently, the only effective therapy is lung transplantation.

  1. Intraosseous schwannoma originating in inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichiro; Ogane, Satoru; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Ohata, Hitoshi; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Takano, Nobuo; Shibahara, Takahiko; Eguchi, Jun; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsuzaka, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign neoplasms derived from Schwann cells of the neurilemma and appear most frequently on the auditory nerve or peripheral nerves of the skin. They arise in the oral and maxillofacial region infrequently, and very rarely in the center of the jaw. We herein present a case of a rare mandibular intraosseous schwannoma derived from the main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve in a 33-year-old man. Fusiform expansion in the mandibular canal was observed and a mass showing the target sign in the mandibular canal was confirmed on T2-weighted and Gd contrastenhanced T1-weighted MRI. Based on these findings, an inferior alveolar nerve-derived schwannoma or other benign nervous system neoplasm was diagnosed. A buccal side cortical bone flap in the mandibular molar region was removed to expose the mass, which was then peeled away from the nerve fibers and completely removed. Some inferior alveolar nerve fibers that were connected to the mass were removed at the same time, but the remaining nerve fiber bundle was preserved. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a schwannoma with Antoni type A and Antoni type B regions. Although the patient experienced extremely mild paresthesia in the skin over the mental region and mental foramen at immediately after surgery, this had almost entirely disappeared at 7 years and 4 months later, and there has been no tumor recurrence.

  2. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  3. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2 cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today.

  4. Innate immune response to influenza A virus in differentiated human alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieru; Nikrad, Mrinalini P; Phang, Tzulip; Gao, Bifeng; Alford, Taylor; Ito, Yoko; Edeen, Karen; Travanty, Emily A; Kosmider, Beata; Hartshorn, Kevan; Mason, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells are important targets for seasonal and pandemic influenza. To investigate the influenza-induced innate immune response in those cells, we measured the global gene expression profile of highly differentiated ATII cells infected with the influenza A virus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 at 4 hours and 24 hours after inoculation. Infection with influenza stimulated a significant increase in the mRNA concentrations of many host defense-related genes, including pattern/pathogen recognition receptors, IFN, and IFN-induced genes, chemokines, and suppressors of cytokine signaling. We verified these changes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. At the protein level, we detected a robust virus-induced secretion of the three glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR)-negative chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, according to ELISA. The ultraviolet inactivation of virus abolished the chemokine and cytokine response. Viral infection did not appear to alter the differentiation of ATII cells, as measured by cellular mRNA and concentrations of surfactant proteins. However, viral infection significantly reduced the secretion of surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D. In addition, influenza A virus triggered a time-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in ATII cells. The inhibition of this pathway significantly decreased the release of infectious virus and the chemokine response, but did not alter virus-induced cell death. This study provides insights into influenza-induced innate immunity in differentiated human ATII cells, and demonstrates that the alveolar epithelium is a critical part of the initial innate immune response to influenza.

  5. Treatment of sharp mandibular alveolar process with hybrid prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaedi Sukaedi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing posterior teeth for a long time would occasionally lead to the sharpening of alveolar process. The removable partial denture usually have problems when used during mastication, because of the pressure on the mucosa under the alveolar ridge. Purpose: The purpose of this case report was to manage patients with sharp mandibular alveolar process by wearing hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment retention and soft liner on the surface base beneath the removable partial denture. Case: A 76 years old woman visited the Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. The patient had a long span bridge on the upper jaw and a free end acrylic removable partial denture on the lower jaw. She was having problems with mastication. The patient did not wear her lower denture because of the discomfort with it during mastication. Hence, she would like to replace it with a new removable partial denture. Case management: The patient was treated by wearing a hybrid prosthesis with extra coronal precision attachment on the lower jaw. Soft liner was applied on the surface of the removable partial denture. Hybrid prosthesis is a complex denture consisting of removable partial denture and fixed bridge. Conclusion: It concluded that after restoration, the patient had no problems with sharp alveolar process with her new denture, and she was able to masticate well.Latar belakang: Kehilangan geligi posterior dapat menimbulkan processus alveolaris tajam. Gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan mempunyai masalah selama pengunyahan karena adanya tekanan di mukosa di bawah alveolar ridge. Tujuan: Tujuan laporan kasus ini adalah untuk menjelaskan cara menangani pasien yang mempunyai prosesus alveolaris yang tajam di rahang bawah dengan dibuatkan protesis hybrid dengan daya tahan extra coronal precision attachment dan soft liner di permukaan bawah basis gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan. Kasus: Pasien wanita berumur 76 tahun datang di klinik

  6. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; e Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assunção; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. Results The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (pauxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment. PMID:27672614

  7. OCLI-023, a Novel Pyrimidine Compound, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Resorption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Ang; Lee, Doohyun; Kim, Nam Doo; Shin, Hong-In; Bae, Yong Chul; Park, Eui Kyun

    2017-01-01

    An abnormal increase in osteoclast differentiation and activation results in various bone-resorptive diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. Chemical compounds containing pyrimidine ring have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. Therefore, in order to identify an antiresorptive agent, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine ring-containing chemical compounds, and found that OCLI-023 suppressed the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts in vitro. OCLI-023 directly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of bone marrow macrophages into osteoclasts, without a cytotoxic response. OCLI-023 also downregulated the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast markers as well as inhibited the formation of actin rings and resorption pits. OCLI-023 attenuated the RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling pathways. In a mouse model of periodontitis, ligature induced an increase of distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and alveolar bone crest (ABC) in the second molar, and OCLI-023 significantly reduced it. Histological analysis showed ligature-induced increase of osteoclast numbers was also significantly reduced by OCLI-023. These data demonstrated the inhibitory effect of OCLI-023 on osteoclast differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, as well as on ligature-induced bone loss in vivo, and OCLI-023 can be proposed as a novel anti-resorptive compound. PMID:28085946

  8. IFITM1 increases osteogenesis through Runx2 in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin Seong; You, Yong-Ouk; Zadeh, Homa; Shin, Hong-In; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Takata, Takashi; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jun; You, Hyung-Keun

    2012-09-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, a highly expressed protein that had a high degree of homology with interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) was identified using differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. We sought to determine whether IFITM1 influenced osteoblast differentiation. During differentiation, IFITM1 expression gradually increased from 5 to 10days and subsequently decreased at 15 days in culture. Analysis of IFITM1 protein expression in several cell lines as well as in situ studies on human tissues revealed its selective expression in bone cells and human bone. Proliferation of human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) was significantly inhibited by IFITM1 knockdown by using short hairpin RNA, as were bone specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were decreased. Calcium accumulation also decreased following IFITM1 knockdown. Moreover, IFITM1 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs was associated with inhibition of Runx2 mRNA and protein expression. Collectively, the present data provide evidence for the role of IFITM1 in osteoblast differentiation. The exact mechanisms of IFITM1's involvement in osteoblast differentiation are still under investigation.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide disrupts the milk-blood barrier by modulating claudins in mammary alveolar tight junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most costly common disease in the dairy industry, and is caused by mammary pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The bacteria invade the mammary alveolar lumen and disrupt the blood-milk barrier. In normal mammary gland, alveolar epithelial tight junctions (TJs contribute the blood-milk barrier of alveolar epithelium by blocking the leakage of milk components from the luminal side into the blood serum. In this study, we focused on claudin subtypes that participate in the alveolar epithelial TJs, because the composition of claudins is an important factor that affects TJ permeability. In normal mouse lactating mammary glands, alveolar TJs consist of claudin-3 without claudin-1, -4, and -7. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced mastitis, alveolar TJs showed 2-staged compositional changes in claudins. First, a qualitative change in claudin-3, presumably caused by phosphorylation and participation of claudin-7 in alveolar TJs, was recognized in parallel with the leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin (FITC-albumin via the alveolar epithelium. Second, claudin-4 participated in alveolar TJs with claudin-3 and claudin-7 12 h after LPS injection. The partial localization of claudin-1 was also observed by immunostaining. Coinciding with the second change of alveolar TJs, the severe disruption of the blood-milk barrier was recognized by ectopic localization of β-casein and much leakage of FITC-albumin. Furthermore, the localization of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 on the luminal side and NFκB activation by LPS was observed in the alveolar epithelial cells. We suggest that the weakening and disruption of the blood-milk barrier are caused by compositional changes of claudins in alveolar epithelial TJs through LPS/TLR4 signaling.

  10. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-...

  11. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gintaras Juodzbalys; Hom-Lay Wang; Gintautas Sabalys

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveo...

  12. Atypical dento-alveolar fracture fixed with screws: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Vieira, Eduardo Hochuli; Júnior, Idelmo Rangel Garcia; Pires-Soubhia, Ana Maria; Martini, Marcelo Zillo

    2010-08-01

    Dento-alveolar process fracture is an important and common event in the dental office practice usually managed under the well-established protocols, but sometimes this kind of lesion is evaluated in the hospital emergency rooms without attention to the dental injuries. In this type of trauma, the time between the injury and the definitive resolution is essential for the treatment success, usually 1 h in cases of dento-alveolar fractures (tooth and alveolar bone). This paper describes the management of a patient with unusual dento-alveolar fracture caused by gunshot and treated using screw fixation.

  13. Perawatan Ortodonti pada Kasus Mutilasi dengan Resorpsi Tulang Alveolar dan Resesi Gingiva (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mutilated case in adults, generally malocclusion is often accompanied by less support of periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. The treatment of orthodontic is to arrange the teeth into good position and good occlusion, but is widely known to increase the alveolar bone resorption. In handling such case, orthodontist needs to look at factors which do not increase existing alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession. In this case report, it will be reported orthodontic treatment on mutilated case which are accompanied by alveolar bone resorption and gingival recession on a patient of 45 years and 4 months of age.

  14. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: characteristics and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Lamia, Rais; Aich, Dorra Ben; Madiha, Krid; Wided, Smaoui; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Beji, Somaya; Karim, Zouaghi; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2013-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.

  15. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: Characteristics and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ben Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture′s glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years. Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL. Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.

  16. Enhanced rifampicin delivery to alveolar macrophages by solid lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuan Junlan [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China); Li Yanzhen [Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, State Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Pharmacokinetics (China); Yang Likai; Sun Xun [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China); Zhang Qiang [Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Gong Tao, E-mail: gongtaoy@126.com; Zhang Zhirong, E-mail: zrzzl@vip.sina.com [West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System, Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-05-15

    The present study aimed at developing a drug delivery system targeting the densest site of tuberculosis infection, the alveolar macrophages (AMs). Rifampicin (RFP)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RFP-SLNs) with an average size of 829.6 {+-} 16.1 nm were prepared by a modified lipid film hydration method. The cytotoxicity of RFP-SLNs to AMs and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECs) was examined using MTT assays. The viability of AMs and AECs was above 80 % after treatment with RFP-SLNs, which showed low toxicity to both AMs and AECs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy was employed to observe the interaction between RFP-SLNs and both AMs and AECs. After incubating the cells with RFP-SLNs for 2 h, the fluorescent intensity in AMs was more and remained longer (from 0.5 to 12 h) when compared with that in AECs (from 0.5 to 8 h). In vitro uptake characteristics of RFP-SLNs in AMs and AECs were also investigated by detection of intracellular RFP by High performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that RFP-SLNs delivered markedly higher RFP into AMs (691.7 ng/mg in cultured AMs, 662.6 ng/mg in primary AMs) than that into AECs (319.2 ng/mg in cultured AECs, 287.2 ng/mg in primary AECs). Subsequently, in vivo delivery efficiency and the selectivity of RFP-SLNs were further verified in Sprague-Dawley rats. Under pulmonary administration of RFP-SLNs, the amount of RFP in AMs was significantly higher than that in AECs at each time point. Our results demonstrated that solid lipid nanoparticles are a promising strategy for the delivery of rifampicin to alveolar macrophages selectively.

  17. Albuterol Improves Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Conductance in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie E.; Baker, Sarah E.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2.5 mg, diluted in 3 mL normal saline) in 45 healthy subjects. Seventeen subjects repeated these measures following nebulized normal saline (age = 27 ± 9 years, height = 165 ± 21 cm, weight = 68 ± 12 kg, BMI = 26 ± 9 kg/m2). Cardiac output (Q), heart rate, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), blood pressure, oxygen saturation, forced expiratory volume at one-second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50) were assessed at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following the administration of albuterol or saline. RESULTS Albuterol resulted in a decrease in SVR, and an increase in Q, FEV1, and FEF50 compared to saline controls. Albuterol also resulted in a decrease in VC at 60 minutes post albuterol. Both albuterol and normal saline resulted in no change in DLCO or DM when assessed alone, but a significant increase was observed in DM when accounting for changes in VC. CONCLUSION These data suggest that nebulized albuterol improves pulmonary function in healthy humans, while nebulization of both albuterol and saline results in an increase in DM/VC. PMID:27773996

  18. The management of dento-alveolar trauma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, R G

    1990-01-01

    The clinician faced with the management of an insult to the masticatory system involving the dentition, its alveolar housing and the investing tissues often faces a formidable task. The restitution of traumatic derangement of oral-facial structures mandates a systematic approach to hard and soft tissue management with particular reference to the unique biological characteristics of this environment. A decidedly improved prognosis may be offered to the patient when basic principles are followed and the indicators for successful long term stabilization are realized. Awareness of these practical principles renders the dentist in general practice able to provide primary or referral care.

  19. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, Takaaki; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi; Matsumoto, Miho; Kasahara, Masataka; Igarashi, Tomoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2003-11-01

    We experienced two cases of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by root canal medicaments, which were successfully relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment. In the first case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of calcium hydroxide into the mandibular canal through the root canals of the mandibular left second molar tooth. In the second case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of paraformaldehyde through the root canals of the mandibular right second molar tooth. The paresthesia was relieved in both cases by repetitive microscopic endodontic irrigation using physiological saline solution in combination with oral vitamin B12 and adenosine triphosphate.

  20. Plasma cell gingivitis with severe alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Sinha, Jolly

    2015-01-16

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva characterised by sharply demarcated erythaematous and oedematous gingiva often extending up to the muco gingival junction. It is considered a hypersensitive reaction. It presents clinically as a diffuse, erythaematous and papillary lesion of the gingiva, which frequently bleeds, with minimal trauma. This paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with plasma cell gingivitis, based on the presence of plasma cells in histological sections, and severe alveolar bone loss at the affected site, which was managed by surgical intervention.

  1. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  2. Autophagy protects type II alveolar epithelial cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xu-Guang [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Ji, Tian-Xing [Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xia, Yong, E-mail: gysyxy@gmail.com [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Yue-Yun, E-mail: cmbmayy@fmmu.edu.cn [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► We investigated the protective effect of autophagy pathway against MTB infection. ► MTB-infected A549 cells had higher LDH release. ► Inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced the MTB-induced necrosis. ► Autophagy prevents apoptosis and promotes cell survival in infected cells. -- Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the autophagy signaling pathway against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in type II alveolar epithelial cells. An in vitro M. tuberculosis system was established using human A549 cells. Infection-induced changes in the expression of the autophagic marker LC3 were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Morphological changes in autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The function of the autophagy signaling pathway during infection was assessed by measuring the level of cell death and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the presence or absence of the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, effects on LDH release were assessed after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the essential autophagosomal structural membrane protein Atg5. LC3 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells (16888.76 ± 1576.34 vs. uninfected: 12744.29 ± 1089.37; P < 0.05). TEM revealed M.tuberculosis bacilli-containing compartments that were surrounded by double membranes characteristic of the autophagic process. M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells released more LDH (1.45 ± 0.12 vs. uninfected: 0.45 ± 0.04; P < 0.05). The inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced M.tuberculosis-induced necrosis (3-MA: 75 ± 5% vs. untreated: 15 ± 1%; P < 0.05) and LDH release (3-MA: 2.50 ± 0.24 vs. untreated: 0.45 ± 0.04; Atg5 knockdown: 3.19 ± 0.29 vs. untreated: 1.28 ± 0.11; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that autophagy signaling pathway prevents apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells

  3. Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D M; Pevsner, J; Scullion, M A; Vaughn, M; Kaplan, J

    2000-07-01

    Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome-lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome-lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages.

  4. Leukocytes require ADAM10 but not ADAM17 for their migration and inflammatory recruitment into the alveolar space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Hess, Franz Martin; Alert, Henriette; Groth, Esther; Pasqualon, Tobias; Schwarz, Nicole; Nyamoya, Stella; Kollert, Jos; van der Vorst, Emiel; Donners, Marjo; Martin, Christian; Uhlig, Stefan; Saftig, Paul; Dreymueller, Daniela; Ludwig, Andreas

    2014-06-26

    Inflammation is a key process in various diseases, characterized by leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. This study investigates the role of a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 and ADAM17 for leukocyte migration in vitro and in a murine model of acute pulmonary inflammation. Inhibition experiments or RNA knockdown indicated that monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human neutrophils require ADAM10 but not ADAM17 for efficient chemokine-induced cell migration. Signaling and adhesion events that are linked to cell migration such as p38 and ρ GTPase-family activation, F-actin polymerization, adhesion to fibronectin, and up-regulation of α5 integrin were also dependent on ADAM10 but not ADAM17. This was confirmed with leukocytes isolated from mice lacking either ADAM10 or ADAM17 in all hematopoietic cells (vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor [Vav]-Adam10(-/-) or Vav-Adam17(-/-) mice). In lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary inflammation, alveolar recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes was transiently increased in Vav-Adam17(-/-) but steadily reduced in Vav-Adam10(-/-) mice. This deficit in alveolar leukocyte recruitment was also observed in LysM-Adam10(-/-) mice lacking ADAM10 in myeloid cells and correlated with protection against edema formation. Thus, with regard to leukocyte migration, leukocyte-expressed ADAM10 but not ADAM17 displays proinflammatory activities and may therefore serve as a target to limit inflammatory cell recruitment.

  5. Effects of a herbal gel containing carvacrol and chalcones on alveolar bone resorption in rats on experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Montenegro, Danusa; Bandeira, Mary Anne Menezes; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves Cruz; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly Pinto; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro

    2008-04-01

    Carvacrol and dimeric chalcones are the respective bioactive components of Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva, popular medicinal plants of Northeastern Brazil with proven antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Periodontal disease is associated with inflammation and microbiological proliferation, thus the study aimed to investigate the effect of a topical gel based on carvacrol and chalcones in the experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Animals were treated with carvacrol and/or chalcones gel, immediately after EPD induction, three times a day for 11 days. Appropriate controls were included in the study. Animals were weighed daily. They were killed on day 11, the mandibles dissected and alveolar bone loss was measured. The periodontium were examined at histopathology and the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora were assessed through culture of the gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly (p gel, compared with the vehicle and non-treated groups. The treatment with the combined gel reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, decreased myeloperoxidase activity in gingival tissue and inhibited the growth of oral microorganisms as well as the weight loss. Carvacrol and chalcones combination gel has a beneficial effect upon EPD in this model.

  6. Klotho Reduction in Alveolar Macrophages Contributes to Cigarette Smoke Extract-induced Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Wang, Yujie; Gao, Wei; Yuan, Cheng; Zhang, Sini; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Mao; Yao, Xin

    2015-11-13

    Abnormal inflammation and accelerated decline in lung function occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Klotho, an anti-aging protein, has an anti-inflammatory function. However, the role of Klotho has never been investigated in COPD. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of Klotho by alveolar macrophages in airway inflammation in COPD. Klotho levels were assessed in the lung samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of non-smokers, smokers, and patients with COPD. The regulation of Klotho expression by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was studied in vitro, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) and recombinant Klotho were employed to investigate the role of Klotho on CSE-induced inflammation. Klotho expression was reduced in alveolar macrophages in the lungs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COPD patients. CSE decreased Klotho expression and release from MH-S cells. Knockdown of endogenous Klotho augmented the expression of the inflammatory mediators, such as MMP-9, IL-6, and TNF-α, by MH-S cells. Exogenous Klotho inhibited the expression of CSE-induced inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, we showed that Klotho interacts with IκBα of the NF-κB pathway. Dexamethasone treatment increased the expression and release level of Klotho in MH-S cells. Our findings suggest that Klotho plays a role in sustained inflammation of the lungs, which in turn may have therapeutic implications in COPD.

  7. Novel antioxidative nanotherapeutics in a rat periodontitis model: Reactive oxygen species scavenging by redox injectable gel suppresses alveolar bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Makiko; Kaneko, Junya; Sato, Takenori; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Kawamata, Ryota; Sakurai, Takashi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in a variety of disorders, but to date, ROS scavengers have not been widely used for local treatment of inflammation, because they are rapidly eliminated from the inflamed site. We have designed a novel redox injectable gel (RIG) that is formed at 37 °C after disintegration of nano-assembled flower micelles allowing nitroxide radicals to act locally as specific ROS scavengers for the treatment of periodontitis. In the present study, we have confirmed retention of the RIG in the periodontal region, along with its antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory effects, and we have subsequently evaluated the inhibitory effect of the RIG against Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)-induced alveolar bone loss attributed to ROS. Alveolar bone loss was estimated by morphometry, gingival blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry, and osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. The results show that the RIG can inhibit P. gingivalis-induced bone loss by antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory actions, and this suggests that the RIG is a promising novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis.

  8. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  9. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan;

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  10. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Schwartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years, Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B, lingual (L and total (T bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1, midroot (2 and apical (3 levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  11. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  12. A Rare Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a rare presentation of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. While histoplasmosis has been reported to cause hemoptysis and alveolar hemorrhage in children, the English language literature lacks any adult case reports documenting this association. We report a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis where the initial presentation was pneumonia with a subsequent diagnosis of DAH.

  13. Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) with intra-alveolar syngnathia: a discussion of anesthetic and surgical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Caroline; Kuylenstierna, Richard; Papatziamos, Georgios

    2007-10-01

    Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) is a rare genetic disorder that involves the association of a popliteal web with a combination of craniofacial, genitourinary and extremity malformations. In this article, we describe a patient with PPS complicated with multiple intra-alveolar syngnathia. We discuss the anesthetic and the surgical management of this case and review the literature regarding PPS and intra-alveolar syngnathia.

  14. Simultaneous paresthesia of the lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve caused by a radicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Akiko; Kondoh, Toshirou; Suzuki, Mami; Noguchi, Kazuhide; Ito, Ko; Seto, Kanichi

    2005-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve is sometimes affected by periapical pathoses and mandibular cysts. However, mandibular intraosseous lesions have not been reported to disturb the lingual nerve. A case of simultaneous paresthesia of the right lingual nerve and the right inferior alveolar nerve is presented. The possible mechanisms of this extremely uncommon condition are discussed.

  15. Secondary bone grafting for alveolar cleft in children with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, G.; Deacon, S.A.; Chen, J.; Hu, H.; Zou, S.; Ye, Q.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were car

  16. An "S-shaped" relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss : generating a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Holst, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Little is known about the relationship between smoking duration and alveolar bone loss. The purpose of this research was to describe the prevalence of alveolar bone loss according to smo

  17. Morbidity of chin bone transplants used for reconstructing alveolar defects in cleft patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, A; Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective morbidity of symphyseal chin bone harvesting used for reconstruction of alveolar defects in young cleft patients. Design: All patients who had undergone chin bone harvesting for alveolar cleft reconstruction in the period

  18. Alveolar cleft closure by osseodistraction: pitfalls and troubleshooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelmayer, Margit; Zemann, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Segmental maxillary osseodistraction is a proper method to close alveolar gaps in patients with clefts of lip, palate, and alveolus. The technique is mainly used in very wide clefts after failure of conventional bone grafting procedures. The aim of the study was to analyze problems that may occur during the distraction process. Patients with uncommon wide alveolar clefts or recurrent oronasal fistulas and patients with bilateral clefts of lip, plate, and alveolus and an additional vertical deficit of the posterior cleft segment underwent distraction procedures. The patients were subdivided according to the vector of distraction: linear (following the dental arch) and vertical. The devices for horizontal distraction were tooth-borne and manufactured to the specific clinical situation. For vertical distraction, standard devices were used. Of this sample, patients with complications occurring during or after surgery and during the distraction period were selected as the study participants. On the basis of the data collected on these complications, the need for additional bone grafting procedures was evaluated. Results suggest that modifications in preoperative planning and the construction of the distraction devices may be necessary to prevent unexpected problems in segmental maxillary distraction procedures. Considerations concerning the placement of distraction devices are discussed.

  19. Alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cohort review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C; Mendonça, T; Farinha, F; Correia, J; Marinho, A; Almeida, I; Vasconcelos, C

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but potentially catastrophic manifestation with a high mortality. Among rheumatologic diseases, it occurs most frequently in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic vasculitis. Despite new diagnostic tools and therapies, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this work was to characterize the SLE patients with an episode of alveolar hemorrhage followed in our Clinical Immunology Unit (CIU). A retrospective chart review was carried out for all patients with SLE followed in CIU between 1984 and the end of 2013. We reviewed the following data: demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data, radiologic investigations, histologic studies, treatment, and outcome. We identified 10 episodes of DAH, corresponding to seven patients, all female. These represent 1.6% of SLE patients followed in our Unit. The age at DAH attack was 42.75 ± 18.9 years. The average time between diagnosis of SLE and the onset of DAH was 7.1 years. Three patients had the diagnosis of SLE and the DAH attack at the same time. Disease activity according to SLEDAI was high, ranging from 15 to 41. All patients were treated with methylprednisolone, 37.5% cyclophosphamide and 28.6% plasmapheresis. The overall mortality rate was 28.6%.

  20. Microtomography of the human tooth-alveolar bone complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Beckmann, Felix; Sakima, Maurício T.; Lemor, Carsten; Laursen, Morten G.; Melsen, Birte

    2006-08-01

    In this study the structure of the adult human dentoalveolar process is examined using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography (SRμCT). Mandibular and maxillary segments containing two to five adjacent teeth were harvested at autopsy from 49 adult donors. These segments were embedded in blocks of methylmetacrylate and scanned using a conventional table-top μCT-scanner at a pixel size and slice thickness of 35 μm. A few segments were also scanned at a synchrotron facility at an initial pixel size of 16.4 μm, which was binned by a factor 2 to result in an effective voxel size of almost 32.8 μm. The three-dimensional reconstructions revealed how intricately the teeth are supported by the alveolar bone. Furthermore, this support is highly inhomogeneous with respect to the buccal, mesial, lingual and distal quadrants. Reflecting their various degrees of mineralization, tissues like bone, dentine, enamel and cementum, could well be identified, especially in the scans made with SRμCT. Despite comparable voxel sizes, the reconstructed data-sets obtained with conventional μCT were less detailed and somewhat fuzzy in appearance compared to the data-sets of SRμCT. However, for quantification of macroscopical features like the thickness of the alveolar wall or the presence of dehiscences/fenestrations this seemed sufficient.

  1. A 55 years old man with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeen R Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a very rare diffuse chronic lung disease characterized by deposition of small spherules of calcium phosphate within the alveolar cavity. The disease is usually seen from birth up to 40 years of age and is usually diagnosed incidentally during radiography of the chest for other reasons. Most of patients are asymptomatic or having very mild symptoms and the majority of patients either have normal or restrictive pulmonary function test. Clinically, the course of the disease is different; it remains static in few patients or it may progress to pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale in others. In this case report, we present a 55-year-old man who presented with moderate shortness of breath which has progressed from mild symptoms with in the previous years. His chest high-resolution CT scan showed diffusely scattered, ill-defined little shadowy micronodules which involve the left lung; lingula and left lower lobe in particular. A lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM. He was followed up for 1 year with treatment by steroid and alendronate, and no progression was noticed in fact improvement in pulmonary function test noticed. This is the first case report of PAM in Kurdistan.

  2. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: computed tomography features at diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berteloot, Laureline; Emond-Gonsard, Sophie; Mamou-Mani, Tania; Lambot, Karen; Grevent, David [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Taam, Rola Abou; Le Bourgeois, Muriel [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Allergology, Paris (France); Elie, Caroline [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Biostatistics, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France); Delacourt, Christophe; Blic, Jacques de [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Allergology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France); Brunelle, Francis [Hopital Necker Enfants-Malades, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Paris (France)

    2014-07-15

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of periodic acid-schiff-positive lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli. Early diagnosis allows setting up of therapeutic lung lavages, which reduces the need for oxygen supplementation and weight gain. To provide a description of radiological features by CT at the onset of primary PAP in children. The clinical and radiological data of 24 patients, including 16 boys and 8 girls (median age: 12 months), diagnosed with a primary form of PAP between April 1992 and May 2012 in a tertiary referral hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were examined for the presence of alveolar and interstitial elementary lesions. Correlation between clinical and radiological findings was assessed. The types of elementary lesions detected were: ground-glass opacities (n = 24), intralobular lines (n = 24), thickened interlobular septa (n = 22), thickened fissures (n = 21), airspace consolidation (n = 16), hyperinflation (n = 16), cystic lesions (n = 2) and micronodules (n = 1). A crazy-paving pattern was found in 92% of cases. Consolidation and hyperinflation were especially detected in younger children (median age, 8 months, P < 0.01). A density dependent gradient was found. The distribution of the lesions was symmetrical. There was no correlation between radiological and clinical data of severity of the disease. CT findings are suggestive of diagnosis of PAP in immunocompetent children with chronic respiratory failure. (orig.)

  3. Alveolar Subphase pH in the Lungs of Anesthetized Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, D. W.; Goerke, J.; Clements, J. A.

    1981-11-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92± 0.01 (mean ± SEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface buffer pH. With the nonselective electrode, we did not find a significant electrical potential difference between the alveolar fluid and the pleural surface. These results are consistent with active transport of H+ (or HCO3-) across alveolar epithelium.

  4. Avoiding injury to the inferior alveolar nerve by routine use of intraoperative radiographs during implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jeffrey; Mastin, Chris; Le, Bach

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during implant placement in the posterior atrophic mandible is a rare but serious complication. Although a preoperative computerized tomography scan can help determine the distance from the alveolar ridge to the nerve canal, variables such as magnification errors, ridge anatomy, and operator technique can increase the chance for complications. The routine use of intraoperative periapical radiographs during the drilling sequence is an inexpensive and reliable tool, allowing the operator to confidently adjust the direction and depth of the implant during placement. Most important, it helps avoid the risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in cases in which there is limited vertical alveolar bone. Using this technique for 21 implants placed in the posterior atrophic mandible, with less than 10 mm of vertical bone to the inferior alveolar nerve canal, the authors observed no incidents of postoperative paresthesia.

  5. A contemporary perspective on techniques for the clinical assessment of alveolar bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Radiographic techniques, traditional ones as well as newer ones under development, for clinically assessing alveolar bone are critically assessed. Traditional intraoral radiography is reexamined, in particular with regard to the accuracy with which the alveolar crest is seen. Evidence is presented for a more accurate representation of the alveolar crest on bitewings rather than periapical films. Application in periodontics of newer radiographic techniques, subtraction radiography, and single and dual photon aborptiometry presently under clinical development are discussed in regard to their potential and limitations. Similarly, radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the metabolic status of alveolar bone are discussed as well as the potential for using analyses of gingival crevice fluid as a window for assessment of alveolar crest metabolism. 46 references.

  6. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assuncoe; Custodio, Antonio Luis Neto; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment.

  7. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced.

  8. Integrin alpha(3)-subunit expression modulates alveolar epithelial cell monolayer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, R L; Zhang, X L; Zheng, J; Ocampo, L; Lopez, M Z; Veeraraghavan, S; Zabski, S M; Danto, S I; Borok, Z

    2000-07-01

    We investigated expression of the alpha(3)-integrin subunit by rat alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) grown in primary culture as well as the effects of monoclonal antibodies with blocking activity against the alpha(3)-integrin subunit on AEC monolayer formation. alpha(3)-Integrin subunit mRNA and protein were detectable in AECs on day 1 and increased with time in culture. alpha(3)- and beta(1)-integrin subunits coprecipitated in immunoprecipitation experiments with alpha(3)- and beta(1)-subunit-specific antibodies, consistent with their association as the alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor at the cell membrane. Treatment with blocking anti-alpha(3) monoclonal antibody from day 0 delayed development of transepithelial resistance, reduced transepithelial resistance through day 5 compared with that in untreated AECs, and resulted in large subconfluent patches in monolayers viewed by scanning electron microscopy on day 3. These data indicate that alpha(3)- and beta(1)-integrin subunits are expressed in AEC monolayers where they form the heterodimeric alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor at the cell membrane. Blockade of the alpha(3)-integrin subunit inhibits formation of confluent AEC monolayers. We conclude that the alpha(3)-integrin subunit modulates formation of AEC monolayers by virtue of the key role of the alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin receptor in AEC adhesion.

  9. Proinflammatory Responses of Heme in Alveolar Macrophages: Repercussion in Lung Hemorrhagic Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L. Simões

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations have supported the notion that free heme released during hemorrhagic and hemolytic episodes may have a major role in lung inflammation. With alveolar macrophages (AM being the main line of defense in lung environments, the influence of free heme on AM activity and function was investigated. We observed that heme in a concentration range found during hemolytic episodes (3–30 μM elicits AM to present a proinflammatory profile, stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation and inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion. ROS production is NADPH oxidase-dependent, being inhibited by DPI and apocynin, and involves p47 subunit phosphorylation. Furthermore, heme induces NF-κB nuclear translocation, iNOS, and also HO-1 expression. Moreover, AM stimulated with free heme show enhanced phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Taken together, the data support a dual role for heme in the inflammatory response associated with lung hemorrhage, acting as a proinflammatory molecule that can either act as both an adjuvant of the innate immunity and as an amplifier of the inflammatory response, leading tissue injury. The understanding of heme effects on pulmonary inflammatory processes can lead to the development of new strategies to ameliorate tissue damage associated with hemorrhagic episodes.

  10. Suppression of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Grauwet, Korneel; Vermeulen, Ben; Devriendt, Bert; Jiang, Ping; Favoreel, Herman; Nauwynck, Hans

    2013-06-28

    The adaptive immunity against PRRSV has already been studied in depth, but only limited data are available on the innate immune responses against this pathogen. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between porcine natural killer (NK) cells and PRRSV-infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), since NK cells are one of the most important components of innate immunity and PAMs are primary target cells of PRRSV infection. NK cytotoxicity assays were performed using enriched NK cells as effector cells and virus-infected or mock-inoculated PAMs as target cells. The NK cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected PAMs was decreased starting from 6h post inoculation (hpi) till the end of the experiment (12 hpi) and was significantly lower than that against pseudorabies virus (PrV)-infected PAMs. UV-inactivated PRRSV also suppressed NK activity, but much less than infectious PRRSV. Furthermore, co-incubation with PRRSV-infected PAMs inhibited degranulation of NK cells. Finally, using the supernatant of PRRSV-infected PAMs collected at 12 hpi showed that the suppressive effect of PRRSV on NK cytotoxicity was not mediated by soluble factors. In conclusion, PRRSV-infected PAMs showed a reduced susceptibility toward NK cytotoxicity, which may represent one of the multiple evasion strategies of PRRSV.

  11. The H2S-generating enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase play a role in vascular development during normal lung alveolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga, Alicia; Golec, Anita; Pozarska, Agnieszka; Ishii, Isao; Mižíková, Ivana; Nardiello, Claudio; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Reichenberger, Frank; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E

    2015-10-01

    The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging as a mediator of lung physiology and disease. Recent studies revealed that H2S administration limited perturbations to lung structure in experimental animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), partially restoring alveolarization, limiting pulmonary hypertension, limiting inflammation, and promoting epithelial repair. No studies have addressed roles for endogenous H2S in lung development. H2S is endogenously generated by cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and cystathionine γ-lyase (Cth). We demonstrate here that the expression of Cbs and Cth in mouse lungs is dynamically regulated during lung alveolarization and that alveolarization is blunted in Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mouse pups, where a 50% reduction in the total number of alveoli was observed, without any impact on septal thickness. Laser-capture microdissection and immunofluorescence staining indicated that Cbs and Cth were expressed in the airway epithelium and lung vessels. Loss of Cbs and Cth led to a 100-500% increase in the muscularization of small- and medium-sized lung vessels, which was accompanied by increased vessel wall thickness, and an apparent decrease in lung vascular supply. Ablation of Cbs expression using small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibition of Cth using propargylglycine in lung endothelial cells limited angiogenic capacity, causing a 30-40% decrease in tube length and a 50% decrease in number of tubes formed. In contrast, exogenous administration of H2S with GYY4137 promoted endothelial tube formation. These data confirm a key role for the H2S-generating enzymes Cbs and Cth in pulmonary vascular development and homeostasis and in lung alveolarization.

  12. Hormonal regulation of alveolarization: structure-function correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godinez Marye H

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dexamethasone (Dex limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear. Methods Neonatal rats were treated with Dex and/or RA during the first two weeks of life or were given RA after previous exposure to Dex. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy and radial alveolar counts. Function was evaluated by plethysmography at d13, pressure volume curves at d30, and exercise swim testing and arterial blood gases at both d15 and d30. Results Dex-treated animals had simplified lung architecture without secondary septation. Animals given RA alone had smaller, more numerous alveoli. Concomitant treatment with Dex + RA prevented the Dex-induced changes in septation. While the results of exposure to Dex + RA were sustained, the effects of RA alone were reversed two weeks after treatment was stopped. At d13, Dex-treated animals had increased lung volume, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. On d15, both RA- and Dex-treated animals had hypercarbia and low arterial pH. By d30, the RA-treated animals resolved this respiratory acidosis, but Dex-treated animals continued to demonstrate blood gas and lung volume abnormalities. Concomitant RA treatment improved respiratory acidosis, but failed to normalize Dex-induced changes in pulmonary function and lung volumes. No differences in exercise tolerance were noted at either d15 or d30. RA treatment after the period of alveolarization also corrected the effects of earlier Dex exposure, but the structural changes due to RA alone were again lost two weeks after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that both RA- and corticosteroid-treatments are associated with respiratory acidosis at d15. While RA alone-induced changes in structure andrespiratory function are reversed, Dex-treated animals continue to demonstrate increased respiratory rate, minute

  13. Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein induces interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release from a human alveolar epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Shelhamer, J H;

    1999-01-01

    (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) from an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549). RESULTS: Incubation of A549 cells with MSG in concentrations from 0.4 to 10 microg mL-1 for 24 h caused dose-dependent increases in IL-8 release (3.4-fold above control, P ..., suggesting that MSG stimulates A549 cells in part through carbohydrate moieties. Dexamethasone significantly inhibited MSG-induced IL-8 release in concentrations of 10-6-10-8 mol L-1 compared with control experiments (P

  14. Spironolactone attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury partially via modulating mononuclear phagocyte phenotype switching in circulating and alveolar compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jie Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent experimental studies provide evidence indicating that manipulation of the mononuclear phagocyte phenotype could be a feasible approach to alter the severity and persistence of pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR has been reported as a target to regulate macrophage polarization. The present work was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of MR antagonism in bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first demonstrated the expression of MR in magnetic bead-purified Ly6G-/CD11b+ circulating monocytes and in alveolar macrophages harvested in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from C57BL/6 mice. Then, a pharmacological intervention study using spironolactone (20 mg/kg/day by oral gavage revealed that MR antagonism led to decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine production (downregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor β1, and interleukin-1β at mRNA and protein levels and collagen deposition (decreased lung total hydroxyproline content and collagen positive area by Masson' trichrome staining in bleomycin treated (2.5 mg/kg, via oropharyngeal instillation male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, serial flow cytometry analysis in blood, BALF and enzymatically digested lung tissue, revealed that spironolactone could partially inhibit bleomycin-induced circulating Ly6C(hi monocyte expansion, and reduce alternative activation (F4/80+CD11c+CD206+ of mononuclear phagocyte in alveoli, whereas the phenotype of interstitial macrophage (F4/80+CD11c- remained unaffected by spironolactone during investigation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work provides the experimental evidence that spironolactone could attenuate bleomycin-induced acute pulmonary injury and fibrosis, partially via inhibition of MR-mediated circulating monocyte and alveolar macrophage phenotype switching.

  15. Hypotonic shock modulates Na(+ current via a Cl(- and Ca(2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dagenais

    Full Text Available Alveolar epithelial cells are involved in Na(+ absorption via the epithelial Na(+ channel (ENaC, an important process for maintaining an appropriate volume of liquid lining the respiratory epithelium and for lung oedema clearance. Here, we investigated how a 20% hypotonic shock modulates the ionic current in these cells. Polarized alveolar epithelial cells isolated from rat lungs were cultured on permeant filters and their electrophysiological properties recorded. A 20% bilateral hypotonic shock induced an immediate, but transient 52% rise in total transepithelial current and a 67% increase in the amiloride-sensitive current mediated by ENaC. Amiloride pre-treatment decreased the current rise after hypotonic shock, showing that ENaC current is involved in this response. Since Cl(- transport is modulated by hypotonic shock, its contribution to the basal and hypotonic-induced transepithelial current was also assessed. Apical NPPB, a broad Cl(- channel inhibitor and basolateral DIOA a potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC inhibitor reduced the total and ENaC currents, showing that transcellular Cl(- transport plays a major role in that process. During hypotonic shock, a basolateral Cl(- influx, partly inhibited by NPPB is essential for the hypotonic-induced current rise. Hypotonic shock promoted apical ATP secretion and increased intracellular Ca(2+. While apyrase, an ATP scavenger, did not inhibit the hypotonic shock current response, W7 a calmodulin antagonist completely prevented the hypotonic current rise. These results indicate that a basolateral Cl(- influx as well as Ca(2+/calmodulin, but not ATP, are involved in the acute transepithelial current rise elicited by hypotonic shock.

  16. Simvastatin Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC may contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells (a human AEC cell line resulted in the adoption of mesenchymal responses that were predominantly mediated via the TGF-β1-Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Simvastatin (Sim, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been previously reported to inhibit EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and porcine lens epithelial cells and to suppress Smad2/3 phosphorylation in animal models. However, whether Sim can attenuate TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and its underlying mechanisms remains unknown. Methods: Cells were incubated with TGF-β1 in the presence or absence of Sim. The epithelial marker E-cadherin (E-Cad and the mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, vimentin (Vi and fibronectin (FN, were detected using western blotting analyses and immunofluorescence. Phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 levels and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were analyzed using western blotting. In addition, a cell migration assay was performed. Moreover, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 in the culture medium were examined using ELISA. Results: Sim significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-Cad levels and elevated the levels of α-SMA, Vi and FN via the suppression of Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Sim inhibited the mesenchymal-like responses in A549 cells, including cell migration, CTGF expression and secretion of MMP-2 and -9. However, Sim failed to reverse the cell morphologial changes induced by TGF-β1 in A549 cells. Conclusion: Sim attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating IPF.

  17. Modulation of alveolar macrophage lipoxygenase metabolism by the sulfhydryl-reactive compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters-Golden, M.; Thebert, P.

    1986-03-01

    N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a sulfhydryl(SH)-reactive compound, has been previously shown to trigger arachidonic acid (AA) release and thromboxane (TxB/sub 2/) synthesis in alveolar macrophages (AMs). The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of this agent on rat AM lipoxygenase metabolism. NEM caused dose-dependent stimulation of TxB/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, PGE/sub 2/ synthesis. However, NEM at either 5 or 10 ..mu..M failed to stimulate production of LTB/sub 4/ (control= 31 + 6, 5 ..mu..M = 36 + 8, 10 ..mu..M = 39 +/- 14 pg/ml; mean + SEM, n = 3) or LTC/sub 4/ (control = 109 +/- 29, 5 ..mu..M = 111 + 27, 10 ..mu..M = 113 +/- 40 pg/ml; n = 4). Indomethacin (5 ..mu..M) failed to shunt AA towards LTB/sub 4/ or LTC/sub 4/ synthesis in response to 10 ..mu..M NEM. In addition, /sup 14/C-5-HETE production by /sup 14/C-AA prelabeled AMs was no greater in NEM-treated cultures (308 +/- 96 cpm) than in control cultures (321 +/- 159 cpm/4 x 10/sup 6/ cells). The effect of NEM on zymosan-induced eicosanoid synthesis was examined by incubating AMs with zymosan (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 1 hour + NEM. NEM (10 ..mu..M) inhibited zymosan-induced LTC/sub 4/ synthesis (control = 122 +/- 43, zymosan = 266 +/- 35, zymosan + NEM = 105 +/- 38 pg/ml; n = 3; p = .05) without cytotoxicity, and while yielding additive increments in TxB/sub 2/ and PGE/sub 2/. Since the actions of both 5-lipoxygenase and glutathione transferase represent SH-dependent steps in the synthesis of LTs, it is postulated that the SH reactivity of NEM explains both its inability to stimulate LT synthesis and its ability to inhibit zymosan-induced LTC/sub 4/ synthesis.

  18. Nrf2 regulates PU.1 expression and activity in the alveolar macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staitieh, Bashar S; Fan, Xian; Neveu, Wendy; Guidot, David M

    2015-05-15

    Alveolar macrophage (AM) immune function depends on the activation of the transcription factor PU.1 by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We have determined that chronic alcohol ingestion dampens PU.1 signaling via an unknown zinc-dependent mechanism; specifically, although PU.1 is not known to be a zinc-dependent transcription factor, zinc treatment reversed alcohol-mediated dampening of PU.1 signaling. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a zinc-dependent basic leucine zipper protein essential for antioxidant defenses, is also impaired by chronic alcohol ingestion and enhanced by zinc treatment. We hypothesized that the response of PU.1 to zinc treatment may result from the action of Nrf2 on PU.1. We first performed Nrf2/PU.1 protein coimmunoprecipitation on a rat AM cell line (NR8383) and found no evidence of protein-protein interactions. We then found evidence of increased Nrf2 binding to the PU.1 promoter region by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We next activated Nrf2 using either sulforaphane or an overexpression vector and inhibited Nrf2 with silencing RNA to determine whether Nrf2 could actively regulate PU.1. Nrf2 activation increased protein expression of both factors as well as gene expression of their respective downstream effectors, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase[quinone] 1 (NQO1) and cluster of differentiation antigen-14 (CD14). In contrast, Nrf2 silencing decreased the expression of both proteins, as well as gene expression of their effectors. Activating and inhibiting Nrf2 in primary rat AMs resulted in similar effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that Nrf2 regulates the expression and activity of PU.1 and that antioxidant response and immune activation are coordinately regulated within the AM.

  19. Determination of minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in juvenile swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T; Swanson, Cliff

    2008-04-01

    Pigs are important animal models in veterinary and medical research and have been widely used in experiments requiring surgical anesthesia. Sevoflurane is an inhalant anesthetic with unique properties that make it an ideal anesthetic for mask induction and anesthesia maintenance. However, there are relatively few studies reporting the anesthetic requirements for sevoflurane in juvenile swine, an age group that is commonly used in research experiments. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane in juvenile swine. Sevoflurane anesthesia was induced in six Yorkshire-cross pigs of approximately 9 weeks-of-age and MAC for sevoflurane was determined. The sevoflurane MAC value was determined to be 3.5+/-0.1% which is notably higher than values reported in the literature for pigs. This discrepancy in MAC values may represent changes in anesthetic requirements between different age groups of pigs and differences in the type of stimulus used to determine MAC.

  20. A rare occurrence of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, Jeffrey; Seki, Atsuko; Fishbein, Michael C; Abtin, Fereidoun; Lynch, Joseph P; Wang, Tisha; Weigt, S Samuel

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) initially diagnosed 28 months after left single-lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The diagnosis was based upon the presence of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive and surfactant immunostain-positive acellular lipoproteinaceous material within alveoli seen on transbronchial biopsy as well as in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient eventually also displayed a characteristic "crazy paving" pattern on radiographic imaging. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor antibodies were negative, consistent with secondary PAP. PAP is a rare interstitial lung disease with only a few reported cases occurring after lung transplantation. The etiology is thought to be related to a defect in macrophage function caused by immunosuppression. Reduced immunosuppression has been associated with stabilization, but not reversal, of the condition in the case reported here. PAP is an exceptionally rare cause of dyspnea and radiographic infiltrates after lung transplantation and may be related to toxicity of immune-suppressive medications.

  1. Repeated Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Hajime; Terada, Jiro; Hoshi, Hiromasa; Urushibara, Takashi; Kato, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Rintaro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening complication that occurs in association with various diseases including coagulation disorders. In rare cases, it is caused by hemophilia. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for a third time due to DAH. Although the cause of DAH could not be identified by bronchoscopy or laboratory tests, a good response to corticosteroids suggested idiopathic DAH with pulmonary capillaritis. The patient was diagnosed with hemophilia B based on the results of a detailed inquiry, a mildly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, and low factor IX activity. Hemophilia may be an underlying factor that exacerbates the bleeding of patients with DAH, even when they show a good response to corticosteroids. PMID:28202865

  2. Altered sialylation of alveolar macrophages in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C; Giordanengo, V; Bannwarth, S; Blaive, B; Lefebvre, J C

    1997-10-01

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that O-glycans at the surface of HIV-1-infected cell lines were hyposialylated. Moreover, we and others have shown that HIV+ individuals produced autoantibodies that react with hyposialylated CD43, on T cell lines. Since the autoantigen responsible for this abnormal immune response was not easily found in the peripheral blood cells of corresponding patients, we searched for its possible presence in other sites. Using fluorescence staining of alveolar macrophages with various lectins, we show that the binding of the PNA lectin specific for asialo O-glycans is much more efficient on cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. Moreover, the degree of reactivity of PNA is correlated with the clinical stage of the illness.

  3. Alveolar recruitment in pulmonary contusion: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Maria Vitório Trindade; Lucianne Cristina da Silva Lopes; Graziella França Bernardelli Cipriano; Letícia Sandre Vendrame; Ary Andrade Junior

    2009-01-01

    O tratamento da contusão pulmonar quando instituído de forma correta é bastante simples na maioria das vezes. As alterações fisiopatológicas acontecem como decorrência dos efeitos produzidos pela perda da integridade da parede torácica, acúmulo de líquidos na cavidade pleural, obstrução da via aérea e disfunção pulmonar. A manobra de recrutamento alveolar consiste na reabertura de áreas pulmonares colapsadas através do aumento da pressão inspiratória na via aérea. O objetivo deste relato foi ...

  4. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Creticus P; Joy, Parijat S; Gupta, Pragya; Bukovskaya, Yana; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.

  5. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creticus P. Marak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.

  6. A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with Cor Pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Gu, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the formation and deposition of microliths within the alveoli and a paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. It has familial tendency and is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder with the mutation in the SLC34A2 gene. We describe a case of PAM with Cor Pulmonale. Ultrasonic cardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension (82 mmHg). Chest radiography revealed diffuse, bilateral sandstorm-like micronodules with greater density in the lower lung fields. HRCT scans demonstrated diffuse ground-grass opacities, thickening and calcification of interlobular septa and confluent calcified nodules. A diagnosis of PAM was suggested and confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB).

  7. The Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane for Respiratory Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide a rationale for a need to introduce the new constant — the minimum alveolar concentration for respiratory depression (MACrespiratory depression and to determine its value. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients aged 20— 45 years, who had normal weight and ASA physical status I—II, were examined. All the patients underwent induction of sevorane anesthesia without narcotic analgesics, nitrous oxide, and myorelaxants. A laryngeal mask was installed after MAClm was achieved. Sevorane concentrations were increased on a vaporizer, by changing Etanesth at a rate of 0.2 vol% per min until Etanesthresp;ratory depression was achieved. Results. A rationale was provided for a need to introduce the new inhalation anesthesia constant MACrespiratory depression that is, in accordance with the MAC conception, regarded as the inhalation anesthetic concentration that necessitates assisted ventilation in 50% of the patients. MACrespiratory depression was 1.8 MAC. This is essentially more than both MAC and 1.3 MAC, the anesthetic concentration at which any operation can be performed in 90% of patients. At the same time, the derived value of 3.7 vol% is somewhat below MACbarr (4.07 vol%, which means that anesthesia with sevorane only under spontaneous respiration will be inadequate in few patients or its performance will be associated with the risk of hypoxia. Conclusion. The authors’ successively developed concept of anesthesia with preserved spontaneous respiration necessitates the introduction of the new inhalation anesthesia constant MACrespiratory depression. Its value is 3.7% vol% for sevoflurane. Key words: induction of anesthesia, minimum alveolar concentration, spontaneous respiration, inhalation anesthesia.

  8. A computational approach to understand in vitro alveolar morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H J Kim

    Full Text Available Primary human alveolar type II (AT II epithelial cells maintained in Matrigel cultures form alveolar-like cysts (ALCs using a cytogenesis mechanism that is different from that of other studied epithelial cell types: neither proliferation nor death is involved. During ALC formation, AT II cells engage simultaneously in fundamentally different, but not fully characterized activities. Mechanisms enabling these activities and the roles they play during different process stages are virtually unknown. Identifying, characterizing, and understanding the activities and mechanisms are essential to achieving deeper insight into this fundamental feature of morphogenesis. That deeper insight is needed to answer important questions. When and how does an AT cell choose to switch from one activity to another? Why does it choose one action rather than another? We report obtaining plausible answers using a rigorous, multi-attribute modeling and simulation approach that leveraged earlier efforts by using new, agent and object-oriented capabilities. We discovered a set of cell-level operating principles that enabled in silico cells to self-organize and generate systemic cystogenesis phenomena that are quantitatively indistinguishable from those observed in vitro. Success required that the cell components be quasi-autonomous. As simulation time advances, each in silico cell autonomously updates its environment information to reclassify its condition. It then uses the axiomatic operating principles to execute just one action for each possible condition. The quasi-autonomous actions of individual in silico cells were sufficient for developing stable cyst-like structures. The results strengthen in silico to in vitro mappings at three levels: mechanisms, behaviors, and operating principles, thereby achieving a degree of validation and enabling answering the questions posed. We suggest that the in silico operating principles presented may have a biological counterpart

  9. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Eisenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Eisenberg1,2, Asmahan Safi3, Xiaoding Wei3, Horacio D Espinosa3, GR Scott Budinger2, Desire Takawira1, Susan B Hopkinson1, Jonathan CR Jones1,21Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USAAim: The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.Methods: Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy.Results: We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM.Conclusions: An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung.Keywords: alveolar epithelial cells, fibrosis, extracellular matrix, substrate stiffness

  10. Liver transplantation for alveolar echinococcosis in an endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Arslan, Sukru; Kantarci, Mecit; Tan, Onder; Ahıskalioglu, Ali; Özden, Kemalettin; Colak, Abdurrahim

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic disease caused by ingestion of the eggs of the parasitic cestode Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM). In severe cases, liver transplantation (LT) may represent the only possibility of survival and cure. Patients undergoing LT associated with hepatic AE at our institution between April 2011 and October 2014 were investigated retrospectively. The clinical findings of the 27 patients who participated in the study were noted. Kaplan-Meier and chi-square tests were used to investigate the effect of these characteristics on survival and mortality. Living donor LT was performed on 20 patients (74.1%), and deceased donor LT was performed on 7 patients (25.9%). Hilar invasion was the most common indication (14 patients, 51.9%) for transplantation. The patient follow-up was 16.1 ± 11.4 months, and the overall survival rate was 77.8%. Primary nonfunction developed only in 2 patients in the posttransplantation period. Six patients died during monitoring, the most common cause of death being sepsis (3 patients). The relationship between the mortality rate of the patients and the invasion of the bile duct and/or portal vein by alveolar lesions was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.024 and P = 0.043, respectively). According to PNM staging, when the AE disease exceeds the resectability limits, the only alternative for the treatment of the disease is LT. However, different from LT due to cirrhosis, it is extremely difficult to perform a transplantation for AE disease because of the invasive characteristics of it. In order to decrease the difficulty of the operation and the postoperative mortality, the intracystic abscess and cholangitis which occur because of AE must be treated via medical and percutaneous methods before transplantation.

  11. Immortalization of human alveolar epithelial cells to investigate nanoparticle uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sarah J; Thorley, Andrew J; Gorelik, Julia; Seckl, Michael J; O'Hare, Michael J; Arcaro, Alexandre; Korchev, Yuri; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D

    2008-11-01

    Primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells were immortalized by transduction with the catalytic subunit of telomerase and simian virus 40 large-tumor antigen. Characterization by immunochemical and morphologic methods demonstrated an AT1-like cell phenotype. Unlike primary AT2 cells, immortalized cells no longer expressed alkaline phosphatase, pro-surfactant protein C, and thyroid transcription factor-1, but expressed increased caveolin-1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Live cell imaging using scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that the cuboidal primary AT2 cells were approximately 15 microm and enriched with surface microvilli, while the immortal AT1 cells were attenuated more than 40 microm, resembling these cells in situ. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the attenuated morphology and showed endosomal vesicles in some immortal AT1 cells (but not primary AT2 cells) as found in situ. Particulate air pollution exacerbates cardiopulmonary disease. Interaction of ultrafine, nano-sized particles with the alveolar epithelium and/or translocation into the cardiovasculature may be a contributory factor. We hypothesized differential uptake of nanoparticles by AT1 and AT2 cells, depending on particle size and surface charge. Uptake of 50-nm and 1-microm fluorescent latex particles was investigated using confocal microscopy and scanning surface confocal microscopy of live cells. Fewer than 10% of primary AT2 cells internalized particles. In contrast, 75% immortal AT1 cells internalized negatively charged particles, while less than 55% of these cells internalized positively charged particles; charge, rather than size, mattered. The process was rapid: one-third of the total cell-associated negatively charged 50-nm particle fluorescence measured at 24 hours was internalized during the first hour. AT1 cells could be important in translocation of particles from the lung into the circulation.

  12. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  13. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  14. Effect of Phenylephrine on Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-jing Li; Xiu Gu; Wei Li; Yan Li; Sheng-qi Li; Ping He

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ventilator-induced lung injury and the possible mechanism involved. Methods A total of 170 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 17 groups (n=10) using ran-dom number tables. Short-term (40 minutes) mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume (HVT) was per-formed to induce lung injury,impair active Na+ transport and lung liquid clearance in the rats. Unventilated rats served as controls. To demonstrate the effect of phenylephrine on AFC,phenylephrine at different con-centrations (1×10-5,1×10-6,1×10-7,1×10-8,and 1×10-9 mol/L) was injected into the alveolar space of the HVT ventilated rats. To identify the influence of adrenergic antagonists,Na+ channel,and microtubular sys-tem on the effect of phenylephrine,phenylephrine at 1×10-5 mol/L combined with prazosin (an α1-adrener-gic antagonist,1×10-4 mol/L),yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-4 mol/L),atenolol (a β1-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-5 mol/L),ICI-118551 (an β2-adrenergic antagonist,1×10-5 mol/L),amiloride (a Na+ channel blocker,5×10-4 mol/L),ouabain (a Na+/K+-ATPase blocker,5×10-4 mol/L),colchicine (a mi-crotubular disrupting agent,0.25 mg/100 g body weight),or β-lumicolchicine (an isomer of colchicine,0.25 mg/100 g body weight) were perfused into the alveolar space of the rats ventilated with HVT for 40 minutes. AFC and total lung water content were measured. Results Basal AFC in control rats was (17.47±2.56)%/hour,which decreased to (9.64± 1.32)%/hour in HVT ventilated rats (P=0.003). The perfusion of phenylephrine at 1×10-8,1×10-7,1×10-6,and 1×10-5 mol/L significantly increased the AFC in HVT ventilated rats (all P<0.05). This effect of phenylephrine on AFC was suppressed by prazosin,atenolol,and ICI-118551 in HVT ventilated rats by 53%,31%,and 37%,respectively (all P<0.05). The AFC-stimulating effect of phenylephrine was lowered by 33% and 42% with

  15. The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and lipid peroxidation (MDA were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities.

  16. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.

  17. Lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve with simultaneous implant placement: surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A K; Morales, M J

    1998-01-01

    In the event of moderate to severe mandibular bone resorption posterior to the mental foramen, repositioning of the inferior alveolar nerve provides a greater amount of available bone for implant placement and reduces the risk of nerve injury. While neural paresthesia may initially occur, this altered sensation generally resolves spontaneously. Alveolar nerve repositioning may be possible in cases in which other procedures cannot be performed due to the extent of atrophy of the posterior mandibular alveolar crest. This article presents the surgical technique to achieve this objective.

  18. Distance of the alveolar antral artery from the alveolar crest. Related factors and surgical considerations in sinus floor elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Loira-Gago, María; Gonzalez-Mosquera, Antonio; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; Garcia-Martin, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a variable proportion of maxillary sinuses alveolar antral artery is located close to the residual ridge, increasing the chances for haemorrhagic complications during sinus floor elevation procedures. Material and Methods Retrospective observational study of CBCT explorations performed for implant-treatment planning. The upper first molar area was selected for this study. The relative uncertainty (standard deviation of the measurement divided by its mean and expressed as a percentage from 0% to 100%) was chosen for determining the observational errors. For modeling the chances of AAA detection, the generalized additive models (GAM) approach was chosen. Results A total of 240 maxillary sinuses were studied (46.25% males) whose median median age was 58 years old (IQR: 52-66). Univariate models showed that the chances for an AAA-alvelar crest distance ≤15mm increase in wider sinuses with lower, subsinusally edentulous crests. When distance is considered as a continuous variable, the best mutivariate model showed an explained deviance of 67% and included AAA diameter, distance AAA-sinus floor, sinus width, and shape, height and width of the residual ridge. Thinner AAAs are found closer to the crest (within the ≤15mm safe distance). Conclusions Bearing in mind the inclusion criteria and the limitations of this investigation, it is concluded that there is a high proportion of maxillary sinuses where AAA describes a course close to the alveolar crest (≤15mm), which was classically considered a safe distance for SFE. This position is related to the presence of atrophic crests (depressed ridge form) and wide maxillary sinuses where the distance of the vessel to the floor of the sinus is small. This information may permit a better surgical planning of SFE procedures. Key words:Cone-beam computed tomography, blood vessels, sinus floor augmentation, intraoperative complications. PMID:27694790

  19. Effect of Amygdalin on the Proliferation of Hyperoxia-exposed Type Ⅱ Alveolar Epithelial Cells Isolated from Premature Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝华平; 常立文; 李文斌; 刘汉楚

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in AEC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 μmol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 μmol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 μmol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  20. Effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaping; Chang, Liwen; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Hanchu

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in A-EC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 micromol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 micromol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  1. Tracheal compression delays alveolar collapse during deep diving in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Brian L; Fahlman, Andreas; Jones, David R

    2008-05-31

    Marine mammals have very compliant alveoli and stiff upper airways; an adaptation that allows air to move from the alveoli into the upper airways, during breath-hold diving. Alveolar collapse is thought occur between 30 and 100 m and studies that have attempted to estimate gas exchange at depth have used the simplifying assumption that gas exchange ceases abruptly at the alveolar collapse depth. Here we develop a mathematical model that uses compliance values for the alveoli and upper airspaces, estimated from the literature, to predict volumes of the respiratory system at depth. Any compressibility of the upper airways decreases the volume to contain alveolar air yielding lung collapse pressures 2x that calculated assuming an incompressible upper airway. A simple relationship with alveolar volume was used to predict relative pulmonary shunt at depth. The results from our model agree with empirical data on gas absorption at depth as well as the degree of tracheal compression in forced and free diving mammals.

  2. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A case report with a discussion of differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputo, V; Zocchi, M; Mancosu, M; Bonaldi, U; Croce, P

    1979-01-01

    The rare disease of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is characterized by innumerable microscopic stones, mainly of tribasic calcium phosphate, within the pulmonary alveoli. In a 13-year-old boy an earlier radiological examination showed diffuse lung opacity. The main differential diagnoses taken into consideration were sarcoidosis, idiopathic hemosiderosis, diffuse interstitial fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis. The correct diagnosis was made after a lung biopsy which showed intra-alveolar microliths. The radiological findings are in agreement with the reports in the literature. The specific X-ray features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis are calcified opacities, nodules, hilifugal trabeculations and pleural striae. These radiological signs are sufficiently diagnostic to restrict lung biopsy to particularly difficult cases. The disease is resistant to all therapeutic measures.

  3. Conditioning of the diaphragm by phrenic nerve pacing in primary alveolar hypoventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, P G; Paré, P D; Fleetham, J A

    1988-01-01

    A patient with respiratory muscle weakness due to alveolar hypoventilation was treated with nocturnal bilateral phrenic nerve pacing for one year. Treatment was associated with a progressive increase in diaphragmatic strength and endurance.

  4. Alveolar system of Paramecium. I. Trapping polycationic dye as a result of membrane impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E

    1981-01-01

    The function of Paramecium alveolar system underlying the cell membrane has been studied. Permeability and structure of cell membrane, alveolar membranes and alveoli following alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, phospholipase C and hyaluronidase treatment has been examined. It is demonstrated that droplets of polycationic dye, ruthenium red, have been trapped within the alveoli whereas the dye was also bound by the outer and inner alveolar membrane. This suggest the presence of anionic sites capable to bind cationic compounds within the alveoli. It may be concluded that the alveolar system in Paramecium is functioning as a barrier protecting the cell against the chemicals added from the outside when the cell membrane separating the cytoplasm from the medium is impaired.

  5. Long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen; Pedersen, Kirsten Mølsted

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the long-term outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) in cleft lip and palate patients and to examine relationships between preoperative and postoperative factors and overall long-term bone graft success. The records of 97 patients with cleft lip and palate......, who had secondary alveolar bone grafting of 123 alveolar clefts, were examined. Interalveolar bone height was assessed radiographically a minimum of 10 years after grafting using a 4-point scale (I-IV), where types I and II were considered a success. After an average follow-up of 16 years after SABG...... to the cleft. No significant differences were found with regard to the other parameters investigated. The timing of secondary alveolar bone grafting is critical with regard to the age of the patient and the stage of eruption of the tooth distal to the cleft....

  6. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  7. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely...... infection in this system. In short, in our minimal system containing only a single cell type, phagocytosis-suppressive effects of PRRSV infection were detected, that acted at the culture level by reducing the total number of alveolar lung macrophages....

  8. The Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids on Alveolar-Arterial Oxygen Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Synthetic cannabinoids are chemicals that produce several marijuana-like effects in humans. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on to alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Material and Method: A total of 112 patients, who admitted directly to emergency clinic with synthetic cannabinoid usage, were determined between February 2014 and August 2014. Blood gases of 41 patients were determined as arterial blood gases on room air, and included in to study. Patients were evaluated according to age, sex, decade, partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, bicarbonate, metabolic status, age consistent expected alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Results: Synthetic cannabinoid using was higher in males, mean age of patients was 23.32±6.14 years. Number of patients in the third decade were significantly higher than the other decades. The calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient value of patients was significantly higher than age consistent expected alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient value. Respiratory acidosis, was significantly higher than the other types of the metabolic disorders. The best cutoff point for calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was 12.70, with sensitivity of 90% and specifity of 85%. Area under curve was 0.70 for calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Discussion: The value of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient has been increased due to synthetic cannabinoid usage. This can be used as a supportive parameter in the diagnosis of synthetic cannabinoid usage.

  9. Relationship between changed alveolar-capillary permeability and angiotensin converting enzyme activity in serum in sarcoidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, A; Blaschke, E

    1986-01-01

    The effect of altered alveolar-capillary permeability on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum (SACE) was studied in 45 patients with sarcoidosis and 21 healthy controls. In sarcoidosis increased albumin concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (L albumin) and increased ratios of L albumin to albumin in serum (S albumin) indicated an increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane. ACE activity in the lavage fluid (LACE) was correlated with the number of al...

  10. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma originating between the fourth and fifth metatarsal--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, J C

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma arising between the fourth and fifth metatarsal. A 13-year-old boy presented to outpatients with a history of pain and swelling in the lateral aspect of his left forefoot. Plain radiographs and MRI showed a soft tissue mass displacing the fourth metatarsal. Percutaneous biopsy revealed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Staging scans showed advanced metastatic disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy. This highly malignant lesion remains challenging to diagnose, and difficult to treat successfully.

  11. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravates air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis in Smad3 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Laszlo; Farkas, Daniela; Warburton, David; Gauldie, Jack; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Kolb, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of genetic susceptibility factors predisposing cigarette smokers to develop emphysema stems from the clinical observation that only a fraction of smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether Smad3 knockout mice, which develop spontaneous air space enlargement after birth because of a defect in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, develop enhanced alveolar cell apoptosis and air space enlargement following cigarette smoke exposure. We investigated Smad3(-/-) and Smad3(+/+) mice at different adult ages and determined air space enlargement, alveolar cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR were used to measure compartment-specific gene expression. We then compared the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on Smad3(-/-) and littermate controls. Smad3 knockout resulted in the development of air space enlargement in the adult mouse and was associated with decreased alveolar VEGF levels and activity and increased alveolar cell apoptosis. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravated air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis. We also found increased Smad2 protein expression and phosphorylation, which was enhanced following cigarette smoke exposure, in Smad3-knockout animals. Double immunofluorescence analysis revealed that endothelial apoptosis started before epithelial apoptosis. Our data indicate that balanced TGF-β signaling is not only important for regulation of extracellular matrix turnover, but also for alveolar cell homeostasis. Impaired signaling via the Smad3 pathway results in alveolar cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction, likely via increased Smad2 and reduced VEGF expression and might represent a predisposition for accelerated development of emphysema due to cigarette smoke exposure.

  12. Inflammatory trigeminal nerve and tract lesions associated with inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N F; Parratt, J D E; Garsia, R; Brazier, D H; Cremer, P D

    2013-11-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve blocks are commonly performed for dental anaesthesia. The procedure is generally safe with a low rate of complications. We report a patient with a reproducible, delayed-onset sensory deficit associated with contrast-enhancing lesions in the trigeminal nerve, pons and medulla following inferior alveolar nerve local anaesthesia. We propose that this previously undescribed condition is a form of Type IV hypersensitivity reaction.

  13. Aesthetic enhancement with periodontal plastic procedure in a class 3 alveolar ridge defect

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Localised alveolar ridge defect refers to volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic which provid...

  14. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the ad...

  15. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  16. Alveolar fluid reabsorbtion in acute and chronic hypertension in left sided heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Gembardt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The results of this work provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of hydrostatic pulmonary edema and thus, open new avenues for its treatment by innovative therapeutic strategies. Traditionally, the formation of hydrostatic lung edema has been exclusively attributed to an increase in capillary fluid filtration. Yet, recent investigations suggested an additional impact of impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption on the pathogenesis of pressure-induced hydrostatic lung edema. Alveolar ...

  17. Alveolare Flüssigkeitsreabsorption bei akuter und chronischer Hypertonie mit Linksherzinsuffizienz

    OpenAIRE

    Gembardt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The results of this work provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of hydrostatic pulmonary edema and thus, open new avenues for its treatment by innovative therapeutic strategies. Traditionally, the formation of hydrostatic lung edema has been exclusively attributed to an increase in capillary fluid filtration. Yet, recent investigations suggested an additional impact of impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption on the pathogenesis of pressure-induced hydrostatic lung edema. Alveolar ...

  18. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin-chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; ZHAI, ZAN-JING; Liu, Xu-qiang; ZHENG, XIN-YI; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-yi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty-f...

  19. Exposed inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during surgical removal of a residual cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Gallesio, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Iatrogenic neurodeficiency is one of the most distressing complications to any surgical procedure. The prediction of close proximity of the oral lesions to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle is extremely important. Furthermore, iatrogenic neurosensory dysfunctions of the facial region involve important medicolegal issues. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who did not show either paresthesia or anesthesia after the surgical removal of a mandibular residual cyst that exhibited adherence to the inferior alveolar nerve bundle.

  20. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Shavit; Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods We performed li...

  1. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  2. Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido ent...

  3. Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos univitelinos: relato de dois casos Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in monozygotic twins: report of two case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizenildo da Silva Figueirêdo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam dois casos de microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos monozigóticos. Os principais achados obtidos em exames radiográficos e de tomografia computadorizada (técnica de alta resolução são enfatizados, com base em breve revisão literária.The authors report two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis affecting monozygotic twins. The main findings observed on plain x-ray films and high-resolution computed tomography are discussed and compared with data from a brief literature review.

  4. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the mediastinum: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Yohei; Nishii, Teppei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Arai, Hiromasa; Inui, Kenji; Kaneko, Takeshi; Kimura, Noriko; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Masuda, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    We report a 53-year-old man with metastases of alveolar soft-part sarcoma originated from the mediastinum. He was hospitalized due to lower extremities’ paralysis. Computed tomography scan findings revealed multiple nodules of bilateral lungs, swollen mediastinal lymph nodes, and osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae. We performed spinal decompression and biopsy from vertebra. And, we finally diagnosed this case as metastases of mediastinal alveolar soft-part sarcoma which was removed 10 years ago. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma is rare tumor accounted for 0.5%–1.0% of soft tissue sarcoma that often occurs primarily in the lower extremities and trunk. It is difficult to distinguish between alveolar soft-part sarcoma and paraganglioma, renal cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor morphologically. Periodic acid–Schiff stain and immunohistochemical staining of ASPL-TFE3 are useful in making a definitive diagnosis of alveolar soft-part sarcoma. This case is a rare case of alveolar soft-part sarcoma originated in the mediastinum with local recurrence and distant metastases 10 years after the initial surgery.

  5. Epidermal growth factor regulation in adult rat alveolar type II cells of amiloride-sensitive cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P J; Borok, Z; Kim, K J; Lubman, R L; Danto, S I; Crandall, E D

    1999-12-01

    Using the patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on whole cell and single channel currents in adult rat alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture in the presence or absence of EGF for 48 h. In symmetrical sodium isethionate solutions, EGF exposure caused a significant increase in the type II cell whole cell conductance. Amiloride (10 microM) produced approximately 20-30% inhibition of the whole cell conductance in both the presence and absence of EGF, such that EGF caused the magnitude of the amiloride-sensitive component to more than double. Northern analysis showed that alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits of rat epithelial Na(+) channel (rENaC) steady-state mRNA levels were all significantly decreased by EGF. At the single channel level, all active inside-out patches demonstrated only 25-pS channels that were amiloride sensitive and relatively nonselective for cations (P(Na(+))/P(K(+)) approximately 1.0:0.48). Although the biophysical characteristics (conductance, open-state probability, and selectivity) of the channels from EGF-treated and untreated cells were essentially identical, channel density was increased by EGF; the modal channel per patch was increased from 1 to 2. These findings indicate that EGF increases expression of nonselective, amiloride-sensitive cation channels in adult alveolar epithelial type II cells. The contribution of rENaC to the total EGF-dependent cation current under these conditions is quantitatively less important than that of the nonselective cation channels in these cells.

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  7. CX3CL1(+ Microparticles Mediate the Chemoattraction of Alveolar Macrophages toward Apoptotic Acute Promyelocytic Leukemic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: During the resolution phase of inflammation, release of “find-me” signals by apoptotic cells is crucial in the chemoattraction of macrophages toward apoptotic cells for subsequent phagocytosis, in which microparticles derived from apoptotic cells (apo-MPs are involved. A recent study reports that CX3CL1 is released from apoptotic cells to stimulate macrophages chemotaxis. In this study, we investigated the role of CX3CL1 in the apo-MPs in the cell-cell interaction between alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells and apoptotic all-trans retinoic acid-treated NB4 (ATRA-NB4 cells. Methods/Results: Apoptotic ATRA-NB4 cells and their conditioning medium (CM enhanced the chemoattraction of NR8383 cells as well as their phagocytosis activity in engulfing apoptotic ATRA-NB4 cells. The levels of CX3CL1(+ apo-MPs and CX3CL1 were rapidly elevated in the CM of ATRA-NB4 cell culture after induction of apoptosis. Both exogenous CX3CL1 and apo-MPs enhanced the transmigration of NR8383 cells toward apoptotic ATRA-NB4 cells. This pro-transmigratory activity was able to be partially inhibited either by blocking the CX3CR1 (CX3CL1 receptor of NR8383 cells with its specific antibody or by blocking the surface CX3CL1 of apo-MPs with its specific antibody before incubating these apo-MPs with NR8383 cells. Conclusion: CX3CL1(+ apo-MPs released by apoptotic cells mediate the chemotactic transmigration of alveolar macrophages.

  8. Evidence for particle transport between alveolar macrophages in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Nikula, K.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies at this Institute have focused on determining the role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the transport of particles within and form the lung. For those studies, AMs previously labeled using the nuclear stain Hoechst 33342 and polychromatic Fluoresbrite microspheres (1 {mu}m diameter, Polysciences, Inc., Warrington, PA) were instilled into lungs of recipient F344 rats. The fate of the donor particles and the doubly labeled AMs within recipient lungs was followed for 32 d. Within 2-4 d after instillation, the polychromatic microspheres were found in both donor and resident AMs, suggesting that particle transfer occurred between the donor and resident AMs. However, this may also have been an artifact resulting from phagocytosis of the microspheres form dead donor cells or from the fading or degradation of Hoechst 33342 within the donor cells leading to their misidentification as resident AMs. The results support the earlier findings that microspheres in donor AMs can be transferred to resident AMs within 2 d after instillation.

  9. A plasmapheresis protocol for refractory pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Bryan; Albores, Jeffrey; Wang, Tisha; Neville, Thanh H

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease characterized by the accumulation of proteinaceous material within the lungs. While typically managed with whole lung lavage (WLL), more recent PAP therapies aimed at reducing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (anti-GM-CSF) have reduced symptoms and improved lung function. We present a patient with PAP refractory to WLL, exogenous GM-CSF and rituximab who underwent a novel plasmapheresis protocol as a therapeutic trial. While previously reported regimens have utilized plasmapheresis sessions distributed over months, our patient underwent five consecutive days of plasmapheresis, followed by rituximab. Anti-GM-CSF levels decreased from 24.8 to 2.7 mcg/mL post-plasmapheresis. This reduction of autoantibody correlated with reduction in WLL frequency, increase in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and subjective improvement in dyspnea. Our case suggests that five consecutive days of plasmapharesis results in increased clearance of anti-GM-CSF and may be potentially efficacious in cases of refractory PAP.

  10. Role of alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eVlahos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages (AMs represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response during infection and injury, AMs actively coordinate the resolution of inflammation through efferocytosis of apoptotic cells. Any perturbation of this process can lead to deleterious responses. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, there is an accumulation of airway macrophages that do not conform to the classic M1/M2 paradigm. There is a skewed transciptome profile that favors expression of wound healing M2 markers, which is reflective of a deficiency to resolve inflammation. Endogenous mediators that promote distinct macrophage phenotypes are discussed, as are the plausible mechanisms underlying why AMs fail to effectively resolve inflammation and restore normal lung homeostasis in COPD.

  11. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas O. Parashis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  12. On the evolution of the pulmonary alveolar lipofibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2016-01-15

    The pulmonary alveolar lipofibroblast was first reported in 1970. Since then its development, structure, function and molecular characteristics have been determined. Its capacity to actively absorb, store and 'traffic' neutral lipid for protection of the alveolus against oxidant injury, and for the active supply of substrate for lung surfactant phospholipid production have offered the opportunity to identify a number of specialized functions of these strategically placed cells. Namely, Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) signaling, expression of Adipocyte Differentiation Related Protein, leptin, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma, and the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2- which are all stretch-regulated, explaining how and why surfactant production is 'on-demand' in service to ventilation-perfusion matching. Because of the central role of the lipofibroblast in vertebrate lung physiologic evolution, it is a Rosetta Stone for understanding how and why the lung evolved in adaptation to terrestrial life, beginning with the duplication of the PTHrP Receptor some 300 mya. Moreover, such detailed knowledge of the workings of the lipofibroblast have provided insight to the etiology and effective treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia based on physiologic principles rather than on pharmacology.

  13. Geometría de los perfiles alveolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monfort Lleonart, José

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common castellated profiles series are established from a reduced set of templates to cut the original profiles. This means that no consideration is given to some parameters that could improve the beam strength behavior obtained from the same profile. In this paper the influence of some of these parameters are studied and some easy to use charts are given for simple beams with uniform load.

    Las series de perfiles alveolares, usualmente utilizadas, se establecen a partir de un conjunto reducido de plantillas/patrón para realizar el corte del perfil original, cuya utilización sistemática equivale a no considerar la influencia de algunos parámetros que podrían mejorar el comportamiento resistente de la viga alveolada obtenida a partir del mismo perfil original. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de algunos de estos parámetros, y se obtienen gráficas de fácil aplicación para el caso de vigas bi apoyad as con carga uniformemente repartida.

  14. Clinical significance of serum lipids in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cun S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that pulmonary alveolar proteinosis(PAP is characterised by accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins within airspaces. However, few previous data describe the serum lipid levels associated with PAP. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients with idiopathic PAP(iPAP. The serum lipid levels of patients with idiopathic PAP were compared with those of the healthy volunteers. In patients and healthy subjects, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were 2.94 ± 1.21 and 1.60 ± 0.70, respectively (p p A-aO2 (r = -0.685, p = 0.003, and r = 0.688, p = 0.003, respectively. The values of LDL-C/HDL-C ratios also correlated with PaO2 levels and PA-aO2 levels (r = -0.698, p = 0.003, and r = 0.653, p = 0.006, respectively. 11 and 13 patients experienced respectively a decline in TC and LDL-C levels following whole lung lavage(WLL, the median decline was 0.71 mmol/L(p p Conclusions the serum lipid levels, especially the levels of LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, may reflect the severity of the disease in PAP patients, and predict the therapeutic effect of WLL.

  15. The Anesthetic Effect of Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar Technique (AMSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tolentino, Lívia; Barbisan Souza, André; Girardi, Ana Alice; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Araújo, Maurício Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia of the soft and hard tissues of the maxilla may require up to 5 injections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) and supraperiosteal injection techniques during subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty individuals with periodontitis were scheduled for SRP on the buccal aspect of teeth in the anterior maxilla. Before SRP, on a randomly chosen side of the maxilla, the supraperiosteal injection was performed in 1 session, while the AMSA injection was conducted in the contralateral side of the same patient in another session. Immediately after each SRP session, patients rated their pain perception during the procedure with a visual analog scale. No statistically significant differences in mean pain ratings during SRP were found after both anesthetic techniques (P > .05). This preliminary study demonstrated that the AMSA and supraperiosteal injection techniques provided similar anesthetic comfort during SRP. The AMSA injection could be an alternative to anesthetize the buccal aspect of maxilla, without the undesirable effects on facial structures such as the upper lip, nostrils, and lower eyelids. However, further randomized clinical trials with larger samples are necessary to confirm such results. PMID:26650493

  16. Refractory ceramic fibers activate alveolar macrophage eicosanoid and cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikauf, G D; Fink, S P; Miller, M L; Lockey, J E; Driscoll, K E

    1995-01-01

    Refractory ceramic fiber has been developed for industrial processes requiring materials with high thermal and mechanical stability. To evaluate the biological activity of this fiber, rat alveolar macrophages were exposed for < or = 24 h to 0-1,000 micrograms/ml of refractory ceramic fiber, crocidolite asbestos, silica (fibrogenic particles), or titanium dioxide (a nonfibrogenic particle), and eicosanoid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured. Particle dimensions were determined by electron microscopy. Radioactivity coeluting with leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and immunoreactive LTB4 and TNF release increased after refractory ceramic fiber and were similar in magnitude after asbestos but less than after silica. For example, the total [3H]eicosanoid release increased 3.9-fold after refractory ceramic fiber, 4.6-fold after asbestos, and 8.7-fold after silica. Refractory ceramic fiber and asbestos also have similar particle dimensions (diameter, length, and surface area). Inasmuch as macrophage-derived LTB4 and TNF are potent mediators in inflammatory events, including migration and activation of neutrophils, these findings suggest that refractory ceramic fiber can activate macrophages in vitro to release mediators relevant to in vivo findings of inflammation and fibrotic lung disease in laboratory animals.

  17. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jessica L; Safi, Asmahan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D; Budinger, GR Scott; Takawira, Desire; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan CR

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM. Conclusions An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung. PMID:23204878

  18. Mesodermal Pten inactivation leads to alveolar capillary dysplasia- like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiozzo, Caterina; Carraro, Gianni; Al Alam, Denise; Baptista, Sheryl; Danopoulos, Soula; Li, Aimin; Lavarreda-Pearce, Maria; Li, Changgong; De Langhe, Stijn; Chan, Belinda; Borok, Zea; Bellusci, Saverio; Minoo, Parviz

    2012-11-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) is a congenital, lethal disorder of the pulmonary vasculature. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) encodes a lipid phosphatase controlling key cellular functions, including stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation; however, the role of PTEN in mesodermal lung cell lineage formation remains unexamined. To determine the role of mesodermal PTEN in the ontogeny of various mesenchymal cell lineages during lung development, we specifically deleted Pten in early embryonic lung mesenchyme in mice. Pups lacking Pten died at birth, with evidence of failure in blood oxygenation. Analysis at the cellular level showed defects in angioblast differentiation to endothelial cells and an accompanying accumulation of the angioblast cell population that was associated with disorganized capillary beds. We also found decreased expression of Forkhead box protein F1 (Foxf1), a gene associated with the ACD human phenotype. Analysis of human samples for ACD revealed a significant decrease in PTEN and increased activated protein kinase B (AKT). These studies demonstrate that mesodermal PTEN has a key role in controlling the amplification of angioblasts as well as their differentiation into endothelial cells, thereby directing the establishment of a functional gas exchange interface. Additionally, these mice could serve as a murine model of ACD.

  19. Alveolar echinococcosis: spectrum of findings at cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Karabulut, Nevzat; Aydinli, Bulent; Ogul, Hayri; Yuce, Ihsan; Calik, Muhammet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Oto, Aytekin

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Without timely diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is dismal, with death the eventual outcome in most cases. Diagnosis is usually based on findings at radiologic imaging and in serologic analyses. Because echinococcal lesions can occur almost anywhere in the body, familiarity with the spectrum of cross-sectional imaging appearances is advantageous. Echinococcal lesions may produce widely varied imaging appearances depending on the parasite's growth stage, the tissues or organs affected, and the presence of associated complications. Although the liver is the initial site of mass infestation by E multilocularis, the parasite may disseminate from there to other organs and tissues, such as the lung, heart, brain, bones, and ligaments. In severe infestations, the walls of the bile ducts and blood vessels may be invaded. Disseminated parasitic lesions in unusual locations with atypical imaging appearances may make it difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with standard and diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR cholangiopancreatography all provide useful information and play complementary roles in detecting and characterizing echinococcal lesions. Cross-sectional imaging is crucial for differentiating echinococcosis from malignant processes: CT is most useful for depicting the peripheral calcifications surrounding established echinococcal cysts, and MR imaging is most helpful for identifying echinococcosis of the central nervous system.

  20. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Domaschenz, Renae [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Gene Regulation and Chromatin Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Williamson, Daniel [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Paul O' Gorman Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H, E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  1. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05).

  2. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BILATERAL ALVEOLAR BONE GRAFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the treatment results of bilateral alveolar bone grafting (BABG) in patients with bilateral complete clefts of lip and palate.Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 66 bilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients who received the procedure of BABG, among them 15 were primary BABG and 51 were secondary BABG. The patients were further divided into three groups according to age and eruption stage of the canine at the time of surgery. The result of BABG was evaluated on the radiographs. Results. (1)The overall success rate of BABG was 75.0%, with 83.3% and 72.5% for primary and secondary BABG respectively; (2)The marginal bone level was found to be significantly higher in the youngest age group than in the other groups both for primary and secondary BABG; (3)For both primary and secondary BABG, Group C (patients' age more than 16 years) had the least optimal success rate, with 66.7% and 65.4% respectively. Conclusion. Simultaneous primary palate repair and BABG is safe and feasible procedure for treating unoperated bilateral complete cleft lip and cleft palate patients. For both primary and secondary BABG, significantly better results can be achieved if the operation is performed before eruption of the canine.

  3. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis – Crestal widening by distraction osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Laster

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Following tooth extraction, resorption of the residual ridges occurs in both the vertical and the horizontal directions. Most of this resorption occurs within the first 6 months after tooth extraction. To correc tthis vertical/ horizontal/ dual situation, several surgical approaches have been proposed: autogenous bone grafts, guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO. In recent years, ADO has gained an ongoing popularity ,especially in view of its numerous advantages, mostimportant among them being the shortening of treatment periods and earlier dental implant placement. In cases in which there is sufficient vertical height but not enough bucco-ligual width to accommodate an implant, crestal width has to be built. Crestal widening by distraction osteogenesis is the preferred technique in suchcases. In this study a new type of crest widener, the"Laster" Crest Widening Distractor, is presented, reporting two cases where crest widening by distraction was chosen as the preferred treatment plan. Finally the main advantages and disadvantages of the new crest widening distractor are discussed, helping thus the clinician to make up his mind about this new promising device and surgical technique.

  4. Inflammatory and fibrotic mediator release by alveolar macrophages from coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, D.C.; Stauffer, J.L.; Gaydos, L.J.; Demers, L.M. [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Dept. of Pathology

    1995-09-01

    Eicosanoids and cytokines produced by alveolar macrophages (AM) are key mediators of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In order to determine if eicosanoid production and cytokine production are altered in AM obtained from coal miners, we compared production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE (2)), thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), leukotriene B-4 (LTB(4)), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) by cultured AM from normal human subjects and coal miners. The recovery of AM from miners` lungs by bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly greater than that from control subjects. Mean eicosanoid and cytokine production by AM from active miners was also increased compared to AM from control subjects, but this increase was not statistically significant. AM from control subjects produced significantly more TXA (2) and TNF alpha when exposed to lipopolysaccharide than did AM from miners. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor suprofen reduced PGE(2) and TXA(2) production and TNF alpha release but had no effect on LTB (4) production or IL-1 beta release by miners` AM. The lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated TNF alpha release, as well as that of LTB(4), but had no effect on IL-1 beta release. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase by UK 38,485 also reduced TNF alpha release by active miners` AM but had no effect on PGE(2), LTB(4) production, or IL-1 beta release. The results of these studies suggest that occupational inhalation of coal dust may increase total lung eicosanoid and cytokine levels and reduce the reactivity of AM to bacterial endotoxin. Furthermore, coal dust-induced changes in both eicosanoid and cytokine release may be subject to pharmacological modulation.

  5. Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide–sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptors Required for Late Endosome–Lysosome and Homotypic Lysosome Fusion in Alveolar Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Diane McVey; Pevsner, Jonathan; Scullion, Matthew A.; Vaughn, Michael; Kaplan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome–lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome–lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome–lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome–lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages. PMID:10888671

  6. Alveolar process fractures in the permanent dentition. Part 2. The risk of healing complications in teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk of pulp canal obliteration (PCO), pulp necrosis (PN), repair-related resorption (RRR), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR), marginal bone loss (MBL), and tooth loss (TL) for teeth involved in an alveolar process fracture and to identify...

  7. The immune toxicity of titanium dioxide on primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages relies on their surface area and crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Yin, Li-hong; Pu, Yue-pu; Li, Yun-hui; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Liang, Ge-yu; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan-fen; Zhang, Xue-yan

    2010-12-01

    Surface properties are critical to assess effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) primary nanoparticles on the immune function of pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAMs). In this study the immune toxicity of TiO2 primary nanoparticles on PAMs relies on their surface area and crystal structure were determined. The primary PAMs of rats exposed to different sizes and crystal structure of TiO2 particles at different dosages for 24 hrs were evaluated for cytokines, phagocytosis, chemotaxis and surface molecules expression. Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level of PAMs significantly increased when exposed to TiO2 primary particles and there were significant association with the exposure total surface area and crystal structure of TiO2 particles in the former. TiO2 particles showed significant inhibiting effects on phagocytotic ability, chemotactic ability, Fc receptors and MHC-II molecular expression of macrophages compared with control. Exposure dosage and crystal structure of TiO2 particles play effects on phagocytotic ability and chemotactic ability of PAMs. These results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles could induce the release of inflammatory mediators, initiate the inflammation development and inhibit the immune function of PAMs associated with non-specific immunity and specific immunity relies on surface area and crystal structure. NO activity might be a candidate marker indicating the TiO2 exposure burden and cell damage in PAMs.

  8. Effect of terbutaline on alveolar liquid clearance after oleic acid-induced lung injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; YANG Tian-de; LI Hong; DU Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether terbutaline affects alveolar liquid clearance after oleic acid-induced lung injury in rats.Methods: Forty healthy Wistar rats ( weighing 250-280 g) were randomly divided into five groups ( n = 8 in each group): the normal control group ( control group),oleic acid injury group ( injury group), terbutaline-treated group (terbutaline group ), terbutaline plus amiloridetreated group (terbutaline + amiloride group ) and terbutaline plus ouabain-treated group (terbutaline + ouabain group). Acute lung injury model was induced by intravenous oleic acid (0. 25 mi/kg body weight). 24 hours later, 1.5 μCi 125I-labeled 5% albumin solution (5 ml/kg body weight) was dripped into the lungs through trachea.The alveolar liquid clearance rate, extravascular lung water content, and arterial blood gas were measured 1 hour thereafter.Results: At 24 hours after infusion of oleic acid, the rats developed pulmonary edema and severe hypoxemia,with the alveolar liquid clearance rate decreased by 49.2 % and the extravascular lung water content elevated by 47.9%. Compared with the rats in the injury group,terbutaline (10-4 mol/L ) significantly increased the alveolar liquid clearance rate, decreased the extravascular lung water content and improved hypoxemia. The effect of terbutaline was partly blocked by amiloride and ouabain,which were inhibitors of sodium transport. Terbutaline increased the alveolar liquid clearance rate by 63.7 %, and amiloride and ouabain reduced the alveolar liquid clearance rate by 54.7% and 56.8%, respectively.Conclusions: Terbutaline can accelerate alveolar liquid clearance through increasing sodium transport to attenuate pulmonary edema, thus improving gas exchange,which may have therapeutical effect on pulmonary edema after acute lung injury.

  9. Flow field analysis in expanding healthy and emphysematous alveolar models using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Jessica M; Day, Steven; Weinstein, Steven J; Robinson, Risa J

    2010-02-01

    Particulates that deposit in the acinus region of the lung have the potential to migrate through the alveolar wall and into the blood stream. However, the fluid mechanics governing particle transport to the alveolar wall are not well understood. Many physiological conditions are suspected to influence particle deposition including morphometry of the acinus, expansion and contraction of the alveolar walls, lung heterogeneities, and breathing patterns. Some studies suggest that the recirculation zones trap aerosol particles and enhance particle deposition by increasing their residence time in the region. However, particle trapping could also hinder aerosol particle deposition by moving the aerosol particle further from the wall. Studies that suggest such flow behavior have not been completed on realistic, nonsymmetric, three-dimensional, expanding alveolated geometry using realistic breathing curves. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to emphysemic geometries and how pathophysiological alterations effect deposition. In this study, fluid flow was examined in three-dimensional, expanding, healthy, and emphysemic alveolar sac model geometries using particle image velocimetry under realistic breathing conditions. Penetration depth of the tidal air was determined from the experimental fluid pathlines. Aerosol particle deposition was estimated by simple superposition of Brownian diffusion and sedimentation on the convected particle displacement for particles diameters of 100-750 nm. This study (1) confirmed that recirculation does not exist in the most distal alveolar regions of the lung under normal breathing conditions, (2) concluded that air entering the alveolar sac is convected closer to the alveolar wall in healthy compared with emphysematous lungs, and (3) demonstrated that particle deposition is smaller in emphysematous compared with healthy lungs.

  10. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Zhai, Zan-Jing; Liu, Xu-Qiang; Zheng, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency‑induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty‑four female, six‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, ligature, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX + ligature. One month after ovariectomy, rats in the ligature and OVX + ligature groups received ligatures on their first and second maxillary molars for 1 month. Fluorescent labelling was performed prior to sacrificing the animals. At the end of the experiment, the maxillae and serum were collected and subjected to micro‑computed tomography analysis, confocal laser‑scanning microscopic observation, Van Gieson's fuchsin staining, tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining and ELISA. Ligatures slightly reduced the alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation rate, but significantly reduced alveolar crest height (ACH). Ovariectomy reduced the alveolar BMD, impaired the trabecular structure, reduced the bone formation rate and increased the serum levels of bone resorption markers. Animals in the OVX + ligature group exhibited a lower alveolar BMD, a poorer trabecular structure, a reduced ACH, a lower bone formation rate and higher serum levels of bone resorption markers compared with those in the control group. The results of the present study showed that ovariectomy enhanced alveolar bone loss and reduced the ACH of rats with experimental periodontitis. Thus, post‑menopausal osteoporosis may influence the progression of periodontitis.

  11. Human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland: 1990-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław L Nahorski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6% cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6-82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years. Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19% patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years. Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8% patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60% patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease.

  12. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone; Computertomographie des Alveolarkammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    1996-03-01

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Computertomographie ermoeglicht in Ergaenzung zu den in der Zahnheilkunde gebraeuchlichen radiologischen Untersuchungsverfahren eine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung von Ober- und Unterkiefer. Neben der bereits etablierten Anwendung der CT bei malignen Erkrankungen hat sich ihr Einsatz bei weiteren Fragestellungen bewaehrt. Wird die Untersuchung mit einer Schichtdicke von weniger als 1,5 mm durchgefuehrt, lassen sich Form und Lage retinierter Zaehne im Kieferknochen und die durch die retinierten Zaehne verursachten Schaeden an bleibenden Zaehnen beurteilen, so dass eine fruehzeitige Therapie moeglich ist. Laesst sich der Parodontalspalt des retinierten Zahnes abgrenzen, ist eine kieferorthopaedische Einordnung moeglich. Bei entzuendlichen Zahnerkrankungen ist der horizontale und vertikale Knochenabbau genau zu bestimmen. Die Morphologie und Ausdehnung von benignen zystischen Raumforderungen ist mit der CT erfassbar. Vor einer beabsichtigten

  13. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem [Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P. [Electron Microscopy Unit, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Iwaarden, J. Freek van, E-mail: f.vaniwaarden@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  14. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G; Bateman, David A; Wilson, Ashley L; Markham, Melinda H; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Kerem, Eitan; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A; Kelly, David R; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret L; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R; DeNapoli, Thomas S; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J; Wagner, Carol L; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Björn; Loccufier, Anne; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S; Kussmann, Jennifer L; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J; Phillips, Gael E; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.

  15. Preventive treatment of alveolar pulmonary edema of cardiogenic origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gideon Charach; Michael Shochat; Alexander Rabinovich; Oded Ayzenberg; Jacob George; Lior Charach; Pavel Rabinovich

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of preventive treatment (PT) on alveolar pulmonary edema (APE) of cardiogenic origin using a monitor based on principles of internal thoracic impedance (ITI) measurements. Methods We conducted blinded clinical trials on patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and monitored whether the condition would progress to APE. ITI was measured noninvasively by the Edema Guard Monitor (EGM, model RS-207) every 30 min. The measurement threshold for the diagnosis of APE was fixed at > 12% decrease in ITI from baseline as described in our methodology. The patients were divided into one group that received standard treatment after the appearance of clinical signs of APE without considering the prediction of APE by EGM devise (Group 1), and another group of asymptomatic patients in whom development of APE was predicted by using only EGM measurements (Group 2). The latter participants' PT consisted of furosemide, intravenous nitroglycerine and supplemental oxygen. Results One-hundred and fifty patients with acute STEMI were enrolled into this study. Group 1 included 100 patients (53% males, age 64.1 ± 12.6 years). Treatment was started after the clinical appearance of overt signs of APE. Group 2 included 50 patients (54% males, age 65.2 ± 11.9 years) who received PT based on EGM measurements. Group 2 had significantly fewer cases of APE (n = 4, 8%) than Group 1 (n = 100, 100%) (P > 0.001). While APE was lethal in six (6%) Group 1 patients, PT resulted in prompt resolution of APE in all four (8%) Group 2 patients. Conclusion ITI is a useful modality for early diagnosis and PT of pulmonary edema of cardiogenic origin.

  16. Fusion transcriptome profiling provides insights into alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongqiu; Babiceanu, Mihaela; Kumar, Shailesh; Jia, Yuemeng; Qin, Fujun; Barr, Frederic G; Li, Hui

    2016-11-15

    Gene fusions and fusion products were thought to be unique features of neoplasia. However, more and more studies have identified fusion RNAs in normal physiology. Through RNA sequencing of 27 human noncancer tissues, a large number of fusion RNAs were found. By analyzing fusion transcriptome, we observed close clusterings between samples of same or similar tissues, supporting the feasibility of using fusion RNA profiling to reveal connections between biological samples. To put the concept into use, we selected alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), a myogenic pediatric cancer whose exact cell of origin is not clear. PAX3-FOXO1 (paired box gene 3 fused with forkhead box O1) fusion RNA, which is considered a hallmark of ARMS, was recently found during normal muscle cell differentiation. We performed and analyzed RNA sequencing from various time points during myogenesis and uncovered many chimeric fusion RNAs. Interestingly, we found that the fusion RNA profile of RH30, an ARMS cell line, is most similar to the myogenesis time point when PAX3-FOXO1 is expressed. In contrast, full transcriptome clustering analysis failed to uncover this connection. Strikingly, all of the 18 chimeric RNAs in RH30 cells could be detected at the same myogenic time point(s). In addition, the seven chimeric RNAs that follow the exact transient expression pattern as PAX3-FOXO1 are specific to rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Further testing with clinical samples also confirmed their specificity to rhabdomyosarcoma. These results provide further support for the link between at least some ARMSs and the PAX3-FOXO1-expressing myogenic cells and demonstrate that fusion RNA profiling can be used to investigate the etiology of fusion-gene-associated cancers.

  17. Role of Chitinase 3-Like-1 in Interleukin-18-Induced Pulmonary Type 1, Type 2, and Type 17 Inflammation; Alveolar Destruction; and Airway Fibrosis in the Murine Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jong; Yoon, Chang Min; Nam, Milang; Kim, Do-Hyun; Choi, Je-Min; Lee, Chun Geun; Elias, Jack A

    2015-12-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3l1), which is also called YKL-40 in humans and BRP-39 in mice, is the prototypic chitinase-like protein. Recent studies have highlighted its impressive ability to regulate the nature of tissue inflammation and the magnitude of tissue injury and fibroproliferative repair. This can be appreciated in studies that highlight its induction after cigarette smoke exposure, during which it inhibits alveolar destruction and the genesis of pulmonary emphysema. IL-18 is also known to be induced and activated by cigarette smoke, and, in murine models, the IL-18 pathway has been shown to be necessary and sufficient to generate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-like inflammation, fibrosis, and tissue destruction. However, the relationship between Chi3l1 and IL-18 has not been defined. To address this issue we characterized the expression of Chi3l1/BRP-39 in control and lung-targeted IL-18 transgenic mice. We also characterized the effects of transgenic IL-18 in mice with wild-type and null Chi3l1 loci. The former studies demonstrated that IL-18 is a potent stimulator of Chi3l1/BRP-39 and that this stimulation is mediated via IFN-γ-, IL-13-, and IL-17A-dependent mechanisms. The latter studies demonstrated that, in the absence of Chi3l1/BRP-39, IL-18 induced type 2 and type 17 inflammation and fibrotic airway remodeling were significantly ameliorated, whereas type 1 inflammation, emphysematous alveolar destruction, and the expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte perforin, granzyme, and retinoic acid early transcript 1 expression were enhanced. These studies demonstrate that IL-18 is a potent stimulator of Chi3l1 and that Chi3l1 is an important mediator of IL-18-induced inflammatory, fibrotic, alveolar remodeling, and cytotoxic responses.

  18. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  19. 64. Study on the DNA damage induced by coal tar pitch fume extracts in rat alveolar macrophage and it's mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    comet’ cells are seldom in control group, but the ‘comet’ cells increased significantly in experimental groups. When the concentration of CTP fume extracts increased from 0 to 10.0 μg/ml, the incidences of ‘comet’ cell increased from 6.0% to 92.0%. There were significant differences in all groups (P0.05). Conclusion: ①Coal tar pitch fume extracts can induce DNA single strand breaks in rat alveolar macrophage; the single cell gel electrophoresis appears to be suitable to detect DNA strand breaks in rat alveolar macrophage. ②Coal tar pitch fume extracts can induce the rat alveolar macrophage to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and can induce lipid peroxidation: the DNA strand breaks induced by coal tar pitch fume extracts in AM are associated with the producing of ROS. ③GSH can inhibit coal tar pitch fume extracts-induced DNA damage in rat alveola r macrophage.

  20. Expression of functions by normal sheep alveolar macrophages and their alteration by interaction with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; Lopez-Virella, J; Kaeberle, M L

    1997-10-31

    Normal sheep alveolar macrophages collected by bronchial lavage were exposed to live or heat-killed Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae organisms, and their capability to ingest Staphylococcus aureus and to elicit antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against sensitized chicken red blood cells was tested. Controls consisted of non-infected macrophages in M199 medium. In addition, the effect of M. ovipneumoniae on expression of surface molecules on these sheep alveolar macrophages was determined. The percentage of S. aureus ingested by nontreated sheep alveolar macrophages was significantly higher than that of infected macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in suppressing the ingestion of S. aureus by these macrophages than killed mycoplasmas. Both live and killed mycoplasmas suppressed the cytolytic effect of the sheep alveolar macrophages to a similar degree. About 78% and 45% of the normal sheep alveolar macrophages had IgG and complement receptors, respectively. Infection of these macrophages with M. ovipneumoniae decreased significantly the expression of IgG receptors but had no effects on complement receptors. There were substantial increases in the expression of both MHC class I and class II by the mycoplasma-induced macrophages as compared with unstimulated macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in inducing expression of both classes than killed mycoplasmas. The results, taken together, suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced alterations in macrophage activities and this may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease induced by the organism.

  1. Thermography for the clinical assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratt, B M; Sickles, E A; Shetty, V

    1994-01-01

    Neurosensory deficit is a major complication encountered in maxillofacial surgery. This study assessed the ability of electronic thermography to identify inferior alveolar nerve deficits in a pilot clinical study. The study population comprised six patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit and 12 normal subjects. Frontally projected facial thermograms were taken on 18 subjects and measured using an Agema 870 unit and thermal image computer. Mathematical analysis of thermal measurements included temperature and delta T calculations of the anatomic zone over the mental region of the face. Results included (1) high levels of thermal symmetry of the chin in normal subjects (delta T = 0.1 degree C, standard deviation = 0.1 degree C); (2) low levels of thermal symmetry in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficits (delta T = +0.5 degree C, standard deviation = 0.2 degree C); (3) statistically significant differences in delta T values (t = 4.82, P > .001) in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit; and (4) absolute temperature variations of the mental region in both groups. This pilot study demonstrated thermal asymmetry in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit and suggests that electronic thermography has promise as a simple, objective, noninvasive method for evaluating nerve deficits. However, more extensive studies are needed before thermographic procedures are accepted clinically.

  2. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Shavit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods: We performed literature investigation through MEDLINE (PubMed electronic database and manual search through dental journals to find articles concerning inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement. The search was restricted to English language articles published during the last 10 years, from December 2004 to March 2014. Results: In total, we found 33 articles related to the topic, of which 27 were excluded due to incompatibility with established inclusion criteria. Six articles were eventually chosen to be suitable. The studies presented diagnostic methods of inferior alveolar nerve sensory deficit, and we carried out an assessment of the proportion of patients diagnosed within different time intervals from the time the injury occurred. Conclusions: Various diagnostic methods have been developed throughout the years for dealing with 1 quite frequent complication in the implantology field - inferior alveolar nerve injury. Concurrently, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment was proved repeatedly. According to the results of the data analysis, a relatively high percentage of the practitioners successfully accomplished this target and achieved good treatment outcomes.

  3. Short-term cigarette smoke exposure leads to metabolic alterations in lung alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced alveolar destruction and energy metabolism changes are known contributors to the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examines the effect of CS exposure on metabolism in alveolar type II cells. Male A/J mice (8 wk old) were exposed to CS generated from a smoking machine for 4 or 8 weeks, and a recovery group was exposed to CS for 8 weeks and allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Alveolar type II cells were isolated from air- or CS- exposed mice. Acute CS exposure led to a reversible airspace enlargement in A/J mice as measured by the increase in mean linear intercept, indicative of alveolar destruction. The effect of CS exposure on cellular respiration was studied using the XF Extracellular Flux Analyzer. A decrease in respiration while metabolizing glucose was observed in the CS-exposed group, indicating altered glycolysis that was compensated by an increase in palmitate utilization; palmitate utilization was accompanied by an increase in the expression of CD36 and carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1 in type II alveolar cells for the transport of palmitate into the cells and into mitochondria, respectively. The increase in palmitate use for energy production likely affects the surfactant biosynthesis pathway, as evidenced by the decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and the increase in phospholipase A2 activity after CS exposure. These findings help our understanding of the mechanism underlying the surfactant deficiency observed in smokers and provide a target to delay the onset of COPD.

  4. Reserve autophagic capacity in alveolar epithelia provides a replicative niche for influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, David R; Na, Cheng-Lun; Weaver, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    Autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis through metabolite recycling and degradation of cytotoxic protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Although recent studies have established that the requirement for basal autophagy is largely tissue specific, the importance of autophagy for alveolar epithelial cell homeostasis remains an important knowledge gap. In the present study we generated two mouse models, with > 90% or > 50% recombination at the Atg5 locus in the distal respiratory epithelium, to assess the effect of dose-dependent decreases in autophagy on alveolar homeostasis. A 90% decrease in autophagy was well tolerated in young adult mice but resulted in alveolar septal thickening and altered lung mechanics in aged animals, consistent with accumulation of damage over time. By comparison, a 50% decrease in autophagy had no effect on alveolar structure or function throughout the murine life span, indicating that basal autophagy in this compartment exceeds that required for homeostasis. A 50% decrease in autophagy in the bronchoalveolar epithelium significantly attenuated influenza A/H3N2 viral replication, leading to improved lung structure and function and reduced morbidity and mortality after infection. The reserve of autophagic capacity in the alveolar epithelium may provide a niche for replication of influenza A virus.

  5. Preclinical Testing of Erlotinib in a Transgenic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive childhood malignancy, accounting for more than 50% of all soft-tissue sarcomas in children. Even with extensive therapy, the survival rate among alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma patients with advanced disease is only 20%. The receptor tyrosine kinase Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR has been found to be expressed and activated in human rhabdomyosarcomas. In this study we have used a genetically engineered mouse model for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS which faithfully recapitulates the human disease by activating the pathognomic Pax3:Fkhr fusion gene and inactivating p53 in the maturing myoblasts. We have demonstrated that tumors from our mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma express EGFR at both the mRNA and protein levels. We then tested the EGFR inhibitor, Erlotinib, for its efficacy in this mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Surprisingly, Erlotinib had no effect on tumor progression, yet mice treated with Erlotinib showed 10–20% loss of body weight. These results suggest that EGFR might not be an a priori monotherapy target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

  6. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  7. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niazi Masooma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can be caused by hematologic malignancies, inhalation of toxic dust, fumes or gases, infectious or pharmacologic immunosuppression, or lysinuric protein intolerance. Case presentation A 42-year-old African American man infected with human immunodeficiency virus was admitted with chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces, for which he required bilateral chest tubes. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal any contributory conditions. Histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracoscopy showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis concurrent with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. After ganciclovir treatment, our patient showed radiologic and clinical improvement. Conclusion The differential diagnosis for patients with immunosuppression and lung infiltrates requires extensive investigations. As pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is rare, the diagnosis can be easily missed. Our case highlights the importance of invasive investigations and histology in the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary disease who do not respond to empiric therapy.

  8. Influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martins de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a risk indicator for periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to morphometrically evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-six female rats (Wistar, 120 days-old were randomly divided into three groups that received a daily administration of a water diet (control, n = 12, a 10% alcohol diet (10% ethanol, n = 12 or a 20% alcohol diet (20% ethanol, n = 12. Four weeks after the onset of the experiment, cotton ligatures were placed around the cervix of the upper right second molar in six rats. The other 6 rats in each group remained unligated. The rats were sacrificed four weeks after ligature placement. The maxillary bones were removed and alveolar bone loss was analyzed by measuring the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest at 2 buccal and 2 palatal sites on the upper right second molar. Analyses between the ligated and unligated groups showed that the presence of ligature induced alveolar bone loss (p 0.05. In the ligated groups, rats receiving 20% ethanol showed significantly greater bone loss compared to control rats or rats receiving 10% ethanol. These results demonstrate that alcohol consumption may increase alveolar bone loss in female rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Histologic, Clinical, and Radiologic Findings of Alveolar Bone Expansion and Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C M; Soukup, J W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize clinical, radiologic, and histologic patterns of alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats. Based on case materials submitted as surgical biopsy specimens, alveolar bone pathology was diagnosed in 28 cats. These cats had a total of 37 oral lesions with clinical and radiologic changes that involved bone and/or teeth, including periodontitis, bone expansion, tooth resorption, and/or chronic osteomyelitis; 32 lesions were evaluated by histopathology. Canine teeth were affected in 19 cats (27 affected teeth), with bilateral lesions in 5 (26.3%) cats. The caudal premolar and/or molar regions were affected in 10 cats (10 affected sites). All biopsy sites evaluated by a review of clinical images and/or radiographs had evidence of periodontitis. Clinical photographs showed expansion of alveolar bone in 13 of 16 (81%) biopsy sites evaluated. Radiologically, rarifying osseous proliferation of alveolar bone was seen at 26 of 27 (96%) biopsy sites, and tooth resorption occurred at 15 of 18 (83%) sites. Histologically, the tissue samples from canine sites had compressed trabeculae of mature remodeled bone, loose fibrous stroma with paucicellular inflammation, and mild proliferation of woven bone. Tissue samples from the premolar/molar biopsy sites were often highly cellular with mixed lymphoplasmacytic and chronic suppurative inflammation, ulceration with granulation tissue, and robust proliferation of woven bone. Alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats occurs in conjunction with periodontal inflammation and frequently with tooth resorption.

  10. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Promotes Periodontal Regeneration and Enhances Alveolar Bone Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.

  11. Platelet-rich fibrin promotes periodontal regeneration and enhances alveolar bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit J; Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia; Chu, Shunli; Geng, Yajun; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.

  12. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Dao-Cai [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 291st Hospital of P.L.A, Baotou (China); Li, De-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ji, Hui-Cang [Military Sanatorium of Retired Cadres, Baotou (China); Rao, Guo-Zhou [Center of Laboratory, School of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liang, Li-Hua [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Ai-Jie [Xi' an Technology University, Xi' an (China); Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang [Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2012-04-05

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones.

  13. Estudio histológico comparativo de la reparación ósea entre hueso alveolar y extra-alveolar en los cerdos sometidos a osteotomía con alta y baja velocidad, con refrigeración líquida Comparative study of bone repair between alveolar and extra-alveolar bone in pigs subjected to osteotomy at low speed and high speed with liquid refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Baldo de Toledo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Teniendo en cuenta que el proceso de reparación ósea en los cerdos se muestra en una mayor proximidad entre las variables histológicas estudiadas en comparación con otros modelos biológicos, el presente estudio tenía como objetivo evaluar el proceso histológico de la reparación ósea de osteotomías realizadas en huesos alveolares y extra-alveolar, utilizando instrumentos rotatorios con refrigeración líquida. Material y método: Dieciocho cerdos Large White con peso comprendido entre 20 y 25Kg fueron divididos en tres grupos de seis animales cada uno, con cada grupo formado por tres animales para evaluar la reparación de osteotomías con baja y alta velocidades en el hueso alveolar y tres en área extra-alveolar en los períodos de estudio de 7, 14 y 28 días. Resultados: Se observó que en el hueso alveolar en los tiempos post-operatorio de 14 y 28 días, los mejores resultados de reparación fueron en las osteotomías realizadas con baja velocidad, mientras que en el período post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con alta velocidad fueron ligeramente mejores tanto en áreas alveolares como extra-alveolares. Para la metodología utilizada, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el proceso de reparación ósea alveolar y extra-alveolar. Conclusiones: El proceso de reparación, por medio de análisis microscópico en la región alveolar y extra-alveolar, son similares con mejores resultados observados en osteotomías hechas con taladros en baja velocidad en los tiempos de catorce y veintiocho días y en el post-operatorio de siete días, los resultados con taladros de alta velocidad y la refrigeración fueron ligeramente mejores. Los trabajos de investigación utilizando cerdos como modelo animal son perfectamente viables.Introduction: Taking into account the bone repair process in pigs has shown a greater similarity among the histological variables studied compared to other biological

  14. Alveolar and Velarized Laterals in Albanian and in the Viennese Dialect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmüller, Sylvia; Schmid, Carolin; Kasess, Christian H

    2016-12-01

    A comparison of alveolar and velarized lateral realizations in two language varieties, Albanian and the Viennese dialect, has been performed. Albanian distinguishes the two laterals phonemically, whereas in the Viennese dialect, the velarized lateral was introduced by language contact with Czech immigrants. A categorical distinction between the two lateral phonemes is fully maintained in Albanian. Results are not as straightforward in the Viennese dialect. Most prominently, female speakers, if at all, realize the velarized lateral in word-final position, thus indicating the application of a phonetically motivated process. The realization of the velarized lateral by male speakers, on the other hand, indicates that the velarized lateral replaced the former alveolar lateral phoneme. Alveolar laterals are either realized in perceptually salient positions, thus governed by an input-switch rule, or in front vowel contexts, thus subject to coarticulatory influences. Our results illustrate the subtle interplay of phonology, phonetics and sociolinguistics.

  15. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Rare Life-Threatening Condition in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Paul Singh Virdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a rare life-threatening complication in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE associated with high mortality rates. DAH is more common in women, and mean age of onset is around 30 years. It mostly occurs in patients with established diagnosis of SLE but can be the initial presentation of lupus in approximately 20%. DAH should be suspected in lupus patient presenting with new pulmonary infiltrates, decline in hemoglobin, hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and increase in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. Radiographic evidence of bilateral pulmonary alveolar infiltrates that are usually perihilar or basilar with sparing of apices is seen. DAH can often mimic clinically and radiologically severe pneumonia or ARDS. Treatment includes high-dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis. We report a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage complicating SLE flare-up in a male patient.

  16. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis applications in cleft lip and palate patients: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Mülayim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis technique has been successfully applied in the craniofacial area for long time, and it is being applied increasingly more in cleft lip and palate patients also. Especially in large cleft palate cases, bone grafting or surgical procedures such as distraction osteogenesis can be applied in order to ensure a smooth alveolar arc. In this literature review, alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis applications in patients with cleft lip and palate, indications of the technique, advantages and disadvantages, application methods and types of appliances used for this purpose have been evaluated. As conclusion, especially with the application of alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis, successful outcome can be achieved in cleft lip and palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, maxillary hypoplasia and maxillary crowding, and this technique may be an alternative to conventional osteotomies and extraoral distractions.

  17. Aesthetic enhancement with periodontal plastic procedure in a class 3 alveolar ridge defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Pavitra Kumar

    2012-12-23

    Localised alveolar ridge defect refers to volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. This article describes a procedure of surgical ridge augmentation of a localised alveolar ridge defect in the maxilla, followed by fixed partial denture, enhancing the aesthetics, function and health.

  18. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Niraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. This article describes a procedure of surgical connective tissue augmentation of a localized deficient alveolar ridge in the maxilla, followed by fixed partial denture, enhancing the esthetics, function and health.

  19. Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Niraj; Singh, Balendra P; Rao, Jitendra; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2010-01-01

    The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the addition of either soft or hard tissues. This article describes a procedure of surgical connective tissue augmentation of a localized deficient alveolar ridge in the maxilla, followed by fixed partial denture, enhancing the esthetics, function and health.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of primary alveolar epithelial cell differentiation in human and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal N. Marconett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell-type specific gene regulation is a key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how changes in transcriptional activation during alveolar epithelial cell (AEC differentiation determine phenotype. We performed transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human and rat primary AEC. This model recapitulates in vitro an in vivo process in which AEC transition from alveolar type 2 (AT2 cells to alveolar type 1 (AT1 cells during normal maintenance and regeneration following lung injury. Here we describe in detail the quality control, preprocessing, and normalization of microarray data presented within the associated study (Marconett et al., 2013. We also include R code for reproducibility of the referenced data and easily accessible processed data tables.

  1. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  2. Periodontal plastic surgery for management of cleft alveolar ridge: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit A; Yeltiwar, Ramreddy K

    2012-02-01

    Cleft lips, alveoli, and palates are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck region, all of which often can be managed successfully when presented at a young age. It is a common belief that clefts in the alveolar ridge should be treated with the help of bone grafting materials. This could be the best option when the cleft is to be treated in early age, when the patient is still developing and has high regenerative potential. However, in adults, the literature supports the fact that bone grafting in alveolar clefts has a higher chance for failure. The present case report exemplifies a periodontal plastic surgical procedure involving a combination of connective tissue and free gingival grafting to restore the form and function of a cleft alveolar ridge in an adult patient.

  3. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Donnelly, P M; Bye, P T

    1993-02-01

    In order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms relating to the large lung volumes of swimmers, tests of mechanical lung function, including lung distensibility (K) and elastic recoil, pulmonary diffusion capacity, and respiratory mouth pressures, together with anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, chest width, depth and surface area), were compared in eight elite male swimmers, eight elite male long distance athletes and eight control subjects. The differences in training profiles of each group were also examined. There was no significant difference in height between the subjects, but the swimmers were younger than both the runners and controls, and both the swimmers and controls were heavier than the runners. Of all the training variables, only the mean total distance in kilometers covered per week was significantly greater in the runners. Whether based on: (a) adolescent predicted values; or (b) adult male predicted values, swimmers had significantly increased total lung capacity ((a) 145 +/- 22%, (mean +/- SD) (b) 128 +/- 15%); vital capacity ((a) 146 +/- 24%, (b) 124 +/- 15%); and inspiratory capacity ((a) 155 +/- 33%, (b) 138 +/- 29%), but this was not found in the other two groups. Swimmers also had the largest chest surface area and chest width. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was largest in the swimmers ((b) 122 +/- 17%) and FEV1 as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% was similar for the three groups. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) was also highest in the swimmers (117 +/- 18%). All of the other indices of lung function, including pulmonary distensibility (K), elastic recoil and diffusion coefficient (KCO), were similar. These findings suggest that swimmers may have achieved greater lung volumes than either runners or control subjects, not because of greater inspiratory muscle strength, or differences in height, fat free mass, alveolar distensibility, age at start of training or sternal length or

  4. Contribution of CFTR to Alveolar Fluid Clearance by Lipoxin A4 via PI3K/Akt Pathway in LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipoxins are the first proresolution mediators to be recognized and described as the endogenous “braking signals” for inflammation. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory and proresolution bioactions of lipoxin A4 in our lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung injury model. We demonstrated that lipoxin A4 significantly improved histology of rat lungs and inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced lung injury. In addition, lipoxin A4 increased alveolar fluid clearance (AFC and the effect of lipoxin A4 on AFC was abolished by CFTRinh-172 (a specific inhibitor of CFTR. Moreover, lipoxin A4 could increase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein expression in vitro and in vivo. In rat primary alveolar type II (ATII cells, LPS decreased CFTR protein expression via activation of PI3K/Akt, and lipoxin A4 suppressed LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. These results showed that lipoxin A4 enhanced CFTR protein expression and increased AFC via PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, lipoxin A4 may provide a potential therapeutic approach for acute lung injury.

  5. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13, which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11 regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05. Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD, mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09 and 0.65 (0.07 mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05 as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12 and 0.53 (0.13 mm, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats.

  6. Prevention of alveolar bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model via interference of semaphorin 4d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wei, L; Miron, R J; Zhang, Q; Bian, Z

    2014-11-01

    Semaphorin 4d (Sema4d) has been proposed as a novel target gene for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recently, we fabricated a site-specific bone-targeting system from polymeric nanoparticles that demonstrates an ability to prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic model by interfering with Sema4d gene expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) molecules. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this targeting system on the periodontium, an area of high bone turnover. We demonstrated, by single photon emission computed tomography, that intravenous injection of this molecule in ovariectomized Balb/C mice is able to target alveolar bone peaking 4 hr post-injection. We then compared, by histological analysis, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), alveolar bone height loss, immunohistochemical expression of Sema4d, and total number of osteoclasts in mandibular alveolar bone. Four treatment modalities were compared as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) OVX-operated, (3) OVX+estrogen replacement therapy, and (4) OVX+siRNA-Sema4d animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that an osteoporotic condition significantly increases alveolar bone height loss, and that the therapeutic effects via bone-targeting systems featuring interference of Sema4d are able to partly counteract alveolar bone loss caused by osteoporosis. While the future therapeutic demand for the large number of patients suffering from osteoporosis faces many challenges, we demonstrate within the present study an effective drug-delivery moiety with anabolic effects on the bone remodeling cycle able to locate and target alveolar bone regeneration.

  7. Oral administration of aflatoxin G₁ induces chronic alveolar inflammation associated with lung tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Shen, Haitao; Yi, Li; Shao, Peilu; Soulika, Athena M; Meng, Xinxing; Xing, Lingxiao; Yan, Xia; Zhang, Xianghong

    2015-02-03

    Our previous studies showed oral gavage of aflatoxin G₁ (AFG₁) induced lung adenocarcinoma in NIH mice. We recently found that a single intratracheal administration of AFG₁ caused chronic inflammatory changes in rat alveolar septum. Here, we examine whether oral gavage of AFG₁ induces chronic lung inflammation and how it contributes to carcinogenesis. We evaluated chronic lung inflammatory responses in Balb/c mice after oral gavage of AFG₁ for 1, 3 and 6 months. Inflammatory responses were heightened in the lung alveolar septum, 3 and 6 months after AFG₁ treatment, evidenced by increased macrophages and lymphocytes infiltration, up-regulation of NF-κB and p-STAT3, and cytokines production. High expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), two established markers of oxidative stress, were detected in alveolar epithelium of AFG₁-treated mice. Promoted alveolar type II cell (AT-II) proliferation in alveolar epithelium and angiogenesis, as well as increased COX-2 expression were also observed in lung tissues of AFG₁-treated mice. Furthermore, we prolonged survival of the mice in the above model for another 6 months to examine the contribution of AFG₁-induced chronic inflammation to lung tumorigenesis. Twelve months later, we observed that AFG₁ induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Up-regulation of NF-κB, p-STAT3, and COX-2 was also induced in lung adenocarcinoma, thus establishing a link between AFG₁-induced chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. This is the first study to show that oral administration of AFG₁ could induce chronic lung inflammation, which may provide a pro-tumor microenvironment to contribute to lung tumorigenesis.

  8. Alveolar Echinococcus species from Vulpes corsac in Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia, China, and differential development of the metacestodes in experimental rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chong-Ti; Wang, Yan-Hai; Peng, Wen-Feng; Tang, Liang; Chen, Dong

    2006-08-01

    Adults of alveolar Echinococcus species with different uterine structures were collected from Vulpes corsac in the Hulunbeier Pasture of Northeastern China in 2001. They were Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (type No. 3, similar to E. m. multilocularis), with vaselike uterus; Echinococcus cf. sibiricensis Rausch et Schiller, 1954 (type No. 1), with pyriform uterus; and Echinococcus sp. (type No. 2) with spherical uterus at segment top. The metacestode development in rodents also differed among those 3 parasites. In the case of E. multilocularis (type No. 3), many germinal cells grew on the inner surface of early cysts, most of which metastasized into host tissue to form brood vesicles or from the germinal cell layer on the inner surface of the vesicle wall. Cells also had an appearance of proliferating by means of alveolar buds from alveolar tissue that developed outward to form new alveolar foci. In Echinococcus cf. sibiricensis (type No. 1), the formation of alveolar vesicles was due to the metastasizing of germinal tissue into host tissue; protoscoleces grew in the center of alveolar vesicles. In type No. 2 (Echinococcus sp.), the formation of the alveolar vesicle was by multiplication of germinal cell layers on the inner surface of alveolar cysts; protoscoleces grew from the germinal cell layer and mesh in the vesicles. On the basis of uterine structure and on differences in development of metacestodes in experimental rodents, we propose that the 3 types of Echinococcus represent 3 independent species: E. multilocularis, Echinococcus sibiricensis, and Echinococcus sp. (type No. 2-as yet under study).

  9. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages.

  10. An Unusual Radiologic Manifestation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Bilateral Multiple Lung Nodules and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seo In; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is very rare. Here, we report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage mimicking granulomatous vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis.

  11. Metabolism of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene by cultured human bronchus and cultured human pulmonary alveolar macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene by cultured human bronchial epithelium and pulmonary alveolar macrophages was studied. Explants of bronchus were prepared and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were isolated from peripheral lung by trypsinization and by differential adhesion to plastic tissue...

  12. Development of a lung slice preparation for recording ion channel activity in alveolar epithelial type I cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crandall Edward D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fluid balance in the healthy lung is dependent upon finely regulated vectorial transport of ions across the alveolar epithelium. Classically, the cellular locus of the major ion transport processes has been widely accepted to be the alveolar type II cell. Although evidence is now emerging to suggest that the alveolar type I cell might significantly contribute to the overall ion and fluid homeostasis of the lung, direct assessment of functional ion channels in type I cells has remained elusive. Methods Here we describe a development of a lung slice preparation that has allowed positive identification of alveolar type I cells within an intact and viable alveolar epithelium using living cell immunohistochemistry. Results This technique has allowed, for the first time, single ion channels of identified alveolar type I cells to be recorded using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Conclusion This exciting new development should facilitate the ascription of function to alveolar type I cells and allow us to integrate this cell type into the general model of alveolar ion and fluid balance in health and disease.

  13. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis.

  14. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Milstein; Y.W. Cheung; L. Ziukaite; C. Ince; H.P. van den Akker; J.A.H. Lindeboom

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bon

  15. Apoptosis of Alveolar Wall Cells in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Pulmonary Emphysema Is Involved in Emphysematous Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei LIU; Lijun MA; Jizhen WU; Kai WANG; Xianliang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    s of alveolar wall cells, espe-cially apoptosis of type-Ⅱ cells, may take part in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Up-regulation of Bax expression may be responsible for the apoptosis of alveolar wall cells in the COPD patients with pulmonary emphysema.

  16. Clinical indications for digital imaging in dento-alveolar trauma. Part 1: traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca, Nestor; Simon, James H; Roges, Ramon; Morag, Yoav; Malfaz, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Traumatized teeth present a clinical challenge with regard to their diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis. Recent developments in imaging systems have enabled clinicians to visualize structural changes effectively. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cone beam computed tomography are among the most commonly used systems for dental and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this review is to describe the advantages and disadvantages of each technique and the clinical application for dento-alveolar trauma. Three clinical cases are described to illustrate the potential use of the NewTom 3G for diagnosis and treatment plan of dento-alveolar traumatic injuries.

  17. Changes in Morphology of Alveolar Buccal Walls Following Atraumatic Internal Root Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La pared alveolar bucal representa la estructura más importante para proveer la forma y el volumen de los alveólos dentales posterior a la extracción dental. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las estructuras de hueso alveolar bucal después de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En 15 pacientes (3 hombres, 12 mujeres), con edades entre 20 a 67 años, 3 incisivos centrales, 5 incisivos laterales y 7 premolares fueron removidos utilizando enucleación sin colgajo. La enucleación comprende ...

  18. Distracción osteogénica alveolar: una alternativa en la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos: Descripción de 10 casos Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: an alternative in the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges: Report of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Maurette O’Brien

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar (DOA es un método alternativo para la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos que ofrece un resultado previsible y que disminuye los tiempo de espera entre la reconstrucción del reborde alveolar atrófico y la colocación de los implantes óseo-integrados, en comparación con los métodos tradicionalmente utilizados. Fueron atendidos 10 pacientes que presentaban deficiencia de reborde alveolar mandibular y/o maxilar por medio de distracción osteogénica, utilizando un dispositivo yuxtaoseo (Conexión Implant System® - SP-Brasil. Todos los pacientes fueron atendidos de forma ambulatoria, bajo anestesia local y sedación conciente, comenzando la activación del dispositivo a los 7 días posteriores a la instalación, con un patrón de activación de 1 mm diarios hasta alcanzar la altura ósea deseada. Posteriormente se aguardaron 10 semanas como parte del periodo de consolidación ósea y se realizo la colocación de los implantes oseointegrados y local y el retiro del dispositivo de distracción, pudiéndose comprobar clínica y radiográficamente la ganancia de la altura y volumen óseo necesario para la rehabilitación por medio de implantes.The alveolar distraction osteogenesis is an alternative method for the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges with success, that decrease the time of wait between the reconstruction of the alveolar ridge and the placement of the osseointegrated implants in comparison with the traditionally used methods. 10 patients that presented deficiency of the alveolar ridge in the maxilla and/or mandible were assisted by means of distraction osteogenesis, using a juxtaosseous device (Conexion Implant System® - SP-Brazil. All the patients were assisted of form ambulatory, under local anesthesia and conscientious sedation, beginning the activation from the device 7 days later to the installation, with a pattern of activation 1 mm diary until reaching the wanted

  19. Toluene in alveolar air during controlled exposure to constant and to varying concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of toluene in the alveolar air was measured in 20 males and 17 females exposed for 7 h either to a constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene or to a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. Both exposure schedules included 50 to 100......, while exercise delayed this increase by about 2 min, probably due to an altered distribution of toluene in the body. The average alveolar concentration was 16.5 +/- 6.8 ppm (mean +/- SD) at rest and 19.5 +/- 5.3 ppm in the period including exercise while there was no difference between constant...

  20. Alveolar echinococcosis of the adrenal gland: brief review of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Bo; Tuergan Aili; SHAO Ying-mei; JIANG Tie-ming; LI Hai-tao; WANG Yu-jie; WEN Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis located in the adrenal gland can be considered a rare and aggressive infestation that radiologically and macroscopically mimics a malignant neoplasm.Its pathogenesis is poorly understood.This paper describes its clinical and radiological aspects and discusses its proper management.Methods The records of two patients with adrenal gland alveolar echinococcosis who were diagnosed and treated in our center in 2009 were evaluated.Results Neither patient showed any signs of recurrence following radical surgical treatment and postoperative oral anthelmintic therapy.Conclusion Radical surgery can be a feasible,effective management option that results in a good prospective outcome.

  1. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 1. Magiscan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E.; Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Fallon, J.

    1982-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that /sup 125/I absorptiometry gives an accurate and sensitive measure of alveolar bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alveolar bone mass determined by /sup 125/I absorptiometry and bone density obtained by analysis of standardized intraoral radiographs by the Magiscan System. A defect of increasing size was made at one site of the alveolar bone in a human skull. The amount of bone remaining at each step was calculated using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. Standardized radiographs were also taken at each step and the relative density in the area of the defect was determined by the Magiscan System. The Magiscan's System Computer Memory permits analysis of identical areas on a longitudinal series of films of the same alveolar bone location. The results indicate that in estimating amounts of alveolar bone the Magiscan analysis of standardized intraoral radiography is similar in sensitivity and accuracy to /sup 125/I absorptiometry.

  2. Effects of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and other candidate biodiesel biocides on rat alveolar macrophages and NR8383 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, R.; Rigden, M. [Environmental Heath Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Edmonds, N.; Charman, N.; Lamy, S. [Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Biocides are added to biodiesels to inhibit and remove microbial growth. The effects of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMIT), a candidate biodiesel biocide, were studied using freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and NR8383 cell line. CMIT markedly inhibited phagocytic oxidative burst as measured by zymosan-induced chemiluminescence, and cellular cytokine secretion as measured by zymosan-induced TNF-{alpha} secretion. The 50% inhibition concentration (LC{sub 50}) for CMIT was 0.002-0.004 mM for both cellular functions. AM exposed to CMIT for as little as 2 min showed markedly inhibited functions that persisted for at least 5 h. Sodium metabisulfite was able to partially neutralize the inhibitory activity of CMIT. Cysteine and glutathione, when present at a molar ratio of 2-1 or higher against CMIT, were effective neutralizers, while serine, histidine, alanine, and albumin were without effect. When the AM testing system was used to compare the toxicity of CMIT against three other candidate biodiesel biocides, methylene dithiocyanate (MDC) was found to be of comparable toxicity to CMIT, 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT) was much less toxic, and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) was non-toxic. Because AM is among the first cell-type exposed to inhaled biodiesel aerosols, the result suggested that CMIT present in biodiesel may produce respiratory effects, and further investigations including animal studies are warranted. (orig.)

  3. An ultra fast detection method reveals strain-induced Ca(2+) entry via TRPV2 in alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Giorgio; Wittekindt, Oliver; Zheng, Xing; Felder, Erika Tatiana; Miklavc, Pika; Frick, Manfred; Dietl, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2012-09-01

    A commonly used technique to investigate strain-induced responses of adherent cells is culturing them on an elastic membrane and globally stretching the membrane. However, it is virtually impossible to acquire microscopic images immediately after the stretch with this method. Using a newly developed technique, we recorded the strain-induced increase of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in rat primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells at an acquisition rate of 30ms and without any temporal delay. We can show that the onset of the mechanically induced rise in [Ca(2+)](c) was very fast (<30 ms), and Ca(2+) entry was immediately abrogated when the stimulus was withdrawn. This points at a direct mechanical activation of an ion channel. RT-PCR revealed high expression of TRPV2 in ATII cells, and silencing TRPV2, as well as blocking TRPV channels with ruthenium red, significantly reduced the strain-induced Ca(2+) response. Moreover, the usually homogenous pattern of the strain-induced [Ca(2+)](c) increase was converted into a point-like response after both treatments. Also interfering with actin/myosin and integrin binding inhibited the strain-induced increase of [Ca(2)](c). We conclude that TRPV2 participates in strain-induced Ca(2+) entry in ATII cells and suggest a direct mechanical activation of the channel that depends on FAs and actin/myosin. Furthermore, our results underline the importance of cell strain systems that allow high temporal resolution.

  4. The FGL2/fibroleukin prothrombinase is involved in alveolar macrophage activation in COPD through the MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanling; Xu, Sanpeng; Xiao, Fei; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Xiaojin; Gao, Sui; Yan, Weiming [Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China); Ning, Qin, E-mail: qning@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)

    2010-05-28

    Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2)/fibroleukin has been reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of some critical inflammatory diseases by possessing immunomodulatory activity through the mediation of 'immune coagulation' and the regulation of maturation and proliferation of immune cells. We observed upregulated FGL2 expression in alveolar macrophages from peripheral lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and found a correlation between FGL2 expression and increased macrophage activation markers (CD11b and CD14). The role of FGL2 in the activation of macrophages was confirmed by the detection of significantly decreased macrophage activation marker (CD11b, CD11c, and CD71) expression as well as the inhibition of cell migration and inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and MMP-9) production in an LPS-induced FGL2 knockdown human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Increased FGL2 expression co-localized with upregulated phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) in the lung tissues from COPD patients. Moreover, FGL2 knockdown in THP-1 cells significantly downregulated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38-MAPK while upregulating phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Thus, we demonstrate that FGL2 plays an important role in macrophage activation in the lungs of COPD patients through MAPK pathway modulation.

  5. Differential response to dexamethasone on the TXB2 release in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages induced by zymosan and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Salgueiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticosteroids reduce the production of inflammatory mediators but this effect may depend on the stimulus. We have compared the time course of the effect of dexamethasone on the thromboxane B2 (TXB2 release induced by cytokine stimulation and zymosan in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and opsonized zymosan (OZ, all stimulate TXB2 release. High concentrations of dexamethasone (1–10 μM inhibit the TXB2 production induced by both cytokines and OZ, but the time course of this response is different. Four hours of incubation with dexamethasone reduce the basal TXB2 release and that induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but do not modify the TXB2 release induced by OZ. However, this stimulus was reduced after 24 h incubation. Our results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of glucocorticosteroids shows some dependence on stimulus and, therefore, may have more than one mechanism involved.

  6. In vitro alveolar cytotoxicity of soluble components of airborne particulate matter: effects of serum on toxicity of transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, C D; Riley, M R; Riley-Saxton, E

    2004-10-01

    Respiration of fossil fuel-derived airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to various pulmonary disorders. Transition metals contained in such PM, such as zinc, iron and vanadium, have been suggested as the primary culprits in PM-induced pulmonary distress by rat instillation studies. In this study, the cytotoxicity of zinc, iron, and vanadium on confluent monolayers of rat alveolar epithelial cells was evaluated as the inhibition of cellular succinate dehydrogenase metabolic activity as quantified via the MTT assay. In addition, the effect of culture medium serum concentration on the toxicities of these three metals was investigated. Of the three metals tested, zinc was the most toxic, with an EC50 of 0.6 mM in culture medium with 10% serum; vanadium and iron had EC50's of 3 and 4 mM, respectively. Serum in culture medium was found to substantially reduce the apparent toxicity of zinc: EC50's for zinc ranged from 0.6 mM in 10% serum to 0.1 mM in serum-free medium. Zinc toxicity analyses in various culture medium conditions demonstrated that the toxicity-reducing effect of serum was due largely and perhaps entirely, to serum albumin. Some, but not all of the effect of serum and albumin on zinc toxicity is apparently due to zinc-albumin binding.

  7. Alveolar progenitor and stem cells in lung development, renewal and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tushar J; Brownfield, Douglas G; Krasnow, Mark A

    2014-03-13

    Alveoli are gas-exchange sacs lined by squamous alveolar type (AT) 1 cells and cuboidal, surfactant-secreting AT2 cells. Classical studies suggested that AT1 arise from AT2 cells, but recent studies propose other sources. Here we use molecular markers, lineage tracing and clonal analysis to map alveolar progenitors throughout the mouse lifespan. We show that, during development, AT1 and AT2 cells arise directly from a bipotent progenitor, whereas after birth new AT1 cells derive from rare, self-renewing, long-lived, mature AT2 cells that produce slowly expanding clonal foci of alveolar renewal. This stem-cell function is broadly activated by AT1 injury, and AT2 self-renewal is selectively induced by EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) ligands in vitro and oncogenic Kras(G12D) in vivo, efficiently generating multifocal, clonal adenomas. Thus, there is a switch after birth, when AT2 cells function as stem cells that contribute to alveolar renewal, repair and cancer. We propose that local signals regulate AT2 stem-cell activity: a signal transduced by EGFR-KRAS controls self-renewal and is hijacked during oncogenesis, whereas another signal controls reprogramming to AT1 fate.

  8. Association between mandibular posterior alveolar morphology and growth pattern in a Chinese population with normal occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min HAN; Dong-xu LIU; Chun-ling WANG; Rong-yang WANG; Hong LIU; Xiu-juan ZHU; Fu-lan WEI; Tao LV; Na-na WANG; Li-hua HU; Guo-ju LI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion.Methods:Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males,22 females) were included in this study.Among these patients,20 displayed the vertical growth pattern,and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern,while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern.All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT),which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar.A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed.Results:The inclination of the molars,the thickness of the cortical bone,and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05).Significant positive correlations were found between:the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone.Conclusions:The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns.

  9. The effect of therapeutic radiation on canine alveolar ridges augmented with hydroxylapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of radiation on hydroxylapatite (HA) implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. All bicuspids and molars were extracted from 16 dogs. After 6 weeks, nonporous HA granules were implanted subperiosteally on the alv...... radiation. The radiation did not cause development of dehiscence or osteonecrosis....

  10. Hounsfield Unit Change in Root and Alveolar Bone during Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feifei; Liu, Sean Y.; Xia, Zeyang; Li, Shuning; Chen, Jie; Kula, Katherine S.; Eckert, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) changes in the alveolar bone and root surface during controlled canine retractions. Methods Eighteen maxillary canine retraction patients were selected for this split mouth design clinical trial. The canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation or controlled tipping treatment strategy. Pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography scans of each patient were used to determine tooth movement direction and HU changes. The alveolar bone and root surface were divided into 108 divisions, respectively. The HU in each division was measured. The Mixed-model ANOVA was applied to test the HU change distribution at the p<0.05 significant level. Results The HU changes varied with the directions relative to the canine movement. The HU reduction occurred at the root surface. Larger reductions occurred in the divisions that were perpendicular to the moving direction. However, HU decreased in the alveolar bone in the moving direction. The highest HU reduction was at the coronal level. Conclusions HU reduction occurs on the root surface in the direction perpendicular to the tooth movement and in the alveolar bone in the direction of tooth movement when a canine is retracted. PMID:25836004

  11. Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

  12. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis - Clinico-Radiological dissociation - A case report with Radiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Kondapavuluri, Sushen Kumar; Kamal, Anubhav; Kalra, Raghav; Kuber, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic lung disease characterized by deposition of intra alveolar calcium and phosphate in bilateral lung parenchyma with predominance in lower and mid zones. Etiology and pathogenesis is not fully understood. However, mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type-II cells resulting in formation and accumulation of microliths rich in calcium phosphate due to impaired clearance is considered the cause of disease. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor pulmonale. It remains static, while in some it progresses to pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. We report a case of 44 year old male patient presenting with progressive shortness of breath on exertion for one year in duration with dry cough, more since last six months. Chest radiograph showed dense micronodular opacities giving classical sandstorm appearance. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed microcalcification, subpleural cystic changes and calcified pleura. Lung biopsy showed calcospherites within alveolar spaces.

  13. Reference values for alveolar membrane diffusion capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, P; van der Lee, [No Value; van der Mark, T; van den Bosch, JMM

    2001-01-01

    The reference values for diffusion capacity of the alveolar capillary membrane (Tm,CO) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) are scarce, while the standard deviations of the equations are large. New equations and residual standard deviations (RSDs) were determined in a sample of healthy subjects. Tm,C

  14. B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Baker

    2009-01-01

    and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

  15. Oral and dental restoration of wide alveolar cleft using distraction osteogenesis and temporary anchorage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Gutmacher, Zvi; Blumenfeld, Israel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Closure of large alveolar clefts and restoration by a fixed bridge supported by implants is a challenge in cleft alveolus treatment. A major aesthetic concern with distraction osteogenesis is obtaining a predictable position of the implant in relation to the newly generated bony alveolar ridge. We describe the treatment of a large cleft alveolus and palate reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis utilizing temporary anchorage devices (TADs) followed by a fixed implant-supported bridge. The method consists of segmental bone transport by distraction osteogenesis using a bone-borne distractor to minimize the alveolar cleft, followed by closure of the residual small defect by bone grafting three months later. During the active transport distraction, TADs were used exerting multidirectional forces to control the distraction vector forward and laterally for better interarch relation. A vertical alveolar distraction of the newly reconstructed bone of 15 mm facilitated optimal implant placement. The endosseous implants were osteointegrated and supported a fixed dental prosthesis. In conclusion, the large cleft alveolus defect was repaired in three dimensions by distraction osteogenesis assisted by TADs, and the soft tissues expanded simultaneously. Endosseous implants were introduced in the newly reconstructed bone for a fixed dental prosthesis enabling, rehabilitation of aesthetics, eating and speaking.

  16. Responses of tooth eruption and alveolar bone subject to somatic growth retardation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A W

    1981-06-01

    The morphogenesis and regression of the osteodental fissure formed by alveolar bone in the maxillary and mandibular regions has been investigated in relation to eruption of the dentition during and following a period of somatic retardation stemming from nutritional suppression. Fissural formation occurred above the first and second molars of the maxilla and mandible, morphologically within normal limits but retarded by two days. During eruption a sequence of cuspal perforations of the alveolar bone took place behind the edge of the alveolar crest which later disintegrated as the bulk of the crown moved upwards. The appearance of the specific cusps of the experimental animals was two days behind that of the controls. Eruption through the oral mucosa was fairly rapid and the deficit noted in the bone emergence phase was reduced to one day. As in control animals, fissural formation did not occur over the third molars which were totally encapsulated by bone. Eruption of third molars in experimental animals was similar to control observations- no difference in timing and the removal of the encapsulating bone being achieved by the rapid enlarging of a wedge-shaped area at the mesio-occlusal aspect. Observation of eruption through alveolar bone is regarded as a more accurate assessment of changes in the early phases.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide disrupts the directional persistence of alveolar myofibroblast migration through EGF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiping; Yuan, Xiaobing; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Yongjun

    2012-03-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace size. Formation of alveoli involves a process known as secondary septation triggered by myofibroblasts. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of altered lung morphogenesis in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that LPS disrupted alveolar morphology and led to abnormal localization of myofibroblasts in the lung of newborn rats, mostly in primary septa with few in secondary septa. To identify potential mechanisms, in vitro experiments were carried out to observe the migration behavior of myofibroblasts. The migration speed of lung myofibroblasts increased with LPS treatment, whereas the directional persistence decreased. We found that LPS induced activation of EGFR and overexpression of its ligand, TGF-α in myofibroblasts. AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, abrogated the enhanced locomotivity of myofibroblasts by LPS and also increased the directional persistence of myofibroblast migration. Myofibroblasts showed a high asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization, which was absent after LPS treatment. Application of rhTGF-α to myofibroblasts decreased the directional persistence. Our findings indicated that asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization in myofibroblasts was important for cell migration and its directional persistence. We speculate that LPS exposure disrupts the asymmetric localization of phospho-EGFR, leading to decreased stability of cell polarity and final abnormal location of myofibroblasts in vivo, which is critical to secondary septation and may contribute to the arrested alveolar development in BPD.

  18. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances alveolar bone resorption via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunxia; Ji, Yaoting; Liu, Shengbo; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced alveolar bone resorption was mediated by a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme related mechanism. Experimental periodontitis was induced in bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats, some of which were injected with triptorelin, an FSH inhibitor. After mandibles were collected, we performed micro-computed tomography to evaluate alveolar bone loss and immunohistochemical staining to assess COX-2 expression. As well, human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were treated with FSH (30 ng/ml), and the COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that FSH significantly increased alveolar bone resorption and the expression of COX-2 in the bilateral OVX + Ligatured rats compared with the other treatment groups. FSH also increased the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.01) in human PDLCs. Further, the analysis of signaling pathways revealed the activation of COX-2-mediated pathways including Erk, p38, and Akt. These data suggest that FSH aggravates alveolar bone loss via a COX-2-upregulation mechanism and that the Erk, p38, and Akt pathways are involved in this pathological process. PMID:27725865

  20. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  1. Ozone treatment of alveolar bone in the cape chacma baboon does not enhance healing following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Marthinus; Bütow, Kürt-W; Olorunju, Steve A; Kotze, Harry F

    2014-06-01

    In the international literature, the role of Ozone (O3) in the advancement in alveolar bone healing in the absence of bone pathology was not tested before. The purpose of this study was to evaluate alveolar bone regeneration after a bone defect was created and treated with a single topical administration of O3. Alveolar bone defects were created on five healthy chacma baboons. One side of the maxilla and mandible was topically treated with a single treatment of an O3/O2 mixture (3,5-4 % O3), while the opposite sides were not treated and thus served as control. Regeneration was measured radiologically, using a standardized gray scale, as the increase in bone density in the treatment area at 3 and 6 weeks post-operative and was statistically analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There were no significant differences in densities observed between the O3/O2 mixture treatment and the control (p > 0.05). A single O3 treatment did not increase alveolar bone healing over a 3- and 6-week period in the mandible and the maxilla.

  2. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by a dentigerous cyst associated with three teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Mahmut; Baş, Burcu; Yildiz, Levent

    2007-09-01

    The dentigerous cyst is a common pathologic entity associated with an impacted tooth, usually third molars. They generally are asymptomatic, being found on routine dental radiographic examination. This report describes the case of a 43 year old male with a large dentigerous cyst associated with mandibular canine, first and second premolar teeth that caused paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve.

  3. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury after Mandibular Third Molar Extraction: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sarikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the comprehensive overview of literature data about injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction to discover the prevalence of injury, the risk factors, recovery rates, and alternative methods of treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases. Articles from January 2009 to June 2014 were searched. English language articles with a minimum of 6 months patient follow-up and injury analysis by patient’s reporting, radiographic, and neurosensory testing were selected. Results: In total, 84 literature sources were reviewed, and 14 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Articles were analyzed on men and women. The influence of lower third molar extraction (especially impacted on the inferior alveolar nerve was clearly seen. Conclusions: The incidence of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction was about 0.35 - 8.4%. The injury of the inferior alveolar nerve can be predicted by various radiological signs. There are few risk factors that may increase the risk of injury to the nerve such as patients over the age of 24 years old, with horizontal impactions, and extraction by trainee surgeons. Recovery is preferable and permanent injury is very rare.

  4. Cyclic AMP enhancing drugs modulate eicosanoid release from human alveolar macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D. Beusenberg; H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); I.L. Bonta; J.G.C. van Amsterdam (Jan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), salbutamol and sodium nitroprusside was evaluated regarding PGE2 and LTB4 release and cAMP and cGMP level in human alveolar macrophages obtained from controls and COPD patients. Basal levels per five million co

  5. Inert tracer gas washout from mixed venous blood: the sloping alveolar plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, W.R. de; Luijendijk, S.C.M.; Zwart, Aart

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the sloping alveolar plateau for inert tracer gases supplied to the lung by mixed venous blood. Transpulmonary gas exchange was simulated in an asymmetric lung model for conditions at rest and in exercise. For highly soluble ga

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  7. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  8. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture.

  9. A Case of Acquired Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Successfully Treated with Whole Lung Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    of your presentation. It is important to update this information so that we can provide quality support for you, your department, and the Medical...within the alveoli . Surfactant phospholipids and proteins are produced by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and subsequently cleared by the

  10. Tissue engineering strategies for alveolar cleft reconstruction: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, N.G.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Koole, R.; Rosenberg, A.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To date, a great number of tissue engineering strategies have been suggested for alveolar cleft reconstruction; however, autologous bone grafting seems to remain the golden standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to evaluate the clini

  11. Assessing Anti-fungal Activity of Isolated Alveolar Macrophages by Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Segal, Brahm H.

    2014-01-01

    The lung is an interface where host cells are routinely exposed to microbes and microbial products. Alveolar macrophages are the first-line phagocytic cells that encounter inhaled fungi and other microbes. Macrophages and other immune cells recognize Aspergillus motifs by pathogen recognition receptors and initiate downstream inflammatory responses. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and is critical for host defense. Although NADPH oxidase is critical for neutrophil-mediated host defense1-3, the importance of NADPH oxidase in macrophages is not well defined. The goal of this study was to delineate the specific role of NADPH oxidase in macrophages in mediating host defense against A. fumigatus. We found that NADPH oxidase in alveolar macrophages controls the growth of phagocytosed A. fumigatus spores4. Here, we describe a method for assessing the ability of mouse alveolar macrophages (AMs) to control the growth of phagocytosed Aspergillus spores (conidia). Alveolar macrophages are stained in vivo and ten days later isolated from mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Macrophages are plated onto glass coverslips, then seeded with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing A. fumigatus spores. At specified times, cells are fixed and the number of intact macrophages with phagocytosed spores is assessed by confocal microscopy. PMID:25045941

  12. Alveolar flows of the developing lungs:from embryonic to early childhood airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood

  13. Use of Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Classify Filling of Alveolar Bone Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jorge V. Forte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have proposed classifications to analyze the quality over time of secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, little discussion has been held to quantitatively measure the secondary bone grafting for correction of nasal deformity associated to cleft palate and lip. Twenty patients with unilateral alveolar cleft, who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting, were studied with 3D computer tomography. The height between the inferior portion of the pyriform aperture and the incisal border of the unaffected side (height A and the affected side (height B was measured using a software Mirror. A percentage was then obtained dividing the height B by the height A and classified into grades I, II, and III if the value was greater than 67%, between 34% and 66%, or less than 33%. Age, time of followup, initial operation, and age of canine eruption were also recorded. All patients presented appropriate occlusion and function. Mean time of followup was 7 years, and mean initial age for operation was 10 years old. 16 patients were rated as grade I and 4 patients as grade II. No cases had grade III. We present a new grading system that can be used to assess the success of secondary bone grafting in patients who underwent alveolar cleft repair.

  14. Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E; Haanaes, H R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material character...

  15. Post-extraction application of beta-tricalcium phosphate in alveolar socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Corcuera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of beta-tricalcium phosphate to facilitate bone formation in the socket and prevent post-extraction alveolar resorption. Materials and methods After premolar extraction in 16 patients, the sockets were filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. Six months later, during the implant placement surgery, a trephine was used to harvest the bone samples which were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Data were gathered on patient, clinical, histological and histomorphometric variables at the extraction and implant placement sessions, using data collection forms and pathological reports. Results Clinical outcomes were satisfactory, the biomaterial was radio-opaque on X-ray. Histological study showed: partial filling with alveolar bone of appropriate maturation and mineralization for the healing time, osteoblastic activity and bone lacunae containing osteocytes. The biomaterial was not completely resorbed at six months. Conclusion Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a material capable of achieving preservation of the alveolar bone when it is positioned in the immediate post-extraction socket followed by suture; it also helps the formation of new bone in the socket. Further studies are needed comparing this technique with other available biomaterials, with growth factors and with sites where no alveolar preservation techniques are performed.

  16. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  17. Development and characterization of a rabbit alveolar bone nonhealing defect model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, S.; Bashoura, A.G.; Borden, T.; Baggett, L.S.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.; Mikos, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an easily accessible and reproducible, nonhealing alveolar bone defect in the rabbit mandible. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular defect surgery. Two types of defect in the premolar/molar region were compared: (1) a 1

  18. Alveolar Osteitis: Patients′ compliance to post-extraction instructions following extraction of molar teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie Akpata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of various combination of post-extraction regimen administered to patients who had intra-alveolar molar tooth extraction. Patients and Methods: One year prospective study involving 76 consenting patients who came for 1-week post-extraction review. The patients were placed on warm saline mouth rinse with (verbal instruction or without antibiotic and or analgesic therapy (written prescription, after intra-alveolar molar tooth extraction. Information was obtained from the patients through questionnaire and clinical examination. Results: The patients were placed on warm saline mouth rinse (n = 29, 38.2% only, warm saline rinse, antibiotics (Amoxicillin and metronidazole and Paracetamol (n = 31, 40.8%, Paracetamol and warm saline rinse (n = 12, 15.8% and antibiotics (Amoxicillin and metronidazole and Paracetamol (n = 4, 5.3%. A total of 63 (82.9% patients complied with the post-extraction regimen, giving a significant high compliance to the post-extraction instructions (P = 0.001. There were 10 (13.2% cases of post-extraction localised alveolar osteitis, with predilection for the lower molar teeth (n = 6, 7.9% and a significant predilection for females (n = 8, 10.5% [P = 0.005]. Overall, there were five (6.6% cases each of localised alveolar osteitis in the compliant patients (n = 63, 82.9% and non-compliant patients (n = 13, 17.1%, giving a ratio of 1:13 and 1:3, respectively. There was significant association of compliance with post-extraction instruction and the reduced incidence of localized alveolar osteitis (P = 0.015. Conclusion: This study showed a significant patients′ compliance with post-extraction warm saline rinse, prophylactic antibiotics and analgesic and a corresponding significant reduction in the incidence of localised alveolar osteitis following intra-alveolar molar tooth extraction. This study emphasises the need to properly educate patients on the effect of compliance to various combination of

  19. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  20. NF-kappaB regulatory mechanisms in alveolar macrophages from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, P; McIntyre, R; Schwartz, M D; Kaneko, D; Shenkar, R; Le Tulzo, Y; Moore, E E; Abraham, E

    2000-02-01

    Activation of the nuclear regulatory factor NF-kappaB occurs in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may contribute to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in this setting. Because of the important role that NF-kappaB activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kapppaB counterregulatory mechanisms, involving IkappaB proteins, in alveolar macrophages obtained from 7 control patients without lung injury and 11 patients with established ARDS. Cytoplasmic levels of the NF-kappaB subunits p50, p65, and c-Rel were significantly decreased in alveolar macrophages from patients with ARDS, consistent with enhanced migration of liberated NF-kappaB dimers from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of IkappaBalpha were not significantly altered in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS, compared with controls. In contrast, nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were significantly decreased in patients with ARDS compared with controls (P = 0.02). No IkappaBgamma, IkappaBbeta, or p105 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages from control patients or patients with ARDS. The presence of activated NF-kappaB in alveolar macrophages from patients with established ARDS implies the presence of an ongoing stimulus for NF-kappaB activation. In this setting, appropriate counterregulatory mechanisms to normalize nuclear levels of NF-kappaB and to suppress NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, such as increased cytoplasmic and nuclear IkappaBalpha levels or decreased Bcl-3 levels, appeared to be induced. Nevertheless, even though counterregulatory mechanisms to NF-kappaB activation are activated in lung macrophages of patients with ARDS, NF-kappaB remains activated. These results suggest that fundamental abnormalities in transcriptional mechanisms involving NF-kappaB and important in the

  1. Effects of simvastatin gel on bone regeneration in alveolar defects in miniature pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shan; YANG Jun-ying; ZHANG Sheng-yan; FENG Lei; REN Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently,the most commonly used treatment methods for repairing alveolar furcation defects are periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and bone grafting.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin/methylcellulose gel on bone regeneration in alveolar defects in miniature pigs.Methods Alveolar defects were produced in 32 teeth (the third and fourth premolars) of 4 miniature pigs.The 32 experimental teeth were divided into 5 groups comprising control (C) and treatment (T) teeth:(1) empty defects without gel (group C0,n=4); (2) defects injected with methylcellulose gel (group C1,n=4); (3) defects injected with 0.5 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T1,n=8); (4) defects injected with 1.5 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T2,n=8); and (5) defects injected with 2.2 mg/50 μl simvastatin/methylcellulose gel (group T3,n=8).Every week after surgery,the furcation sites were injected once with gel.At the eighth week after surgery,the 4 pigs were sacrificed and underwent macroscopic observation,descriptive histologic examination,and regenerate bone quantitative histologic examination.Results At 8 weeks after surgery,the defect sites in the treatment groups were completely filled in with new bone and fibrous tissue.There was little new bone in the C0 and C1 groups,and only a small number of osteoblasts and proliferative vessels could be seen on microscopic examination.Conclusions Miniature pigs are an ideal experimental animal for establishing a model of alveolar defects using a surgical method.Local application of simvastatin/methylcellulose gel can stimulate the regeneration of alveolar bone in furcation defect sites,because it promotes the proliferation of osteoblasts.The best dose of simvastatin gel to stimulate bone regeneration is 0.5 mg.

  2. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  3. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers.

  4. MCP-1 expression by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, R; Rolfe, M W; Standiford, T J; Burdick, M D; Rollins, B J; Strieter, R M

    1993-05-15

    Recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes are potentially critical regulatory events for control of pulmonary inflammation. Located at the boundary between the alveolar airspace and the interstitium, alveolar epithelial cells are ideally situated to regulate the recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes through the production of cytokines in response to inflammatory stimulation from the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the production of monocyte chemotactic polypeptide-1 (MCP-1), a protein that is chemotactic for and that activates monocytes, by rat type II alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture. Immunocytochemical staining using anti-murine JE, an antibody recognizing rat MCP-1, demonstrated cell-associated MCP-1 Ag throughout the monolayer. The intensity of staining was increased in response to IL-1 beta. When type II epithelial cells formed a tight monolayer on a filter support, there was polar secretion of MCP-1 Ag into the apical compartment by both control and IL-1-stimulated cells as measured by specific MCP-1 ELISA. Northern blot analysis revealed that IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas dexamethasone blocked MCP-1 expression by cells stimulated with IL-1. In contrast to previous results using transformed epithelial cell lines, MCP-1 mRNA was induced in these primary cultures directly by stimulation with LPS. These data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells may have an important and previously unrecognized role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory processes in the lung by recruiting and activating circulating monocytes through the production of MCP-1.

  5. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Checa

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549, was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12 and rat (RLE-6TN epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers.

  6. Comparison of the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and tooth using dental CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    It is important to determine the bucco-lingual inclination of implants on radiographs before the implant surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the buccolingual inclination in alveolar bone and the tooth with dental cone beam CT and to prepare the standard for the buccolingual inclination of implant. Axial, panoramic, and buccolingually sectioned images of 80 implant cases with stent including straight marker using CB Mercuray{sup TM} (Hitachi, Japan) were evaluated. The comparison of the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone with the tooth and the marker on buccolingually sectioned views was performed statistically. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 82.8 {+-} 4.6 .deg. C and 85.8 {+-} 4.7 .deg. C (p<0.05, r=0.96) at the 1st molar area and 76.4 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C and 82.7 {+-} 1.7 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.12) at the 2nd premolar area in upper jaw. The average buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth was 81.3 {+-} 8.3 .deg. C and 87.5 {+-} 6.3 .deg. C (p>0.05, r=0.85) at the lower 2nd premolar area and 94.3 {+-} 6.6 .deg. C and 93.3 {+-} 7.2 .deg. C respectively (p>0.05, r=0.91) at the 1st molar area in lower jaw. The inclinations of markers were very different from those of remained bone at the most of areas except the upper 2nd premolar area (r=0.79). We recommend dental CBCT analysis for determining the buccolingual inclination of dental implant, because of significant difference, in average, between the buccolingual inclination of remained alveolar bone and tooth.

  7. Alveolar Ridge Conservation by Early Bone Formation After Tooth Extraction in Rabbits. A Histomorphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Mario; Olate, Sergio; Fuentes, Ramón; Vásquez, Bélgica

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Alveolar ridge volume loss is an irreversible process. To prevent this physiological event, which typically result in significant local anatomical changes in both the horizontal and the vertical dimension, some strategies are indicated to minimize the loss of ridge volume that typically follows tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if three different bone grafts could promote new bone formation in the alveolar socket following tooth extraction for the alveolar ridge conservation. First mandibular molars of male adults rabbits were extracted and the extraction sockets were randomly treated with three different bone grafts, one xenograft and two alloplastic grafts, and a group that received no treatment (blood clot). The extraction sockets of selected rabbits from each group were evaluated at 4, 6, or 8-week post-extraction. The results indicated that the extraction sockets treated with alloplastic graft (biphasic calcium phosphate) exhibited lamellar bone formation (6.5%) as early as four weeks after the extraction was performed. Moreover, the degree of new bone formation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the extraction sockets treated with biphasic calcium phosphate at 8-week post-extraction than that in the other study groups. In this study, we demonstrated that the proposed animal model is useful to evaluate the bone formation after tooth extraction and the alveolar ridge conservation is feasible. The new bone formation and alveolar ridge preservation with bone graft after extraction of molar teeth, could result in the maintenance of sufficient bone volume to place an implant in an ideal restorative position without the need for ancillary implant site development procedures. PMID:27840551

  8. Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelzle Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts. Methods A total of 44 clefts were investigated using plaster casts, 30 unilateral and 7 bilateral clefts. All infants received a passive molding plate a few days after birth. The age at the time of closure of the lip was 2.1 month in average (range 1-6 months. Plaster casts were obtained at the following stages: shortly after birth, prior to lip closure, prior to soft palate closure. We determined the width of the alveolar cleft before lip closure and prior to soft palate closure measuring the alveolar cleft width from the most lateral point of the premaxilla/anterior segment to the most medial point of the smaller segment. Results After lip closure 15 clefts presented with a width of 0 mm, meaning that the mucosa of the segments was almost touching one another. 19 clefts showed a width of up to 2 mm and 10 clefts were still over 2 mm wide. This means a reduction of 0% in 5 clefts, of 1-50% in 6 clefts, of 51-99% in 19 clefts, and of 100% in 14 clefts. Conclusions Early lip closure reduces alveolar cleft width. In most cases our aim of a remaining cleft width of 2 mm or less can be achieved. These are promising conditions for primary alveolar bone grafting to restore the dental bony arch.

  9. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-05

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms.

  10. In-vivo effect of andrographolide on alveolar bone resorption induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and its relation with antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

  11. Conditional deletion of epithelial IKKβ impairs alveolar formation through apoptosis and decreased VEGF expression during early mouse lung morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changgong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar septation marks the beginning of the transition from the saccular to alveolar stage of lung development. Inflammation can disrupt this process and permanently impair alveolar formation resulting in alveolar hypoplasia as seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm newborns. NF-κB is a transcription factor central to multiple inflammatory and developmental pathways including dorsal-ventral patterning in fruit flies; limb, mammary and submandibular gland development in mice; and branching morphogenesis in chick lungs. We have previously shown that epithelial overexpression of NF-κB accelerates lung maturity using transgenic mice. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that targeted deletion of NF-κB signaling in lung epithelium would impair alveolar formation. Methods We generated double transgenic mice with lung epithelium-specific deletion of IKKβ, a known activating kinase upstream of NF-κB, using a cre-loxP transgenic recombination strategy. Lungs of resulting progeny were analyzed at embryonic and early postnatal stages to determine specific effects on lung histology, and mRNA and protein expression of relevant lung morphoreulatory genes. Lastly, results measuring expression of the angiogenic factor, VEGF, were confirmed in vitro using a siRNA-knockdown strategy in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. Results Our results showed that IKKβ deletion in the lung epithelium transiently decreased alveolar type I and type II cells and myofibroblasts and delayed alveolar formation. These effects were mediated through increased alveolar type II cell apoptosis and decreased epithelial VEGF expression. Conclusions These results suggest that epithelial NF-κB plays a critical role in early alveolar development possibly through regulation of VEGF.

  12. Disseminated Alveolar Hydatid Disease Resembling a Metastatic Malignancy: A Diagnostic Challenge—A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Bulakci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar hydatid disease or alveolar echinococcosis is a disease of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis that is potentially fatal if left untreated. It primarily involves the liver but can be disseminated to other organs like the lungs and the brain by hematogenous route. Multiorgan involvement and the aggressive appearance of lesions make alveolar hydatid disease easy to confuse with a metastatic malignancy. For this reason, histopathological confirmation is essential for definite diagnosis. We present the imaging features of this disease in two patients in order to emphasize that these lesions can be easily misdiagnosed as malignancies.

  13. Disseminated Alveolar Hydatid Disease Resembling a Metastatic Malignancy: A Diagnostic Challenge—A Report of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakci, Mesut; Cengel, Ferhat; Gocmez, Ahmet; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Isik, Emine Goknur; Celenk, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar hydatid disease or alveolar echinococcosis is a disease of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis that is potentially fatal if left untreated. It primarily involves the liver but can be disseminated to other organs like the lungs and the brain by hematogenous route. Multiorgan involvement and the aggressive appearance of lesions make alveolar hydatid disease easy to confuse with a metastatic malignancy. For this reason, histopathological confirmation is essential for definite diagnosis. We present the imaging features of this disease in two patients in order to emphasize that these lesions can be easily misdiagnosed as malignancies. PMID:25374743

  14. 双维控制牙槽骨牵张器的成骨效应%A bidirectional alveolar bone distraction device for osteogenesis of alveolar bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄代营; 聂二民; 孙明; 黎炽彬

    2011-01-01

    背景:牵张成骨增高牙槽嵴在基础研究及临床已有很多成功报道,双维控制垂直牙槽骨牵张器可有效防止单向直线牵张器行牙槽骨牵张发生轴向移位.目的:研制双维控制的牙槽骨牵张器,并通过动物实验观察其成骨效应.方法:选择杂种犬4只,拔除一侧下颌前磨牙形成萎缩牙槽骨模型.1个月后行骨切开放置双维牵张器,7 d后垂直牵张 (1 mm/d,共5 d).完成垂直牵张后,利用双维牵张器颊向控制功能将移动骨块颊向牵出(大约2.4 mm),固定2个月后行大体观察及组织学检查.结果与结论:4只犬中2只黏膜伤口愈合良好,2只黏膜出现裂开,行二次缝合后愈合,牵张器固位良好,未出现松动、脱落.牵张骨块向垂直向及颊向的位移量满足实验目的要求,牙槽骨垂直向高度平均增加(5.0±0.2) mm,颊向宽度平均增加(2.4±0.3) mm.大体观察及组织学检查均证实牵张成骨的骨块新骨形成良好.说明双维控制垂直牙槽骨牵张器能较好的控制移动骨块垂直或颊向的移动方向,并且新骨形成良好.%BACKGROUND: Alveolar bone augmentation using a unidirectional dist raction device may lead to axial displacement. Abidirectional distraction device can control the vertical and buccal-lingual directions. But studies regarding this have been rarelyreported.OBJECTIVE: To develop a bidirectional alveolar bone distraction device and to investigate its effects on osteogenic effectsthrough an animal experiment.METHODS: Four adult mongrel dogs were established into models of alveolar bone atrophy by extraction of unilateral mandiblepremolars. After 1 month, alveolar bone was cut open and a bilateral distraction device was placed. Seven days later, thedistraction was started at a rate of 1 mm/day for 5 days. At last, buccal-lingual direction distraction (approximately 2.4 mm) wastaken for once, followed by a consolidation period of 2 months. Subsequently, gross observation and

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK mediate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI-induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling

    2011-08-05

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are major virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. A previous study has demonstrated that native ApxI at low concentrations induces apoptosis in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ApxI-induced apoptosis remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that ApxI treatment in PAMs rapidly induced phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Application of a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor significantly reduced ApxI-induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of p38 and JNK pathways in this event. Furthermore, activation of both caspase-8 and -9 were observed in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity significantly protected PAMs from ApxI-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bid activation was also noted in ApxI-treated PAMs, and inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed the activation of Bid and caspase-9, suggesting that ApxI was able to activate the caspases-8-Bid-caspase-9 pathway. Notably, inhibition of p38 or JNK pathway greatly attenuated the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. This study is the first to demonstrate that ApxI-induced apoptosis of PAMs involves the activation of p38 and JNK, and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  16. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  17. Complications related to bone augmentation procedures of localized defects in the alveolar ridge. A retrospective clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Torp; Jensen, Simon Storgård; Worsaae, Nils

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This retrospective clinical study aims to evaluate complications after augmentation of localized bone defects of the alveolar ridge. METHODS: From standardized registrations, the following complications related to bone augmentation procedures were recorded: soft tissue dehiscence, infect...

  18. Early activation of the alveolar macrophage is critical to the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidu, BV; Krishnadasan, B; Farivar, AS; Woolley, SM; Thomas, R; Rooijen, van N.; Verrier, ED; Mulligan, MS

    2003-01-01

    .006) and marked reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid leukocyte accumulation. Alveolar macrophage-depleted animals also demonstrated marked reductions of the elaboration of multiple proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in the lavage effluent and nuclear transcription factors in lung homoge

  19. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cassiane Merigo; Cassol, Tiago; da Silva, Fernanda Soares; Bonfleur, Maria Lucia; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) control and ligature group; 3) cafeteria group; and 4) cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01). Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity.

  1. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  2. Recrutamento alveolar em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca Alveolar recruitment in patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê Padovani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca são frequentes, destacando-se a atelectasia e a hipoxemia. As manobras de recrutamento alveolar contribuem significativamente para a prevenção e o tratamento destas complicações. Desta forma, este estudo buscou agrupar e atualizar os conhecimentos relacionados à utilização das manobras de recrutamento alveolar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca. Observou-se a eficácia do recrutamento alveolar por meio de diferentes técnicas específicas e a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas.Lung complications during postoperative period of cardiac surgery are frequently, highlighting atelectasis and hypoxemia. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers have an important role in the prevention and treatment of these complications. Thus, this study reviewed and updated the alveolar recruitment maneuvers performance in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. We noted the efficacy of alveolar recruitment through different specific techniques and the need for development of new studies.

  3. Aberrant Proliferation of Differentiating Alveolar Cells Induces Hyperplasia in Resting Mammary Glands of SV40-TAg Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quante, Timo; Wegwitz, Florian; Abe, Julia; Rossi, Alessandra; Deppert, Wolfgang; Bohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the whey acidic protein (WAP) promoter, which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show signi...

  4. Aberrant proliferation of differentiating alveolar cells induces hyperplasia in resting mammary glands of SV40-TAg transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang eBohn; Timo eQuante

    2014-01-01

    WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the WAP promoter (Whey Acidic Protein) which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show signif...

  5. Asbestos fibres and man made mineral fibres: induction and release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha from rat alveolar macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungman, A G; Lindahl, M.; Tagesson, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Mounting evidence suggests that asbestos fibres can stimulate alveolar macrophages to generate the potent inflammatory and fibrogenic mediator, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and that this may play an important part in the onset and development of airway inflammation and lung fibrosis due to asbestos fibre inhalation. Little is known, however, about the ability of other mineral fibres to initiate formation and release of TNF-alpha by alveolar macrophages. Therefore the ...

  6. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: presentation of three cases%肺泡微结石症三例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱慧; 韦国桢; 张倩; 俞小卫; 孟凡青

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionPulmonary alveolar microlithiasis(PAM)is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate microlitks within the alveoli.The etiology aM pathogenesis of the chsease aIe still unknown.Consequently.Thete is no known eftective treatment[ 1].In this report,we present the clinical,radiological,pathological findings of three patients with PAM,emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic views.%@@ Introduction Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis ( PAM) is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by the accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths within the alveoli.The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unknown.Consequently, there is no known effective treatment .In this report,we present the clinical, radiological, pathological findings of three patients with PAM, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic views.

  7. Dichloroacetate Decreases Cell Health and Activates Oxidative Stress Defense Pathways in Rat Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Valauri-Orton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichloroacetate (DCA is a water purification byproduct that is known to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy and damage macrophages. This study characterizes the effects of the haloacetate on lung cells by exposing rat alveolar type II (L2 cells to 0–24 mM DCA for 6–24 hours. Increasing DCA concentration and the combination of increasing DCA concentration plus longer exposures decrease measures of cellular health. Length of exposure has no effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione, SOD, or CAT. Increasing DCA concentration alone does not affect total glutathione or its redox ratio but does increase activity in the SOD/CAT oxidative stress defense pathway. These data suggest that alveolar type II cells rely on SOD and CAT more than glutathione to combat DCA-induced stress.

  8. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  9. Lingual frenectomy and alveolar tap production: an acoustic and perceptual study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Zuleica A; Marchesan, I Q; Oliveira, L R; Svicero, M A F; Pereira, L C K; Madureira, S

    2013-12-01

    In this phonetic study, productions of the consonant in the stressed syllable position of the word arara as produced by 13 subjects with short and/or anterior lingual frenulum were compared before and after lingual frenectomy. The results from the measurement of the stressed consonant duration and from the identification of the consonant manners of articulation based on the inspection of spectral characteristics are discussed and related to the answers to a perceptual identification test. After surgery, the number of tap productions did not increase, but alveolar productions did. These clinically relevant findings show frenectomy improved tongue mobility, but, as temporal controls were not totally re-established after surgery and 6-month speech therapy sessions, the production of the alveolar tap remained largely unchanged.

  10. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve: etiology, signs and symptoms, and observations on recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerup, S

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol assessing tactile, thermal, and positional perception as well as two-point discrimination and pain. In 48 patients with IAN injuries of differing etiologies who did not undergo surgery, 32 patients with injury associated with third molar surgery exhibited significant spontaneous improvement of sensory function. Recovery improvement of sensory function was insignificant in the patients with other etiologies. In most patients the level of sensory perception was such that microsurgical repair was only occasionally indicated. Four patients had microsurgical repair; the outcome was favourable in three. IAN injuries associated with third molar surgery, other dento-alveolar surgery or implant surgery occur sufficiently often to render prevention a key issue.

  11. [A case of central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome associated with cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A; Kamoda, M; Ikezoe, K; Tsukaguchi, M; Katanaka, J; Deguchi, K; Miki, H; Takeuchi, H

    1993-03-01

    Central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome (CAH), or Ondine's curse, is a very rare disease characterized by dysfunction of respiratory center in the brain stem. Here, we report a case of CAH associated with cerebral infarction. A 59-year-old man developed right facial sensory deficit at age 56. Then, the facial sensory deficit spread to the left side and dysarthria and dysphagia also developed. Since age 58, he often developed respiratory failure and consciousness disturbance. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed alveolar hypoventilation and respiratory acidosis. Disorders of peripheral organs such as lung, airway, thorax and neuromuscular diseases were ruled out. Brain MRI showed cerebral infarction in the brain stem. We diagnosed him as CAH associated with brain stem infarction.

  12. Relationship of bispectral index to hemodynamic variables and alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaz, J; Granados, M M; Domínguez, J M; Navarrete, R; Galán, A; Fernández, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J

    2009-06-01

    The relationships between bispectral index (BIS), cardiovascular variables and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in puppies were determined. Five puppies were anesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions. First, the individual sevoflurane MAC values were determined for each puppy. Secondly, dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC administered in random order. Hemodynamic parameters and BIS data were collected for 20min. Somatic stimulus was then applied and the same parameters and data were collected for 6min. Correlation between BIS and end tidal sevoflurane and between BIS and hemodynamic parameters were studied. We found positive significant correlation in both cases. BIS is lower in puppies that in adults at the same alveolar anesthetic concentrations and sevoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in puppies.

  13. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic pathosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M; Lajolo, C; Deli, G; Silveri, C

    2001-12-01

    Sensory disturbances such as anesthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, and paresthesia may be present in the oral cavity, stemming from many local and systemic factors. Paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve is quite rare because of the unique anatomy of this nerve. Among other effects, periapical lesions can damage the nerve, resulting in paresthesia of its innervated area. Only a few cases of paresthesia caused by these lesions are reported in the literature. In this report we present a case of paresthesia of the right inferior alveolar nerve; discuss the anatomy, pathobiology, and etiology; and suggest that a periapical lesion affecting the lower right second molar (No. 31) may have been the cause. The routine x-rays (intraoral and panorex) and the axial and cross-sectional tomographs of the mandible by means of computed tomography contribute to making this case a good example of nerve injury.

  15. Infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia: literature review and presentation of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R

    1997-07-01

    A review of the literature on infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia is given. This is followed by 2 case reports. The first case is of a mandibular left second molar in which a chloropercha overfill puff occurred in the vicinity of the inferior alveolar canal. The tooth remained asymptomatic until 2 and 1/2 yr later, when the periapical lesion enlarged and swelling, pain, and paresthesia developed. The paresthesia resolved 2 weeks following periapical surgery. The second case is of a mandibular right first premolar in which paresthesia began 1 day after the initial endodontic treatment. The intracanal medication was formocresol on a cotton pellet that was squeezed dry. The paresthesia was treated by irrigation, antibiotics, and dexamethasone. The paresthesia lasted 7 weeks, and when it resolved the root canal was filled with gutta-percha/eucapercha. Almost 9 months later, the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  16. Decoronation of an ankylosed tooth for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, A; Pohl, Y; von Arx, T

    2001-04-01

    A 12-year-old patient sustained avulsions of both permanent maxillary central incisors. Subsequently, both teeth developed replacement resorption. The left incisor was extracted alio loco. The right incisor was treated by decoronation (removal of crown and pulp, but preservation of the root substance). Comparison of both sites demonstrated complete preservation of the height and width of the alveolar bone at the decoronation site, whereas the tooth extraction site showed considerable bone loss. In addition, some vertical bone apposition was found on top of the decoronated root. Decoronation is a simple and safe surgical procedure for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. It must be considered as a treatment option for teeth affected by replacement resorption if tooth transplantation is not feasible.

  17. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong

    2015-01-01

    on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un...... across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental...

  18. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Kagiya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described.

  19. "Tent-Pole" for Reconstruction of Large Alveolar Defects: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Yuyue; Luo, En; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Severe tridimensional alveolar ridge defects complicate the placement of dental implants, and surgical removal of some oral tumors might not leave adequate bone for dental implant placement. Regenerating an adequate amount of bone vertically and horizontally to achieve a satisfying outcome for well-osseointegrated implants and thus ensure long-term success of implant restoration is challenging. This report describes the clinical feasibility of a simple approach using a screw tent-pole combined with guided bone regeneration to augment complicated tridimensional alveolar ridge defects in a case of extensive bone loss due to maxillary tumor surgery. Titanium screws were arranged in "tented" fashion to provide stable room for bone regeneration. Regenerated bone was achieved and 2 more implants were placed in the regenerated ridge 10 months later, leading to a successful maxillary prosthesis.

  20. Regeneración ósea guiada para el aumento vertical del reborde alveolar Guided osseous regeneration for the vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CE Nappe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se considera como aumento óseo vertical, cualquier técnica que apunte a crear una mayor altura del reborde alveolar. A inicios de la década de los 90’s se empezó a utilizar la regeneración ósea guiada (ROG en mandíbulas atróficas, con el fin de permitir la instalación de implantes óseointegrados. Con el fin de evaluar y exponer parte de la evidencia disponible en la actualidad, con respecto a la ROG para aumento óseo vertical, se realizó la siguiente revisión bibliográfica.Any technique aimed to improve the alveolar ridge height is considered as a vertical bone augmentation procedure. In the early 90’s guided bone regeneration (GBR procedures began to be used in atrophic mandibles to allow the installation of osseointegrated dental implants. The following bibliographic review was made with the purpose of evaluating and exposing part of the available evidence at present in this field.

  1. Hemorragia alveolar como complicación del uso de trombolíticos Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of thrombolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La trombolisis se usa como estrategia de reperfusión coronaria en el infarto agudo de miocardio. El sangrado es su principal complicación; la mayoría ocurre en los sitios de accesos venosos y es leve, pero también pueden presentarse hemorragia gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinaria, pulmonar y a nivel del sistema nervioso central, episodios estos generalmente de mayor gravedad y a veces fatales. Se describe aquí el caso de un paciente que recibió terapia trombolítica con estreptoquinasa como tratamiento por un infarto de miocardio, y que posteriormente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, caída del hematocrito y aumento de la difusión de monóxido de carbono, cuadro compatible con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar.Coronary thrombolysis is used as a strategy for coronary reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Bleeding is the main complication described. Although most of these events occur at sites of vascular access and are mild, in some cases gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinary, lung and central nervous system bleeding may occur. These episodes are usually serious and sometimes fatal. The following report describes the case of a patient who received thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase as a treatment for myocardial infarction. Subsequently he developed acute respiratory failure, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fall of hematocrit compatible with diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage.

  2. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase expression in alveolar epithelial cells: upregulation of active ion transport by KGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, Z; Danto, S I; Dimen, L L; Zhang, X L; Lubman, R L

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) active ion transport and on rat epithelial Na channel (rENaC) subunit and Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) subunit isoform expression using monolayers of AEC grown in primary culture. Rat alveolar type II cells were plated on polycarbonate filters in serum-free medium, and KGF (10 ng/ml) was added to confluent AEC monolayers on day 4 in culture. Exposure of AEC monolayers to KGF on day 4 resulted in dose-dependent increases in short-circuit current (Isc) compared with controls by day 5, with further increases occurring through day 8. Relative Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha 1-subunit mRNA abundance was increased by 41% on days 6 and 8 after exposure to KGF, whereas alpha 2-subunit mRNA remained only marginally detectable in both the absence and presence of KGF. Levels of mRNA for the beta 1-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase did not increase, whereas cellular alpha 1- and beta 1-subunit protein increased 70 and 31%, respectively, on day 6. mRNA for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-rENaC all decreased in abundance after treatment with KGF. These results indicate that KGF upregulates active ion transport across AEC monolayers via a KGF-induced increase in Na pumps, primarily due to increased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha 1-subunit mRNA expression. We conclude that KGF may enhance alveolar fluid clearance after acute lung injury by upregulating Na pump expression and transepithelial Na transport across the alveolar epithelium.

  3. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry analysis of healthy and emphysemic alveolar sac models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Emily J; Robinson, Risa J

    2011-06-01

    Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that involves permanent destruction of the alveolar walls. Fluid mechanics in the pulmonary region and how they are altered with the presence of emphysema are not well understood. Much of our understanding of the flow fields occurring in the healthy pulmonary region is based on idealized geometries, and little attention has been paid to emphysemic geometries. The goal of this research was to utilize actual replica lung geometries to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern fluid motion and particle transport in the most distal regions of the lung and to compare the differences that exist between healthy and emphysematous lungs. Excised human healthy and emphysemic lungs were cast, scanned, graphically reconstructed, and used to fabricate clear, hollow, compliant models. Three dimensional flow fields were obtained experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry techniques for healthy and emphysematic breathing conditions. Measured alveolar velocities ranged over two orders of magnitude from the duct entrance to the wall in both models. Recirculating flow was not found in either the healthy or the emphysematic model, while the average flow rate was three times larger in emphysema as compared to healthy. Diffusion dominated particle flow, which is characteristic in the pulmonary region of the healthy lung, was not seen for emphysema, except for very small particle sizes. Flow speeds dissipated quickly in the healthy lung (60% reduction in 0.25 mm) but not in the emphysematic lung (only 8% reduction 0.25 mm). Alveolar ventilation per unit volume was 30% smaller in emphysema compared to healthy. Destruction of the alveolar walls in emphysema leads to significant differences in flow fields between the healthy and emphysemic lung. Models based on replica geometry provide a useful means to quantify these differences and could ultimately improve our understanding of disease progression.

  4. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatants interfere with killing of Pasteurella multocida by swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, W. B.; Bäckström, L; McDonald, J.; Collins, M T

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant on swine pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) functions was studied. The A. pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant was toxic to PAMs when tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Biological activity of the supernatant was ascribed to cytotoxins. Both the LDH and MTT assays were used for measurement of crude A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin concentrati...

  5. Management of acute dento-alveolar trauma--from the viewpoint of an oral surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J K

    2000-08-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons often deal with acute dento-alveolar trauma in hospital or practice surroundings. They are often called upon by dental colleagues to give their advice or help in a given situation of the acute trauma patient with dental or oral injuries. In this article, the practical viewpoints and clinical experiences of an oral surgeon are offered based upon many years of work in hospital emergency rooms around the world.

  6. The role of dental implants in the management of dento-alveolar trauma. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Eugene; Shahdad, Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Patients who suffer dento-alveolar trauma present a unique challenge for the dentist. There are numerous options to consider when attempting to restore the dentition. This article reviews the role of dental implants and how thorough planning and execution of such treatment could result in an optimal outcome. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of the role of dental implants and factors imperative for a successful treatment outcome will assist the clinician in achieving optimal restorative results.

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser in the treatment of alveolar osteitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Alveolar osteitis (AO is the extraction wound healing disorder with a presence of severe pain. Low level laser therapy stimulates cell metabolism and microcirculation, have has pronounced analgesic, antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effect and speeds up wound healing process. The aim of this study was to present results of clinical research that examined the effectiveness of low level laser in pain relief and healing of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the lower jaw which was formed on the second day after tooth extraction. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into the study and the control group. In both groups extraction wounds were processed in similar way, except that in the study group was applied daily treatment of low level laser with a total of eight sessions of radiation, while in the control group extraction wounds were dressed with zinc oxide eugenol paste, which was changed every 48 hours up to the pain cessation. Measurement of pain intensity was done with a visual analogue scale (VAS 10 min prior to processing of extraction wounds and daily for the next eight days. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser on healing of extraction wounds was performed on the day eight of the treatment. Results. On the day five after beginning of the treatment of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the patients of the study group a lower average value of pain as compared to the control group was registered. This difference was increased within the following days. Extraction wounds healing in the study group was more successful and faster than in the control group. Conclusion. This study suggested that the reduction of pain was more pronounced in the patients with alveolar osteitis whose extraction wounds were subjected to low level laser radiation in comparison to those in which extraction wounds were treated with zinc oxide eugenol paste.

  8. Resolving of deficit alveolar ridges by induced bone regeneration- case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to show illustrative, indication of alveolar augmentation before insertion of endoosseous dental implants. In our case report we have shown the indication for ridge augmentation prior to the placement of endoosseous dental implant. The local process of bone regeneration was thus stimulated and the chances of a good clinical output were increased. Case report: Female patient (27 years old) visited our clinic. Diagnosis was periodontitis of 46 and indication to remove the tooth, ...

  9. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P. (Univ. of California-Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke.

  10. Alveolar hydatid disease of the liver: computed tomography and transabdominal ultrasound with histopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, K; Fujita, N; Chen, M; Spiers, A S; Morita, Y; Shinohara, M; Nojima, T; Irie, G

    1992-08-01

    The appearances of alveolar hydatid disease of the liver (AHDL) on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were retrospectively compared with histopathological appearances in 67 patients with 100 separate lesions. The radiological features were correlated directly with the pathological specimens obtained from each patient. We conclude that the CT appearances are more specific, but that US has a role to play in mass screening in endemic areas, and intraoperatively.

  11. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

    1997-01-01

    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resu...

  12. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  13. Biomonitoring of industrial dusts on animals. II. Bioindication on alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaváciková, Z

    1986-01-01

    Rats and rabbits were exposed through the respiratory system to industrial dusts (magnesite emissions, solid wastes from nickel refinery dump, cement emissions) at biomonitory stations or in experimental chamber. Following exposure the animals were killed, the alveolar macrophages isolated and acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase estimated in the isolated cells. The activity of both enzymes was enhanced in the exposed animals in all cases. The enhancement was dependent on the length of exposure and amount of inhaled particles.

  14. Kinetics of Interaction and Fate of Pasteurella hemolytica in Bovine Alveolar Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswaran, S K; Berggren, K. A.; Simonson, R. R.; Ward, G E; Muscoplat, C C

    1980-01-01

    To study the role of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in phagocytizing Pasteurella hemolytica, we developed an in vitro cultivation method for preparing them. This procedure provided an adherent monolayer of PAMs which were nonspecific esterase-positive and phagocytized latex beads. The phagocytosis and fate of P. hemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) by PAMs in suspension were studied. The kinetics of phagocytosis were determined by quantitatively measuring the uptake of 24-h [3H]thymidine...

  15. Skin and mucosal ischemia as a complication after inferior alveolar nerve block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Valeria, Camila; Nuñez, Nicolás; Perez-Rojas, Francisco; Coronado, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is one of the most common techniques used in dental practice. The local complications are due to the failures on the anesthetic block or to anatomic variations in the tap site such as intravascular injection, skin ischemia and ocular problems. The aim of this article is to present a case and discuss the causes of itching and burning sensation, blanching, pain and face ischemia in the oral cavity during the IAN block.

  16. Study of changes in cellular surface glycoproteins of alveolar macrophages in fibrotic lung disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J McClure

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory system is both a route of entry and exit for toxins and injurious agents, as well as being a target for chemical substances and pathogens. Therefore, an understanding of the structure and function of the migratory cell populations of pulmonary tissues including alveolar macrophages is central in a number of important disease processes. This study aimed to identify and specify the glycotypes of alveolar macrophages in fibrotic lung disorders. Methods: Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cases in both normal human lung and fibrotic lung disorders were studied by immunohistology and by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins. Results: The findings of this study showed that ten lectins (AHA, PTL-II, AAA, , LTA, UEA-I, BSA-1B4, VVA, SBA, DBA, PTL-I did not bind to the alveolar macrophages in any of the cases, whereas 17 lectins (GNA, NPA, HHA, l-PHA, e-PHA, LCA, PSA, ConA, LEA, PAA, s-WGA, ECA, MPA,HPA, WFA, SNA, MAA( bound from moderately to strongly. In contrast, in fibrotic lung disorders some glycans were somewhat more marked or changed. Conclusion: Glycans terminating in -galactose, terminal Gal1,3GalNAc and subsets of GalNAc also appeared in alveolar macrophages of fibrotic lung disorders. L-fucosylated and terminal -linked galactosyl glycans were also detected in diseases states. Subsets of N-glycans were either changed minimally or not at all.

  17. Locally Produced BDNF Promotes Sclerotic Change in Alveolar Bone after Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Yamada, Yurie; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is released due to nerve injury, is known to promote the natural healing of injured nerves. It is often observed that damage of mandibular canal induces local sclerotic changes in alveolar bone. We reported that peripheral nerve injury promotes the local production of BDNF; therefore, it was possible to hypothesize that peripheral nerve injury affects sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BDNF on osteogenesis using in vitro osteoblast-lineage cell culture and an in vivo rat osteotomy model. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with BDNF and were examined for cell proliferative activity, chemotaxis and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. For in vivo study, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury experiments and mandibular cortical osteotomy were performed using a rat model. In the osteotomy model, exogenous BDNF was applied to bone surfaces after corticotomy of the mandible, and we morphologically analyzed the new bone formation. As a result, mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation marker, osteocalcin, was significantly increased by BDNF, although cell proliferation and migration were not affected. In the in vivo study, osteopontin-positive new bone formation was significantly accelerated in the BDNF-grafted groups, and active bone remodeling, involving trkB-positive osteoblasts and osteocytes, continued after 28 days. In conclusion, BDNF stimulated the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and it promoted new bone formation and maturation. These results suggested that local BDNF produced by peripheral nerve injury contributes to accelerating sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. PMID:28072837

  18. TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium regulates bleomycin-induced alveolar injury and fibroblast recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Amber L.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Xu, Xiaochuan C.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Jones, Brittany R.; Chad S Boomershine; Ortiz, Camila; Sherrill, Taylor P.; McMahon, Frank B.; Gleaves, Linda A.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Lawson, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The response of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to lung injury plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which AECs regulate fibrotic processes are not well defined. We aimed to elucidate how transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in lung epithelium impacts lung fibrosis in the intratracheal bleomycin model. Mice with selective deficiency of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in lung epithelium were generated and crossed to cell fate reporter mice tha...

  19. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by combined hydroxylapatite and osteoinductive material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    , lyophilized dentin or bone and implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles in rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed that HA was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue containing foreign body giant cells and it had neither......The purpose of this study was to examine if increased bony ingrowth developed when hydroxylapatite was implanted together with an osteoinductive substrate. Dense hydroxylapatite granules (HA) (Calcitite, Calcitek, San Diego, CA, USA) were mixed with equal volumes of allogenic, demineralized...

  20. Minimum Alveolar Concentration for Blunting Adrenergic Responses (MAC-BAR) of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA, Kazuto; FURUKAWA, Erika; ITAMI, Takaharu; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that heart rate or arterial blood pressure may increase in response to surgical stimulation despite the absence of a purposeful movement. However, there is limited information regarding anesthetic requirement for blunting adrenergic response in dogs. This study was designed to compare the minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane required to prevent autonomic response (MAC-BAR) and purposeful movement (MAC) in dogs. Sevoflurane MAC-BAR and MAC were determined in 5 beagle...

  1. Diminished Alveolar Microvascular Reserves in Type 2 Diabetes Reflect Systemic Microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William W.; Rhee, Chanhaeng; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Dane, D. Merrill; Pruneda, M. Lourdes; Raskin, Philip; Hsia, Connie C.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Alveolar microvascular function is moderately impaired in type 1 diabetes, as manifested by restriction of lung volume and diffusing capacity (DLCO). We examined whether similar impairment develops in type 2 diabetes and defined the physiologic sources of impairment as well as the relationships to glycemia and systemic microangiopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university-affiliated diabetes treatment center and outpatient diabetes clinic, involving 69 nonsmoking type 2 diabetic patients without overt cardiopulmonary disease. Lung volume, pulmonary blood flow (Q̇), DLCO, membrane diffusing capacity (measured from nitric oxide uptake [DLNO]), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) were determined at rest and exercise for comparison with those in 45 healthy nonsmokers as well as with normal reference values. RESULTS—In type 2 diabetic patients, peak levels of oxygen uptake, Q̇ and DLCO, DLNO, and VC at exercise were 10–25% lower compared with those in control subjects. In nonobese patients (BMI DLNO, and VC were fully explained by the lower lung volume and peak Q̇, but these factors did not fully explain the impairment in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2). The slope of the increase in VC with respect to Q̇ was reduced ∼20% in patients regardless of BMI, consistent with impaired alveolar-capillary recruitment. Functional impairment was directly related to A1C level, retinopathy, neuropathy, and microalbuminuria in a sex-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS—Alveolar microvascular reserves are reduced in type 2 diabetes, reflecting restriction of lung volume, alveolar perfusion, and capillary recruitment. This reduction correlates with glycemic control and extrapulmonary microangiopathy and is aggravated by obesity. PMID:18492945

  2. CORRECTION OF ALVEOLAR ARCH MALALIGNMENT AFTER TOTAL CORRECTION IN UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL GR III CLEFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to document and analyse the pre - operative and postoperative alveolar arch impressions . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 cases of both unilateral and bilateral GR III clefts selected for this study. These pati ents were operated at the age of not less than 9 months, preferably below the age of 18 months. Below the age of 9 months general condition of these children may not cope up the duration of general anesthesia and amount of surgical trauma. After intubating the patient preoperatively, with the help of custom made metal arch plates, at first, Medical grade Alginate material with optimal hydration used to get negative impression, from these , positive impressions were obtained by the use of optimally hydrated m edical grade stone powder routinely used by dental surgeons. These positive impressions along with negative impression s and metal plates allowed to settle down for 10 hours undisturbed, after that positive impressions retrieved carefully without breaking a nd stored for analysis. Similarly postoperative impressions were taken after a gap of 2 years in the same manner like that of pre - operative ones under general anesthesia. Both impressions w ere compared and analysis was done regarding alveolar arch malalign ment, asymmetry and arch collapse correction. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The status of the alveolar arch after single stage operation for cleft lip and palate in the unilateral cleft was much improved and there was considerable correction of the arch collapse a s well; in the bilateral cleft the correction of the premaxillary protrusion was better appreciated than the degree of correction of the alveolar gap.

  3. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in Relation with Dental Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom-Lay Wang

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is critical to determine the location and configuration of the mandibular canal and related vital structures during the implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature concerning the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle anatomical variations related to the implant surgery.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through the search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1973 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, prosthetic and periodontal journals and books were performed.Results: In total, 46 literature sources were obtained and morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to implant treatment in posterior mandible were presented as two entities: intraosseous mandibular canal and associated inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle.Conclusions: A review of morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to mandibular canal and mandibular vital structures are very important especially in implant therapy since inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that osteotomies in implant dentistry should not be developed in the posterior mandible until the position of the mandibular canal is established.

  4. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology for correction of Seibert′s Class III ridge defect in the lower anterior region. Granulation tissue/connective tissue present at the base of the defect was removed after elevation of full thickness flap. MucoMatrixX, an animal derived, collagen based soft-tissue graft was sutured to the labial flap and bone graft was placed into the defect. If a soft-tissue graft material could be used to replace the palatal grafts, then all the possible complications associated with donor site would be eliminated and above all periodontal plastic surgery and ridge augmentation would be better accepted by patients.

  5. Combined soft and hard tissue augmentation for a localized alveolar ridge defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Ritu; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Lahori, Manesh; Singhal, Reetika; Jithendra, K D

    2013-10-01

    Ideal alveolar ridge width and height allows placement of a natural appearing pontic, which provides maintenance of a plaque-free environment. The contour of a partially edentulous ridge should be thoroughly evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. Localized alveolar ridge defect refers to a volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft-tissue within the alveolar process. These ridge defects can be corrected by hard tissue and/or soft-tissue augmentation. A 30-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology for correction of Seibert's Class III ridge defect in the lower anterior region. Granulation tissue/connective tissue present at the base of the defect was removed after elevation of full thickness flap. MucoMatrixX, an animal derived, collagen based soft-tissue graft was sutured to the labial flap and bone graft was placed into the defect. If a soft-tissue graft material could be used to replace the palatal grafts, then all the possible complications associated with donor site would be eliminated and above all periodontal plastic surgery and ridge augmentation would be better accepted by patients.

  6. The microbiome at the pulmonary alveolar niche and its role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Alexander J; Cervantes, Jorge L

    2015-12-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have provided the tools to comprehensively and accurately characterize the microbial community in the respiratory tract in health and disease. The presence of commensal and pathogenic bacteria has been found to have important effects on the lung immune system. Until relatively recently, the lung has received less attention compared to other body sites in terms of microbiome characterization, and its study carries special technological difficulties related to obtaining reliable samples as compared to other body niches. Additionally, the complexity of the alveolar immune system, and its interactions with the lung microbiome, are only just beginning to be understood. Amidst this complexity sits Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), one of humanity's oldest nemeses and a significant public health concern, with millions of individuals infected with Mtb worldwide. The intricate interactions between Mtb, the lung microbiome, and the alveolar immune system are beginning to be understood, and it is increasingly apparent that improved treatment of Mtb will only come through deep understanding of the interplay between these three forces. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the lung microbiome, alveolar immunity, and the interaction of each with Mtb.

  7. Surgical extraction of impacted inferior third molars at risk for inferior alveolar nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallesio, Cesare; Berrone, Mattia; Ruga, Emanuele; Boffano, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the intraoperative findings and the radiographic signs of a study population of patients with impacted third molars at risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury. One hundred thirty-four patients with impacted mandibular third molars at risk for nerve injury were included in the study. Radiographic signs of possible close relationship between the 2 structures and intraoperative exposition or damage of the inferior alveolar nerve were recorded. The follow-up controls comprised clinical examinations and assessment for the sensation of the lower lip and chin. In 24 patients, a real contiguity was encountered between the third molars and nerve. Among these, intraoperative neural exposition was observed in 19 patients. Four patients complained of postoperative temporary hypoesthesia. No deficit of sensibility was found in cases with no exposition of the nerve. The accidental exposition of the inferior alveolar nerve is associated with an increased risk for neural injuries. At panoramic radiograph, the presence of signs of bifid and radiolucent apex, superimposition, and radiolucent root band should be considered at high risk for neural damage.

  8. Modeling In Vivo Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Pulmonary Alveolar Lining Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in the body. Modeling of ENM transport and clearance in vivo has traditionally treated tissues as well-mixed compartments, without consideration of nanoscale interaction and transformation mechanisms. ENM agglomeration, dissolution and transport, along with adsorption of biomolecules, such as surfactant lipids and proteins, cause irreversible changes to ENM morphology and surface properties. The model presented in this article quantifies ENM transformation and transport in the alveolar air to liquid interface and estimates eventual alveolar cell dosimetry. This formulation brings together established concepts from colloidal and surface science, physics, and biochemistry to provide a stochastic framework capable of capturing essential in vivo processes in the pulmonary alveolar lining layer. The model has been implemented for in vitro solutions with parameters estimated from relevant published in vitro measurements and has been extended here to in vivo systems simulating human inhalation exposures. Applications are presented for four different ENMs, and relevant kinetic rates are estimated, demonstrating an approach for improving human in vivo pulmonary dosimetry.

  9. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  10. Quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the epithelium of normal human alveolar mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernimoulin, J P; Schroeder, H E

    1977-05-31

    The epithelium of normal human alveolar mucosa originating from the anterior vestibulum was subjected to stereologic analysis. Eight biopsies were collected half-way between the muco gingival junction and the vestibular fornix from 20 to 50 year-old females, and processed for light and electron microscopy. At two levels of magnification, electron micrographs were sampled from four artificially selected strata in regions of epithelial ridges. Stereologic point counting based on a computer-aided system for analyzing stratified epithelia served for examining a total of about 860 electron micrographs. The alveolar epithelium was 0.26 mm thick, occasionally interdigitated by short, slender connective tissue papillae, and consisted of (1) a narrow basal and suprabasal, and (2) a broad spinous and surface compartment. It displayed a differentiation pattern which, in most subjects studied, was similar to that of normal human buccal epithelium, however, on the average, produced less mature surface cells. This pattern was expressed mainly by a density increase of cytoplasmic filaments (98 A in diameter), a concomitant decrease of the cytoplasmic ground substance, the formation of dark-cored membrane coating granules, and invividually variable amounts of glycogen deposition. In some subjects, a mixed differentiation pattern was found. The structural organization of alveolar epithelium, in analogy to cheek epithelium, was compatible with the function of distensibility.

  11. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the lung injuries of critical ill patients. This study investigates the protection conferred by α2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (Dex from lung alveolar epithelial cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. The lung alveolar epithelial cell line, A549, was cultured and then treated with 500 μM H2O2 with or without Dex (1 nM or Dex in combination with atipamezole (10 nM, an antagonist of α2 receptors. Their effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Cleaved-caspases 3 and 9, BAX, Bcl-2, phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR, ERK1/2, and E-cadherin expression were also determined with immunocytochemistry. Results. Upregulation of cleaved-caspases 3 and 9 and BAX and downregulation of Bcl-2, p-mTOR, and E-cadherin were found following H2O2 treatment, and all of these were reversed by Dex. Dex also prevented the ROS generation, cytochrome C release, and cell cycle arrest induced by H2O2. The effects of Dex were partially reversed by atipamezole. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that Dex protected lung alveolar epithelial cells from apoptotic injury, cell cycle arrest, and loss of cell adhesion induced by H2O2 through enhancing the cell survival and proliferation.

  12. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by parainfluenza virus type 3-infected bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaraba, R J; Brown, P R; Laegreid, W W; Silflow, R M; Evermann, J F; Leid, R W

    1993-06-01

    Lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) or antigen in the presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) infected bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) or monocytes, had depressed [3H]thymidine incorporation. This failure of lymphocytes to incorporate radiolabel required live virus, was time dependent and was most pronounced when BAM were infected for 48 hr prior to the addition of lymphocytes. The rate of infection of alveolar macrophages and the release of infectious virus into culture supernatants paralleled suppression of lymphocyte mitogenesis by PIV-3. However, the peak titre of exogenous, live or inactivated virus was not suppressive when added to lymphocyte macrophage cultures just prior to Con A stimulation. Neither the loss of viable alveolar macrophages nor a shift in antigen or mitogen dose response in virally infected cultures could account for the deficit in [3H]thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes. Despite the presence of lymphocyte-associated virus antigen detected by direct immunofluorescence, no increase in PIV-3 titre above baseline was seen from infected lymphocytes, irrespective of mitogen stimulation. Likewise, lymphocytes did not contribute to the extracellular virus pool in lymphocyte-macrophage cultures as the increases in viral titre above basal levels in supernatants were equal to levels released by macrophages alone. The expression of viral antigen on lymphocytes stimulated in the presence of PIV-3-infected BAM suggests a non-productive or abortive infection of lymphocytes mediated through contact with infected macrophages.

  13. Generation of Alveolar Epithelial Spheroids via Isolated Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Gotoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM as a surface marker of NKX2-1+ “ventralized” anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs in vitro and in fetal human and murine lungs. Using SFTPC-GFP reporter hPSCs and a 3D coculture system with fetal human lung fibroblasts, we showed that CPM+ cells isolated from VAFECs differentiate into AECs, demonstrating that CPM is a marker of AEPCs. Moreover, 3D coculture differentiation of CPM+ cells formed spheroids with lamellar-body-like structures and an increased expression of surfactant proteins compared with 2D differentiation. Methods to induce and isolate AEPCs using CPM and consequently generate alveolar epithelial spheroids would aid human pulmonary disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

  14. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  15. Long-term follow-up and treatment of congenital alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muensterer Oliver J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of molecularly defined congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP due to mutations in the GM-CSF receptor are not well known. Case presentation A 2 1/2 years old girl was diagnosed as having alveolar proteinosis. Whole lung lavages were performed with a new catheter balloon technique, feasible in small sized airways. Because of some interstitial inflammation in the lung biopsy and to further improve the condition, empirical therapy with systemic steroids and azathioprin, and inhaled and subcutaneous GMCSF, were used. Based on clinical measures, total protein and lipid recovered by whole lung lavages, all these treatments were without benefit. Conversely, severe respiratory viral infections and an invasive aspergillosis with aspergilloma formation occurred. Recently the novel homozygous stop mutation p.Ser25X of the GMCSF receptor alpha chain was identified in the patient. This mutation leads to a lack of functional GMCSF receptor and a reduced response to GMCSF stimulation of CD11b expression of mononuclear cells of the patient. Subsequently a very intense treatment with monthly lavages was initiated, resulting for the first time in complete resolution of partial respiratory insufficiency and a significant improvement of the overall somato-psychosocial condition of the child. Conclusions The long term management from early childhood into young adolescence of severe alveolar proteinosis due to GMCSF receptor deficiency requires a dedicated specialized team to perform technically demanding whole lung lavages and cope with complications.

  16. Biodegradable effect of PLGA membrane in alveolar bone regeneration on beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nan; Ti, Vivian Lao; Xu, Yuanzhi

    2014-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a principle adopted from guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Wherein, GBR is used for the healing of peri-implant bony dehiscences, for the immediate placement of implants into extraction sockets and for the augmentation of atrophic alveolar ridges. This procedure is done by the placement of a resorbable or non-resorbable membrane that will exclude undesirable types of tissue growth between the extraction socket and the soft tissue to allow only bone cells to regenerate in the surgically treated lesion. Here, we investigated the biodegradable effect of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane in the alveolar bone on Beagle dogs. Results show that both collagen and PLGA membrane had been fully resorbed, biodegraded, at four weeks post-operative reentry into the alveolar bone. Histological results under light microscopy revealed formation of new bone trabeculae in the extraction sites on both collagen and PLGA membrane. In conclusion, PLGA membrane could be a potential biomaterials for use on GBR and GTR. Nevertheless, further studies will be necessary to elucidate the efficiency and cost effectiveness of PLGA as GBR membrane in clinical.

  17. Estimation of the number of alveolar capillaries by the Euler number (Euler-Poincaré characteristic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willführ, Alper; Brandenberger, Christina; Piatkowski, Tanja; Grothausmann, Roman; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The lung parenchyma provides a maximal surface area of blood-containing capillaries that are in close contact with a large surface area of the air-containing alveoli. Volume and surface area of capillaries are the classic stereological parameters to characterize the alveolar capillary network (ACN) and have provided essential structure-function information of the lung. When loss (rarefaction) or gain (angiogenesis) of capillaries occurs, these parameters may not be sufficient to provide mechanistic insight. Therefore, it would be desirable to estimate the number of capillaries, as it contains more distinct and mechanistically oriented information. Here, we present a new stereological method to estimate the number of capillary loops in the ACN. One advantage of this method is that it is independent of the shape, size, or distribution of the capillaries. We used consecutive, 1 μm-thick sections from epoxy resin-embedded material as a physical disector. The Euler-Poincaré characteristic of capillary networks can be estimated by counting the easily recognizable topological constellations of "islands," "bridges," and "holes." The total number of capillary loops in the ACN can then be calculated from the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. With the use of the established estimator of alveolar number, it is possible to obtain the mean number of capillary loops per alveolus. In conclusion, estimation of alveolar capillaries by design-based stereology is an efficient and unbiased method to characterize the ACN and may be particularly useful for studies on emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, or lung development.

  18. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Bendstrup

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare diffuse lung disease characterised by deposition of calcium phosphate within the alveolar airspaces. The disease is usually discovered from birth up to 40 yrs of age and is often diagnosed incidentally during radiography of the chest for other reasons. Many patients are asymptomatic and the majority of patients either have normal or restrictive pulmonary function. The clinical course of the disease varies. While it remains static in some patients, it progresses into pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale in others. With the exception of lung transplantation, there is no known effective treatment for the disease. Although the aetiology remains unclear, mutations of the solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate, member 2 gene (the SLC34A2 gene, which encodes a sodium/phosphate co-transporter, are considered to be the cause of the disease. We present two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with different mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that have not been previously described, and a review of the literature.

  19. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in a 69-Year-Old Woman Receiving Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Zyczynski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS of the nasopharynx. She has a history of catastrophic thromboembolic event in the abdomen that caused short-gut syndrome and dependence on total parenteral nutrition (TPN twelve hours per day. She was treated for short-gut syndrome with teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2 analog, which led to reduction of TPN requirements. However, a few months later, she developed metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Though a causative relationship is unlikely between the peptide and ARMS due to the brief time course between teduglutide therapy and sarcoma diagnosis, neoplastic growth may have been accelerated by the GLP-2 analog, causing release of IGF-1. The transmembrane receptor for IGF-1 is frequently overexpressed in ARMS and is implicated in cell proliferation and metastatic behavior. This case describes a rare incidence of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a sexagenarian and possibly the first case reported associated with the use of teduglutide. Teduglutide was discontinued due to a potential theoretical risk of acceleration of sarcoma growth, and the patient’s rhabdomyosarcoma is in remission following sarcoma chemotherapy.

  20. Bone regeneration by octacalcium phosphate collagen composites in a dog alveolar cleft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, K; Matsui, A; Handa, T; Kawai, T; Suzuki, O; Kamakura, S; Echigo, S

    2010-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and porcine atelocollagen sponge composites (OCP/Col) markedly enhanced bone regeneration in a rat cranial defect model. To assess clinical application, the authors examined whether OCP/Col would enhance bone regeneration in an alveolar cleft model in an adult dog, which was assumed to reflect patients with alveolar cleft. Disks of OCP/Col or collagen were implanted into the defect and bone regeneration by OCP/Col or collagen was investigated 4 months after implantation. Macroscopically, the OCP/Col-treated alveolus was obviously augmented and occupied by radio-opacity, and the border between the original bone and the defect was indistinguishable. Histological analysis revealed it was filled and bridged with newly formed bone; a small quantity of the remaining implanted OCP was observed. X-ray diffraction patterns of the area of implanted OCP/Col indicated no difference from those of dog bone. In the collagen-treated alveolus, the hollowed alveolus was mainly filled with fibrous connective tissue, and a small amount of new bone was observed at the defect margin. These results suggest that bone was obviously repaired when OCP/Col was implanted into the alveolar cleft model in a dog, and OCP/Col would be a significant bone regenerative material to substitute for autogeneous bone.