Sample records for chordates evolutionary perspectives

  1. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

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    De Bernardi Fiorenza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Ciona intestinalis and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae synapsin transcripts and the definition of their gene structure using available C. intestinalis and B. floridae genomic sequences. We demonstrate the occurrence, in both model organisms, of a single member of the synapsin gene family. Full-length synapsin genes were identified in the recently sequenced genomes of phylogenetically diverse metazoans. Comparative genome analysis reveals extensive conservation of the SYN locus in several metazoans. Moreover, developmental expression studies underline that synapsin is a neuronal-specific marker in basal chordates and is expressed in several cell types of PNS and in many, if not all, CNS neurons. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that synapsin genes are metazoan genes present in a single copy per genome, except for vertebrates. Moreover, we hypothesize that, during the evolution of synapsin proteins, new domains are added at different stages probably to cope up with the increased complexity in the nervous system organization. Finally, we demonstrate that protochordate synapsin is restricted to the post-mitotic phase of CNS development and thereby is a good marker of postmitotic neurons.

  2. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates.

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    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young retrocopies in ancient chordate species. Upon comparing these non-mammalian chordate species to the mammalian species, we observed that a larger fraction of the non-mammalian retrocopies was under strong evolutionary constraints than mammalian retrocopies are, as evidenced by signals of purifying selection and expression profiles. For the Western clawed frog, Medaka, and Sea squirt, many retrogenes have evolved gonad and brain expression patterns, similar to what was observed in human. Testing of retrogene movement in the Medaka genome, where the nascent sex chrosomes have been well assembled, did not reveal any significant gene movement. Taken together, our analyses demonstrate that RNA-based duplication generates many functional genes and can make a significant contribution to the evolution of non-mammalian genomes.

  3. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family.

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    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    Full Text Available Paired box (PAX genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.

  4. Five longitudes in chordate body. (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Alexander N


    The evolutionary scenario of chordate origin and body plan formation remains controversial. The existing theories explain very few chordate features besides the dorsal position of their central nervous system. An update of the morphological background can help to interpret new paleontological findings and to pose new molecular targets for further endeavor into the origin of chordates. In the present study, previously underestimated features of vertebrates are generalized, indicative of the presence in the evolution of chordates of a pentaradiate stage, commonly regarded as unique to echinoderms. Five longitudinal lines are distinguished in the trunk of chordates, comprising basic blueprint for ectoderm-mesoderm interactions. All the five can develop outgrowths, such as fin-folds, spines, scutes, limbs and nipples, or invaginations, such as neural tube and lateral line canals, and are regarded as representatives of the five radii of the ancestral pentaradiality. The long-standing theory of dorsoventral inversion at the bilateral evolutionary stage is discouraged. Instead, the hypothetical ancestral subphylum Pentachordata is introduced, characterized by five neural tubes and five muscular notochords. The morpho-functional analysis allows to restore pentachordates as sessile, but active sediment-feeders. Two problematic Precambrian and Lower Cambrian fossils are ascribed to pentachordates. An idea of experimental verification of the Pentachordata hypothesis is proposed.

  5. Evolutionary perspective in child growth. (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev


    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  6. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

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    Ze’ev Hochberg


    Full Text Available Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  7. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

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    Kjær, Poul F.


    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  8. The Microfoundations of Macroeconomics: An Evolutionary Perspective

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    Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.; Gowdy, John M.


    We consider the microfoundations controversy from the perspective ofeconomic evolution and show that the debate can benefit from lessons learned in evolutionary biology. Although the analogy between biology and economics has been noted before, it has rarely focused on clarifying the micro-macro dist

  9. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective. (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  10. Precision engineering: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Evans, Chris J


    Precision engineering is a relatively new name for a technology with roots going back over a thousand years; those roots span astronomy, metrology, fundamental standards, manufacturing and money-making (literally). Throughout that history, precision engineers have created links across disparate disciplines to generate innovative responses to society's needs and wants. This review combines historical and technological perspectives to illuminate precision engineering's current character and directions. It first provides us a working definition of precision engineering and then reviews the subject's roots. Examples will be given showing the contributions of the technology to society, while simultaneously showing the creative tension between the technological convergence that spurs new directions and the vertical disintegration that optimizes manufacturing economics.

  11. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

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    Stoops, John L.


    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  12. Space Politics and Policy. An Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Sadeh, E.


    This book is the first comprehensive source for the Space Politics and Policies of the United States Civil, Military, Intelligence, and Commercial Space Programs. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century. The book is intended for those interested in Space Policy, especially Space Policy decision-makers, program and project managers, as well as students and lecturers of Space Policy. Link: and

  13. Evolutionary perspectives into placental biology and disease

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    Edward B. Chuong


    Full Text Available In all mammals including humans, development takes place within the protective environment of the maternal womb. Throughout gestation, nutrients and waste products are continuously exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta. Despite the clear importance of the placenta to successful pregnancy and the health of both mother and offspring, relatively little is understood about the biology of the placenta and its role in pregnancy-related diseases. Given that pre- and peri-natal diseases involving the placenta affect millions of women and their newborns worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand placenta biology and development. Here, we suggest that the placenta is an organ under unique selective pressures that have driven its rapid diversification throughout mammalian evolution. The high divergence of the placenta complicates the use of non-human animal models and necessitates an evolutionary perspective when studying its biology and role in disease. We suggest that diversifying evolution of the placenta is primarily driven by intraspecies evolutionary conflict between mother and fetus, and that many pregnancy diseases are a consequence of this evolutionary force. Understanding how maternal–fetal conflict shapes both basic placental and reproductive biology – in all species – will provide key insights into diseases of pregnancy.

  14. An Evolutionary Perspective on the Crabtree Effect

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    Thomas ePfeiffer


    Full Text Available The capability to ferment sugars into ethanol is a key metabolic trait of yeasts. Crabtree-positive yeasts use fermentation even in the presence of oxygen, where they could, in principle, rely on the respiration pathway. This is surprising because fermentation has a much lower ATP yield than respiration (2 ATP vs. approximately 18 ATP per glucose. While genetic events in the evolution of the Crabtree effect have been identified, the selective advantages provided by this trait remain controversial. In this review we analyse explanations for the emergence of the Crabtree effect from an evolutionary and game-theoretical perspective. We argue that an increased rate of ATP production is likely the most important factor behind the emergence of the Crabtree effect.

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Andreazza, Ana C; Kennedy, James L


    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of 0.4 %. A disturbance of energy metabolism has been suggested as part of the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Several lines of evidence have proposed a connection between etiopathogenesis of SCZ and human brain evolution, which was characterized by an increase in the energy requirement, demanding a co-evolution of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondria are key players in brain energy homeostasis and multiple lines of evidence suggest that the system is disrupted in SCZ. In this review, we will describe the current knowledge on pathways/system involved in the human brain evolution as well as the main theories regarding the evolutionary origin of SCZ. We will furthermore discuss the role of mitochondria in the context of brain energy metabolism and its role in the etiopathogenesis of SCZ. Understanding SCZ in the context of human brain evolution opens a new perspective to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the origin and/or portions of the complex symptomatology of this severe mental disorder.

  16. Temporal knowledge and autobiographical memory: an evolutionary perspective


    Skowronski, John J.; Sedikides, Constantine


    Section I: Philosophical issues 1. Evolutionary pyschology in the round , Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett 2. The power of culture , Henry Plotkin 3. Evolution and psychology in philosophical perspective , Matteo Mameli 4. Niche construction, human behavioural ecology and evolutionary psychology , Kevin N Laland 5. Group level evolutionary processes , David Sloan Wilson Section II: The comparative Approach 6. Homologizing the mind , Drew Rendall, Hugh Nottman & John R Vokey 7. Social knowledge i...

  17. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates

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    Full Text Available In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, we focus on the conserved roles of RA and its downstream mediators, the Hox genes, in conveying positional patterning information to different embryonic tissues, such as the endoderm and the central nervous system. We find that some of the control mechanisms governing RA-mediated patterning are well conserved between vertebrates and invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus. In contrast, outside the chordates, evidence for roles of RA signaling is scarce and the evolutionary origin of the RA pathway itself thus remains elusive. In sum, to fully understand the evolutionary history of the RA pathway, future research should focus on identification and study of components of the RA signaling cascade in non-chordate deuterostomes (such as hemichordates and echinoderms and other invertebrates, such as insects, mollusks and cnidarians.

  18. The Carbon Crisis: An Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Peacock, K.


    By the 'carbon crisis' I mean the coupled crises of the depletion of the highest-EROI sources of fossil fuels and the global warming caused by our use of those fossil fuels. (EROI means 'energy return on energy investment'; Hall 2011.) While global warming is arguably more urgent, either of these factors would sooner or later be sufficient by itself to call a halt to our global-scale, energy-intensive, high technology economy. In lethal combination, they threaten to drastically reduce the capacity of the planet to support 7+ billion talking hominids. I will pull the camera back for a very long view and characterize the carbon crisis and our possible responses to it from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. It remains unclear why sapiens emerged rather suddenly as the most successful member of the family Homo about 50 to 60 kya; some argue that this neurological explosion could be due to our ancestors having survived the rigors of the Toba population bottleneck, which presumably would have favoured high adaptability (Ambrose 1998). Whatever the cause, Paleolithic humans deployed an unprecedented combination of technological and social ingenuity (the capacity for adaptive social organization; Homer-Dixon 2001). Aided by the relatively benign climate of the Holocene and ultimately by our increasing ability to tap into the resources of the 'found' ecology, especially the vast stores of hydrocarbons bequeathed by the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, our population has grown exponentially to its present unsteady pinnacle of (possibly) temporary reproductive success. The question now is what happens next. It was human ingenuity that got us through the ice age, put footprints on the Moon, and brought us to this crisis point; now, only human ingenuity (both social and technical) can get us past it. Our species will finally achieve a sustainable mode of existence on this planet when (in E. Odum's words; 1973) 'the present-day concept of ';unlimited exploitation of

  19. Evolutionary psychology in the modern world: applications, perspectives, and strategies. (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; van Vugt, Mark; Dunbar, Robin I M


    An evolutionary approach is a powerful framework which can bring new perspectives on any aspect of human behavior, to inform and complement those from other disciplines, from psychology and anthropology to economics and politics. Here we argue that insights from evolutionary psychology may be increasingly applied to address practical issues and help alleviate social problems. We outline the promise of this endeavor, and some of the challenges it faces. In doing so, we draw parallels between an applied evolutionary psychology and recent developments in Darwinian medicine, which similarly has the potential to complement conventional approaches. Finally, we describe some promising new directions which are developed in the associated papers accompanying this article.

  20. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

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    Christopher J Lowe


    Full Text Available We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates

  1. An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism

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    Rusch, Hannes; Störmer, C.


    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group ho

  2. Evolutionary computation techniques a comparative perspective

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    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego


    This book compares the performance of various evolutionary computation (EC) techniques when they are faced with complex optimization problems extracted from different engineering domains. Particularly focusing on recently developed algorithms, it is designed so that each chapter can be read independently. Several comparisons among EC techniques have been reported in the literature, however, they all suffer from one limitation: their conclusions are based on the performance of popular evolutionary approaches over a set of synthetic functions with exact solutions and well-known behaviors, without considering the application context or including recent developments. In each chapter, a complex engineering optimization problem is posed, and then a particular EC technique is presented as the best choice, according to its search characteristics. Lastly, a set of experiments is conducted in order to compare its performance to other popular EC methods.

  3. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco


    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  4. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos


    For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’) that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations. PMID:28117683

  5. An evolutionary behaviorist perspective on orgasm

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    Diana S. Fleischman


    Full Text Available Evolutionary explanations for sexual behavior and orgasm most often posit facilitating reproduction as the primary function (i.e. greater rate of fertilization. Other reproductive benefits of sexual pleasure and orgasm such as improved bonding of parents have also been discussed but not thoroughly. Although sex is known to be highly reinforcing, behaviorist principles are rarely invoked alongside evolutionary psychology in order to account for human sexual and social behavior. In this paper, I will argue that intense sexual pleasure, especially orgasm, can be understood as a primary reinforcer shaped by evolution to reinforce behavior that facilitates reproductive success (i.e. conception through copulation. Next, I will describe an evolutionary account of social shaping. In particular, I will focus on how humans evolved to use orgasm and sexual arousal to shape the social behavior and emotional states of others through both classical and operant conditioning and through both reproductive and non-reproductive forms of sexual behavior. Finally, I will describe how orgasm is a signal of sensitivity to reinforcement that is itself reinforcing.

  6. Neurohormetic phytochemicals: An evolutionary-bioenergetic perspective. (United States)

    Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Mattson, Mark P


    The impact of dietary factors on brain health and vulnerability to disease is increasingly appreciated. The results of epidemiological studies, and intervention trials in animal models suggest that diets rich in phytochemicals can enhance neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegeneration. Here we describe how interactions of plants and animals during their co-evolution, and resulting reciprocal adaptations, have shaped the remarkable characteristics of phytochemicals and their effects on the physiology of animal cells in general, and neurons in particular. Survival advantages were conferred upon plants capable of producing noxious bitter-tasting chemicals, and on animals able to tolerate the phytochemicals and consume the plants as an energy source. The remarkably diverse array of phytochemicals present in modern fruits, vegetables spices, tea and coffee may have arisen, in part, from the acquisition of adaptive cellular stress responses and detoxification enzymes in animals that enabled them to consume plants containing potentially toxic chemicals. Interestingly, some of the same adaptive stress response mechanisms that protect neurons against noxious phytochemicals are also activated by dietary energy restriction and vigorous physical exertion, two environmental challenges that shaped brain evolution. In this perspective article, we describe some of the signaling pathways relevant to cellular energy metabolism that are modulated by 'neurohormetic phytochemicals' (potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants that have beneficial effects on animals when consumed in moderate amounts). We highlight the cellular bioenergetics-related sirtuin, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways. The inclusion of dietary neurohormetic phytochemicals in an overall program for brain health that also includes exercise and energy restriction may find applications in the

  7. Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective. (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu


    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.

  8. Why are some people left-handed? An evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Llaurens, V; Raymond, M; Faurie, C


    Since prehistoric times, left-handed individuals have been ubiquitous in human populations, exhibiting geographical frequency variations. Evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the persistence of the handedness polymorphism. Left-handedness could be favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection. Data have suggested that left-handedness, as the rare hand preference, could represent an important strategic advantage in fighting interactions. However, the fact that left-handedness occurs at a low frequency indicates that some evolutionary costs could be associated with left-handedness. Overall, the evolutionary dynamics of this polymorphism are not fully understood. Here, we review the abundant literature available regarding the possible mechanisms and consequences of left-handedness. We point out that hand preference is heritable, and report how hand preference is influenced by genetic, hormonal, developmental and cultural factors. We review the available information on potential fitness costs and benefits acting as selective forces on the proportion of left-handers. Thus, evolutionary perspectives on the persistence of this polymorphism in humans are gathered for the first time, highlighting the necessity for an assessment of fitness differences between right- and left-handers.

  9. The origins of pedagogy: developmental and evolutionary perspectives. (United States)

    Skerry, Amy E; Lambert, Enoch; Powell, Lindsey J; McAuliffe, Katherine


    The question of whether and how information is actively transferred from knowledgeable to ignorant individuals has received much attention in psychology and evolutionary biology. Research in these fields has proceeded largely independently, with studies of nonhuman animals focusing on knowledgeable individuals and whether or not they meet a functional definition of teaching, while studies of children focus on the learner's assumptions and inferences. We argue that a comprehensive theory of teaching will benefit from integrating perspectives and empirical phenomena from evolutionary and developmental disciplines. In this review, we identify cases of seemingly purposeful information transfer (i.e. teaching) in human and nonhuman animals, discuss what is known about the cognitive processes that support teaching in different species, and highlight ways in which each discipline might be informed by extant theories and empirical tools from the other.

  10. Evolutionary perspectives on clonal reproduction in vertebrate animals. (United States)

    Avise, John C


    A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality in nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites. Each of these clonal or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and ecological significance of recombination-derived genetic variety.

  11. Evolutionary ecology of Odonata: a complex life cycle perspective. (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex


    Most insects have a complex life cycle with ecologically different larval and adult stages. We present an ontogenetic perspective to analyze and summarize the complex life cycle of Odonata within an evolutionary ecology framework. Morphological, physiological, and behavioral pathways that generate carry-over effects across the aquatic egg and larval stages and the terrestrial adult stage are identified. We also highlight several mechanisms that can decouple life stages including compensatory mechanisms at the larval and adult stages, stressful and stochastic events during metamorphosis, and stressful environmental conditions at the adult stage that may overrule effects of environmental conditions in the preceding stage. We consider the implications of these findings for the evolution, selection, and fitness of odonates; underline the role of the identified numerical and carry-over effects in shaping population and metapopulation dynamics and the community structure across habitat boundaries; and discuss implications for applied conservation issues.

  12. An evolutionary perspective on epistasis and the missing heritability.

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    Gibran Hemani


    Full Text Available The relative importance between additive and non-additive genetic variance has been widely argued in quantitative genetics. By approaching this question from an evolutionary perspective we show that, while additive variance can be maintained under selection at a low level for some patterns of epistasis, the majority of the genetic variance that will persist is actually non-additive. We propose that one reason that the problem of the "missing heritability" arises is because the additive genetic variation that is estimated to be contributing to the variance of a trait will most likely be an artefact of the non-additive variance that can be maintained over evolutionary time. In addition, it can be shown that even a small reduction in linkage disequilibrium between causal variants and observed SNPs rapidly erodes estimates of epistatic variance, leading to an inflation in the perceived importance of additive effects. We demonstrate that the perception of independent additive effects comprising the majority of the genetic architecture of complex traits is biased upwards and that the search for causal variants in complex traits under selection is potentially underpowered by parameterising for additive effects alone. Given dense SNP panels the detection of causal variants through genome-wide association studies may be improved by searching for epistatic effects explicitly.

  13. An evolutionary perspective on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. (United States)

    Stear, M J; Singleton, D; Matthews, L


    The purpose of this paper was to discuss from an evolutionary perspective the interaction between domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and their gastrointestinal nematodes. Although evolution is the central theme of biology, there has been little attempt to consider how evolutionary forces have shaped and continue to shape the relationships between domestic animals and their parasite community. Mathematical modelling of the host-parasite relationship indicated that the system is remarkably robust to perturbations in its parameters. This robustness may be a consequence of the long coevolution of host and parasites. Although nematodes can potentially evolve faster than the host, coevolution is not dominated by the parasite and there are several examples where breeds of cattle or sheep have evolved high levels of resistance to disease. Coevolution is a more equal partnership between host and nematode than is commonly assumed. Coevolution between parasites and the host immune system is often described as an arms race where both host immune response genes and parasite proteins evolve rapidly in response to each other. However, initial results indicate that nematode antigens are not evolving rapidly; the arms race between the immune system and nematodes, if it exists, is happening very slowly. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection states that genes with positive effects on fitness will be fixed by natural selection. Consequently, heritable variation in fitness traits is expected to be low. Contrary to this argument, there is considerable genetic variation in resistance to nematode infection. In particular, the heritabilities of nematode-specific IgA and IgE activity are moderate to high. The reasons for this apparent violation of the fundamental theorem of natural selection are not clear but several possible explanations are explored. Faecal nematode egg counts increase at the beginning of the grazing season - a phenomenon known as the periparturient rise. This

  14. Reconsideration of Plant Morphological Traits: From a Structure-Based Perspective to a Function-Based Evolutionary Perspective. (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Nong


    This opinion article proposes a novel alignment of traits in plant morphogenesis from a function-based evolutionary perspective. As a member species of the ecosystem on Earth, we human beings view our neighbor organisms from our own sensing system. We tend to distinguish forms and structures (i.e., "morphological traits") mainly through vision. Traditionally, a plant was considered to be consisted of three parts, i.e., the shoot, the leaves, and the root. Based on such a "structure-based perspective," evolutionary analyses or comparisons across species were made on particular parts or their derived structures. So far no conceptual framework has been established to incorporate the morphological traits of all three land plant phyta, i.e., bryophyta, pteridophyta and spermatophyta, for evolutionary developmental analysis. Using the tenets of the recently proposed concept of sexual reproduction cycle, the major morphological traits of land plants can be aligned into five categories from a function-based evolutionary perspective. From this perspective, and the resulting alignment, a new conceptual framework emerges, called "Plant Morphogenesis 123." This framework views a plant as a colony of integrated plant developmental units that are each produced via one life cycle. This view provided an alternative perspective for evolutionary developmental investigation in plants.

  15. Early Chordate Origins of the Vertebrate Second Heart Field (United States)

    Stolfi, Alberto; Gainous, T. Blair; Young, John J.; Mori, Alessandro; Levine, Michael; Christiaen, Lionel


    The vertebrate heart is formed from diverse embryonic territories, including the first and second heart fields. The second heart field (SHF) gives rise to the right ventricle and outflow tract, yet its evolutionary origins are unclear. We found that heart progenitor cells of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis also generate precursors of the atrial siphon muscles (ASMs). These precursors express Islet and Tbx1/10, evocative of the splanchnic mesoderm that produces the lower jaw muscles and SHF of vertebrates. Evidence is presented that the transcription factor COE is a critical determinant of ASM fate. We propose that the last common ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates possessed multipotent cardiopharyngeal muscle precursors, and that their reallocation might have contributed to the emergence of the SHF. PMID:20671188

  16. Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: unified perspective on personality research. (United States)

    Segal, N L; MacDonald, K B


    Behavioral geneticists and evolutionary psychologists have generally pursued human behavioral analyses with little theoretical or methodological exchange. However, significant benefits might accrue from increased communication between these disciplines. The primary goals of this article are (1) to identify meaningful junctures between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, (2) to describe behavioral genetic research designs and their applications to evolutionary analyses, and (3) to reassess current personality research in light of behavioral genetic and evolutionary concepts and techniques. The five-factor model of personality is conceptualized as subsuming variation in normative species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. Considered as universal evolved mechanisms, personality systems are often seen in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. However, genetically influenced individual differences in personality may also be understood within an evolutionary framework. Studies of the heritability of personality traits indicate broad-sense heritabilities in the 0.40-0.50 range with evidence of substantial nonadditive genetic variation and nonshared environmental influences. Evidence indicates that evolutionary theory (e.g., inclusive fitness theory) predicts patterns of social interaction (e.g., cooperation and bereavement) in relatives. Furthermore, variation in personality may constitute a range of viable strategies matching the opportunities available in the complex niche environment of human societies. Within this wide range of viable strategies, personality variation functions as a resource environment for individuals in the sense that personality variation is evaluated according to the interests of the evaluator (e.g., friendships, coalitions, or mate choice).

  17. Antibiotic resistance in the wild: an eco-evolutionary perspective (United States)

    Virta, Marko


    The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics. Furthermore, antibiotic leakage to natural environments can radically alter bacterial communities. Overall, we argue that eco-evolutionary feedback loops in microbial communities can be modified by residual antibiotics and evolution of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review is to connect some of the well-established key concepts in evolutionary biology and recent advances in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics to research on antibiotic resistance. We also identify some key knowledge gaps related to eco-evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance, and review some of the recent technical advantages in molecular microbiology that offer new opportunities for tackling these questions. Finally, we argue that using the full potential of evolutionary theory and active communication across the different fields is needed for solving this global crisis more efficiently. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. PMID:27920384

  18. Buried Treasure: Evolutionary Perspectives on Microbial Iron Piracy. (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C


    Host-pathogen interactions provide valuable systems for the study of evolutionary genetics and natural selection. The sequestration of essential iron has emerged as a crucial innate defense system termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to evolve mechanisms of 'iron piracy' to scavenge this metal from host proteins. This battle for iron carries numerous consequences not only for host-pathogen evolution but also microbial community interactions. Here we highlight recent and potential future areas of investigation on the evolutionary implications of microbial iron piracy in relation to molecular arms races, host range, competition, and virulence. Applying evolutionary genetic approaches to the study of microbial iron acquisition could also provide new inroads for understanding and combating infectious disease.

  19. Cooperation and conflict in cancer: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Featherston


    Full Text Available Evolutionary approaches to carcinogenesis have gained prominence in the literature and enhanced our understanding of cancer. However, an appreciation of neoplasia in the context of evolutionary transitions, particularly the transition from independent genes to a fullyintegrated genome, is largely absent. In the gene–genome evolutionary transition, mobile genetic elements (MGEs can be studied as the extant exemplars of selfish autonomous lowerlevel units that cooperated to form a higher-level, functionally integrated genome. Here,we discuss levels of selection in cancer cells. In particular, we examine the tension between gene and genome units of selection by examining the expression profiles of MGE domains in an array of human cancers. Overall, across diverse cancers, there is an aberrant expression of several families of mobile elements, including the most common MGE in the human genome, retrotransposon LINE 1. These results indicate an alternative life-history strategy for MGEs in the cancers studied. Whether the aberrant expression is the cause or effect oftumourigenesis is unknown, although some evidence suggests that dysregulation of MGEs can play a role in cancer origin and progression. These data are interpreted in combination with phylostratigraphic reports correlating the origin of cancer genes with multicellularity and other potential increases in complexity in cancer cell populations. Cooperation and conflict between individuals at the gene, genome and cell level provide an evolutionary medicineperspective of cancer that enhances our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  20. Jealousy as a function of rival characteristics : An evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP


    Following from om evolutionary psychology, men and women differ in the characteristics they value in a partner. Men value physical attractiveness in women because a woman's physical attractiveness is related to her fertility, whereas women value dominance in men since dominance is related to a man's

  1. Tunicate mitogenomics and phylogenetics: peculiarities of the Herdmania momus mitochondrial genome and support for the new chordate phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loya Yossi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tunicates represent a key metazoan group as the sister-group of vertebrates within chordates. The six complete mitochondrial genomes available so far for tunicates have revealed distinctive features. Extensive gene rearrangements and particularly high evolutionary rates have been evidenced with regard to other chordates. This peculiar evolutionary dynamics has hampered the reconstruction of tunicate phylogenetic relationships within chordates based on mitogenomic data. Results In order to further understand the atypical evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome of tunicates, we determined the complete sequence of the solitary ascidian Herdmania momus. This genome from a stolidobranch ascidian presents the typical tunicate gene content with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 24 tRNAs which are all encoded on the same strand. However, it also presents a novel gene arrangement, highlighting the extreme plasticity of gene order observed in tunicate mitochondrial genomes. Probabilistic phylogenetic inferences were conducted on the concatenation of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes from representatives of major metazoan phyla. We show that whereas standard homogeneous amino acid models support an artefactual sister position of tunicates relative to all other bilaterians, the CAT and CAT+BP site- and time-heterogeneous mixture models place tunicates as the sister-group of vertebrates within monophyletic chordates. Moreover, the reference phylogeny indicates that tunicate mitochondrial genomes have experienced a drastic acceleration in their evolutionary rate that equally affects protein-coding and ribosomal-RNA genes. Conclusion This is the first mitogenomic study supporting the new chordate phylogeny revealed by recent phylogenomic analyses. It illustrates the beneficial effects of an increased taxon sampling coupled with the use of more realistic amino acid substitution models for the reconstruction of animal

  2. Hemichordates and the Origin of Chordates (United States)

    Gerhart, John; Kirschner, Marc; Lowe, Chris


    At the start of the period of the NASA grant three years ago, we had no information on the organization and development of the body axis of the hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Now we have substantial findings about the anteroposterior axis and dorsoventral axis, and based on this information, we have new insights about the origin of chordates from ancestral deuterostomes. We found ways to obtain and preserve large numbers of embryos and hatched juveniles. We can now collect about 40,000 embryos in the month of September, the time of S. kowalevskii spawning at Woods Hole. Excellent cDNA libraries were prepared from three developmental stages. From these libraries, we directly isolated about 30 gene ortholog sequences by screening and pcr techniques, all of these sequences of interest in the inquiry about the animal's organization and development. We also performed a mid-sized EST project (60,000 randomly picked clones, many of these arrayed). About half of these have been analyzed so far by blastx and are suitable for direct use of clones. We have obtained about 50 interesting sequences from this set. The rest still await analysis. Thus, at this time we have isolated orthologs of 80 genes that are known to be expressed in chordates in conserved domains and known to have interesting roles in chordate organization and development. The orthology of the S. kowalevskii sequences has been verified by neighbor joining and parsimony methods, with bootstrap estimates of validity. The S. kowalevskii sequences cluster with other deuterostome sequences, namely, other hemichordates, echinoderms, ascidians, amphioxus, or vertebrates, depending on what sequences are available in the database for comparison. We have used these sequences to do high quality in situ hybridization on S. kowalevskii embryos, and the results can be divided into three sections-those concerning the anteroposterior axis of S. kowalevskii in comparison to the same axis of chordates, those concerning

  3. From philosophy to science (to natural philosophy): evolutionary developmental perspectives. (United States)

    Love, Alan C


    This paper focuses on abstraction as a mode of reasoning that facilitates a productive relationship between philosophy and science. Using examples from evolutionary developmental biology, I argue that there are two areas where abstraction can be relevant to science: reasoning explication and problem clarification. The value of abstraction is characterized in terms of methodology (modeling or data gathering) and epistemology (explanatory evaluation or data interpretation).

  4. New Early Cambrian Chordates from Haikou, Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new chordates, Cathaymyrus haikouensis Luo et Hu sp. nov. andZhongxiniscus intermedius Luo et Hu gen. et sp. nov. are studied in this paper. Both display numerous S-shaped myomeres on their trunk. C. haikouensis shows a long and slim body similar to that of Cathaymyrus diadexus Shu et al., Zhongxiniscus approaches to Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthvs in the dorsal fin, but differs in the myomeres. Zhongxiniscus may be the intermediate form between Ca thaymyrus and Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthys.

  5. Rethinking Oedipus: an evolutionary perspective of incest avoidance. (United States)

    Erickson, M T


    The author presents a biological hypothesis of incest avoidance. Pertinent literature from evolutionary biology, ethology, anthropology, and clinical research is reviewed. Secure early bonding to immediate kin predicts later adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including preferential altruism (kin selection) and incest avoidance. Impaired bonding predicts aberrant kin-directed behavior, including diminished altruism, neglect, and an increased incidence of incest. Failed bonding predicts the highest frequency of incest. Secure bonding to kin may function to establish adaptive kin-directed behaviors, including incest avoidance. Bonding is conceived of as the developmental foundation of a form of social attraction, here called "familial attraction," which is evolutionarily distinct from sexual attraction.

  6. An evolutionary perspective on zinc uptake by human fungal pathogens† (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan


    The mammalian immune system has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to withhold essential micronutrients from invading pathogens. These processes, collectively known as nutritional immunity serve to limit microbial proliferation and bolster killing of the invader. Successful pathogens, therefore, have developed strategies to counteract nutritional immunity and acquire essential micronutrients in the restrictive environment of the infected host. Here I take advantage of the now large number of sequenced fungal genomes to explore the zinc acquisition strategies of human fungal pathogens and reflect on the evolutionary context of these uptake pathways. PMID:25652414

  7. Uxoricide in Pregnancy: Ancient Greek Domestic Violence in Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Deacy


    Full Text Available Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  8. Consciousness, crosstalk, and the mereological fallacy: An evolutionary perspective (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick


    The cross-sectional decontextualization afflicting contemporary neuroscience - attributing to ‘the brain’ what is the province of the whole organism - is mirrored by an evolutionary decontextualization exceptionalizing consciousness. The living state is characterized by cognitive processes at all scales and levels of organization. Many can be associated with dual information sources that ‘speak’ a ‘language’ of behavior-in-context. Shifting global broadcasts analogous to consciousness, albeit far slower - wound healing, tumor control, immune function, gene expression, etc. - have emerged through repeated evolutionary exaptation of the crosstalk and noise inherent to all information transmission. These recruit ‘unconscious’ cognitive modules into tunable arrays as needed to meet threats and opportunities across multiple frames of reference. The development is straightforward, based on the powerful necessary conditions imposed by the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, in the same sense that the Central Limit Theorem constrains sums of stochastic variates. Recognition of information as a form of free energy instantiated by physical processes that consume free energy permits analogs to phase transition and nonequilibrium thermodynamic arguments, leading to ‘dynamic regression models’ useful for data analysis.

  9. Sex differences in self-regulation: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki eHosseini-Kamkar


    Full Text Available Bjorklund and Kipp (1996 provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996. Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow.

  10. Design principles of the human brain: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Hofman, Michel A


    The evolution of the brain in mammals has been accompanied by a reorganization of the brain as a result of differential growth of certain brain regions. Consequently, the geometry of the brain, and especially the size and shape of the cerebral cortex, has changed notably during evolution. Comparative studies of the cerebral cortex suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development and that the primate neocortex is uniformly organized and composed of neural processing units. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical, and energy constraints that have governed the evolution of these neuronal networks. In this review, some of the design principles and operational modes will be explored that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates, and it will be argued that with the evolution of the human brain we have nearly reached the limits of biological intelligence.

  11. Human nature and culture: an evolutionary psychological perspective. (United States)

    Buss, D M


    Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality-how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology provides one set of conceptual tools by which this conceptual integration can be made. It requires jettisoning the false but still-pervasive dichotomy of culture versus biology, acknowledging a universal human nature, and recognizing that the human mind contains many complex psychological mechanisms that are selectively activated, depending on cultural contexts. Culture rests on a foundation of evolved psychological mechanisms and cannot be understood without those mechanisms.

  12. Parasites and marine invasions: Ecological and evolutionary perspectives (United States)

    Goedknegt, M. Anouk; Feis, Marieke E.; Wegner, K. Mathias; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Buschbaum, Christian; Camphuysen, Kees (C. J.); van der Meer, Jaap; Thieltges, David W.


    Worldwide, marine and coastal ecosystems are heavily invaded by introduced species and the potential role of parasites in the success and impact of marine invasions has been increasingly recognized. In this review, we link recent theoretical developments in invasion ecology with empirical studies from marine ecosystems in order to provide a conceptual framework for studying the role of parasites and their hosts in marine invasions. Based on an extensive literature search, we identified six mechanisms in which invaders directly or indirectly affect parasite and host populations and communities: I) invaders can lose some or all of their parasites during the invasion process (parasite release or reduction), often causing a competitive advantage over native species; II) invaders can also act as a host for native parasites, which may indirectly amplify the parasite load of native hosts (parasite spillback); III) invaders can also be parasites themselves and be introduced without needing co-introduction of the host (introduction of free-living infective stages); IV) alternatively, parasites may be introduced together with their hosts (parasite co-introduction with host); V) consequently, these co-introduced parasites can sometimes also infect native hosts (parasite spillover); and VI) invasive species may be neither a host nor a parasite, but nevertheless affect native parasite host interactions by interfering with parasite transmission (transmission interference). We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of each of these mechanisms and generally note several substantial effects on natural communities and ecosystems via i) mass mortalities of native populations creating strong selection gradients, ii) indirect changes in species interactions within communities and iii) trophic cascading and knock-on effects in food webs that may affect ecosystem function and services. Our review demonstrates a wide range of ecological and evolutionary implications of

  13. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: a mitogenomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimazaki Mitsuomi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae. The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiaojun XIAO; Gang YU


    In the real world, revenue maximization behavior may prevail in various markets. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a two-population model with two-vertically integrated channels. Every channel consists of one manufacturer and many (a sufficiently large number of) retailers that sell products in different markets by adopting pure marketing objective strategies: profit maximization and revenue maximization. We study the marketing objective behaviors in the quantity-setting duopoly and the price-setting duopoly situations respectively from an indirect evolutionary point of view. In the quantity-setting duopoly situation, we find that whether the equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the type of strategic interaction (substitutes or complements), relative unit cost, market scale, etc. We extend it to the case with continuous preferences. We argue that revenue maximization may be an evolutionarily stable strategy and profit maximization strategy may be unstable. Under proper conditions, revenue maximization behavior can coexist with profit maximization behavior. In the price-setting duopoly situation with linear demand functions, we find that profit maximization is always an evolutionarily stable strategy and revenue maximization behavior will gradually become extinct. The extended model has a similar result but the retailers may compromise the two pure strategies.

  15. Lysosomal enzymes and their receptors in invertebrates: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Kumar, Nadimpalli Siva; Bhamidimarri, Poorna M


    Lysosomal biogenesis is an important process in eukaryotic cells to maintain cellular homeostasis. The key components that are involved in the biogenesis such as the lysosomal enzymes, their modifications and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors have been well studied and their evolutionary conservation across mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates is clearly established. Invertebrate lysosomal biogenesis pathway on the other hand is not well studied. Although, details on mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enzymes involved in lysosomal enzyme modifications were reported earlier, a clear cut pathway has not been established. Recent research on the invertebrate species involving biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes suggests a possible conserved pathway in invertebrates. This review presents certain observations based on these processes that include biochemical, immunological and functional studies. Major conclusions include conservation of MPR-dependent pathway in higher invertebrates and recent evidence suggests that MPR-independent pathway might have been more prominent among lower invertebrates. The possible components of MPR-independent pathway that may play a role in lysosomal enzyme targeting are also discussed here.

  16. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eYamamoto


    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2 revealed new populations of DA synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g. teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

  17. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe


    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

  18. The ecology of cancer from an evolutionary game theory perspective. (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Dingli, David


    The accumulation of somatic mutations, to which the cellular genome is permanently exposed, often leads to cancer. Analysis of any tumour shows that, besides the malignant cells, one finds other 'supporting' cells such as fibroblasts, immune cells of various types and even blood vessels. Together, these cells generate the microenvironment that enables the malignant cell population to grow and ultimately lead to disease. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of tumour growth and response to therapy is incomplete unless the interactions between the malignant cells and normal cells are investigated in the environment in which they take place. The complex interactions between cells in such an ecosystem result from the exchange of information in the form of cytokines- and adhesion-dependent interactions. Such processes impose costs and benefits to the participating cells that may be conveniently recast in the form of a game pay-off matrix. As a result, tumour progression and dynamics can be described in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT), which provides a convenient framework in which to capture the frequency-dependent nature of ecosystem dynamics. Here, we provide a tutorial review of the central aspects of EGT, establishing a relation with the problem of cancer. Along the way, we also digress on fitness and of ways to compute it. Subsequently, we show how EGT can be applied to the study of the various manifestations and dynamics of multiple myeloma bone disease and its preceding condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We translate the complex biochemical signals into costs and benefits of different cell types, thus defining a game pay-off matrix. Then we use the well-known properties of the EGT equations to reduce the number of core parameters that characterize disease evolution. Finally, we provide an interpretation of these core parameters in terms of what their function is in the ecosystem we are describing and generate

  19. The Middle Cambrian fossil Pikaia and the evolution of chordate swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalli Thurston


    Full Text Available Abstract Conway Morris and Caron (2012 have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaia’s anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or it had an ancestral fiber type with functional capabilities more like modern slow fibers than fast ones. The first option is supported by the sequence of development in zebrafish, where both myoseptum formation and fast fiber deployment show a dependence on slow fibers, which develop first. For Pikaia, the absence of fast fibers has both behavioral and anatomical implications, which are discussed. Among the latter is the possibility that a notochord may not have been needed as a primary stiffening device if other structures (for example, the dorsal organ could perform that role.

  20. Introduction to the special issue : Globalisation, knowledge and institutional change: Towards an evolutionary perspective to economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, Andrea; Cusmano, Lucia


    This special issue aims at advancing the debate about the interpretative power of evolutionary perspectives on economic development and institutional change. In the introduction, we argue that the interpretative power of the current evolutionary approach can be improved by elaborating an 'augmented'

  1. Classical and novel psychoactive substances: rethinking drug misuse from an evolutionary psychiatric perspective. (United States)

    St John-Smith, Paul; McQueen, Daniel; Edwards, Lindsey; Schifano, Fabrizio


    In this article, ontogenetic and phylogenetic causes of drug abuse and links to human emotional development are considered. Some evolutionary perspectives (e.g. that under certain conditions, consumption of otherwise toxic alkaloids may confer both physical and cultural advantages) are reviewed. As described in the 'mismatch theory', the capacity of the human genome to evolve defences against toxins has been outstripped by the pace of cultural change and technological development, such as purposeful fermentation of alcohol and more recently distillation of alcohol; purification and chemical manipulation of plant alkaloids; and the engineering of entirely novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The functions of the neurobiological substrates that mediate substance misuse and dependence are reviewed. Reasons are given why NPSs present greater cause for concern than plant-derived substances of abuse. We argue that evolutionary biology provides an important orientation for the research agenda in substance misuse.

  2. Into the Green Economy – Evolutionary Perspectives on Green Economic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    The recent ‘greening’ of the economy represents possible one of the most profound examples of economic change. While the environment used to be considered a burden to business this perspec-tive has changed making ‘eco-innovation’ increasingly recognized as a driver of economic devel......-opment. Evolutionary economic research into the greening of industry and the economy is, howev-er, limited, so explanations of this dramatic change are lacking. This paper seeks to remedy this gap and forward evolutionary explanations and historical cases on the dynamics and scope of green economic change. The theme...... of the greening of industry and the economy is of interest because of the focus on the fundamental social and economic difficulties of changing direction in technology. Defining the greening of the economy as a techno-economic paradigm change the paper suggests expanding on Perez’s framework (Perez, 1983, 2000...

  3. The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Nicholas H.; Butts, Thomas; Ferrier, David E.K.; Furlong, Rebecca F.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Terry, Astrid; Yu, Jr-Kai; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Dubchak, Inna; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Horton, Amy C.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Kohara, Yuji; Kuroki, Yoko; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Pennacchio, Len A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Satou, Yutaka; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Schmutz[, Jeremy; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Fujiyama, Asao; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Peter W. H.; Satoh, Nori; Rokhsar, Daniel S.


    Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian. We describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic {approx}520 million base pair genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyze it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates), and allow reconstruction of not only the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor, but also a partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.

  4. An Evolutionary Perspective on the Importance of Community Relations for Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Grinde


    Full Text Available The evolutionary perspective is relevant for the study of quality of life in that the brain, including its capacity for positive and negative states of mind, has been shaped by the forces of evolution. The present text uses this perspective to discuss three questions related to the observation that human interactions are a particular important factor for well-being: (1 What is known about the inherent nature of our social propensities? (2 Is the present situation responsible for a suboptimal quality of life? (3 Are there alternatives to the organization of mainstream Western society? Based on this discussion, the question is raised as to whether it is possible to suggest improvements. Briefly, it seems possible to create conditions that enhance social relations and to the extent that happiness is considered an important objective, this is a relevant endeavor.

  5. Structural and functional diversity of nonapeptide hormones from an evolutionary perspective: A review. (United States)

    Banerjee, P; Joy, K P; Chaube, R


    The article presents an overview of the comparative distribution, structure and functions of the nonapeptide hormones in chordates and non chordates. The review begins with a historical preview of the advent of the concept of neurosecretion and birth of neuroendocrine science, pioneered by the works of E. Scharrer and W. Bargmann. The sections which follow discuss different vertebrate nonapeptides, their distribution, comparison, precursor gene structures and processing, highlighting the major differences in these aspects amidst the conserved features across vertebrates. The vast literature on the anatomical characteristics of the nonapeptide secreting nuclei in the brain and their projections was briefly reviewed in a comparative framework. Recent knowledge on the nonapeptide hormone receptors and their intracellular signaling pathways is discussed and few grey areas which require deeper studies are identified. The sections on the functions and regulation of nonapeptides summarize the huge and ever increasing literature that is available in these areas. The nonapeptides emerge as key homeostatic molecules with complex regulation and several synergistic partners. Lastly, an update of the nonapeptides in non chordates with respect to distribution, site of synthesis, functions and receptors, dealt separately for each phylum, is presented. The non chordate nonapeptides share many similarities with their counterparts in vertebrates, pointing the system to have an ancient origin and to be an important substrate for changes during adaptive evolution. The article concludes projecting the nonapeptides as one of the very first common molecules of the primitive nervous and endocrine systems, which have been retained to maintain homeostatic functions in metazoans; some of which are conserved across the animal kingdom and some are specialized in a group/lineage-specific manner.

  6. Investigating evolutionary perspective of carcinogenesis with single-cell transcriptome analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; Cheng Zhang; Zhongjun Li; Jiangjian Zhong; Leslie P. Weiner; Jiang F. Zhong


    We developed phase-switch microfluidic devices for molecular profiling of a large number of single cells. Whole genome microarrays and RNA-sequencing are commonly used to determine the expression levels of genes in cell lysates (a physical mix of millions of cells) for inferring gene functions. However, cellular heterogeneity becomes an inherent noise in the measurement of gene expression. The unique molecular characteristics of individual cells, as well as the temporal and quantitative information of gene expression in cells, are lost when averaged among all cells in cell lysates. Our single-cell technology overcomes this limitation and enables us to obtain a large number of single-cell transcriptomes from a population of cells. A collection of single-cell molecular profiles allows us to study carcinogenesis from an evolutionary perspective by treating cancer as a diverse population of cells with abnormal molecular characteristics. Because a cancer cellpopulation contains cells at various stages of development toward drug resistance, clustering similar single-cell molecular profiles could reveal how drug-resistant sub-clones evolve during cancer treatment. Here, we discuss how single-celltranscriptome analysis technology could enable the study of carcinogenesis from an evolutionary perspective and the development of drug-resistance in leukemia. The single-cell transcriptome analysis reported here could have a direct and significant impact on current cancer treatments and future personalized cancer therapies.

  7. Parallel evolution of chordate cis-regulatory code for development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Doglio


    Full Text Available Urochordates are the closest relatives of vertebrates and at the larval stage, possess a characteristic bilateral chordate body plan. In vertebrates, the genes that orchestrate embryonic patterning are in part regulated by highly conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, yet these elements have not been identified in urochordate genomes. Consequently the evolution of the cis-regulatory code for urochordate development remains largely uncharacterised. Here, we use genome-wide comparisons between C. intestinalis and C. savignyi to identify putative urochordate cis-regulatory sequences. Ciona conserved non-coding elements (ciCNEs are associated with largely the same key regulatory genes as vertebrate CNEs. Furthermore, some of the tested ciCNEs are able to activate reporter gene expression in both zebrafish and Ciona embryos, in a pattern that at least partially overlaps that of the gene they associate with, despite the absence of sequence identity. We also show that the ability of a ciCNE to up-regulate gene expression in vertebrate embryos can in some cases be localised to short sub-sequences, suggesting that functional cross-talk may be defined by small regions of ancestral regulatory logic, although functional sub-sequences may also be dispersed across the whole element. We conclude that the structure and organisation of cis-regulatory modules is very different between vertebrates and urochordates, reflecting their separate evolutionary histories. However, functional cross-talk still exists because the same repertoire of transcription factors has likely guided their parallel evolution, exploiting similar sets of binding sites but in different combinations.

  8. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  9. Ion channel clustering at the axon initial segment and node of Ranvier evolved sequentially in early chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis S Hill


    Full Text Available In many mammalian neurons, dense clusters of ion channels at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier underlie action potential generation and rapid conduction. Axonal clustering of mammalian voltage-gated sodium and KCNQ (Kv7 potassium channels is based on linkage to the actin-spectrin cytoskeleton, which is mediated by the adaptor protein ankyrin-G. We identified key steps in the evolution of this axonal channel clustering. The anchor motif for sodium channel clustering evolved early in the chordate lineage before the divergence of the wormlike cephalochordate, amphioxus. Axons of the lamprey, a very primitive vertebrate, exhibited some invertebrate features (lack of myelin, use of giant diameter to hasten conduction, but possessed narrow initial segments bearing sodium channel clusters like in more recently evolved vertebrates. The KCNQ potassium channel anchor motif evolved after the divergence of lampreys from other vertebrates, in a common ancestor of shark and humans. Thus, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels was a pivotal early innovation of the chordates. Sodium channel clusters at the axon initial segment serving the generation of action potentials evolved long before the node of Ranvier. KCNQ channels acquired anchors allowing their integration into pre-existing sodium channel complexes at about the same time that ancient vertebrates acquired myelin, saltatory conduction, and hinged jaws. The early chordate refinements in action potential mechanisms we have elucidated appear essential to the complex neural signaling, active behavior, and evolutionary success of vertebrates.

  10. A Co-evolutionary perspective on the Drivers of International Sourcing of Pharmaceutical R&D to India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; M. Mudambi, Susan


    -evolutionary theory perspective embracing both firm-internal and firm-environmental factors for location attractiveness, along with institutional and industry changes. The framework integrates constructs from past research in economic geography, international business, and R&D internationalization. The Indian case...

  11. Vulnerability from a co-evolutionary perspective: valuating natural hazards management in the Eastern Alps (United States)

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven


    In past decades, we observed a change in natural hazard management from a structural, security-based policy towards an integrated, risk-based management system. Therefore, the concept of vulnerability has become central in the policy debate. In order to assess vulnerability, we need a broader understanding of the term to manage natural hazards and to reduce damages and losses from future events. This paper adopts a co-evolutionary perspective to provide a critical assessment of vulnerability in natural hazard management, taking the Eastern Alps as an example. We discuss the structural, social and institutional vulnerability and governance from an integrated point of view to understand and to analyse the interdependences and interactions between human and physical systems. The aim is to consider the dynamic interactions between multiple conceptualised vulnerabilities in evaluating natural hazard management systems. A co-evolutionary framework widens the explanatory of multiple interactions in vulnerability to provide useful information and concepts to improve risk management. Keywords: vulnerability; co-evolution; natural hazards; Eastern Alps

  12. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter


    Full Text Available This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  13. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct. (United States)

    Davis, Caroline


    It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle - from which our genetic endowment had its origins - because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive.

  14. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C


    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  15. Sleeping in Safe Places: An Experimental Investigation of Human Sleeping Place Preferences from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Spörrle


    Full Text Available Although humans spend a third of their life asleep, their choice of sleeping places has so far been little investigated both theoretically and empirically. We address this issue from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. Our basic assumption is that humans have an evolved preference for safe sleeping places, that is, those that promise protection against potential aggressors and nighttime predation. Several testable predictions were derived from this assumption concerning the preferred location of the bed in a sleeping room. Specifically, we predicted that people prefer sleeping places that allow them to view the entrances to the sleeping room (doors and windows from a distance while remaining concealed from the entrances themselves. To test these hypotheses, 138 participants were asked to arrange a bed and other pieces of furniture on floor plans that were experimentally manipulated with respect to the direction in which the door opened and the presence of a window. In agreement with predictions, participants predominantly positioned the bed in a way that (a allowed them to see the door, (b was as distant as possible from the door, and (c was on the side of the room toward which the door opened. In addition, the positioning of the bed was influenced as predicted by the presence of a window.

  16. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-A Lee


    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  17. An Evolutionary Perspective of Nutrition and Inflammation as Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Rubio-Ruiz


    Full Text Available When cardiovascular diseases are viewed from an evolutionary biology perspective, a heightened thrifty and an inflammatory design could be their mechanisms. Human ancestors confronted a greater infectious load and were subjected to the selection for proinflammatory genes and a strong inflammatory function. Ancestors also faced starvation periods that pressed for a thrifty genotype which caused fat accumulation. The pressure of sustaining gluconeogenesis during periods of poor nourishment selected individuals with insulin resistance. Obesity induces a proinflammatory state due to the secretion of adipokines which underlie cardiometabolic diseases. Our actual lifestyle needs no more of such proinflammatory and thrifty genotypes and these ancestral genes might increase predisposition to diseases. Risk factors for atherosclerosis and diabetes are based on inflammatory and genetic foundations that can be accounted for by excess fat. Longevity has also increased in recent times and is related to a proinflammatory response with cardiovascular consequences. If human ancestral lifestyle could be recovered by increasing exercise and adapting a calorie restriction diet, obesity would decrease and the effects on chronic low-grade inflammation would be limited. Thereby, the rates of both atherosclerosis and diabetes could be reduced.

  18. Sleeping in safe places: an experimental investigation of human sleeping place preferences from an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Stich, Jennifer


    Although humans spend a third of their life asleep, their choice of sleeping places has so far been little investigated both theoretically and empirically. We address this issue from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. Our basic assumption is that humans have an evolved preference for safe sleeping places, that is, those that promise protection against potential aggressors and nighttime predation. Several testable predictions were derived from this assumption concerning the preferred location of the bed in a sleeping room. Specifically, we predicted that people prefer sleeping places that allow them to view the entrances to the sleeping room (doors and windows) from a distance while remaining concealed from the entrances themselves. To test these hypotheses, 138 participants were asked to arrange a bed and other pieces of furniture on floor plans that were experimentally manipulated with respect to the direction in which the door opened and the presence of a window. In agreement with predictions, participants predominantly positioned the bed in a way that (a) allowed them to see the door, (b) was as distant as possible from the door, and (c) was on the side of the room toward which the door opened. In addition, the positioning of the bed was influenced as predicted by the presence of a window.

  19. Maternal capital and the metabolic ghetto: An evolutionary perspective on the transgenerational basis of health inequalities. (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K


    There is particular interest in understanding socioeconomic and ethnic variability in health status. The developmental origins of disease hypothesis emphasize the importance of growth patterns across the life-course in relation to noncommunicable disease risk. The physiological components of cardiovascular risk, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome, derive in part from a disparity between the homeostatic "metabolic capacity" of vital organs and the "metabolic load" induced by large tissue masses, a rich diet and sedentary behavior. From an evolutionary perspective, the risk of such disparity is decreased by maternal physiology regulating offspring growth trajectory during gestation and lactation. Maternal capital, defined as phenotypic resources enabling investment in the offspring, allows effective buffering of the offspring from nutritional perturbations and represents the environmental niche initially occupied by the offspring. Offspring growth patterns are sensitive to the magnitude of maternal capital during early windows of plasticity. Offspring life-history strategy can then respond adaptively to further factors across the life-course, but only within the context of this initial maternal influence on growth. Maternal somatic capital is primarily gained or lost across generations, through variable rates of fetal and infant growth. I argue that the poor nutritional experience of populations subjected to colonialism resulted in a systematic loss of maternal capital, reflected in downward secular trends in stature. Accelerating the recovery of somatic capital within generations overloads metabolic capacity and exacerbates cardiovascular risk, reflected in increased disease rates in urbanizing and emigrant populations. Public health policies need to benefit metabolic capacity without exacerbating metabolic load.

  20. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct


    Davis C


    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive ...

  1. Is capitalism in our genes? Competition, cooperation and the idea of homo oeconomicus from an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portera Mariagrazia


    Full Text Available In the last few years a growing number of academic disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences have turned to the evolutionary approach: Evolutionary Economics, among these disciplines, is a thriving subfield of Economics, which adopts Darwin’s evolutionary ideas and concepts for the understanding of economic system and modes of production. Evolutionary hypotheses such as the „selfish gene“ idea, the ideas of „inclusive fitness“, „struggle for life“ and „survival of the fittest“ may suggest - and have indeed suggested - that humans are rational self-interest individuals, doing what they can to increase their own reproductive chances or at least the chances of their close relatives („inclusive fitness“. To put it differently, evolutionary theory seems to suggest that capitalism (in a broad sense is a system that has co-evolved with humans and best fits our evolved psychology. Is this the whole story? Is capitalism „in our genes“? In this paper I argue that conclusions such as „we are born to be rational self-interested agents“ or „capitalism is encoded in our genome“ are the result of a misleading application of Darwin’s evolutionary theory to human socio-economic processes, mainly to justify a (Western society based on selfish principles, but which is not naturally selfish in itself. Evolution seems to be the result of cooperative, not only (or not mainly competitive processes, and the model of Homo oeconomicus, that is the idea that humans are rational self-interested agents always trying to maximize profit, is, also from an bio-evolutionary perspective, nothing more than a fictional exercise.

  2. Conservation and diversification of an ancestral chordate gene regulatory network for dorsoventral patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozmikova

    Full Text Available Formation of a dorsoventral axis is a key event in the early development of most animal embryos. It is well established that bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps and Wnts are key mediators of dorsoventral patterning in vertebrates. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, genes encoding Bmps and transcription factors downstream of Bmp signaling such as Vent are expressed in patterns reminiscent of those of their vertebrate orthologues. However, the key question is whether the conservation of expression patterns of network constituents implies conservation of functional network interactions, and if so, how an increased functional complexity can evolve. Using heterologous systems, namely by reporter gene assays in mammalian cell lines and by transgenesis in medaka fish, we have compared the gene regulatory network implicated in dorsoventral patterning of the basal chordate amphioxus and vertebrates. We found that Bmp but not canonical Wnt signaling regulates promoters of genes encoding homeodomain proteins AmphiVent1 and AmphiVent2. Furthermore, AmphiVent1 and AmphiVent2 promoters appear to be correctly regulated in the context of a vertebrate embryo. Finally, we show that AmphiVent1 is able to directly repress promoters of AmphiGoosecoid and AmphiChordin genes. Repression of genes encoding dorsal-specific signaling molecule Chordin and transcription factor Goosecoid by Xenopus and zebrafish Vent genes represents a key regulatory interaction during vertebrate axis formation. Our data indicate high evolutionary conservation of a core Bmp-triggered gene regulatory network for dorsoventral patterning in chordates and suggest that co-option of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway for dorsoventral patterning in vertebrates represents one of the innovations through which an increased morphological complexity of vertebrate embryo is achieved.

  3. Anteroposterior patterning in hemichordates and the origins of the chordate nervous system (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher J.; Wu, Mike; Salic, Adrian; Evans, Louise; Lander, Eric; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Gruber, Christian E.; Gerhart, John; Kirschner, Marc


    The chordate central nervous system has been hypothesized to originate from either a dorsal centralized, or a ventral centralized, or a noncentralized nervous system of a deuterostome ancestor. In an effort to resolve these issues, we examined the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii and studied the expression of orthologs of genes that are involved in patterning the chordate central nervous system. All 22 orthologs studied are expressed in the ectoderm in an anteroposterior arrangement nearly identical to that found in chordates. Domain topography is conserved between hemichordates and chordates despite the fact that hemichordates have a diffuse nerve net, whereas chordates have a centralized system. We propose that the deuterostome ancestor may have had a diffuse nervous system, which was later centralized during the evolution of the chordate lineage.

  4. Current review of genetics of human obesity: from molecular mechanisms to an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Albuquerque, David; Stice, Eric; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Manco, Licíno; Nóbrega, Clévio


    It is well-known that obesity is a complex multifactorial and heterogeneous condition with an important genetic component. Recently, major advances in obesity research emerged concerning the molecular mechanisms contributing to the obese condition. This review outlines several studies and data concerning the genetics and other important factors in the susceptibility risk to develop obesity. Based in the genetic etiology three main categories of obesity are considered: monogenic, syndromic, and common obesity. For the monogenic forms of obesity, the gene causing the phenotype is clearly identified, whereas for the common obesity the loci architecture underlying the phenotype is still being characterized. Given that, in this review we focus mainly in this obesity form, reviewing loci found until now by genome-wide association studies related with the susceptibility risk to develop obesity. Moreover, we also detail the obesity-related loci identified in children and in different ethnic groups, trying to highlight the complexity of the genetics underlying the common obese phenotype. Importantly, we also focus in the evolutionary hypotheses that have been proposed trying to explain how natural selection favored the spread of genes that increase the risk for an obese phenotype and how this predisposition to obesity evolved. Other factors are important in the obesity condition, and thus, we also discuss the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the susceptibility and development of obesity. Covering all these topics we expect to provide a complete and recent perspective about the underlying mechanisms involved in the development and origin of obesity. Only with a full understanding of the factors and mechanisms contributing to obesity, it will be possible to provide and allow the development of new therapeutic approaches to this condition.

  5. Evolution of the reproductive endocrine system in chordates. (United States)

    Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali


    The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates.

  6. Evolutionary perspectives on human personality. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman (United States)

    Southard, Ashton C.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Shackelford, Todd K.


    Yair Neuman [6] presents many provocative ideas in his interdisciplinary approach to human personality. In this commentary, we focus on his ideas regarding (1) the evolutionary basis of personality and (2) human sperm competition.

  7. Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates. (United States)

    Janvier, Philippe


    The interrelationships between major living vertebrate, and even chordate, groups are now reasonably well resolved thanks to a large amount of generally congruent data derived from molecular sequences, anatomy and physiology. But fossils provide unexpected combinations of characters that help us to understand how the anatomy of modern groups was progressively shaped over millions of years. The dawn of vertebrates is documented by fossils that are preserved as either soft-tissue imprints, or minute skeletal fragments, and it is sometimes difficult for palaeontologists to tell which of them are reliable vertebrate remains and which merely reflect our idea of an ancestral vertebrate.

  8. Some assembly required: evolutionary and systems perspectives on the mammalian reproductive system. (United States)

    Mordhorst, Bethany R; Wilson, Miranda L; Conant, Gavin C


    In this review, we discuss the way that insights from evolutionary theory and systems biology shed light on form and function in mammalian reproductive systems. In the first part of the review, we contrast the rapid evolution seen in some reproductive genes with the generally conservative nature of development. We discuss directional selection and coevolution as potential drivers of rapid evolution in sperm and egg proteins. Such rapid change is very different from the highly conservative nature of later embryo development. However, it is not unique, as some regions of the sex chromosomes also show elevated rates of evolutionary change. To explain these contradictory trends, we argue that it is not reproductive functions per se that induce rapid evolution. Rather, it is the fact that biotic interactions, such as speciation events and sexual conflict, have no evolutionary endpoint and hence can drive continuous evolutionary changes. Returning to the question of sex chromosome evolution, we discuss the way that recent advances in evolutionary genomics and systems biology and, in particular, the development of a theory of gene balance provide a better understanding of the evolutionary patterns seen on these chromosomes. We end the review with a discussion of a surprising and incompletely understood phenomenon observed in early embryos: namely the Warburg effect, whereby glucose is fermented to lactate and alanine rather than respired to carbon dioxide. We argue that evolutionary insights, from both yeasts and tumor cells, help to explain the Warburg effect, and that new metabolic modeling approaches are useful in assessing the potential sources of the effect.

  9. Gridded genomic libraries of different chordate species: a reference library system for basic and comparative genetic studies of chordate genomes. (United States)

    Burgtorf, C; Welzel, K; Hasenbank, R; Zehetner, G; Weis, S; Lehrach, H


    The use of genomic libraries maintained in arrayed format is becoming a more and more popular tool for the analysis of molecular evolution and comparative molecular development. Being able to use already existing reference libraries considerably reduces the work load, and if results are made publicly available, it will facilitate in silica experiments in the future. Here we describe the construction and preliminary characterization of six cosmid libraries of different chordate species, Ciona intestinalis (Hemichordate), Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordate), Lampetra fluviatilis (Cyclostoma), Xiphophorus maculatus, and Danio rerio (Osteichthyes) in Lawrist7 and Fugu rubripes in Lawrist4.

  10. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods: an evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; van Baalen, E-J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.


    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms, robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones a

  11. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods : An evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B; van Baalen, EJA; Dicke, M; Vet, LEM


    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms. robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones a

  12. The Role of Affordances in the Evolutionary Process Reconsidered A Niche Construction Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot


    Gibson asserted that affordances are the primary objects of perception. Although this assertion is especially attractive when considered in the context of evolutionary theory, the role that affordances play in the evolution of animals' perceptual and action systems is still unclear. Trying to combin

  13. Homosexual mating preferences from an evolutionary perspective: sexual selection theory revisited. (United States)

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Perkins, Patrick S; Baker, Jessica H; Balcer, Kristen D; Breedlove, S Marc; Klump, Kelly L


    Studies in evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory show that heterosexual men prefer younger mating partners than heterosexual women in order to ensure reproductive success. However, previous research has generally not examined differences in mating preferences as a function of sexual orientation or the type of relationship sought in naturalistic settings. Given that homosexual men seek partners for reasons other than procreation, they may exhibit different mating preferences than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, mating preferences may show important differences depending on whether an individual is seeking a long-term versus a short-term relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine these issues by comparing partner preferences in terms of age and relationship type between homosexual and heterosexual men placing internet personal advertisements. Participants included 439 homosexual and 365 heterosexual men who placed internet ads in the U.S. or Canada. Ads were coded for the participant's age, relationship type (longer-term or short-term sexual encounter) sought, and partner age preferences. Significantly more homosexual than heterosexual men sought sexual encounters, although men (regardless of sexual orientation) seeking sexual encounters preferred a significantly wider age range of partners than men seeking longer-term relationships. These findings suggest that partner preferences are independent of evolutionary drives to procreate, since both types of men preferred similar ages in their partners. In addition, they highlight the importance of examining relationship type in evolutionary studies of mating preferences, as men's partner preferences show important differences depending upon the type of relationship sought.

  14. Why do we all want to be young and beautiful (and women especially)? From the evolutionary psychological perspective. (United States)

    Tadinac, Meri


    Within social sciences, the standards of beauty were for a long time considered to be culturally determined, meaning that different people with different life experiences in different cultures acquire different standards of beauty, as captured in the famous sentence "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". However, two groups of findings have challenged this common assumption: first, people in different cultures generally agree on which faces are attractive; second, preferences emerge early in life, before cultural standards of beauty are likely to be assimilated. Evolutionary psychology explores the psychological adaptations (evolved psychological mechanisms constructed by natural selection) that constitute human nature. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, beauty is not a cultural construct and appreciating beauty is not learned but is rather a biological adaptation, a part of universal human nature: the preferences for some physical characteristics reflect adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Theory of natural selection explains the adaptations, which help organisms in their tasks of survival. However, an organism can be adapted and survive for many years without passing its qualities to future generations--to pass them it must reproduce. The theory of sexual selection explains the adaptations that have arisen as a consequence of successful mating. In order to gain reproductive success, women and men adopt certain mate selection strategies--integrated sets of adaptations, not necessarily conscious, which organize and guide the individual's reproductive efforts.

  15. The neuro-immunological interface in an evolutionary perspective: the dynamic relationship between effector and recognition systems. (United States)

    Ottaviani, E; Valensin, S; Franceschi, C


    The evolutionary perspective indicates that an immune-neuroendocrine effector system integrating innate immunity, stress and inflammation is present in invertebrates. This defense network, centered on the macrophage and exerting primitive and highly promiscuous recognition units, is very effective, ancestral and appears to have been conserved throughout evolution from invertebrates to higher vertebrates. It would seem that there was a "big bang" in the recognition system of lower vertebrates, and T and B cell repertoires, MHC and antibodies suddenly appeared. We argue that this phenomenon is the counterpart of the increasing complexity of the internal circuitry and recognition units in the effector system. The immediate consequences were a progressive enlargement of the pathogen repertoire and new problems regarding self/not-self discrimination. Probably not by chance, a new organ appeared, capable of purging cells able of excessive self recognition. This organ, the thymus, appears to be the result of a well known evolutionary strategy of re-using pre-existing material (neuroendocrine cells and mediators constituting the thymic microenvironment). This bricolage at an organ level is similar to the effect we have already described at the level of molecules and functions of the defense network, and has a general counterpart at genetic level. Thus, in vertebrates, the conserved immune-neuroendocrine effector system remains of fundamental importance in defense against pathogens, while its efficiency has increased through synergy with the new, clonotipical recognition repertoire.

  16. Vertebrate-like regeneration in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus. (United States)

    Somorjai, Ildikó M L; Somorjai, Rajmund L; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Escrivà, Hector


    An important question in biology is why some animals are able to regenerate, whereas others are not. The basal chordate amphioxus is uniquely positioned to address the evolution of regeneration. We report here the high regeneration potential of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Adults regenerate both anterior and posterior structures, including neural tube, notochord, fin, and muscle. Development of a classifier based on tail regeneration profiles predicts the assignment of young and old adults to their own class with >94% accuracy. The process involves loss of differentiated characteristics, formation of an msx-expressing blastema, and neurogenesis. Moreover, regeneration is linked to the activation of satellite-like Pax3/7 progenitor cells, the extent of which declines with size and age. Our results provide a framework for understanding the evolution and diversity of regeneration mechanisms in vertebrates.

  17. An evolutionary perspective of AMPK-TOR signaling in the three domains of life. (United States)

    Roustan, Valentin; Jain, Arpit; Teige, Markus; Ebersberger, Ingo; Weckwerth, Wolfram


    AMPK and TOR protein kinases are the major control points of energy signaling in eukaryotic cells and organisms. They form the core of a complex regulatory network to co-ordinate metabolic activities in the cytosol with those in the mitochondria and plastids. Despite its relevance, it is still unclear when and how this regulatory pathway was formed during evolution, and to what extent its representations in the major eukaryotic lineages resemble each other. Here we have traced 153 essential proteins forming the human AMPK-TOR pathways across 412 species representing all three domains of life-prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) and eukaryotes-and reconstructed their evolutionary history. The resulting phylogenetic profiles indicate the presence of primordial core pathways including seven proto-kinases in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The evolutionary origins of the oldest components of the AMPK pathway, however, extend into the pre-eukaryotic era, and descendants of these ancient proteins can still be found in contemporary prokaryotes. The TOR complex in turn appears as a eukaryotic invention, possibly to aid in retrograde signaling between the mitochondria and the remainder of the cell. Within the eukaryotes, AMPK/TOR showed both a highly conserved core structure and a considerable plasticity. Most notably, KING1, a protein originally assigned as the γ subunit of AMPK in plants, is more closely related to the yeast SDS23 gene family than to the γ subunits in animals or fungi. This suggests its functional difference from a canonical AMPK γ subunit.

  18. Identification of novel glutathione transferases in Echinococcus granulosus. An evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Arbildi, Paula; La-Rocca, Silvana; Musto, Héctor; Fernández, Verónica


    Glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTs) constitute a major detoxification system in helminth parasites and have been related to the modulation of host immune response mechanisms. At least three different GSTs classes have been described in Platyhelminthes: Mu, Sigma and Omega. Mining the genome of Echinococcus multilocularis and the ESTs databases of Taenia solium and E. granulosus identified two new GSTs from the cestode E. granulosus, named EgGST2 and EgGST3. It also revealed that the Omega class of GSTs was absent from the Taenidae family. EgGST2 and EgGST3 are actively expressed in the parasite. In order to know the origin of these new GSTs, in silico analyses were performed. While EgGST2 is classified as belonging to the Sigma class, the data obtained for EgGST3 allowed a less clear interpretation. The study of the evolutionary relatedness based on the C-terminal domain sequence, gene structure conservation and three-dimensional structure predictions, suggests that EgGST3 is derived from the Platyhelminthes' Sigma-class cluster. Interestingly, the N-terminal domain displays some characteristic Omega-class residues, including a Cys residue that is likely to be involved in the catalytic mechanism. We discuss different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the observed patterns.

  19. An evolutionary examination of telemedicine: a health and computer-mediated communication perspective. (United States)

    Breen, Gerald-Mark; Matusitz, Jonathan


    Telemedicine, the use of advanced communication technologies in the healthcare context, has a rich history and a clear evolutionary course. In this paper, the authors identify telemedicine as operationally defined, the services and technologies it comprises, the direction telemedicine has taken, along with its increased acceptance in the healthcare communities. The authors also describe some of the key pitfalls warred with by researchers and activists to advance telemedicine to its full potential and lead to an unobstructed team of technicians to identify telemedicine's diverse utilities. A discussion and future directions section is included to provide fresh ideas to health communication and computer-mediated scholars wishing to delve into this area and make a difference to enhance public understanding of this field.

  20. The complex evolutionary dynamics of Hsp70s: a genomic and functional perspective. (United States)

    Kominek, Jacek; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Craig, Elizabeth A; Williams, Barry L


    Hsp70 molecular chaperones are ubiquitous. By preventing aggregation, promoting folding, and regulating degradation, Hsp70s are major factors in the ability of cells to maintain proteostasis. Despite a wealth of functional information, little is understood about the evolutionary dynamics of Hsp70s. We undertook an analysis of Hsp70s in the fungal clade Ascomycota. Using the well-characterized 14 Hsp70s of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified 491 orthologs from 53 genomes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp70s fall into seven subfamilies: four canonical-type Hsp70 chaperones (SSA, SSB, KAR, and SSC) and three atypical Hsp70s (SSE, SSZ, and LHS) that play regulatory roles, modulating the activity of canonical Hsp70 partners. Each of the 53 surveyed genomes harbored at least one member of each subfamily, and thus establishing these seven Hsp70s as units of function and evolution. Genomes of some species contained only one member of each subfamily that is only seven Hsp70s. Overall, members of each subfamily formed a monophyletic group, suggesting that each diversified from their corresponding ancestral gene present in the common ancestor of all surveyed species. However, the pattern of evolution varied across subfamilies. At one extreme, members of the SSB subfamily evolved under concerted evolution. At the other extreme, SSA and SSC subfamilies exhibited a high degree of copy number dynamics, consistent with a birth-death mode of evolution. KAR, SSE, SSZ, and LHS subfamilies evolved in a simple divergent mode with little copy number dynamics. Together, our data revealed that the evolutionary history of this highly conserved and ubiquitous protein family was surprising complex and dynamic.

  1. Structural Perspectives on the Evolutionary Expansion of Unique Protein-Protein Binding Sites. (United States)

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shaytan, Alexey K; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Panchenko, Anna R


    Structures of protein complexes provide atomistic insights into protein interactions. Human proteins represent a quarter of all structures in the Protein Data Bank; however, available protein complexes cover less than 10% of the human proteome. Although it is theoretically possible to infer interactions in human proteins based on structures of homologous protein complexes, it is still unclear to what extent protein interactions and binding sites are conserved, and whether protein complexes from remotely related species can be used to infer interactions and binding sites. We considered biological units of protein complexes and clustered protein-protein binding sites into similarity groups based on their structure and sequence, which allowed us to identify unique binding sites. We showed that the growth rate of the number of unique binding sites in the Protein Data Bank was much slower than the growth rate of the number of structural complexes. Next, we investigated the evolutionary roots of unique binding sites and identified the major phyletic branches with the largest expansion in the number of novel binding sites. We found that many binding sites could be traced to the universal common ancestor of all cellular organisms, whereas relatively few binding sites emerged at the major evolutionary branching points. We analyzed the physicochemical properties of unique binding sites and found that the most ancient sites were the largest in size, involved many salt bridges, and were the most compact and least planar. In contrast, binding sites that appeared more recently in the evolution of eukaryotes were characterized by a larger fraction of polar and aromatic residues, and were less compact and more planar, possibly due to their more transient nature and roles in signaling processes.

  2. The puzzle of partial migration: Adaptive dynamics and evolutionary game theory perspectives. (United States)

    De Leenheer, Patrick; Mohapatra, Anushaya; Ohms, Haley A; Lytle, David A; Cushing, J M


    We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only. We show that this allocation strategy is both an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) as well as a convergence stable strategy (CSS). To establish the former, we generalize the classical notion of an ESS because it is based on invasion exponents obtained from linearization arguments, which fail to capture the stabilizing effects of the nonlinear density dependence. These results clarify precisely when the notion of a "weak ESS", as proposed in Lundberg (2013) for a related model, is a genuine ESS. Secondly, we use an evolutionary game theory approach, and confirm, once again, that partial migration can be attributed to negative density dependence alone. In this context, the result holds even when density dependence is not attenuated. In this case, the optimal allocation strategy towards migrants is the same as the ESS stemming from the analysis based on the adaptive dynamics. The key feature of the population models considered here is that they are monotone dynamical systems, which enables a rather comprehensive mathematical analysis.

  3. An evolutionary perspective on reproductive individual heterogeneity in a marine vertebrate. (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A


    Although the quantification of individual heterogeneity in wild populations' vital rates has recently attracted growing interest among ecologists, the investigation of its evolutionary consequences remains limited, mainly because of the difficulties in assessing fitness and heritability from field studies on free-ranging animals. In the presence of individual variability, evaluation of fitness consequences can notably be complicated by the existence of trade-offs among different vital rates. In this study, to further assess the evolutionary significance of previously quantified levels of individual heterogeneity in female Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii Lesson) reproductive rates (Chambert et al. ), we investigated how several life-history characteristics of female offspring were related to their mother's reproductive rate, as well as to other maternal traits (age and experience) and environmental conditions at birth. The probability and age of first reproduction (recruitment) of female offspring was not related to their mother's reproductive rate, suggesting the absence of a maternal trade-off between the number and quality of offspring a female produces. Evidence of a positive, but relatively weak, relationship between the reproductive rates of a mother and her female offspring was found, suggesting some degree of heritability in this trait. Using a simulation approach based on these statistical findings, we showed that substantial differences in the number of grandchildren, produced through female progeny, can be expected among females with different reproductive rates. Despite the presence of substantial stochastic variability, due to environmental fluctuations and other unidentified mechanisms, and in the light of the fact that the metrics obtained do not provide a full measure of real fitness, our results do suggest that the individual reproductive variability found in female Weddell seals could potentially have important fitness consequences.

  4. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik


    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  5. Altruism, egoism, or neither: A cognitive-efficiency-based evolutionary biological perspective on helping behavior. (United States)

    Schulz, Armin W


    I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention. Furthermore, I also argue that, while these pressures away from pure egoism can lead to the evolution of altruists, they can also lead to the evolution of reciprocation-focused behaviorist helpers or even of reflex-driven helpers (who are neither altruists nor egoists). In this way, I seek to broaden the set of considerations typically taken into account when assessing the evolution of the psychology of helping behavior-which tend to be restricted to matters of reliability-and also try to make clearer the role of evolutionary biological considerations in the discussion of this apparently straightforwardly psychological phenomenon.

  6. Structure and scale of the mechanics of mammalian dental enamel viewed from an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Lucas, Peter W; Philip, Swapna M; Al-Qeoud, Dareen; Al-Draihim, Nuha; Saji, Sreeja; van Casteren, Adam


    Mammalian enamel, the contact dental tissue, is something of an enigma. It is almost entirely made of hydroxyapatite, yet exhibits very different mechanical behavior to a homogeneous block of the same mineral. Recent approaches suggest that its hierarchical composite form, similar to other biological hard tissues, leads to a mechanical performance that depends very much on the scale of measurement. The stiffness of the material is predicted to be highest at the nanoscale, being sacrificed to produce a high toughness at the largest scale, that is, at the level of the tooth crown itself. Yet because virtually all this research has been conducted only on human (or sometimes "bovine") enamel, there has been little regard for structural variation of the tissue considered as evolutionary adaptation to diet. What is mammalian enamel optimized for? We suggest that there are competing selective pressures. We suggest that the structural characteristics that optimize enamel to resist large-scale fractures, such as crown failures, are very different to those that resist wear (small-scale fracture). While enamel is always designed for damage tolerance, this may be suboptimal in the enamel of some species, including modern humans (which have been the target of most investigations), in order to counteract wear. The experimental part of this study introduces novel techniques that help to assess resistance at the nanoscale.

  7. Form-function relationships in dragonfly mandibles under an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Blanke, Alexander; Schmitz, Helmut; Patera, Alessandra; Dutel, Hugo; Fagan, Michael J


    Functional requirements may constrain phenotypic diversification or foster it. For insect mouthparts, the quantification of the relationship between shape and function in an evolutionary framework remained largely unexplored. Here, the question of a functional influence on phenotypic diversification for dragonfly mandibles is assessed with a large-scale biomechanical analysis covering nearly all anisopteran families, using finite element analysis in combination with geometric morphometrics. A constraining effect of phylogeny could be found for shape, the mandibular mechanical advantage (MA), and certain mechanical joint parameters, while stresses and strains, the majority of joint parameters and size are influenced by shared ancestry. Furthermore, joint mechanics are correlated with neither strain nor mandibular MA and size effects have virtually play no role for shape or mechanical variation. The presence of mandibular strengthening ridges shows no phylogenetic signal except for one ridge peculiar to Libelluloidea, and ridge presence is also not correlated with each other. The results suggest that functional traits are more variable at this taxonomic level and that they are not influenced by shared ancestry. At the same time, the results contradict the widespread idea that mandibular morphology mainly reflects functional demands at least at this taxonomic level. The varying functional factors rather lead to the same mandibular performance as expressed by the MA, which suggests a many-to-one mapping of the investigated parameters onto the same narrow mandibular performance space.

  8. The effect of stochasticity on the lac operon: an evolutionary perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan van Hoek


    Full Text Available The role of stochasticity on gene expression is widely discussed. Both potential advantages and disadvantages have been revealed. In some systems, noise in gene expression has been quantified, in among others the lac operon of Escherichia coli. Whether stochastic gene expression in this system is detrimental or beneficial for the cells is, however, still unclear. We are interested in the effects of stochasticity from an evolutionary point of view. We study this question in the lac operon, taking a computational approach: using a detailed, quantitative, spatial model, we evolve through a mutation-selection process the shape of the promoter function and therewith the effective amount of stochasticity. We find that noise values for lactose, the natural inducer, are much lower than for artificial, nonmetabolizable inducers, because these artificial inducers experience a stronger positive feedback. In the evolved promoter functions, noise due to stochasticity in gene expression, when induced by lactose, only plays a very minor role in short-term physiological adaptation, because other sources of population heterogeneity dominate. Finally, promoter functions evolved in the stochastic model evolve to higher repressed transcription rates than those evolved in a deterministic version of the model. This causes these promoter functions to experience less stochasticity in gene expression. We show that a high repression rate and hence high stochasticity increases the delay in lactose uptake in a variable environment. We conclude that the lac operon evolved such that the impact of stochastic gene expression is minor in its natural environment, but happens to respond with much stronger stochasticity when confronted with artificial inducers. In this particular system, we have shown that stochasticity is detrimental. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution in a quantitative model, by mutating the parameters of interest, is a promising way to unravel

  9. Evolutionary and functional perspectives on signaling from neuronal surface to nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Li, Boxing; Tsien, Richard W., E-mail:; Ma, Huan, E-mail:


    Reliance on Ca{sup 2+} signaling has been well-preserved through the course of evolution. While the complexity of Ca{sup 2+} signaling pathways has increased, activation of transcription factors including CREB by Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-dependent kinases (CaMKs) has remained critical for long-term plasticity. In C. elegans, the CaMK family is made up of only three members, and CREB phosphorylation is mediated by CMK-1, the homologue of CaMKI. CMK-1 nuclear translocation directly regulates adaptation of thermotaxis behavior in response to changes in the environment. In mammals, the CaMK family has been expanded from three to ten members, enabling specialization of individual elements of a signal transduction pathway and increased reliance on the CaMKII subfamily. This increased complexity enables private line communication between Ca{sup 2+} sources at the cell surface and specific cellular targets. Using both new and previously published data, we review the mechanism of a γCaMKII-CaM nuclear translocation. This intricate pathway depends on a specific role for multiple Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-dependent kinases and phosphatases: α/βCaMKII phosphorylates γCaMKII to trap CaM; CaN dephosphorylates γCaMKII to dispatch it to the nucleus; and PP2A induces CaM release from γCaMKII so that CaMKK and CaMKIV can trigger CREB phosphorylation. Thus, while certain basic elements have been conserved from C. elegans, evolutionary modifications offer opportunities for targeted communication, regulation of key nodes and checkpoints, and greater specificity and flexibility in signaling.

  10. The genome sequence of the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Neff, Norma F; Sahoo, Debashis; Newman, Aaron M; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Koh, Winston; Passarelli, Benedetto; Fan, H Christina; Mantalas, Gary L; Palmeri, Karla J; Ishizuka, Katherine J; Gissi, Carmela; Griggio, Francesca; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Corey, Daniel M; Penland, Lolita; White, Richard A; Weissman, Irving L; Quake, Stephen R


    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate that follows the chordate plan of development following sexual reproduction, but invokes a stem cell-mediated budding program during subsequent rounds of asexual reproduction. As urochordates are considered to be the closest living invertebrate relatives of vertebrates, they are ideal subjects for whole genome sequence analyses. Using a novel method for high-throughput sequencing of eukaryotic genomes, we sequenced and assembled 580 Mbp of the B. schlosseri genome. The genome assembly is comprised of nearly 14,000 intron-containing predicted genes, and 13,500 intron-less predicted genes, 40% of which could be confidently parceled into 13 (of 16 haploid) chromosomes. A comparison of homologous genes between B. schlosseri and other diverse taxonomic groups revealed genomic events underlying the evolution of vertebrates and lymphoid-mediated immunity. The B. schlosseri genome is a community resource for studying alternative modes of reproduction, natural transplantation reactions, and stem cell-mediated regeneration. DOI: PMID:23840927

  11. Cortical Motor Organization, Mirror Neurons, and Embodied Language: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fogassi


    Full Text Available The recent conceptual achievement that the cortical motor system plays a crucial role not only in motor control but also in higher cognitive functions has given a new perspective also on the involvement of motor cortex in language perception and production. In particular, there is evidence that the matching mechanism based on mirror neurons can be involved in both pho-nological recognition and retrieval of meaning, especially for action word categories, thus suggesting a contribution of an action–perception mechanism to the automatic comprehension of semantics. Furthermore, a compari-son of the anatomo-functional properties of the frontal motor cortex among different primates and their communicative modalities indicates that the combination of the voluntary control of the gestural communication systems and of the vocal apparatus has been the critical factor in the transition from a gestural-based communication into a predominantly speech-based system. Finally, considering that the monkey and human premotor-parietal motor system, plus the prefrontal cortex, are involved in the sequential motor organization of actions and in the hierarchical combination of motor elements, we propose that elements of such motor organization have been exploited in other domains, including some aspects of the syntactic structure of language.

  12. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManyiYang; ShaochunYuan; Shengfeng Huang; Jun Li; Liqun Xu; Huiqing Huang; Xin Tao; Jian peng; Anlong Xu


    The MyD88-independent pathway,one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes,Is thought to be a vertebrate innovation.However,a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor,designated bbtTICAM,which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus,links this pathway to invertebrates.The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1,also known as TRIF),while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAMI and TICAM2(TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2,also known as TRAM).Similar to human TICAM1,bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif.Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes,and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile a and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2.However,bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon.Thus,our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM I and TICAM2,but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates,which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  13. Symmetry breaking and convergent extension in early chordate development. (United States)

    Schiffmann, Yoram


    The initiation of axis, polarity, cell differentiation, and gastrulation in the very early chordate development is due to the breaking of radial symmetry. It is believed that this occurs by an external signal. We suggest instead spontaneous symmetry breaking through the agency of the Turing-Child field. Increased size or decreased diffusivity, both brought about by mitotic activity, cause the spontaneous loss of stability of the homogeneous state and the evolution of the metabolic pattern during development. The polar metabolic pattern is the cause of polar gene expression, polar morphogenesis (gastrulation), and polar mitotic activity. The Turing-Child theory explains not only the spontaneous formation of the invagination in gastrulation but also the coherent cell movement observed in convergence and extension during gastrulation and neurulation. The theory is demonstrated with respect to experimental observations on the early development of fish, amphibian, and the chick. The theory can explain a multitude of experimental details. For example, it explains the splayed polar progression of reduction in the fish blastoderm. Reduction starts on that side of the blastoderm margin, which will initiate invagination several hours later. It progresses toward the blastoderm center and somewhat laterally from this future "dorsal lip". This is precisely as predicted by a Turing-Child system in a circle. And for a fish like zebrafish with a blastoderm that is slightly oval, reduction is observed to progress along the long axis of the ellipse, which is what Turing-Child theory predicts. In general the shape and the chemical nature of the experimental patterns are the same as predicted by the Turing couple (cAMP, ATP). Embryological polarity and convergent extension are based on polar eigenfunction and saddle-shaped eigenfunction, respectively.

  14. Evolution of a core gene network for skeletogenesis in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hecht


    Full Text Available The skeleton is one of the most important features for the reconstruction of vertebrate phylogeny but few data are available to understand its molecular origin. In mammals the Runt genes are central regulators of skeletogenesis. Runx2 was shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation, tooth development, and bone formation. Both Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation. Furthermore, Runx2 directly regulates Indian hedgehog expression, a master coordinator of skeletal development. To clarify the correlation of Runt gene evolution and the emergence of cartilage and bone in vertebrates, we cloned the Runt genes from hagfish as representative of jawless fish (MgRunxA, MgRunxB and from dogfish as representative of jawed cartilaginous fish (ScRunx1-3. According to our phylogenetic reconstruction the stem species of chordates harboured a single Runt gene and thereafter Runt locus duplications occurred during early vertebrate evolution. All newly isolated Runt genes were expressed in cartilage according to quantitative PCR. In situ hybridisation confirmed high MgRunxA expression in hard cartilage of hagfish. In dogfish ScRunx2 and ScRunx3 were expressed in embryonal cartilage whereas all three Runt genes were detected in teeth and placoid scales. In cephalochordates (lancelets Runt, Hedgehog and SoxE were strongly expressed in the gill bars and expression of Runt and Hedgehog was found in endo- as well as ectodermal cells. Furthermore we demonstrate that the lancelet Runt protein binds to Runt binding sites in the lancelet Hedgehog promoter and regulates its activity. Together, these results suggest that Runt and Hedgehog were part of a core gene network for cartilage formation, which was already active in the gill bars of the common ancestor of cephalochordates and vertebrates and diversified after Runt duplications had occurred during vertebrate evolution. The similarities in expression patterns of Runt genes support the view

  15. How the unique configuration of the human head may enhance flavor perception capabilities: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman


    configuration of the human pharynx (Figure 1. Unlike other mammals, humans have a relatively short and retracted face, which results in a short oral cavity with a rounded tongue whose inferior margin lies well below the margin of the mandible. Because the hyoid and larynx are suspended from the base of the tongue, the human larynx becomes separated early in postnatal life relative to the oral cavity, causing humans to be the only species with a non-intranarial epiglottis in which the epiglottis does not contact the soft palate [3]. As a result, humans have no separation between the airway and foodway in the oropharynx. The non-intranarial epiglottis makes humans more likely to choke on food than other mammals, but helps humans produce more perceptible speech by setting up a two-tube vocal tract whose horizontal and vertical portions are equal in length and whose cross sectional areas can be modified independently by approximately 10-fold by the tongue [5]. Although this configuration almost certainly evolved for speech, it likely has beneficial consequences for retronasal olfaction. Whereas all other mammals, including chimpanzees, store a bolus of food prior to swallowing anterior to the epiglottis and thus removed from the airway, humans must store the bolus superior to the epiglottis in the pathway of expired air. Thus as humans breathe while chewing between swallows, expired air may be more likely to pick up volatile compounds from foods, which are then transported retronasally to the olfactory epithelium. The hypothesis that derived features of the human head and neck enhance retronasal olfaction needs to be tested. Comparative data are especially needed on retronasal airflow in a variety of mammals including other primates. In addition, more data are needed on retronasal olfactory perception in great apes such as chimpanzees. However, if true, then it is possible that humans may have uniquely enhanced abilities to detect flavor from food, raising several evolutionary

  16. What can other animals tell us about human social cognition?An evolutionary perspective on reflective and reflexive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Hecht


    Full Text Available Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective‐taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher‐level functions to lower‐level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals. A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes as phylogenically continuous, making findings in other species relevant for understanding our own. One of these phylogenically continuous processes appears to be self‐other matching or simulation. Mice are more sensitive to pain after watching other mice experience pain; geese experience heart rate increases when seeing their mate in conflict; and infant macaques, chimpanzees, and humans automatically mimic adult facial expressions. In this article, we review findings in different species that illustrate how such reflexive processes are related to (higher order reflexive processes, such as cognitive empathy, theory of mind, and learning by imitation. We do so in the context of self‐other matching in three different domains – in the motor domain (somatomotor movements, in the perceptual domain (eye movements and cognition about visual perception, and in the autonomic/emotional domain. We also review research on the developmental origin of these processes and their neural bases across species. We highlight gaps in existing knowledge and point out some questions for future research. We conclude that our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of self‐other mapping and other functions in our own species can be informed by considering the layered complexity these functions in other species.

  17. Marriage: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C


    Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children's survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women's economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride's sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple's parents.

  18. Exercise and cognitive function: a hypothesis for the association of type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease from an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Gilberto NO


    Full Text Available Abstract The association of type II diabetes mellitus (DM2 with Alzheimer's disease (AD has received considerable attention in recent years. In the present paper, a hypothesis for this association from an evolutionary perspective, with emphasis on the close interplay between exercise and cognitive function, will be advanced in order to provide a biological rationale for the notion that the fundamental metabolic features of DM2 act in the brain over a protracted time span to induce the neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease thereby producing cognitive impairment. It is hoped that this hypothesis puts the association of DM2 and AD on firm conceptual grounds from a biological perspective and offers directions for further research.

  19. Modeling RNA polymerase interaction in mitochondria of chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubetsky Vassily A


    selected genes only relative RNA concentrations have been experimentally determined. Conversely, these characteristics and absolute transcription levels can be obtained using relative RNA concentrations and RNA half-lives known from various experimental studies. In this case, the “inverse problem” is solved with multi-objective optimization. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that our model accurately reproduces all relevant experimental data available for plant plastids, as well as the mitochondria of chordates. Using experimental data, the model is applied to estimate binding intensities of phage-type RNA polymerases to their promoters as well as predicting terminator characteristics, including polarization. In addition, one can predict characteristics of phage-type RNA polymerases and the transcription process that are difficult to measure directly, e.g., the association between the promoter’s nucleotide composition and the intensity of polymerase binding. To illustrate the application of our model in functional predictions, we propose a possible mechanism for MELAS syndrome development in human involving a decrease of Phe-tRNA, Val-tRNA and rRNA concentrations in the cell. In addition, we describe how changes in methylation patterns of the mTERF binding site and three promoters in hypothyroid rat correlate with changes in intensities of the mTERF binding and transcription initiations. Finally, we introduce an auxiliary model to describe the interaction between polysomal mRNA and ribonucleases.

  20. Evolutionary relationships of Aurora kinases: Implications for model organism studies and the development of anti-cancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Denis R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As key regulators of mitotic chromosome segregation, the Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases play an important role in cell division. Abnormalities in Aurora kinases have been strongly linked with cancer, which has lead to the recent development of new classes of anti-cancer drugs that specifically target the ATP-binding domain of these kinases. From an evolutionary perspective, the species distribution of the Aurora kinase family is complex. Mammals uniquely have three Aurora kinases, Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, while for other metazoans, including the frog, fruitfly and nematode, only Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases are known. The fungi have a single Aurora-like homolog. Based on the tacit assumption of orthology to human counterparts, model organism studies have been central to the functional characterization of Aurora kinases. However, the ortholog and paralog relationships of these kinases across various species have not been rigorously examined. Here, we present comprehensive evolutionary analyses of the Aurora kinase family. Results Phylogenetic trees suggest that all three vertebrate Auroras evolved from a single urochordate ancestor. Specifically, Aurora-A is an orthologous lineage in cold-blooded vertebrates and mammals, while structurally similar Aurora-B and Aurora-C evolved more recently in mammals from a duplication of an ancestral Aurora-B/C gene found in cold-blooded vertebrates. All so-called Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases of non-chordates are ancestral to the clade of chordate Auroras and, therefore, are not strictly orthologous to vertebrate counterparts. Comparisons of human Aurora-B and Aurora-C sequences to the resolved 3D structure of human Aurora-A lends further support to the evolutionary scenario that vertebrate Aurora-B and Aurora-C are closely related paralogs. Of the 26 residues lining the ATP-binding active site, only three were variant and all were specific to Aurora-A. Conclusions In

  1. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance. (United States)

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S


    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology.

  2. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates. (United States)

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Aldea, Daniel; Oulion, Silvan; Subirana, Lucie; de Lera, Angel R; Somorjai, Ildiko; Escriva, Hector


    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates.

  3. LA CONSERVACIÓN BIOLÓGICA Y SU PERSPECTIVA EVOLUTIVA Biological Conservation and its Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa tres de las principales causas de amenaza a la diversidad biológica, como son la fragmentación y pérdida del hábitat, así como la invasión de especies exóticas, principalmente en lo que compete a sus implicaciones evolutivas. Los efectos de la fragmentación y/o pérdida del hábitat pueden revisarse a la luz de la sinergia entre factores demográficos y genéticos que moldean cambios evolutivos o que llevan a las poblaciones al vórtice de la extinción. Las invasiones biológicas, aunque han generado pérdidas considerables en la diversidad biológica, ofrecen un escenario interesante para estudiar procesos evolutivos contemporáneos.This paper reviews three of the main threats to biological diversity, such as habitat fragmentation /habitat loss, and invasion of exotic species, mainly from their evolutionary implications. Effects of habitat fragmentation/habitat loss could be addressed by looking at the synergy between demographic and genetic factors that together shape evolutionary changes or otherwise bring populations to extinction vortex. Biological invasions, in spite of their strong negative effects on biological diversity, offer an interesting scenario to study contemporary evolutionary processes.

  4. Evolutionary developmental transition from median to paired morphology of vertebrate fins: Perspectives from twin-tail goldfish. (United States)

    Abe, Gembu; Ota, Kinya G


    Vertebrate morphology has been evolutionarily modified by natural and/or artificial selection. The morphological variation of goldfish is a representative example. In particular, the twin-tail strain of ornamental goldfish shows highly diverged anal and caudal fin morphology: bifurcated anal and caudal fins. Recent molecular developmental genetics research revealed that a stop codon mutation in one of the two recently duplicated chordin genes is important for the highly diverged fin morphology of twin-tail goldfish. However, some issues still need to be discussed in the context of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). For example, the bifurcated anal and caudal fins of twin-tail goldfish provided early researchers with insights into the origin of paired fins (pectoral and pelvic fins), but no subsequent researchers have discussed this topic. In addition, although the fossil jawless vertebrate species Euphanerops is also known to have had a bifurcated anal fin, how the bifurcated anal fin of twin-tail goldfish is related to that of fossil jawless vertebrate species has never been investigated. In this review, we present an overview of the early anatomical and embryological studies of twin-tail goldfish. Moreover, based on the similarity of embryonic features between the secondarily bifurcated competent stripe in twin-tail goldfish and the trunk bilateral competent stripes in conventional gnathostomes, we hypothesized that they share the same molecular developmental mechanisms. We also postulate that the bifurcated anal fin of Euphanerops might be caused by the same type of modification of dorsal-ventral patterning that occurs in the twin-tail goldfish, unlike the previously suggested evolutionary process that required the co-option of paired fin developmental mechanisms. Understanding the molecular developmental genetics of twin-tail goldfish allows us to further investigate the evolutionary developmental mechanisms of the origin of paired fins.

  5. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology. (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora


    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive individuals have been documented in the labor market, in everyday life social transactions, and in studies involving experimental economic games. Different explanations have been proposed by economists, social psychologists, and evolutionary psychologists. Some of these explanations assume that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity while others suggest that attractive individuals are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  6. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E.; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R.


    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these o

  7. Reproductive protein evolution in two cryptic species of marine chordate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive character displacement (RCD is a common and taxonomically widespread pattern. In marine broadcast spawning organisms, behavioral and mechanical isolation are absent and prezygotic barriers between species often operate only during the fertilization process. Such barriers are usually a consequence of differences in the way in which sperm and egg proteins interact, so RCD can be manifest as faster evolution of these proteins between species in sympatry than allopatry. Rapid evolution of these proteins often appears to be a consequence of positive (directional selection. Here, we identify a set of candidate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and showed that these GRPs evolve more rapidly than control proteins (those not involved in gamete recognition. Choosing a subset of these gamete recognition proteins that show evidence of positive selection (CIPRO37.40.1, CIPRO60.5.1, CIPRO100.7.1, we then directly test the RCD hypothesis by comparing divergence (omega and polymorphism (McDonald-Kreitman, Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D and F, Fay and Wu's H statistics in sympatric and allopatric populations of two distinct forms of C. intestinalis (Types A and B between which there are strong post-zygotic barriers. Results Candidate gamete recognition proteins from two lineages of C. intestinalis (Type A and B are evolving more rapidly than control proteins, consistent with patterns seen in insects and mammals. However, ω (dN/dS is not significantly different between the sympatric and allopatric populations, and none of the polymorphism statistics show significant differences between sympatric and allopatric populations. Conclusions Enhanced prezygotic isolation in sympatry has become a well-known feature of gamete recognition proteins in marine broadcast spawners. But in most cases the evolutionary process or processes responsible for this pattern have not been identified. Although gamete

  8. The Emergence of New Industries in Space: An evolutionary understanding of industry emergence from a geographical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    This paper claims that in the field of economic geography, research questions about how new industries emerge and the degree to which their emergence are anchored in regional economies are less commonly studied than concepts of for example localisation economies and clusters. Consequently......, there is little knowledge regarding where new industries emerge and why new industries emerge where they do. Therefore there is a need to establish a more rigorous research agenda that will elucidate some of the more fundamental elements that contribute to the creation of new industries. It is the objective...... of this paper to contribute to the recently emerged evolutionary thinking in economic geography (Boschma, Martin 2007, Boschma, Frenken 2006, Grabher 2009) with a conceptual clarification of industry emergence. The paper first reviews the definition of emerging industries as it appears in the field...

  9. Evolutionary perspectives on collective decision making: Studying the implications of diversity and social network structure with agent-based simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Yammarino, Francis J


    Collective, especially group-based, managerial decision making is crucial in organizations. Using an evolutionary theory approach to collective decision making, agent-based simulations were conducted to investigate how collective decision making would be affected by the agents' diversity in problem understanding and/or behavior in discussion, as well as by their social network structure. Simulation results indicated that groups with consistent problem understanding tended to produce higher utility values of ideas and displayed better decision convergence, but only if there was no group-level bias in collective problem understanding. Simulation results also indicated the importance of balance between selection-oriented (i.e., exploitative) and variation-oriented (i.e., explorative) behaviors in discussion to achieve quality final decisions. Expanding the group size and introducing non-trivial social network structure generally improved the quality of ideas at the cost of decision convergence. Simulations with ...

  10. Flagellar movement in two bacteria of the family rickettsiaceae: a re-evaluation of motility in an evolutionary perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vannini

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae have always been largely studied not only for their importance in the medical field, but also as model systems in evolutionary biology. In fact, they share a recent common ancestor with mitochondria. The most studied species, belonging to genera Rickettsia and Orientia, are hosted by terrestrial arthropods and include many human pathogens. Nevertheless, recent findings show that a large part of Rickettsiaceae biodiversity actually resides outside the group of well-known pathogenic bacteria. Collecting data on these recently described non-conventional members of the family is crucial in order to gain information on ancestral features of the whole group. Although bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae, and of the whole order Rickettsiales, are formally described as non-flagellated prokaryotes, some recent findings renewed the debate about this feature. In this paper we report the first finding of members of the family displaying numerous flagella and active movement inside their host cells. These two new taxa are hosted in aquatic environments by protist ciliates and are described here by means of ultrastructural and molecular characterization. Data here reported suggest that the ancestor of Rickettsiales displayed flagellar movement and re-evaluate the hypothesis that motility played a key-role in the origin of mitochondria. Moreover, our study highlights that the aquatic environment represents a well exploited habitat for bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae. Our results encourage a deep re-consideration of ecological and morphological traits of the family and of the whole order.

  11. Perspectives provided by leopard and other cat genomes: how diet determined the evolutionary history of carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Bhak, Jong; O’Brian, Stephen J.; Yeo, Joo-Hong


    Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled humans to generate and investigate the genomes of wild species. This includes the big cat family, such as tigers, lions, and leopards. Adding the first high quality leopard genome, we have performed an in-depth comparative analysis to identify the genomic signatures in the evolution of felid to become the top predators on land. Our study focused on how the carnivore genomes, as compared to the omnivore or herbivore genomes, shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with nutrient metabolism, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for hunting and meat digestion. We found genetic evidence that genomes represent what animals eat through modifying genes. Highly conserved genetically relevant regions were discovered in genomes at the family level. Also, the Felidae family genomes exhibited low levels of genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, presumably because of their strict diet, suggesting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our findings can be used for human health enhancement, since we share the same genes as cats with some variation. This is an example how wildlife genomes can be a critical resource for human evolution, providing key genetic marker information for disease treatment. PMID:28042784

  12. Flagellar movement in two bacteria of the family rickettsiaceae: a re-evaluation of motility in an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Vannini, Claudia; Boscaro, Vittorio; Ferrantini, Filippo; Benken, Konstantin A; Mironov, Timofei I; Schweikert, Michael; Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Fokin, Sergei I; Sabaneyeva, Elena V; Petroni, Giulio


    Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae have always been largely studied not only for their importance in the medical field, but also as model systems in evolutionary biology. In fact, they share a recent common ancestor with mitochondria. The most studied species, belonging to genera Rickettsia and Orientia, are hosted by terrestrial arthropods and include many human pathogens. Nevertheless, recent findings show that a large part of Rickettsiaceae biodiversity actually resides outside the group of well-known pathogenic bacteria. Collecting data on these recently described non-conventional members of the family is crucial in order to gain information on ancestral features of the whole group. Although bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae, and of the whole order Rickettsiales, are formally described as non-flagellated prokaryotes, some recent findings renewed the debate about this feature. In this paper we report the first finding of members of the family displaying numerous flagella and active movement inside their host cells. These two new taxa are hosted in aquatic environments by protist ciliates and are described here by means of ultrastructural and molecular characterization. Data here reported suggest that the ancestor of Rickettsiales displayed flagellar movement and re-evaluate the hypothesis that motility played a key-role in the origin of mitochondria. Moreover, our study highlights that the aquatic environment represents a well exploited habitat for bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae. Our results encourage a deep re-consideration of ecological and morphological traits of the family and of the whole order.

  13. SOXE neofunctionalization and elaboration of the neural crest during chordate evolution (United States)

    Tai, Andrew; Cheung, Martin; Huang, Yong-Heng; Jauch, Ralf; Bronner, Marianne E.; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.


    During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. How these duplicated genes evolve and acquire the ability to specify NC and their derivatives are largely unknown. Vertebrate SoxE paralogues, most notably Sox9/10, are essential for NC induction, delamination and lineage specification. In contrast, the basal chordate, amphioxus, has a single SoxE gene and lacks NC-like cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that duplication and divergence of an ancestral SoxE gene may have facilitated elaboration of NC lineages. By using an in vivo expression assay to compare effects of AmphiSoxE and vertebrate Sox9 on NC development, we demonstrate that all SOXE proteins possess similar DNA binding and homodimerization properties and can induce NCCs. However, AmphiSOXE is less efficient than SOX9 in transactivation activity and in the ability to preferentially promote glial over neuronal fate, a difference that lies within the combined properties of amino terminal and transactivation domains. We propose that acquisition of AmphiSoxE expression in the neural plate border led to NCC emergence while duplication and divergence produced advantageous mutations in vertebrate homologues, promoting elaboration of NC traits. PMID:27734831

  14. Ontology for the asexual development and anatomy of the colonial chordate Botryllus schlosseri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Manni

    Full Text Available Ontologies provide an important resource to integrate information. For developmental biology and comparative anatomy studies, ontologies of a species are used to formalize and annotate data that are related to anatomical structures, their lineage and timing of development. Here, we have constructed the first ontology for anatomy and asexual development (blastogenesis of a bilaterian, the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Tunicates, like Botryllus schlosseri, are non-vertebrates and the only chordate taxon species that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Their tadpole larval stage possesses structures characteristic of all chordates, i.e. a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, and gill slits. Larvae settle and metamorphose into individuals that are either solitary or colonial. The latter reproduce both sexually and asexually and these two reproductive modes lead to essentially the same adult body plan. The Botryllus schlosseri Ontology of Development and Anatomy (BODA will facilitate the comparison between both types of development. BODA uses the rules defined by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. It is based on studies that investigate the anatomy, blastogenesis and regeneration of this organism. BODA features allow the users to easily search and identify anatomical structures in the colony, to define the developmental stage, and to follow the morphogenetic events of a tissue and/or organ of interest throughout asexual development. We invite the scientific community to use this resource as a reference for the anatomy and developmental ontology of B. schlosseri and encourage recommendations for updates and improvements.

  15. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel


    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness...

  16. Gut-spilling in chordates: evisceration in the tropical ascidian Polycarpa mytiligera. (United States)

    Shenkar, Noa; Gordon, Tal


    The ejection of internal organs, i.e., evisceration, is a well-known phenomenon in sea-cucumbers. We report the ability of a member of the Chordate phyla, the tropical ascidian Polycarpa mytiligera, to eviscerate and regenerate its gut within 12 days, and to rebuild its branchial sac within 19 days. Evisceration occurred within 4-43 seconds of gentle mechanical pressure exerted on the tunic in 47% of the tested P. mytiligera. Individuals were able to discard up to 3/4 of their digestive tract via the incurrent siphon by rupture of the branchial sac in this area. Although chemical analysis revealed no significant levels of toxic compounds, the eviscerated guts were unpalatable to the triggerfish and pufferfish on which they were tested, suggesting evisceration as a defense mechanism. Given the close affinity of ascidians to vertebrates, the regeneration pathway of the viscera and branchial sac of ascidians suggests its potential beneficial application in soft tissue regeneration research.

  17. Applying evolutionary anthropology. (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W


    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  18. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura Yasushi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhythmic motor patterns for locomotion in vertebrates are generated in spinal cord neural networks known as spinal Central Pattern Generators (CPGs. A key element in pattern generation is the role of glycinergic synaptic transmission by interneurons that cross the cord midline and inhibit contralaterally-located excitatory neurons. The glycinergic inhibitory drive permits alternating and precisely timed motor output during locomotion such as walking or swimming. To understand better the evolution of this system we examined the physiology of the neural network controlling swimming in an invertebrate chordate relative of vertebrates, the ascidian larva Ciona intestinalis. Results A reduced preparation of the larva consisting of nerve cord and motor ganglion generates alternating swimming movements. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of glycine receptors shows that they are implicated in the control of these locomotory movements. Morphological molecular techniques and heterologous expression experiments revealed that glycine receptors are inhibitory and are present on both motoneurones and locomotory muscle while putative glycinergic interneurons were identified in the nerve cord by labeling with an anti-glycine antibody. Conclusions In Ciona intestinalis, glycine receptors, glycinergic transmission and putative glycinergic interneurons, have a key role in coordinating swimming movements through a simple CPG that is present in the motor ganglion and nerve cord. Thus, the strong association between glycine receptors and vertebrate locomotory networks may now be extended to include the phylum chordata. The results suggest that the basic network for 'spinal-like' locomotion is likely to have existed in the common ancestor of extant chordates some 650 M years ago.

  19. Values From an Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Calhoun, John B.


    Continuation of life and evolution as criteria for development of a value system are analyzed. Discussion is based on an awareness aspect of evolution which promotes a greater harmony of response with existing and emerging environmental conditions. (BL)

  20. Evolutionary Path and Development Strategy of Green Logistics in China:A Low-carbon Perspective%低碳经济视角下我国绿色物流的演化路径与发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    论述了低碳经济视角下我国绿色物流的演化路径,分析了我国绿色物流发展中的问题,提出了低碳经济视角下我国绿色物流的发展策略。%In this paper, we elaborated on the evolutionary path of the green logistics industry in China from the perspective of low-carbon economy, then analyzed the problems existing therein, and at the end, proposed the corresponding strategy for its better development.

  1. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates. (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S


    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates.

  2. Evolutionary developmental psychology. (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  3. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho


    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  4. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William


    The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... expectations emphasizes not only that causal structure changes are common in social systems but also that causal structures in social systems, and expectations about them, develop together....

  5. Evolutionary medicine. (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B


    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  6. Perspectives (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine


    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  7. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  8. Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma? (United States)

    Brüne, Martin


    The term 'schizophrenia' refers to a group of disorders that have been described in every human culture. Two apparently well established findings have corroborated the need for an evolutionary explanation of these disorders: (1) cross-culturally stable incidence rates and (2) decreased fecundity of the affected individuals. The rationale behind this relates to the evolutionary paradox that susceptibility genes for schizophrenia are obviously preserved in the human genepool, despite fundamental reproductive disadvantages associated with the disorders. Some researchers have therefore proposed that a compensatory advantage must exist in people who are carriers of these genes or in their first-degree relatives. Such advantages were hypothesised to be outside the brain (e.g. greater resistance against toxins or infectious diseases), or within the social domain (e.g. schizotypal shamans, creativity). More specifically, T.J. Crow has suggested an evolutionary theory of schizophrenia that relates the disorders to an extreme of variation of hemispheric specialisation and the evolution of language due to a single gene mutation located on homologous regions of the sex chromosomes. None of the evolutionary scenarios does, however, fully account for the diversity of the symptomatology, nor does any one hypothesis acknowledge the objection that the mere prevalence of a disorder must not be confused with adaptation. In the present article, I therefore discuss the evolutionary hypotheses of schizophrenia, arguing that a symptom-based approach to psychotic disorders in evolutionary perspective may improve upon the existing models of schizophrenia.

  9. Evolutionary thinking


    Hunt, Tam


    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this de...

  10. Evolutionary perspectives on emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al. (United States)

    Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin


    Koelsch and coworkers present a sophisticated neuroanatomical model of emotions comprising four affect-systems and four output-systems, each bound to a specific brain area [1]. Moreover, they suggest the emergence of distinct components of subjective feelings or "emotion percepts" due to integration of the activation across these subsystems. Incorporating numerous neurobiological, psychological and philosophical findings on human emotions, the model reflects an extensive interdisciplinary approach. Considering an evolutionary perspective, however, we would like to address some issues concerning emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior that are not fully covered by the Quartet Model. Charles Darwin pointed out that individuals that are better adapted to their environment have increased chances of survival and reproduction. Therefore, natural selection leads to a rising prevalence of properties offering a survival benefit across generations [2]. To better understand the biological functions of emotions we propose to ask the question: How do emotions provide a benefit for survival and reproduction?

  11. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg


    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  12. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue


    concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...... of Thomas Kuhn’s notion of scientific paradigms and criteria for a good theory (1977, 1996). The paper thus aims to augment and assimilate the fragmented and scattered body of concepts presently residing within the field of evolutionary economics, by presenting an intuitive framework, applicable within...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...

  13. Ascidians as excellent chordate models for studying the development of the nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. (United States)

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Mita, Kaoru; Ogura, Yosuke; Horie, Takeo


    The swimming larvae of the chordate ascidians possess a dorsal hollowed central nervous system (CNS), which is homologous to that of vertebrates. Despite the homology, the ascidian CNS consists of a countable number of cells. The simple nervous system of ascidians provides an excellent experimental system to study the developmental mechanisms of the chordate nervous system. The neural fate of the cells consisting of the ascidian CNS is determined in both autonomous and non-autonomous fashion during the cleavage stage. The ascidian neural plate performs the morphogenetic movement of neural tube closure that resembles that in vertebrate neural tube formation. Following neurulation, the CNS is separated into five distinct regions, whose homology with the regions of vertebrate CNS has been discussed. Following their larval stage, ascidians undergo a metamorphosis and become sessile adults. The metamorphosis is completed quickly, and therefore the metamorphosis of ascidians is a good experimental system to observe the reorganization of the CNS during metamorphosis. A recent study has shown that the major parts of the larval CNS remain after the metamorphosis to form the adult CNS. In contrast to such a conserved manner of CNS reorganization, most larval neurons disappear during metamorphosis. The larval glial cells in the CNS are the major source for the formation of the adult CNS, and some of the glial cells produce adult neurons.

  14. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions (United States)

    Solé, Ricard


    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  15. Evolutionary Information Theory


    Mark Burgin


    Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we const...

  16. Developmental Control of Cell-Cycle Compensation Provides a Switch for Patterned Mitosis at the Onset of Chordate Neurulation. (United States)

    Ogura, Yosuke; Sasakura, Yasunori


    During neurulation of chordate ascidians, the 11th mitotic division within the epidermal layer shows a posterior-to-anterior wave that is precisely coordinated with the unidirectional progression of the morphogenetic movement. Here we show that the first sign of this patterned mitosis is an asynchronous anterior-to-posterior S-phase length and that mitotic synchrony is reestablished by a compensatory asynchronous G2-phase length. Live imaging combined with genetic experiments demonstrated that compensatory G2-phase regulation requires transcriptional activation of the G2/M regulator cdc25 by the patterning genes GATA and AP-2. The downregulation of GATA and AP-2 at the onset of neurulation leads to loss of compensatory G2-phase regulation and promotes the transition to patterned mitosis. We propose that such developmentally regulated cell-cycle compensation provides an abrupt switch to spatially patterned mitosis in order to achieve the coordination between mitotic timing and morphogenesis.

  17. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin


    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  18. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation


    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.


    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and...

  19. Perspectiva evolucionária na teoria social crítica de Habermas The evolutionary perspective in Habermas' critical social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodomiro José Bannwart Júnior


    Full Text Available Busca-se acompanhar o desenvolvimento da teoria evolucionária no pensamento de Habermas, a partir da afirmação colhida no prólogo de Problemas de Legitimação do Capitalismo Tardio, de 1973: "O caráter programático evidencia que uma teoria da evolução social hoje se encontra apenas esboçada, mas que, no entanto, deveria constituir a base da teoria da sociedade". A atenção é direcionada à forma como Habermas reorienta o sentido evolucionário do desdobramento histórico à luz do conceito de mundo da vida, como esfera de realização da ação comunicativa. Objetiva-se investigar como é projetada nesse modelo de ação, por meio da linguagem, a tarefa de produção e reprodução simbólica do consenso normativo entre os participantes do mundo social, ao mesmo tempo em que Habermas sinaliza haver um telos de integração social imanente à própria prática comunicativa. Nesse sentido, procurar-se-á demonstrar que, assim como a pragmática universal serve de base teórica para a análise de processos de distorção da linguagem e de socialização anormais, a teoria da evolução social serve de parâmetro para uma teoria social crítica com intenção emancipatória de avaliar o desdobramento empírico e contingente da dinâmica histórica.We seek to follow the development of evolutionary theory in the thought of Habermas, starting with the statement taken from the Prologue of Legitimation Crisis, 1973: "The programmatic character of Part I of this book makes clear that a theory of social evolution, although it must be the basis of social theory, is today still scarcely at all developed." Attention is directed to how Habermas reorients the evolutionary meaning of historical development in light of the concept of lifeworld as the sphere of the realization of communicative action. We seek to investigate how Habermas' model assigns, by means of language, the task of symbolic production and reproduction of the normative consensus

  20. Assessment of student conceptions of evolutionary trees (United States)

    Blacquiere, Luke

    Biologists use evolutionary trees to depict hypotheses about the relationships among taxa. Trees possess lines that represent lineages, internal nodes that represent where lineages become evolutionarily isolated from one another and terminal nodes that represent the taxa under consideration. Interpreting a tree (i.e., "tree-thinking") is an important skill for biologists yet many students struggle when reading evolutionary trees. Common documented misconceptions include using morphological similarity, internal node counting or terminal node proximity, instead of identifying the internal node that represents a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), to determine relationships among taxa. I developed an instrument to assess whether students were using common ancestry or another, non-scientific, strategy to determine relationships among taxa. The study is the first to explicitly test hypotheses about how students approach reading evolutionary trees. To test the hypotheses an instrument was developed. The instrument is the first reliable and valid assessment testing student understanding of how to use most recent common ancestor to interpret evolutionary relationships in tree diagrams. Instructors can use the instrument as a diagnostic tool enabling them to help students learn this challenging concept. This study shows that, contrary to the assertion that students hold misconceptions about evolutionary trees made in the literature, students do not consistently use erroneous strategies when interpreting trees. This study suggests that a constructivist perspective of cognitive structure describes students' conception of evolutionary trees more closely than a misconception perspective.

  1. The Micro Evolutionary Mechanism Analysis of Organization Learning Based on the Perspective of Reciprocal Reference%基于互惠性行为视角的组织学习微观演化机理解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良灿; 张同建; 林昭文


    组织学习微观机理的研究是组织学习体系的一个薄弱环节,而个体之间的学习是组织学习微观机理解析的契入点.基于互惠性学习行为的视角,个体之间学习的演化博弈分析可以为组织学习的动态性演化提供合理的解释,揭示互惠性环境下组织学习的微观运作机制,从而弥补组织学习体系研究的不足,为组织学习的深入开展提供有效的理论借鉴.%The microscopic mechanism research is a weak link of organizational learning, and the learning between individuals is the key point of micro organization learning study.Based on the perspective of reciprocal learning, the evolutionary game analysis between individuals may provide reasonable explanation for dynamics of organization learning, and reveal the micro mechanism of organization learning under reciprocal environment, which may make up the insufficiency of organization learning and provide effective theory reference for organization learning.

  2. Reconstruction of Adam Smith's Theory of Economic Development under the Evolutionary Perspective%演化视角下亚当·斯密经济发展理论的重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玲; 张卫


    Adam Smith's theory of economic development connotation is rich. "Back to Adam Smith," rethink Smith's theory of development is of great significance for understanding economic development and China's Reform and opening up. The in-novation of this paper is to reconstruct Smith's theory of economic development under the perspective of evolutionary eco-nomics; his development theory is a institution, the division of labor and capital accumulation spiral co-evolution based on the organic evolution of the dynamic system.%斯密的经济发展学说内涵丰富。“回到亚当·斯密”,重新思索斯密的发展学说对于理解经济发展乃至中国的改革开放具有重要意义。本文从演化经济学的视角重构了斯密的经济发展学说,认为其发展理论是以制度、劳动分工、资本积累三者螺旋式协同演化为基础的动态有机演化系统。

  3. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.


    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  4. Comparative evolutionary psychology of sperm competition. (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T


    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for individuals across many species. The authors first describe mechanisms of sperm competition in insects and in birds. They suggest that the adaptive problems and evolved solutions in these species provide insight into human anatomy, physiology, psychology, and behavior. The authors then review recent theoretical and empirical arguments for the existence of sperm competition in humans and discuss proposed adaptations in humans that have analogs in insects or birds. The authors conclude by highlighting the heuristic value of a comparative evolutionary psychological approach in this field.

  5. Evolutionary embryology resurrected in Japan with a new molecular basis: Nori Satoh and the history of ascidian studies originating in Kyoto during the 20th century. (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Wada, Hiroshi; Kusakabe, Rie; Agata, Kiyokazu


    This article briefly summarizes the scientific contributions of Nori Satoh, the winner of the 2005 edition of the Kowalevsky Medal, to Developmental Biology and especially to Evo-Devo with his 30 years of research on tunicates - a primitive chordate species. His research began with his pure developmental interest in the clock mechanism of cell differentiation and later expanded into various aspects of evolutionary and developmental phenomena. He is not only known as a founder of molecular biology-based tunicate studies, but also for his world-wide service to education and his prestigious publications in international scientific journals.

  6. [Evolutionary medicine: an emergent basic science]. (United States)

    Spotorno, Angel E


    Evolutionary Medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of human health. The application of classic evolutionary theories (descent with modification, and natural selection) to the human organism, to its pathogens, and their mutual co-evolution, provides new explanations about why we get sick, how we can prevent this, and how we can heal. Medicine has focused mainly on the proximate or immediate causes of diseases and the treatment of symptoms, and very little on its evolutionary or mediate causes. For instance, the present human genome and phenotypes are essentially paleolithic ones: they are not adapted to modern life style, thus favoring the so-called diseases of civilization (ie: ateroesclerosis, senescence, myopia, phobias, panic attacks, stress, reproductive cancers). With the evolutionary approach, post-modern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases, and its preventions.

  7. Bacterial quorum sensing in an evolutionary perspective%从进化谈细菌细胞间的群体感应信号传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 杨亮; 段康民


    传统观念认为细菌是一种个体的、非社会性的生物体.近年来的研究表明细菌可以产生化学信号并通过它们实现细菌间信息传递.细菌的群体感应调节系统(Quorum sensing,QS)调节着个体细胞之间的相互合作,使其表现出类似多细胞的群体行为.文章以近年来的一些最新研究进展为基础,在了解细菌间的信息传递系统的基础上,从进化角度讨论了QS系统的遗传产生过程,探讨了细菌细胞间的相互作用.细菌间的信息交流是一种动态的过程,受到了环境中的营养物质的水平、温度、pH等多种因素的影响.作者推测细菌信号传递系统的进化是受到环境条件以及基因交换、所在微生物群体变化等因素影响下的一种不断变化的动态过程,这也许有别于动植物这类的高等生物的进化过程.这种动态的变化过程也就暗示:从长远来看,信息传递系统中的偷机者只是在一定条件下的暂时存在.%In contrast to the individual and nonsocial organism view of bacteria, recent discoveries show that bacteria can communicate and exhibit population behaviour via a system known as quorum sensing. Some bacterial behavious can only be initiated when the cell number reaches a certain level (Quorum sensing, QS). It is generally believed that quorum sensing is used to coordinate cooperative behaviours at the population level; however, many issues exist regarding the evolution or development of such a system. In the present paper, the evolutionary process of bacterial quorum-sensing systems is discussed based on recent events and progresses in this field. As quorum sensing systems are often affected by environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and nutrient levels, it is hence proposed that the evolution of bacterial cooperation, such as the quorum sensing, is rather a dynamic and ever-changing process which is radically affected by environmental conditions, genetic exchanges, as

  8. 进化生物学视角下的创意企业 R & D 能力演化%Evolution of R & D Ability in Creative Enterprises from Perspective of Evolutionary Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰峰; 闫宁宁


    针对不同的创意企业R&D活动在规模、技术、文化及生存环境等方面存在的显著差别,从达尔文进化论到中性突变论、超循环论等进化生物学的理论视角出发,探讨了创意企业R&D能力演化的超循环机制,分析了创意企业R&D能力的自我进化博弈。研究表明,市场机会的开拓和挖掘、产品的研制和生产及R&D人才的引进和培养三者构成了创意企业R&D能力的超循环;R&D参与者初始实力的高低对R&D能力的演化没有太大影响,需要企业主动推动R&D能力的有效进化。%Significant difference of different creative enterprises ’ R&D activity in scale, technology, culture, and existing environment was discussed .From the research perspective of Darwin's evolution theory , neutral mutation theory , super cycle the-ory and many other evolutionary biology theories , the super cycle mechanism of R&D ability evolution in creative enterprises was investigated .The self-evolutionary game of R&D ability in creative enterprises was analyzed .Research result shows that the su-per cycle of creative enterprises ’ R&D ability includes the market opportunities open up and mining , product development and production, introduction and cultivation of R&D talent;the initial strength level of R&D participants has not significant effect on R&D ability evolution;it requires enterprises actively promote the effective evolution of R&D ability .

  9. The effect of antibiotic exposure on eicosanoid generation from arachidonic acid and gene expression in a primitive chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri. (United States)

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Pan, Minming; Zou, Qiuqiong; Chen, Chengyong; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong


    Chloramphenicol (Chl) is an effective antimicrobial agent widely used in veterinary medicine and commonly used in fish. Its use is restricted in the clinic because of adverse effects on the immune system and oxidative stress in mammals. However, the effects of Chl treatment on invertebrates remain unclear. Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is an ideal model to study the origin and evolution of the vertebrate immune system as it has a primary vertebrate-like arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic system. Here, we combined transcriptomic and lipidomic approaches to investigate the immune system and observe the oxygenated metabolites of AA to address the antibiotic effects on amphioxus. Tissue necrosis of the gill slits occurred in the Chl-treated amphioxus, but fewer epithelial cells were lost when treated with both Chl and ampicillin (Amp). The immune related pathways were dysregulated in both of the antibiotic treatment groups. The Chl alone treatment resulted in immunosuppression with down-regulation of the innate immune genes. In contrast, the Chl + Amp treatment resulted in immunostimulation to some extent, as shown by KEGG clustering. Furthermore, Chl induced a 3-fold reduction in the level of the eicosanoids, while the Chl + Amp treatment resulted in 1.7-fold increase of eicosanoid level. Thus in amphioxus, Amp might relieve the effects of the Chl-induced immune suppression and increase the level of eicosanoids from AA. Finally, the oxygenated metabolites from AA might be crucial to evaluate the effects of Chl treatment in animals.

  10. A genomic overview of short genetic variations in a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satou Yutaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Ciona intestinalis genome contains many allelic polymorphisms, there is only limited data analyzed systematically. Establishing a dense map of genetic variations in C. intestinalis is necessary not only for linkage analysis, but also for other experimental biology including molecular developmental and evolutionary studies, because animals from natural populations are typically used for experiments. Results Here, we identified over three million candidate short genomic variations within a 110 Mb euchromatin region among five C. intestinalis individuals. The average nucleotide diversity was approximately 1.1%. Genetic variations were found at a similar density in intergenic and gene regions. Non-synonymous and nonsense nucleotide substitutions were found in 12,493 and 1,214 genes accounting for 81.9% and 8.0% of the entire gene set, respectively, and over 60% of genes in the single animal encode non-identical proteins between maternal and paternal alleles. Conclusions Our results provide a framework for studying evolution of the animal genome, as well as a useful resource for a wide range of C. intestinalis researchers.

  11. The evolutionary history of mitochondrial porins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausner Georg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial porins, or voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC allow the passage of small molecules across the mitochondrial outer membrane, and are involved in complex interactions regulating organellar and cellular metabolism. Numerous organisms possess multiple porin isoforms, and initial studies indicated an intriguing evolutionary history for these proteins and the genes that encode them. Results In this work, the wealth of recent sequence information was used to perform a comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary history of mitochondrial porins. Fungal porin sequences were well represented, and newly-released sequences from stramenopiles, alveolates, and seed and flowering plants were analyzed. A combination of Neighbour-Joining and Bayesian methods was used to determine phylogenetic relationships among the proteins. The aligned sequences were also used to reassess the validity of previously described eukaryotic porin motifs and to search for signature sequences characteristic of VDACs from plants, animals and fungi. Secondary structure predictions were performed on the aligned VDAC primary sequences and were used to evaluate the sites of intron insertion in a representative set of the corresponding VDAC genes. Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that paralogs have appeared several times during the evolution of VDACs from the plants, metazoans, and even the fungi, suggesting that there are no "ancient" paralogs within the gene family. Sequence motifs characteristic of the members of the crown groups of organisms were identified. Secondary structure predictions suggest a common 16 β-strand framework for the transmembrane arrangement of all porin isoforms. The GLK (and homologous or analogous motifs and the eukaryotic porin motifs in the four representative Chordates tend to be in exons that appear to have changed little during the evolution of these metazoans. In fact there is phase

  12. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective. (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley


    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  13. Remembering the evolutionary Freud. (United States)

    Young, Allan


    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  14. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo


    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  15. Human altruism from an evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; Bierhoff, HW


    According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection altruistic behavior appears to be a paradox. Because altruistic behaviors are defined as acts of transferring resources to another person without getting any resources back (at least in the short run) it could be argued that any altruist

  16. Evolutionary Perspectives on Myrmecophily in Ladybirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Vantaux


    Full Text Available Myrmecophiles are species that usually have developed specialized traits to cope with the aggressiveness of ants enabling them to live in their vicinity. Many coccinellid species are predators of Hemiptera; the latter is also often protected by ants. Therefore these ladybirds frequently interact with ants, and some species have become myrmecophilous. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the evolution of myrmecophilous traits in ladybirds. We then discuss the costs and benefits of myrmecophily and the dietary shift to myrmecophagy observed in a few species.

  17. The Pleiomorphic Plant MTOC: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    γ-Tubulin is an essential component of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for nucleating microtubules In both plants and animals. Whereas γ-tubulin is tightly associated with centrosomes that are inheritable organelles in cells of animals and most algae, it appears at different times and places to organize the myriad specialized microtubule systems that characterize plant cells. We have traced the distribution of γ-tubulin through the cell cycle in representative land plants (embryophytes) and herein present data that have led to a concept of the pleiomorphic and migratory MTOC.The many forms of the plant MTOC at spindle organization constitute pleiomorphism, and stage-specific "migration" is suggested by the consistent pattern of redistribution of γ-tubulin during mitosis. Mitotic spindles may be organized at centriolar centrosomes (only in final divisions of spermatogenesis), polar organizers (POs), plastid MTOCs, or nuclear envelope MTOCs (NE-MTOCs). In all cases, with the possible exception of centrosomes in spermatogenesis, the γ-tubulin migrates to broad polar regions and along the spindle fibers, even when it is initially a discrete polar entity. At anaphase it moves poleward, and subsequently migrates from polar regions (distal nuclear surfaces) into the interzone (proximal nuclear surfaces) where interzonal microtubule arrays and phragmoplasts are organized. Following cytokinesis, γ-tubulin becomes associated with nuclear envelopes and organizes radial microtubule systems (RMSs). These may exist only briefly, before establishment of hoop-like cortical arrays in vegetative tissues, or they may be characteristic of interphase in syncytial systems where they serve to organize the common cytoplasm into nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs).

  18. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise


    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systemat

  19. The acquisition of myelin: An evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Zalc, B


    It has been postulated that the emergence of vertebrates was made possible by the acquisition of neural crest cells, which then led to the development of evolutionarily advantageous complex head structures (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). In this regard the contribution of one important neural crest derivative-the peripheral myelin sheath-to the success of the vertebrates has to be pointed out. Without this structure, the vertebrates, as we know them, simply could not exist. After briefly reviewing the major functions of the myelin sheath we will ask and provide tentative answers to the following three questions: when during evolution has myelin first appeared? Where has myelin initially appeared: in the CNS or in the PNS? Was it necessary to acquire a new cell type to form a myelin sheath? Careful examination of fossils lead us to conclude that myelin was acquired 425 MY ago by placoderms, the earliest hinge-jaw fishes. I argue that the acquisition of myelin during evolution has been a necessary prerequisite to permit gigantism of gnathostome species, including the sauropods. I propose that this acquisition occurred simultaneously in the PNS and CNS and that myelin forming cells are the descendants of ensheathing glia, already present in invertebrates, that have adapted their potential to synthesize large amount of membrane in response to axonal requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution.

  20. An evolutionary perspective on chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Itzykson, R; Solary, E


    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) shares with other myeloid diseases a number of somatic gene mutations. These mutations can now be integrated within the framework of evolution theory to address the mechanisms of the disease. Several evidences indicate that the disease emerges in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) through the age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage, leading stochastically to a driver mutation that confers a competitive advantage to the cell. A mutation in TET2 gene could be one of these driver mutations provoking the emergence of clonality. After a long latency, secondary lesions, such as mutations in the SRSF2 gene, contribute to progression to full-blown malignancy, with abnormal differentiation. Additional mutations accumulate and branching arising mostly through mitotic recombination generates clonal heterogeneity. Modifications in the microenvironment probably affect this clonal dynamics, whereas epigenetic alterations, such as hypermethylation of the TIF1γ gene promoter, may generate phenotypic diversification of otherwise clonal populations. The preserved although deregulated myeloid differentiation that characterizes CMML, with granulomonocyte expansion and various cytopenias, may depend on early clonal dominance in the hematopietic cell hierarchy. Progression to acute myeloid leukemia observed in 25-30% of the patients may arise from the massive expansion of a clone with novel genetic lesions, providing a high fitness to previously minor subclones when in chronic phase of the disease. This review discusses the various models of disease emergence and progression and how this recent knowledge could drive rational therapeutic strategies.

  1. An Evolutionary Perspective on Pain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander Steinkopf


    Full Text Available Pain serves as a signal to elicit care from others. In turn, displaying pain might be attractive because of the benefits it might bring. Additionally, displaying pain is easy, because helpers distinguish poorly between genuine pain and faked pain. Hence, helpers face the problem of distinguishing true sufferers from free riders, while sufferers face the problem of communicating need convincingly. This article will propose solutions to these adaptive problems. Based on theoretical arguments and on empirical insights from lie detection research, it will be argued that the credibility of pain signals cannot be found in features of the signal itself, but in its context. Namely, pain is obviously credible when the context features unforgeable cues, such as an open wound or the enlarged abdomen of a pregnant woman, but also external cues such as the ice water in cold pressor tasks. In absence of such cues, pain can become credible through costly consequences, such as refraining from rewarding behaviors for a significant period. However, these adaptive mechanisms for communicating need may not be shaped for modern circumstances such as experimental settings and therapeutic encounters.

  2. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  3. Communicating Climate Change: An Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Peacock, K. A.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.


    The most effective way to communicate the scientific "big picture" is to appeal to the intelligence and imagination of that large number of people who really want to know what science has to say, and who really would be likely to support enlightened policies if they were given an unflinching picture of the present human predicament. Staff writers at Life Magazine used to be told, "Never overestimate readers' information; never underestimate their intelligence." In the long run, whatever communications channels may be employed, the best hope of moving forward is to appeal to the intelligence of the public. (Media such as wikis, which invite participation, could be one of the best ways to do that.) There are two salient "big picture" facts to be communicated. The first is the ecological unsustainability of the present human condition. There is not the slightest possibility of a long-term future for a planetary-scale, technologically-intensive society of over 7 billion talking hominids that gets most of its free energy from the combustion of a one-time-only store of biotic waste products laid down in the strata hundreds of millions of years ago. Not only is this limited fuel supply running out, but its waste products are rapidly destabilizing the very climatic conditions that favoured the growth of our complex culture. As Homer-Dixon puts it, we are on the "cusp of a planetary-scale emergency"—obvious to earth scientists, but not obvious to all of even the best-intentioned members of the public. The second crucial fact is that our species' capacity to innovate (technologically, linguistically, socially), unique in the history of life on this planet, has up to now been our most effective survival tool and still remains our best chance for pulling through the present crisis. Herbert Spencer said that the most important adaptive trait is what he called "sagacity"—intelligent adaptability. But our sagacity now faces its toughest test, tougher than the harsh Ice Age in which it was honed. We were clever enough to figure out how to tap into the rich supply of carbon-based fuels left us by the prolific Paleozoic. The question now is whether we are sagacious enough to find way of keeping the lights on that does not undermine the very ecological conditions that made our evolution possible. There will be no miracles, except the miracle of human creativity itself, but this could be miracle enough for the very nature of creativity is solve problems by stepping outside assumed parameters. Innovation can't be managed but it can be fostered like any other evolved human capacity. Above all else we need to give human ingenuity room and means to operate. This is far more important than advocating any particular solutions that currently present themselves (though that should be done, too). We have to talk openly about the barriers to innovation such as vested interests (corporate, academic, political), entrenched assumptions and conceptual blockages of many sorts, and the near-total lack of mechanisms for financing the social and technological innovations we need. People need to be reminded again and again that those past cultures which survived ecological upheavals were the ones willing to tolerate change. In sum: the most salient thing to communicate is the need for ingenuity in fostering ingenuity.

  4. Evolutionary humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Malachy


    This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.

  5. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective


    W Tecumseh eFitch


    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The "continuist" perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The "exaptationist" perspective posits evolutionary ch...

  6. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective


    Fitch, W. Tecumseh


    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so t...

  7. Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Legrand, Pierrick; Maldonado, Yazmin


    This volume comprises a selection of works presented at the Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization (NEO) workshop held in September 2015 in Tijuana, Mexico. The development of powerful search and optimization techniques is of great importance in today’s world that requires researchers and practitioners to tackle a growing number of challenging real-world problems. In particular, there are two well-established and widely known fields that are commonly applied in this area: (i) traditional numerical optimization techniques and (ii) comparatively recent bio-inspired heuristics. Both paradigms have their unique strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to solve some challenging problems while still failing in others. The goal of the NEO workshop series is to bring together people from these and related fields to discuss, compare and merge their complimentary perspectives in order to develop fast and reliable hybrid methods that maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the underlying paradigms. Throu...

  8. Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. (United States)

    Sgrò, Carla M; Lowe, Andrew J; Hoffmann, Ary A


    Evolution occurs rapidly and is an ongoing process in our environments. Evolutionary principles need to be built into conservation efforts, particularly given the stressful conditions organisms are increasingly likely to experience because of climate change and ongoing habitat fragmentation. The concept of evolutionary resilience is a way of emphasizing evolutionary processes in conservation and landscape planning. From an evolutionary perspective, landscapes need to allow in situ selection and capture high levels of genetic variation essential for responding to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We summarize ideas that need to be considered in planning for evolutionary resilience and suggest how they might be incorporated into policy and management to ensure that resilience is maintained in the face of environmental degradation.

  9. Historical change and evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Masters, Roger D


    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  10. Evolutionary mechanisms for loneliness. (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I


    Robert Weiss (1973) conceptualised loneliness as perceived social isolation, which he described as a gnawing, chronic disease without redeeming features. On the scale of everyday life, it is understandable how something as personally aversive as loneliness could be regarded as a blight on human existence. However, evolutionary time and evolutionary forces operate at such a different scale of organisation than we experience in everyday life that personal experience is not sufficient to understand the role of loneliness in human existence. Research over the past decade suggests a very different view of loneliness than suggested by personal experience, one in which loneliness serves a variety of adaptive functions in specific habitats. We review evidence on the heritability of loneliness and outline an evolutionary theory of loneliness, with an emphasis on its potential adaptive value in an evolutionary timescale.

  11. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    important group, both from the theoretical and applied points of view, are discussed in detail, followed by an account of parallel multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, and then a more general analysis of many multiobjective problems. Considerable attention has also been paid to a presentation of hybrid...... evolutionary algorithms, such as memetic algorithms, which have emerged as a very promising tool for solving many real-world problems in a multitude of areas of science and technology. Moreover, parallel evolutionary combinatorial optimization has been presented. Search operators, which are crucial in all...... kinds of evolutionary algorithms, have been prudently analyzed. This analysis was followed by a thorough analysis of various issues involved in stochastic local search algorithms. An interesting survey of various technological and industrial applications in mechanical engineering and design has been...

  12. Assédio moral: análise de conceito na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Acoso moral: análisis de concepto en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Bullying: concept analysis from Rodgers' evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ribeiro Pontes Cahú


    destacaron los problemas psicosomáticos, empresariales y sociales. En este sentido, el concepto acoso moral se constituye en violencia psicológica con la intención de humillar y excluir socialmente a la víctima, provocando disturbios psicosomáticos, perjuicios a la sociedad y a la institución de trabajo.The study aimed to analyze the concept of bullying from Rodgers' evolutionary perspective, as expressed in the health, legal sciences, social and humanities literature. This was document research, which had for sources of data the articles available in the Periodical Portal / CAPES and Buscalegis from 1954 to 2010. The sample consisted of 46 items. For data analysis, we used the steps proposed by Rodgers in her model of conceptual analysis. In relation to the surrogate/related terms, we discovered psychoterror and mobbing. As for attributes, the most frequently understood were psychological violence and the social exclusion of the worker. The most relevant antecedents were the oppressive conditions of work. Regarding consequences, the highlights were psychosomatic, business and social problems. In this sense, the concept of bullying constitutes psychological violence with the intent to humiliate and socially exclude the victim, provoking psychosomatic disorders, impairing society and the workplace institution.

  13. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eBarrett


    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behaviour, and the rigour with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis. Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on cognitive integration or the extended mind hypothesis in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human ‘mind-making’ within an evolutionarily-informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  14. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.


    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  15. Autonomous Evolutionary Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Traditional information systems are passive, i.e., data orknowledge is created , retrieved, modified, updated, and deleted only in response to operations issued by users or application programs, and the systems only can execute queries or t ransactions explicitly submitted by users or application programs but have no ab ility to do something actively by themselves. Unlike a traditional information system serving just as a storehouse of data or knowledge and working passively a ccording to queries or transactions explicitly issued by users and application p rograms, an autonomous evolutionary information system serves as an autonomous a nd evolutionary partner of its users that discovers new knowledge from its datab ase or knowledge-base autonomously, cooperates with its users in solving proble m s actively by providing the users with advices, and has a certain mechanism to i mprove its own state of “knowing” and ability of “working”. This paper semi nall y defines what is an autonomous evolutionary information system, explain why aut onomous evolutionary information systems are needed, and presents some new issue s, fundamental considerations, and research directions in design and development of autonomous evolutionary information systems.

  16. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian


    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  17. Emotional systems and the evolutionary tradition in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerpa


    Full Text Available A brief review paper is presented about evolutionary tradition in emotional Psychology systems. Darwin approximation view to study of expression of emotion in humans is described. Some actual theoretical perspectives and researchers and future tendencies in emotional systems research since Darwinian tradition in Psychology and implications for disciplinary field are discussed.

  18. The Two Ecologies: Population and Community Perspectives on Organizational Evolution. (United States)

    Astley, W. Graham


    This paper distinguishes between two ecological perspectives on organizational evolution: population ecology, which limits investigation to evolutionary change in established populations, and community ecology, which focuses on the rise and fall of populations themselves as basic units of evolutionary change. These perspectives produce contrasting…

  19. Distinctive expression patterns of Hedgehog pathway genes in the Ciona intestinalis larva: implications for a role of Hedgehog signaling in postembryonic development and chordate evolution. (United States)

    Islam, A F M Tariqul; Moly, Pricila Khan; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G


    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family are soluble ligands that orchestrate a wide spectrum of developmental processes ranging from left-right axis determination of the embryo to tissue patterning and organogenesis. Tunicates, including ascidians, are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and elucidation of Hh signaling in ascidians should provide an important clue towards better understanding the role of this pathway in development. In previous studies, expression patterns of genes encoding Hh and its downstream factor Gli have been examined up to the tailbud stage in the ascidian embryo, but their expression in the larva has not been reported. Here we show the spatial expression patterns of hedgehog (Ci-hh1, Ci-hh2), patched (Ci-ptc), smoothened (Ci-smo), and Gli (Ci-Gli) orthologs in larvae of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The expression patterns of Ci-hh2 and Ci-Gli dramatically change during the period between the late tailbud embryo and the swimming larva. At the larval stage, expression of Ci-Gli was found in a central part of the endoderm and in the visceral ganglion, while Ci-hh2 was expressed in two discrete endodermal regions, anteriorly and posteriorly adjacent to the cells expressing Gli. The expression patterns of these genes suggest that the Hh ligand controls postembryonic development of the endoderm and the central nervous system. Expression of a gene encoding Hh in the anterior and/or pharyngeal endoderm is probably an ancient chordate character; diversification of regulation and targets of the Hh signaling in this region may have played a major role in the evolution of chordate body structures.

  20. Evolutionary Computation:ao Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhenya; WeiChengjian


    Evolutionary computation is a field of simulating evolution on a computer.Both aspects of it ,the problem solving aspect and the aspect of modeling natural evolution,are important.Simulating evolution on a computer results in stochastic optimization techniques that can outperform classical methods of optimization when applied to difficult real-world problems.There are currently four main avenues of research in simulated evolution:genetic algorithms,evolutionary programming,evolution strategies,and genetic programming.This paper presents a brief overview of thd field on evolutionary computation,including some theoretical issues,adaptive mechanisms,improvements,constrained optimizqtion,constrained satisfaction,evolutionary neural networks,evolutionary fuzzy systems,hardware evolution,evolutionary robotics,parallel evolutionary computation,and co-evolutionary models.The applications of evolutionary computation for optimizing system and intelligent information processing in telecommunications are also introduced.

  1. Evolutionary Design in Art (United States)

    McCormack, Jon

    Evolution is one of the most interesting and creative processes we currently understand, so it should come as no surprise that artists and designers are embracing the use of evolution in problems of artistic creativity. The material in this section illustrates the diversity of approaches being used by artists and designers in relation to evolution at the boundary of art and science. While conceptualising human creativity as an evolutionary process in itself may be controversial, what is clear is that evolutionary processes can be used to complement, even enhance human creativity, as the chapters in this section aptly demonstrate.

  2. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene


    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  3. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ellen Clarke


    An `evolutionary transition in individuality’ or `major transition’ is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  4. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis (United States)

    Swann, Joanna


    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  5. Evolutionary Theories of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P


    Current, mid-term and long range technologies for detection of pathogens and toxins are briefly described in the context of performance metrics and operational scenarios. Predictive (evolutionary) and speculative (revolutionary) assessments are given with trade-offs identified, where possible, among competing performance goals.

  6. Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierens, D.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Krasnogor, N.


    A key search mechanism in Evolutionary Algorithms is the mixing or juxtaposing of partial solutions present in the parent solutions. In this paper we look at the efficiency of mixing in genetic algorithms (GAs) and estimation-of-distribution algorithms (EDAs). We compute the mixing probabilities of

  7. [Schizophrenia and evolutionary psychopathology]. (United States)

    Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs


    Evolution can shape any characteristic appearing as a phenotype that is genetically rooted and possesses a long history. The stress-diathesis model suggests that psychiatric disorders have some genetic roots, and therefore the theory of evolution may be relevant for psychiatry. Schizophrenia is present in every human culture with approximately the same incidence. The great evolutionary paradox is: how can such illness persist despite fundamental reproductive disadvantages? Since the 1960s, several evolutionary explanations have been raised to explain the origins of schizophrenia. This article reviews all the major evolutionary theories about the possible origins of this disease. On the one hand, some researchers have proposed that schizophrenia is an evolutionary disadvantageous byproduct of human brain evolution (e.g. the evolution of hemispheric specialization, social brain or language skills). On the other hand, others have suggested that a compensatory advantage must exist either in the biological system of patients with schizophrenia (e.g. resistance against infectious diseases), or within the social domain (e.g. greater creativity of the relatives). According to some theories, shamanism and religion demonstrate some similarities to psychosis and provide clues regarding the origins of schizophrenia. At the end of this article we discuss this last theory in detail listing arguments for and against.

  8. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete...

  9. Molluscan Evolutionary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Koop, Damien; Moshel-Lynch, Sharon


    Brought together by Winston F. Ponder and David R. Lindberg, thirty-six experts on the evolution of the Mollusca provide an up-to-date review of its evolutionary history. The Mollusca are the second largest animal phylum and boast a fossil record of over 540 million years. They exhibit remarkable...

  10. Recent Advances in Evolutionary Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Yao; Yong Xu


    Evolutionary computation has experienced a tremendous growth in the last decade in both theoretical analyses and industrial applications. Its scope has evolved beyond its original meaning of "biological evolution" toward a wide variety of nature inspired computational algorithms and techniques, including evolutionary, neural, ecological, social and economical computation, etc., in a unified framework. Many research topics in evolutionary computation nowadays are not necessarily "evolutionary". This paper provides an overview of some recent advances in evolutionary computation that have been made in CERCIA at the University of Birmingham, UK. It covers a wide range of topics in optimization, learning and design using evolutionary approaches and techniques, and theoretical results in the computational time complexity of evolutionary algorithms. Some issues related to future development of evolutionary computation are also discussed.

  11. Evolutionary conservation of the mature oocyte proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Lotan


    Significance: The current study provides the first proteomic profile of an oocyte of a cnidarian organism the starlet sea anemone N. vectensis and gives new insights on the ancient origin of an oocyte proteome template. The comparative analysis with a chordate oocyte suggests that the oocyte proteome predates the divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. In addition, the data generated in the study will serve as a valuable resource for further developmental and evolutional studies.

  12. Evolutionary Evaluation: implications for evaluators, researchers, practitioners, funders and the evidence-based program mandate. (United States)

    Urban, Jennifer Brown; Hargraves, Monica; Trochim, William M


    Evolutionary theory, developmental systems theory, and evolutionary epistemology provide deep theoretical foundations for understanding programs, their development over time, and the role of evaluation. This paper relates core concepts from these powerful bodies of theory to program evaluation. Evolutionary Evaluation is operationalized in terms of program and evaluation evolutionary phases, which are in turn aligned with multiple types of validity. The model of Evolutionary Evaluation incorporates Chen's conceptualization of bottom-up versus top-down program development. The resulting framework has important implications for many program management and evaluation issues. The paper illustrates how an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective can illuminate important controversies in evaluation using the example of the appropriate role of randomized controlled trials that encourages a rethinking of "evidence-based programs". From an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective, prevailing interpretations of rigor and mandates for evidence-based programs pose significant challenges to program evolution. This perspective also illuminates the consequences of misalignment between program and evaluation phases; the importance of supporting both researcher-derived and practitioner-derived programs; and the need for variation and evolutionary phase diversity within portfolios of programs.

  13. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy


    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  14. Evolutionary status of Entamoeba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jiuhong; WEN Jianfan; XIN Dedong; LU Siqi


    In addition to its medical importance as parasitic pathogen, Entamoeba has aroused people's interest in its evolutionary status for a long time. Lacking mitochondrion and other intracellular organelles common to typical eukaryotes, Entamoeba and several other amitochondrial protozoans have been recognized as ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes and named "archezoa", the most primitive extant eukaryotes. It was suggested that they might be living fossils that remained in a primitive stage of evolution before acquisition of organelles, lying close to the transition between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, recent studies revealed that Entamoeba contained an organelle, "crypton" or "mitosome", which was regarded as specialized or reductive mitochondrion. Relative molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicated the existence or the probable existence of mitochondrion in Entamoeba. Our phylogenetic analysis based on DNA topoisomerase II strongly suggested its divergence after some mitchondriate eukaryotes. Here, all these recent researches are reviewed and the evolutionary status of Entamoeba is discussed.

  15. Evolutionary biology of cancer. (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle


    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  16. Evolutionary internalized regularities. (United States)

    Schwartz, R


    Roger Shepard's proposals and supporting experiments concerning evolutionary internalized regularities have been very influential in the study of vision and in other areas of psychology and cognitive science. This paper examines issues concerning the need, nature, explanatory role, and justification for postulating such internalized constraints. In particular, I seek further clarification from Shepard on how best to understand his claim that principles of kinematic geometry underlie phenomena of motion perception. My primary focus is on the ecological validity of Shepard's kinematic constraint in the context of ordinary motion perception. First, I explore the analogy Shepard draws between internalized circadian rhythms and the supposed internalization of kinematic geometry. Next, questions are raised about how to interpret and justify applying results from his own and others' experimental studies of apparent motion to more everyday cases of motion perception in richer environments. Finally, some difficulties with Shepard's account of the evolutionary development of his kinematic constraint are considered.

  17. Multiscale structure in eco-evolutionary dynamics (United States)

    Stacey, Blake C.

    In a complex system, the individual components are neither so tightly coupled or correlated that they can all be treated as a single unit, nor so uncorrelated that they can be approximated as independent entities. Instead, patterns of interdependency lead to structure at multiple scales of organization. Evolution excels at producing such complex structures. In turn, the existence of these complex interrelationships within a biological system affects the evolutionary dynamics of that system. I present a mathematical formalism for multiscale structure, grounded in information theory, which makes these intuitions quantitative, and I show how dynamics defined in terms of population genetics or evolutionary game theory can lead to multiscale organization. For complex systems, "more is different," and I address this from several perspectives. Spatial host--consumer models demonstrate the importance of the structures which can arise due to dynamical pattern formation. Evolutionary game theory reveals the novel effects which can result from multiplayer games, nonlinear payoffs and ecological stochasticity. Replicator dynamics in an environment with mesoscale structure relates to generalized conditionalization rules in probability theory. The idea of natural selection "acting at multiple levels" has been mathematized in a variety of ways, not all of which are equivalent. We will face down the confusion, using the experience developed over the course of this thesis to clarify the situation.

  18. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby


    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  19. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics. (United States)

    Paaby, Annalise B; Gibson, Greg


    Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes-processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  20. Evolutionary theory of cancer. (United States)

    Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Michor, Franziska


    As Theodosius Dobzhansky famously noted in 1973, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," and cancer is no exception to this rule. Our understanding of cancer initiation, progression, treatment, and resistance has advanced considerably by regarding cancer as the product of evolutionary processes. Here we review the literature of mathematical models of cancer evolution and provide a synthesis and discussion of the field.

  1. Evolutionary game design

    CERN Document Server

    Browne, Cameron


    The book describes the world's first successful experiment in fully automated board game design. Evolutionary methods were used to derive new rule sets within a custom game description language, and self-play trials used to estimate each derived game's potential to interest human players. The end result is a number of new and interesting games, one of which has proved popular and gone on to be commercially published.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta


    Full Text Available The neoclassical theory of the firm deals with the pattern of perfect competition, within which the perfect information available to economic agents provides instant allocation of production factors and access to economic goods. The Austrian School (C. Menger, L. von Mises, Hayek, etc. supported the idea of minimal state intervention on the markets, bringing important conceptual developments on the theory of the firm. Hirschleifer (1982 put forward the model of social and institutional functioning, arguing that the game theory is able to predict the outcome of the collective behavior and the human characteristics necessary for building the respective institutions.The evolutionary theory provides the firm and the entrepreneur the recognition of the functions of innovation, of generating and exploiting information and of organizing and coordinating production. The evolutionary perspective of the firm assumes the existence of a body of knowledge that is acquired through and builds up the organizational memory, subsequently found in routines, all choices being made based on these routines (Nelson and Winter, 2002. The evolution of the firm is considered to be similar to natural selection, but unlike the classic market selection, the evolutionists suggest the existence of a plurality of selection media. The present research is structured as follows: a brief introduction into the theories of the firm, the second part of the paper analyzes the theories of the firm from an institutional, neo-institutional and evolutionary perspective. In the third part of the paper the evolutionary games are described and analyzed from the evolutionary perspective of the firm. The last part of the paper represents a study of the “hawk-dove” game dynamic replicator. The final conclusions of the paper show that the evolutionary theory brings valuable contributions to the foundation of explanations regarding economic phenomena, indicating new directions for advanced

  3. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIRGHI Nicoleta


    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory study of processes that transform economy for firms, institutions, industries, employment, production, trade and growth within, through the actions of diverse agents from experience and interactions, using evolutionary methodology. Evolutionary theory analyses the unleashing of a process of technological and institutional innovation by generating and testing a diversity of ideas which discover and accumulate more survival value for the costs incurred than competing alternatives.This paper presents study the behavior of the firms on the market used the evolutionary theory.The paper is to present in full the developments that have led to the re-assessment of theories of firms starting from the criticism on Coase's theory based on the lack of testable hypotheses and on non-operative definition of transaction costs. In the literature in the field studies on firms were allotted a secondary place for a long period of time, to date the new theories of the firm hold a dominant place in the firms’ economic analysis. In an article, published in 1937, Ronald H. Coase identified the main sources of the cost of using the market mechanism. The firms theory represent a issue intensively studied in the literature in the field, regarding the survival, competitiveness and innovation of firm on the market. The research of Nelson and Winter, “An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change” (1982 is the starting point for a modern literature in the field which considers the approach of the theory of the firm from an evolutionary perspective. Nelson and Winter have shown that the “orthodox” theory, is objectionable primarily by the fact that the hypothesis regarding profit maximization has a normative character and is not valid in any situation. Nelson and Winter reconsidered their microeconomic analysis showing that excessive attention should not be paid to market equilibrium but rather to dynamic processes resulting from irreversible

  5. Play: Dormant Issues and New Perspectives. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian


    Discusses the role of play in development from both cultural-evolutionary and ontogenetic-historical perspectives. These perspectives illuminate how play and imitation are important for the developing individual who is seen as influencing a changing cultural environment. (Author/RH)

  6. 演化博弈视角下移动支付的商业模式研究%Study on Business Model of Mobile Payments under the Perspective of Evolutionary Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊自甫; 魏晶莹; 万晓榆


    The rapid development of mobile payment industry is inseparable from effective business model, the formation and choice of which become one of the key issues. Assuming that the mobile operators and financial institutions in the mobile payment industrial chain are limitedly rational, this paper makes use of the evolutionary game theory to establish asymmetric replicator dynamics on cooperation and competition of the predominance for the mobile operators and financial institutions. By analyzing this model, the evolutionary trend of mobile payment and the parametric conditions which need to be met for selecting different business models are obtained. The results provide suggestions for policy decision of mobile operators and financial institutions in the mobile payment industrial chain.%假设移动支付产业链上的主体移动运营商和金融机构为有限理性,运用演化博弈理论,建立移动运营商和金融机构关于主导权合作竞争的非对称复制动态模型。通过对该模型的分析与研究,得出移动支付商业模式的演化趋势,以及选择不同的商业模式需满足的参数条件,为移动运营商和金融机构在移动支付产业链上做出最佳的策略决策提供了指导性的建议。

  7. Constraints as evolutionary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István


    The constraint equations for smooth $[n+1]$-dimensional (with $n\\geq 3$) Riemannian or Lorentzian spaces satisfying the Einstein field equations are considered. It is shown, regardless of the signature of the primary space, that the constraints can be put into the form of an evolutionary system comprised either by a first order symmetric hyperbolic system and a parabolic equation or, alternatively, by a strongly hyperbolic system and a subsidiary algebraic relation. In both cases the (local) existence and uniqueness of solutions are also discussed.

  8. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian


    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  9. Distributed Evolutionary Graph Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Peter


    We present a novel distributed evolutionary algorithm, KaFFPaE, to solve the Graph Partitioning Problem, which makes use of KaFFPa (Karlsruhe Fast Flow Partitioner). The use of our multilevel graph partitioner KaFFPa provides new effective crossover and mutation operators. By combining these with a scalable communication protocol we obtain a system that is able to improve the best known partitioning results for many inputs in a very short amount of time. For example, in Walshaw's well known benchmark tables we are able to improve or recompute 76% of entries for the tables with 1%, 3% and 5% imbalance.

  10. Evolutionary Psychology is Not Evil! (… and Here’s Why …

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Geher


    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology has faced ‘implacable hostility’ (Dawkins, 2005from a number of intellectual fronts. Critics of evolutionary psychology have triedto paint this perspective variously as reductionist and overly deterministic, at best,and as sexist, racist, and downright evil at worst. The current paper argues that allpsychological frameworks which assume that human beings are the result of theorganic evolutionary forces of natural and sexual selection are, essentially,evolutionary in nature (regardless of whether they traditionally fall under the labelof evolutionary psychology. In other words, the perspective presented here arguesthat all psychology is evolutionary psychology. Two specific mis-characterizationsof evolutionary psychology ((a that it is eugenicist in nature and (b that it is afully non-situationist, immutable perspective on behavior are addressed here withan eye toward elaborating on how these distorted conceptions of evolutionarypsychology are non-constructive and non-progressive. A final section focuses onhow the social sciences in general could benefit from being evolutionized.

  11. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine. (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M


    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications.

  12. Wildlife conservation and animal temperament: causes and consequences of evolutionary change for captive, reintroduced, and wild populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, P.T.; Réale, D.; Sol, D.; Reader, S.M.


    We argue that animal temperament is an important concept for wildlife conservation science and review causes and consequences of evolutionary changes in temperament traits that may occur in captive-breeding programmes. An evolutionary perspective is valid because temperament traits are heritable, li

  13. Molecular evolutionary analysis of ABCB5: the ancestral gene is a full transporter with potentially deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ABCB5 is a member of the ABC protein superfamily, which includes the transporters ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 responsible for causing drug resistance in cancer patients and also several other transporters that have been linked to human disease. The ABCB5 full transporter (ABCB5.ts is expressed in human testis and its functional significance is presently unknown. Another variant of this transporter, ABCB5 beta possess a "half-transporter-like" structure and is expressed in melanoma stem cells, normal melanocytes, and other types of pigment cells. ABCB5 beta has important clinical implications, as it may be involved with multidrug resistance in melanoma stem cells, allowing these stem cells to survive chemotherapeutic regimes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed and examined in detail topological structures of the human ABCB5 protein and determined in-silico the cSNPs (coding single nucleotide polymorphisms that may affect its function. Evolutionary analysis of ABCB5 indicated that ABCB5, ABCB1, ABCB4, and ABCB11 share a common ancestor, which began duplicating early in the evolutionary history of chordates. This suggests that ABCB5 has evolved as a full transporter throughout its evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From our in-silco analysis of cSNPs we found that a large number of non-synonymous cSNPs map to important functional regions of the protein suggesting that these SNPs if present in human populations may play a role in diseases associated with ABCB5. From phylogenetic analyses, we have shown that ABCB5 evolved as a full transporter throughout its evolutionary history with an absence of any major shifts in selection between the various lineages suggesting that the function of ABCB5 has been maintained during mammalian evolution. This finding would suggest that ABCB5 beta may have evolved to play a specific role in human pigment cells and/or melanoma cells where it is predominantly expressed.

  14. Women in evolution - highlighting the changing face of evolutionary biology. (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Otto, Sarah


    The face of science has changed. Women now feature alongside men at the forefront of many fields, and this is particularly true in evolutionary biology. This special issue celebrates the outstanding achievements and contributions of women in evolutionary biology, by highlighting a sample of their research and accomplishments. In addition to original research contributions, this collection of articles contains personal reflections to provide perspective and advice on succeeding as a woman in science. By showcasing the diversity and research excellence of women and drawing on their experiences, we wish to enhance the visibility of female scientists and provide inspiration as well as role models. These are exciting times for evolutionary biology, and the field is richer and stronger for the diversity of voices contributing to the field.

  15. Physiological regulatory networks: ecological roles and evolutionary constraints. (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Martin, Lynn B; Wingfield, John C; McWilliams, Scott R; Dunne, Jennifer A


    Ecological and evolutionary physiology has traditionally focused on one aspect of physiology at a time. Here, we discuss the implications of considering physiological regulatory networks (PRNs) as integrated wholes, a perspective that reveals novel roles for physiology in organismal ecology and evolution. For example, evolutionary response to changes in resource abundance might be constrained by the role of dietary micronutrients in immune response regulation, given a particular pathogen environment. Because many physiological components impact more than one process, organismal homeostasis is maintained, individual fitness is determined and evolutionary change is constrained (or facilitated) by interactions within PRNs. We discuss how PRN structure and its system-level properties could determine both individual performance and patterns of physiological evolution.

  16. Evolutionary approach to communication between humans and dogs. (United States)

    Lakatos, Gabriella


    Dog-human communication has been widely investigated recently for different theoretical reasons, in most cases through dogs' comprehension of human gestural cues. Dogs have been reported to be very skilful in comprehending a variety of human pointing gestures in many independent studies. This paper provides a short overview of the possible explanations behind the dogs' exceptional communicational abilities towards humans from an evolutionary perspective, concluding that the different and seemingly contradictory hypotheses are not exclusive but they might have a synergic effect.

  17. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation. (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D


    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational, and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and migration of ideas, each conducted by participating humans. Based on this evolutionary perspective, we generated hypotheses about collective human decision making, using agent-based computer simulations. The hypotheses were then tested through several experiments with real human subjects. Throughout this project, we utilized evolutionary computation (EC) in non-traditional ways-(1) as a theoretical framework for reinterpreting the dynamics of idea generation and selection, (2) as a computational simulation model of collective human decision-making processes, and (3) as a research tool for collecting high-resolution experimental data on actual collaborative design and decision making from human subjects. We believe our work demonstrates untapped potential of EC for interdisciplinary research involving human and social dynamics.

  18. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W


    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  19. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions? (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.


    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  20. Evolutionary neurobiology and aesthetics. (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Upham


    If aesthetics is a human universal, it should have a neurobiological basis. Although use of all the senses is, as Aristotle noted, pleasurable, the distance senses are primarily involved in aesthetics. The aesthetic response emerges from the central processing of sensory input. This occurs very rapidly, beneath the level of consciousness, and only the feeling of pleasure emerges into the conscious mind. This is exemplified by landscape appreciation, where it is suggested that a computation built into the nervous system during Paleolithic hunter-gathering is at work. Another inbuilt computation leading to an aesthetic response is the part-whole relationship. This, it is argued, may be traced to the predator-prey "arms races" of evolutionary history. Mate selection also may be responsible for part of our response to landscape and visual art. Aesthetics lies at the core of human mentality, and its study is consequently of importance not only to philosophers and art critics but also to neurobiologists.

  1. Evolutionary Explanation and the Record of Interest: Using Evolutionary Archaeology and Dual-Inheritance Theory to Explain the Archaeological Record


    Cochrane, E.


    Book description: This volume offers an integrative approach to the application of evolutionary theory in studies of cultural transmission and social evolution and reveals the enormous range of ways in which Darwinian ideas can lead to productive empirical research, the touchstone of any worthwhile theoretical perspective. While many recent works on cultural evolution adopt a specific theoretical framework, such as dual inheritance theory or human behavioral ecology, Pattern and Process in Cu...

  2. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics. (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne


    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  3. Evolutionary Design of Boolean Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhang-yi; ZHANG Huan-guo; QIN Zhong-ping; MENG Qing-shu


    We use evolutionary computing to synthesize Boolean functions randomly. By using specific crossover and mutation operator in evolving process and modifying search space and fitness function, we get some high non-linearity functions which have other good cryptography characteristics such as autocorrelation etc. Comparing to other heuristic search techniques, evolutionary computing approach is more effective because of global search strategy and implicit parallelism.

  4. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  5. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum


    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  6. 以进化心理学视角解析影响幸福的因素%A Look at the Factors Influencing Happiness from the Perspective of Evolutionary Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从古至今,针对如何追求幸福的话题,已将幸福变成一个深刻而复杂的多元化概念。大部分学者甚至把幸福看作人生的最终目标。本文试图运用“进化心理学”的学科特点,深入探讨影响个人幸福的根源、因素特征,并提出获得幸福的方法。揭示出“幸福”并非作为人生最终目的来实现,而是一个机体调节能量的平衡工具,与个人需要相匹配而存在,是人类生存过程中必不可少的位置参照物,使得每个人都有获得幸福的权利。%The pursuit of happiness has been a perennial topic since ancient times .The concept of happiness has e-volved into a deep and complex diversity .Most scholars even regard happiness as the ultimate goal in life .Drawing on the characteristics of evolutionary psychology , this paper attempts an investigation into the influencing factors of personal happiness and puts forward a paradigm for obtaining it .It is concluded that happiness is not the ultimate goal to be achieved but rather a necessary tool that modulates physiology and provides energy essential to human survival .In addition , since happiness is an indispensable point of reference in human life , every citizen is entitled to it.

  7. [Evolutionary medicine: the future looking at the past]. (United States)

    Carvalho, Serafim; Rosado, Margarida


    Evolutionary medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of the human health and disease, considering them as a result of a gap between our modern lives and the environment where human beings evolve. This work's goals are to understand the importance of the evolutionary theories on concepts of health and disease, providing a new insight on medicine investigation. This bibliography review is based on Medline and PsycINFO articles research between 1996 and 2007 about review and experimental studies published in English, using the key words evolutionary and medicine, psychiatry, psychology, behaviour, health, disease, gene. There were selected forty-five articles based on and with special interest on the authors' practice. There were also consulted some allusive books. The present human genome and phenotypes are essentially Palaeolithic ones: they are not adapted to the modern life style, thus favouring the so called diseases of civilization. Fitting evolutionary strategies, apparently protective ones, when excessive, are the core syndromes of many emotional disruptive behaviours and diseases. Having the stone age's genes, we are obliged to live in the space age. With the evolutionary approach, postmodern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases and its preventions and treatment.

  8. Marine Dispersal Scales Are Congruent over Evolutionary and Ecological Time

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsky, Malin L.


    The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evolutionary estimates often suggest substantially greater homogeneity among populations. Reconciling these two approaches and their seemingly competing perspectives on dispersal has been a major challenge. Here we show for the first time that evolutionary and ecological measures of larval dispersal can closely agree by using both to estimate the distribution of dispersal distances. In orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) populations in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, we found that evolutionary dispersal kernels were 17 km (95% confidence interval: 12–24 km) wide, while an exhaustive set of direct larval dispersal observations suggested kernel widths of 27 km (19–36 km) or 19 km (15–27 km) across two years. The similarity between these two approaches suggests that ecological and evolutionary dispersal kernels can be equivalent, and that the apparent disagreement between direct and indirect measurements can be overcome. Our results suggest that carefully applied evolutionary methods, which are often less expensive, can be broadly relevant for understanding ecological dispersal across the tree of life.

  9. Applying evolutionary genetics to developmental toxicology and risk assessment. (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Procter, Andrew C; Goldstone, Jared V; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Siddall, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R


    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease.

  10. Localization of CiCBR in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis: evidence of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling. (United States)

    Egertová, Michaela; Elphick, Maurice R


    CiCBR is a G-protein-coupled receptor in the sea-squirt Ciona intestinalis and the first ortholog of vertebrate CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors to be identified in an invertebrate (Elphick et al. [2003] Gene 302:95-101). Here we have used Western blotting and immunocytochemistry to examine expression of CiCBR in adult Ciona, employing novel antibodies to the C-terminal tail of CiCBR. Consistent with the expected mass for CiCBR, a approximately 47-kDa band was detected in Ciona membranes, and immunocytochemical analysis of serial sections of Ciona revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cerebral ganglion localised in a dense meshwork of fibers in the neuropile. Accordingly, Western blot analysis of neural complex homogenates revealed the presence of a approximately 47-kDa band. CiCBR immunoreactivity was also observed in axons exiting the ganglion in the anterior and posterior nerves, and analysis of whole-mount preparations revealed that these axons project over the interior surface of the oral and atrial siphons. Isolated CiCBR-immunoreactive axons not associated with the anterior and posterior nerves were observed projecting through the cortical layer of the cerebral ganglion. Central and peripheral CiCBR-immunoreactive fibers were studded with intensely stained varicosities, indicative of a role for CiCBR in regulation of axonal release of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones. Collectively, our data suggest that the well-established role that the CB(1) receptor has as an axonal regulator of neurotransmitter release in mammals may have originated with ancestral-type cannabinoid receptors in invertebrate chordates before the emergence of CB(1)- and CB(2)-type receptors in vertebrates.

  11. Brincadeiras de faz-de-conta em crianças autistas: limites e possibilidades numa perspectiva evolucionista Make-Believe play in autistic children: constraints and possibilities in the evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Fiaes


    Full Text Available A constatação da presença universal da brincadeira na infância sugere que tal comportamento deva ter grande valor adaptativo para a espécie. Apesar de universal, a brincadeira sofre interferência do estado desenvolvimental do indivíduo. Crianças com autismo, por exemplo, apresentam dificuldades no brincar, o que nos leva a questionamentos sobre a natureza da sua brincadeira simbólica, se todo faz-de-conta necessariamente inclui teoria da mente e porque um fenômeno considerado universal surge de modo tão atípico no autismo. O artigo discute essas questões à luz da psicologia evolucionista, ilustrando relatos de brincadeiras espontâneas de crianças autistas coletados em instituições educacionais na cidade de Salvador (BA. Os resultados sugerem que os episódios de faz-de-conta envolvem freqüentemente a presença de objetos como apoio para o desenvolvimento da brincadeira. Tal fato está em acordo com a descrição de alguns autores sobre o desenvolvimento do faz-de-conta, com seu início mais sustentado por objetos e independente de metarepresentação.The universal presence of play into the infancy suggests that this behavior must to have a great value adaptative to specie. Although universal, the play receive interference of developmental degree, as children with autism. The difficulties presented by autistic children on the play have came questions about the nature of symbolic play, if all make-believe include theory of mind and why a phenomenon universal emerge of differentiated way in the autism. The article discuss this questions to view of evolutionary psychology, illustrating relates of autistic children's spontaneous play collecting in educational institutions in the Salvador's City. The results suggests that the make believe episodes involves the presence of objects as supportive to developmental of the play. This fact is in accord with the description of some authors about the make-believe developmental, with the

  12. 再集成:一种“模块化陷阱”——基于演化视角的分析%Reintegration. A Type of Modularization Trap --Based on Evolutionary Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈于; 安同良


    In a modular system, modular division is a ceaseless metabolic process. It is frequently observed that a type of module merges with another over time and the enterprise is excluded from the modular production networks. We call this phenomenon as "reintegration", which is a type of modularization trap to damage the interests of relevant enterprises. It is generally accepted that the merit of modularity is creating option value,which depends on the design risk of the product. By absorbing some viewpoints of technology cycle theory, the paper analyzes the dynamic changes of design risk and discovers the rule that option value declines with technology evolution, thereby explaining the formulation of modular reintegration phenomena. And on that basis, the paper presents a type of evolutionary pattern of modular system. Finally this paper gives suggestions to firms on how to avoid the risk of reintegration.%在模块化系统中,模块的划分是一个不断变化的过程。常常可以观察到:随着时间的推移,一种模块被另一种模块所吞并,不再独立存在,相关厂商被排挤出模块化分工网。我们将这种现象称为"再集成"。"再集成"损害了模块厂商的利益,是一种"模块化陷阱"。一般认为,模块化的优势在于创造"选择权价值",而这依赖于产品的设计风险。本文借鉴了"技术周期理论"的思想,对设计风险做了动态化处理,揭示了"选择权价值"随技术演化而下降的规律,从而解释了"再集成"现象的动因。在此基础上,本文提出了一种模块系统的演化模式,并为企业规避"再集成"风险提出了建议。

  13. 生态经济视角下政府企业污染治理的演化博弈分析%Game Analysis Between Government and Enterprise about the Pollution Treatment from the Perspective of Ecological Economy Evolutionary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文分析生态经济视角下政府环境监测部门与企业在污染治理过程中的博弈行为。首先分析完全信息静态博弈分析的纳什均衡,然后扩展到群体有限理性下博弈分析,建立了政府监管部门和企业在各自不同的策略选择时的成本和收益函数,运用演化博弈理论研究了博弈模型的稳定性策略。分析结果表明:政府部门应该对企业污染加大监管及惩罚力度;企业应该运用更高的科技水平来降低污染物的产生及污染治理成本;加大政府监管失职处罚,强化政府监管职责;完善环境监管机制,提高政府监管效率,减少监管部门对于企业的监管成本。%This paper analyses ecological economic environment government environmental monitoring depart-ments and enterprises behavior in pollution control in the process of playing the Game. Firstly, the paper analyses the complete information static game theory of Nash equilibrium;and then the paper extends to bounded rationality of game analysis, establishing the government environmental protection department and the enterprises in different strategies when the choice of cost and revenue functions. By using the evolutionary game theory, the paper studies the game model of the stability of the strategy. The game analysis results show that the government should strengthen su-pervision and punishment of enterprise pollution;enterprises should use a higher level of science and technology to reduce the pollutants and the pollution control cost;punishment regulation dereliction of duty should be increased, and government regulatory responsibilities should be improved;the environmental monitoring mechanism should be updated, by improving the efficiency of government regulation, and reducing the cost of monitoring.

  14. Evolutionary financial market models (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.


    We study computer simulations of two financial market models, the second a simplified model of the first. The first is a model of the self-organized formation and breakup of crowds of traders, motivated by the dynamics of competitive evolving systems which shows interesting self-organized critical (SOC)-type behaviour without any fine tuning of control parameters. This SOC-type avalanching and stasis appear as realistic volatility clustering in the price returns time series. The market becomes highly ordered at ‘crashes’ but gradually loses this order through randomization during the intervening stasis periods. The second model is a model of stocks interacting through a competitive evolutionary dynamic in a common stock exchange. This model shows a self-organized ‘market-confidence’. When this is high the market is stable but when it gets low the market may become highly volatile. Volatile bursts rapidly increase the market confidence again. This model shows a phase transition as temperature parameter is varied. The price returns time series in the transition region is very realistic power-law truncated Levy distribution with clustered volatility and volatility superdiffusion. This model also shows generally positive stock cross-correlations as is observed in real markets. This model may shed some light on why such phenomena are observed.

  15. Evolutionary cytogenetics in salamanders. (United States)

    Sessions, Stanley K


    Salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata/Urodela) have been the subject of numerous cytogenetic studies, and data on karyotypes and genome sizes are available for most groups. Salamanders show a more-or-less distinct dichotomy between families with large chromosome numbers and interspecific variation in chromosome number, relative size, and shape (i.e. position of the centromere), and those that exhibit very little variation in these karyological features. This dichotomy is the basis of a major model of karyotype evolution in salamanders involving a kind of 'karyotypic orthoselection'. Salamanders are also characterized by extremely large genomes (in terms of absolute mass of nuclear DNA) and extensive variation in genome size (and overall size of the chromosomes), which transcends variation in chromosome number and shape. The biological significance and evolution of chromosome number and shape within the karyotype is not yet understood, but genome size variation has been found to have strong phenotypic, biogeographic, and phylogenetic correlates that reveal information about the biological significance of this cytogenetic variable. Urodeles also present the advantage of only 10 families and less than 600 species, which facilitates the analysis of patterns within the entire order. The purpose of this review is to present a summary of what is currently known about overall patterns of variation in karyology and genome size in salamanders. These patterns are discussed within an evolutionary context.

  16. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto


    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  17. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition. (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A


    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  18. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Whiteson


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces, a

  19. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities? (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.


    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  20. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  1. Optimal Control of Evolutionary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Raj; McLendon, George


    Elucidating the fitness measures optimized during the evolution of complex biological systems is a major challenge in evolutionary theory. We present experimental evidence and an analytical framework demonstrating how biochemical networks exploit optimal control strategies in their evolutionary dynamics. Optimal control theory explains a striking pattern of extremization in the redox potentials of electron transport proteins, assuming only that their fitness measure is a control objective functional with bounded controls.

  2. A public goods approach to major evolutionary innovations. (United States)

    Erwin, D H


    The history of life is marked by a small number of major transitions, whether viewed from a genetic, ecological, or geological perspective. Specialists from various disciplines have focused on the packaging of information to generate new evolutionary individuals, on the expansion of ecological opportunity, or the abiotic drivers of environmental change to which organisms respond as the major drivers of these episodes. But the critical issue for understanding these major evolutionary transitions (METs) lies in the interactions between environmental, ecologic, and genetic change. Here, I propose that public goods may serve as one currency of such interactions: biological products that are non-excludable and non-rivalrous. Such biological public goods may be involved in either the generation of new evolutionary variation, as with genetic sequences that are easily transferred between different microbial lineages, or in the construction of new ecological niches, as with the progressive oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. Attention to public goods emphasizes the processes by which organisms actively construct their own evolutionary opportunities. Such public goods may have facilitated some METs.

  3. Evolutionary History of the Smyd Gene Family in Metazoans: A Framework to Identify the Orthologs of Human Smyd Genes in Drosophila and Other Animal Species (United States)

    Calpena, Eduardo; Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen; Galindo, Máximo Ibo


    The Smyd gene family code for proteins containing a conserved core consisting of a SET domain interrupted by a MYND zinc finger. Smyd proteins are important in epigenetic control of development and carcinogenesis, through posttranslational modifications in histones and other proteins. Previous reports indicated that the Smyd family is quite variable in metazoans, so a rigorous phylogenetic reconstruction of this complex gene family is of central importance to understand its evolutionary history and functional diversification or conservation. We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of Smyd protein sequences, and our results show that the extant metazoan Smyd genes can be classified in three main classes, Smyd3 (which includes chordate-specific Smyd1 and Smyd2 genes), Smyd4 and Smyd5. In addition, there is an arthropod-specific class, SmydA. While the evolutionary history of the Smyd3 and Smyd5 classes is relatively simple, the Smyd4 class has suffered several events of gene loss, gene duplication and lineage-specific expansions in the animal phyla included in our analysis. A more specific study of the four Smyd4 genes in Drosophila melanogaster shows that they are not redundant, since their patterns of expression are different and knock-down of individual genes can have dramatic phenotypes despite the presence of the other family members. PMID:26230726

  4. Evolutionary History of the Smyd Gene Family in Metazoans: A Framework to Identify the Orthologs of Human Smyd Genes in Drosophila and Other Animal Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Calpena

    Full Text Available The Smyd gene family code for proteins containing a conserved core consisting of a SET domain interrupted by a MYND zinc finger. Smyd proteins are important in epigenetic control of development and carcinogenesis, through posttranslational modifications in histones and other proteins. Previous reports indicated that the Smyd family is quite variable in metazoans, so a rigorous phylogenetic reconstruction of this complex gene family is of central importance to understand its evolutionary history and functional diversification or conservation. We have performed a phylogenetic analysis of Smyd protein sequences, and our results show that the extant metazoan Smyd genes can be classified in three main classes, Smyd3 (which includes chordate-specific Smyd1 and Smyd2 genes, Smyd4 and Smyd5. In addition, there is an arthropod-specific class, SmydA. While the evolutionary history of the Smyd3 and Smyd5 classes is relatively simple, the Smyd4 class has suffered several events of gene loss, gene duplication and lineage-specific expansions in the animal phyla included in our analysis. A more specific study of the four Smyd4 genes in Drosophila melanogaster shows that they are not redundant, since their patterns of expression are different and knock-down of individual genes can have dramatic phenotypes despite the presence of the other family members.

  5. Structural symmetry in evolutionary games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    In evolutionary game theory, an important measure of a mutant trait (strategy) is its ability to invade and take over an otherwise-monomorphic population. Typically, one quantifies the success of a mutant strategy via the probability that a randomly occurring mutant will fixate in the population. However, in a structured population, this fixation probability may depend on where the mutant arises. Moreover, the fixation probability is just one quantity by which one can measure the success of a mutant; fixation time, for instance, is another. We define a notion of homogeneity for evolutionary games that captures what it means for two single-mutant states, i.e. two configurations of a single mutant in an otherwise-monomorphic population, to be 'evolutionarily equivalent' in the sense that all measures of evolutionary success are the same for both configurations. Using asymmetric games, we argue that the term 'homogeneous' should apply to the evolutionary process as a whole rather than to just the population structure. For evolutionary matrix games in graph-structured populations, we give precise conditions under which the resulting process is homogeneous. Finally, we show that asymmetric matrix games can be reduced to symmetric games if the population structure possesses a sufficient degree of symmetry.

  6. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A


    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework.

  7. The evolutionary and ecological benefits of asteroid and comet impacts. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Bland, Philip A


    Commonly viewed solely as agents of destruction, asteroid and comet impact events can also have a beneficial influence on processes from the molecular to the evolutionary scale. On the heavily bombarded early Earth, impacts might have delivered and caused the synthesis of prebiotic compounds that eventually led to life. At the organismal and ecosystem level, impact events can provide new habitats through the shock processing of target materials and by enhancing water availability, such as within intracrater lakes. At the evolutionary level, by destroying entire groups of organisms, impacts might have been instrumental in enabling the rise of new groups, such as the dinosaurs and mammals. Here, we synthesize the emerging literature on the beneficial effects of impacts to provide a novel perspective on these extraterrestrial agents of biological change.

  8. Some Results on Ethnic Conflicts Based on Evolutionary Game Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jun; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin


    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially origining from negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lack supports of scientific evidences. Because ethic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: 1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a positive association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; 2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethni...

  9. Ecological and evolutionary significance of novel protist lineages (United States)

    del Campo, Javier; Guillou, Laure; Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Logares, Ramiro; López-García, Purificación; Massana, Ramon


    Environmental molecular surveys targeting protist diversity have unveiled novel and uncultured lineages in a variety of ecosystems, ranging from completely new high-rank lineages, to new taxa moderately related to previously described organisms. The ecological roles of some of these novel taxa have been studied, showing that in certain habitats they may be responsible for critical environmental processes. Moreover, from an evolutionary perspective they still need to be included in a more accurate and wider understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life. These seminal discoveries promoted the development and use of a wide range of more in-depth culture-independent approaches to access this diversity, from metabarcoding and metagenomics to single cell genomics and FISH. Nonetheless, culturing using classical or innovative approaches is also essential to better characterize this new diversity. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists now face the challenge of apprehending the significance of this new diversity within the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:26996654

  10. The Greening of Innovation Systems for Eco-innovation - Towards an Evolutionary Climate Mitigation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Foxon, Timothy J.


    -innovation policies in important ways. The paper argues that the evolutionary economic perspective entails a new policy rationale which not only puts more emphasis on greening of markets as a means towards reaching climate goals but also shifts the representation of the economy towards a more dynamic one. The policy...

  11. Synonymous genes explore different evolutionary landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Cambray


    Full Text Available The evolutionary potential of a gene is constrained not only by the amino acid sequence of its product, but by its DNA sequence as well. The topology of the genetic code is such that half of the amino acids exhibit synonymous codons that can reach different subsets of amino acids from each other through single mutation. Thus, synonymous DNA sequences should access different regions of the protein sequence space through a limited number of mutations, and this may deeply influence the evolution of natural proteins. Here, we demonstrate that this feature can be of value for manipulating protein evolvability. We designed an algorithm that, starting from an input gene, constructs a synonymous sequence that systematically includes the codons with the most different evolutionary perspectives; i.e., codons that maximize accessibility to amino acids previously unreachable from the template by point mutation. A synonymous version of a bacterial antibiotic resistance gene was computed and synthesized. When concurrently submitted to identical directed evolution protocols, both the wild type and the recoded sequence led to the isolation of specific, advantageous phenotypic variants. Simulations based on a mutation isolated only from the synthetic gene libraries were conducted to assess the impact of sub-functional selective constraints, such as codon usage, on natural adaptation. Our data demonstrate that rational design of synonymous synthetic genes stands as an affordable improvement to any directed evolution protocol. We show that using two synonymous DNA sequences improves the overall yield of the procedure by increasing the diversity of mutants generated. These results provide conclusive evidence that synonymous coding sequences do experience different areas of the corresponding protein adaptive landscape, and that a sequence's codon usage effectively constrains the evolution of the encoded protein.

  12. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics. (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P; Szathmáry, Eörs


    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild.

  13. Multivariate Evolutionary Analyses in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier


    The large amount of data on galaxies, up to higher and higher redshifts, asks for sophisticated statistical approaches to build adequate classifications. Multivariate cluster analyses, that compare objects for their global similarities, are still confidential in astrophysics, probably because their results are somewhat difficult to interpret. We believe that the missing key is the unavoidable characteristics in our Universe: evolution. Our approach, known as Astrocladistics, is based on the evolutionary nature of both galaxies and their properties. It gathers objects according to their "histories" and establishes an evolutionary scenario among groups of objects. In this presentation, I show two recent results on globular clusters and earlytype galaxies to illustrate how the evolutionary concepts of Astrocladistics can also be useful for multivariate analyses such as K-means Cluster Analysis.

  14. Evolutionary engineering for industrial microbiology. (United States)

    Vanee, Niti; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S


    Superficially, evolutionary engineering is a paradoxical field that balances competing interests. In natural settings, evolution iteratively selects and enriches subpopulations that are best adapted to a particular ecological niche using random processes such as genetic mutation. In engineering desired approaches utilize rational prospective design to address targeted problems. When considering details of evolutionary and engineering processes, more commonality can be found. Engineering relies on detailed knowledge of the problem parameters and design properties in order to predict design outcomes that would be an optimized solution. When detailed knowledge of a system is lacking, engineers often employ algorithmic search strategies to identify empirical solutions. Evolution epitomizes this iterative optimization by continuously diversifying design options from a parental design, and then selecting the progeny designs that represent satisfactory solutions. In this chapter, the technique of applying the natural principles of evolution to engineer microbes for industrial applications is discussed to highlight the challenges and principles of evolutionary engineering.

  15. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs


    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild. PMID:26640653

  16. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice (United States)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    Calls for improving research-informed policy in education are everywhere. Yet, while there is an increasing trend towards science-based practice, there remains little agreement over which of the sciences to consult and how to organize a collective effort between them. What Education lacks is a general theoretical framework through which policies can be constructed, implemented, and assessed. This dissertation submits that evolutionary theory can provide a suitable framework for coordinating educational policies and practice, and can provide the entire field of education with a clearer sense of how to better manage the learning environment. This dissertation explores two broad paths that outline the conceptual foundations for an Evolutionary Education Science: "Teaching Evolution" and "Using Evolution to Teach." Chapter 1 introduces both of these themes. After describing why evolutionary science is best suited for organizing education research and practice, Chapter 1 proceeds to "teach" an overview of the "evolutionary toolkit"---the mechanisms and principles that underlie the modern evolutionary perspective. The chapter then employs the "toolkit" in examining education from an evolutionary perspective, outlining the evolutionary precepts that can guide theorizing and research in education, describing how educators can "use evolution to teach.". Chapters 2-4 expand on this second theme. Chapters 2 and 3 describe an education program for at-risk 9th and 10th grade students, the Regents Academy, designed entirely with evolutionary principles in mind. The program was rigorously assessed in a randomized control design and has demonstrated success at improving students' academic performance (Chapter 2) and social & behavioral development (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 examines current teaching strategies that underlie effective curriculum-instruction-assessment practices and proposes a framework for organizing successful, evidence-based strategies for neural

  17. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær


    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  18. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  19. Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Kiunke, Markus; Hecht, Bert


    The design of nano-antennas is so far mainly inspired by radio-frequency technology. However, material properties and experimental settings need to be reconsidered at optical frequencies, which entails the need for alternative optimal antenna designs. Here a checkerboard-type, initially random array of gold cubes is subjected to evolutionary optimization. To illustrate the power of the approach we demonstrate that by optimizing the near-field intensity enhancement the evolutionary algorithm finds a new antenna geometry, essentially a split-ring/two-wire antenna hybrid which surpasses by far the performance of a conventional gap antenna by shifting the n=1 split-ring resonance into the optical regime.

  20. EVOLVE : a Bridge between Probability, Set Oriented Numerics and Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian; Bouvry, Pascal; Moral, Pierre; Legrand, Pierrick; Coello, Carlos; Schütze, Oliver; EVOLVE 2011


    The aim of this book is to provide a strong theoretical support for understanding and analyzing the behavior of evolutionary algorithms, as well as for creating a bridge between probability, set-oriented numerics and evolutionary computation. The volume encloses a collection of contributions that were presented at the EVOLVE 2011 international workshop, held in Luxembourg, May 25-27, 2011, coming from invited speakers and also from selected regular submissions. The aim of EVOLVE is to unify the perspectives offered by probability, set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation. EVOLVE focuses on challenging aspects that arise at the passage from theory to new paradigms and practice, elaborating on the foundations of evolutionary algorithms and theory-inspired methods merged with cutting-edge techniques that ensure performance guarantee factors. EVOLVE is also intended to foster a growing interest for robust and efficient methods with a sound theoretical background. The chapters enclose challenging theoret...

  1. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPPn 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hudson

    Full Text Available Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPPn in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPPn motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I, four in α2(I and three in α1(II, all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPPn domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human, up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPPn motif were found in α1(I and four in α2(I, with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPPn site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species.

  2. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology]. (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław


    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  3. Evolutionary approach to communication between humans and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Lakatos

    Full Text Available Dog-human communication has been widely investigated recently for different theoretical reasons, in most cases through dogs' comprehension of human gestural cues. Dogs have been reported to be very skilful in comprehending a variety of human pointing gestures in many independent studies. This paper provides a short overview of the possible explanations behind the dogs' exceptional communicational abilities towards humans from an evolutionary perspective, concluding that the different and seemingly contradictory hypotheses are not exclusive but they might have a synergic effect.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi


    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  5. Statistical Methods for Evolutionary Trees


    Edwards, A. W. F.


    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution.

  6. Micro Evolutionary Processes and Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It would be well to note that in the absence of clear data about the formation of adaptation systems,or mechanisms of their occurrence,all that is recognized is the realization of the micro evolutionary processes.There is no well-defined connection between information exchange and formation of

  7. Evolutionary models of human personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haysom, H.J.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.


    Behavioral genetic studies have shown that around a third to a half of the between-individual variation in personality traits can be accounted for by genetic differences between individuals. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. In this

  8. Evolutionary Computation and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Licheng Jiao; Lishan Kang; Zhenya He; Tao Xie


    @@ On Mar.23,2006,a project in the Major Program of NSFC-"Evolutionary computation and its application",managed by Prof.Licheng Jiao,Prof.Lishan Kang,Prof.Zhenya He,and Prof.Tao Xie,passed its Final Qualification Process and was evaluated as Excellent.

  9. Is evolutionary biology strategic science? (United States)

    Meagher, Thomas R


    There is a profound need for the scientific community to be better aware of the policy context in which it operates. To address this need, Evolution has established a new Outlook feature section to include papers that explore the interface between society and evolutionary biology. This first paper in the series considers the strategic relevance of evolutionary biology. Support for scientific research in general is based on governmental or institutional expenditure that is an investment, and such investment is based on strategies designed to achieve particular outcomes, such as advance in particular areas of basic science or application. The scientific community can engage in the development of scientific strategies on a variety of levels, including workshops to explicitly develop research priorities and targeted funding initiatives to help define emerging scientific areas. Better understanding and communication of the scientific achievements of evolutionary biology, emphasizing immediate and potential societal relevance, are effective counters to challenges presented by the creationist agenda. Future papers in the Outlook feature section should assist the evolutionary biology community in achieving a better collective understanding of the societal relevance of their field.

  10. Current Issues in Evolutionary Paleontology. (United States)

    Scully, Erik Paul


    Describes some of the contributions made by the field of paleontology to theories in geology and biology. Suggests that the two best examples of modern evolutionary paleontology relate to the theory of punctuated equilibria, and the possibility that mass extinctions may be cyclic. (TW)

  11. Statistical methods for evolutionary trees. (United States)

    Edwards, A W F


    In 1963 and 1964, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and A. W. F. Edwards introduced novel methods for computing evolutionary trees from genetical data, initially for human populations from blood-group gene frequencies. The most important development was their introduction of statistical methods of estimation applied to stochastic models of evolution.

  12. Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.; Ranney, Michael; Schindel, Jennifer


    Evolutionary science has consequences for individuals and society, ranging from the way we interpret human behavior to our notions of spirituality and the purpose of our existence. Popular portrayals of evolution depict a paradoxical theory, a source of knowledge and human connections, but also a threat to our humanity and freedom. Using quantitative and qualitative methodology, we examined how college-educated adults (n = 135) from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds perceive the impact of evolutionary theory on individuals and society. We identified a continuum of perspectives, ranging from strong creationist to strong evolutionist. Using the model of knowledge as an ecology (Demastes, Good, & Peebles, Science Education, 79, 637-666, 1995; Nardi & O'Day, Information ecologies: Using technology with heart, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999), we examined the relationships among participants' beliefs, their perceptions regarding the social and personal impact of evolutionary theory, their prior exposure to and knowledge of evolutionary theory, and their opinions regarding the teaching of evolution. Evolutionists and creationists differed in their prior exposure to evolutionary theory, and their opinions about some aspects of teaching, but showed striking similarities regarding perceived impact. All groups viewed the consequences of accepting evolutionary principles in a way that might be considered undesirable: increased selfishness and racism, decreased spirituality, and a decreased sense of purpose and self-determination. From a science education perspective, this one-sided interpretation is troublesome because it runs counter to the available evidence and theories in evolutionary science, and we consider ways of fostering more balanced presentation and appraisal of evolutionary theory.

  13. Dopamine in Socioecological and Evolutionary Perspectives: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie eYamaguchi


    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as deficits in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, and even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in subjects with such DA alterations living in social groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution.

  14. Nursing leadership within the NHS: an evolutionary perspective. (United States)

    Sherring, Simon

    Effective leadership is crucial to the delivery of quality NHS care, particularly in the current economic climate. These are unprecedented times for the NHS; at no other time in its life has the need for leadership been greater. It is hard to define nursing leadership, with roles becoming increasingly complex. Although there has been much invested in leadership training, NHS guidance has suggested the service has only just begun to understand the importance of leadership. There is unparalleled change in the NHS; nurses are being asked to be innovators and entrepreneurs. In this article, the author considers what leadership is, and stresses the need for it to continue evolving to meet the changing demands of the NHS.

  15. Effects of snacks on energy intake: An evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.


    The question addressed in this paper is whether the consumption of snacks contributes to higher energy intake and body weight in humans. Currently available snacks have a higher energy density than most of the foods that were available in Paleolithic diets. Humans have a weak defense against overeat

  16. Hypermedia Genes An Evolutionary Perspective on Concepts, Models, and Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, Nuno


    The design space of information services evolved from seminal works through a set of prototypical hypermedia systems and matured in open and widely accessible web-based systems. The original concepts of hypermedia systems are now expressed in different forms and shapes. The first works on hypertext invented the term itself, laid out the foundational concept of association or link, and highlighted navigation as the core paradigm for the future information systems. The first engineered systems demonstrated architectural requirements and models and fostered the emergence of the conceptual model r

  17. The evolutionary physiology of animal flight: paleobiological and present perspectives. (United States)

    Dudley, R


    Recent geophysical analyses suggest the presence of a late Paleozoic oxygen pulse beginning in the late Devonian and continuing through to the late Carboniferous. During this period, plant terrestrialization and global carbon deposition resulted in a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen levels, ultimately yielding concentrations potentially as high as 35% relative to the contemporary value of 21%. Such hyperoxia of the late Paleozoic atmosphere may have physiologically facilitated the initial evolution of insect flight metabolism. Widespread gigantism in late Paleozoic insects and other arthropods is also consistent with enhanced oxygen flux within diffusion-limited tracheal systems. Because total atmospheric pressure increases with increased oxygen partial pressure, concurrently hyperdense conditions would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early forms of flying insects. By the late Permian, evolution of decompositional microbial and fungal communities, together with disequilibrium in rates of carbon deposition, gradually reduced oxygen concentrations to values possibly as low as 15%. The disappearance of giant insects by the end of the Permian is consistent with extinction of these taxa for reasons of asphyxiation on a geological time scale. As with winged insects, the multiple historical origins of vertebrate flight in the late Jurassic and Cretaceous correlate temporally with periods of elevated atmospheric oxygen. Much discussion of flight performance in Archaeopteryx assumes a contemporary atmospheric composition. Elevated oxygen levels in the mid- to late Mesozoic would, however, have facilitated aerodynamic force production and enhanced muscle power output for ancestral birds, as well as for precursors to bats and pterosaurs.

  18. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives (United States)

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit


    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  19. Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots. (United States)

    Floreano, D; Mondada, F


    In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic variations on the experimental settings. After describing some key principles for building mobile robots and tools suitable for experiments in adaptive robotics, we give an overview of different approaches to evolutionary robotics and present our methodology. We start reviewing two basic experiments showing that different environments can shape very different behaviours and neural mechanisms under very similar selection criteria. We then address the issue of incremental evolution in two different experiments from the perspective of changing environments and robot morphologies. Finally, we investigate the possibility of evolving plastic neurocontrollers and analyse an evolved neurocontroller that relies on fast and continuously changing synapses characterized by dynamic stability. We conclude by reviewing the implications of this methodology for engineering, biology, cognitive science and artificial life, and point at future directions of research.

  20. Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation. (United States)

    Balbernie, Robin


    This paper suggests that the behaviours associated with the formal diagnosis of the "disinhibited" form of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) might be seen as a functional adaptation rather than a mental health problem, a facultative response enhancing the probability of survival that is triggered by certain conditions. Although disinhibited RAD is most commonly observed in institutionalised children, similar behaviours may also be a part of the emotional difficulties displayed by some fostered and adopted children (the latter includes those once institutionalised), and these may demonstrate not so much a discrete attachment disorder as either the need to fend for oneself following loss of dedicated caregiving or a lack of opportunity to build specific intimate relationships with dedicated caregivers. In many cases this may be inextricably mixed with the neurobiological and psychological seqelae of maltreatment. Indiscriminate attachment behaviour, from this proposed evolutionary perspective, is less a syndrome of mental ill-health than an astute survival manoeuvre following being orphaned, abandoned or fecklessly reared. Such a response, allied to the innate facility to access caregiving from different adults, could be expected to be initiated by specific events as are the other attachment configurations. Classing disinhibited RAD as an adaptation has implications for helping children brought up under extreme duress when their caregiving environment has changed for the better.

  1. Pragmatic quality metrics for evolutionary software development models (United States)

    Royce, Walker


    Due to the large number of product, project, and people parameters which impact large custom software development efforts, measurement of software product quality is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, the absolute perspective from which quality is measured (customer satisfaction) is intangible. While we probably can't say what the absolute quality of a software product is, we can determine the relative quality, the adequacy of this quality with respect to pragmatic considerations, and identify good and bad trends during development. While no two software engineers will ever agree on an optimum definition of software quality, they will agree that the most important perspective of software quality is its ease of change. We can call this flexibility, adaptability, or some other vague term, but the critical characteristic of software is that it is soft. The easier the product is to modify, the easier it is to achieve any other software quality perspective. This paper presents objective quality metrics derived from consistent lifecycle perspectives of rework which, when used in concert with an evolutionary development approach, can provide useful insight to produce better quality per unit cost/schedule or to achieve adequate quality more efficiently. The usefulness of these metrics is evaluated by applying them to a large, real world, Ada project.

  2. A paleontological perspective of vertebrate origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Early Cambrian Haikouichthys and Haikouella have been claimed to be related to contribute in an important way to our understanding of vertebrate origin, but there have been heated debates about how exactly they are to be interpreted. New discoveries of numerous specimens of Haikouichthys not only confirm the identity of previously described structures such as the dorsal and the ventral fins, and chevron-shaped myomeres, but also reveal many new important characteristics, including sensory organs of the head (e.g. large eyes), and a prominent notochord with differentiated vertebral elements. This "first fish" appears, however, to retain primitive reproductive features of acraniates, suggesting that it is a stem-group craniates. A new order (Myllokunmingiida) and a new family (Myllokunmingiidae) are erected, and a new species, Zhongjianichthys rostratus (gen. et sp. nov.), is described herein. Over 1400 newly-discovered specimens of Haikouella provide a wealth of anatomical information on this organism. It differs from chordates in many organs and organ systems, including the skin, muscles, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems. In contrast, its body-design resembles that of vetulicolians, and the presence of a "transitional" nervous system with both dorsal and ventral nerve cords suggests an affinity with living hemichordates. On the basis of these and other recent findings of fossil deuterostomes, a five-step hypothesis for vertebrate origin is proposed, intended to bridge the long- standing gap between protostomes and vertebrates. Four of the five steps accord with established ideas current in modern evolutionary zoology. Evidence for the first step is obtainable only from fossils, and specifically from fossils found from South China, hence the crucial importance of S. China sites for our understanding of early vertebrate origins and evolution. Accordingly, South China is suggested as the oldest-known birthplace of the whole vertebrates.

  3. Evolutionary Approaches to Expensive Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maumita Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Surrogate assisted evolutionary algorithms (EA are rapidly gaining popularity where applications of EA in complex real world problem domains are concerned. Although EAs are powerful global optimizers, finding optimal solution to complex high dimensional, multimodal problems often require very expensive fitness function evaluations. Needless to say, this could brand any population-based iterative optimization technique to be the most crippling choice to handle such problems. Use of approximate model or surrogates provides a much cheaper option. However, naturally this cheaper option comes with its own price! This paper discusses some of the key issues involved with use of approximation in evolutionary algorithm, possible best practices and solutions. Answers to the following questions have been sought: what type of fitness approximation to be used; which approximation model to use; how to integrate the approximation model in EA; how much approximation to use; and how to ensure reliable approximation.

  4. Evolutionary model of stock markets (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim


    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  5. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A


    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  6. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology. (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K


    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  7. Building complex brains--missing pieces in an evolutionary puzzle. (United States)

    Jaaro, Hanna; Fainzilber, Mike


    The mechanisms underlying evolution of complex nervous systems are not well understood. In recent years there have been a number of attempts to correlate specific gene families or evolutionary processes with increased brain complexity in the vertebrate lineage. Candidates for evocation of complexity include genes involved in regulating brain size, such as neurotrophic factors or microcephaly-related genes; or wider evolutionary processes, such as accelerated evolution of brain-expressed genes or enhanced RNA splicing or editing events in primates. An inherent weakness of these studies is that they are correlative by nature, and almost exclusively focused on the mammalian and specifically the primate lineage. Another problem with genomic analyses is that it is difficult to identify functionally similar yet non-homologous molecules such as different families of cysteine-rich neurotrophic factors in different phyla. As long as comprehensive experimental studies of these questions are not feasible, additional perspectives for evolutionary and genomic studies will be very helpful. Cephalopod mollusks represent the most complex nervous systems outside the vertebrate lineage, thus we suggest that genome sequencing of different mollusk models will provide useful insights into the evolution of complex brains.

  8. [Narcissism in the world of Facebook. An evolutionary psychopathological interpretation]. (United States)

    Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland


    In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework.

  9. Evolutionary robotics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Kumar Pratihar


    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to solve this problem. This paper provides a survey on some of these important studies carried out in the recent past.

  10. Structural symmetry in evolutionary games


    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    In evolutionary game theory, an important measure of a mutant trait (strategy) is its ability to invade and take over an otherwise-monomorphic population. Typically, one quantifies the success of a mutant strategy via the probability that a randomly occurring mutant will fixate in the population. However, in a structured population, this fixation probability may depend on where the mutant arises. Moreover, the fixation probability is just one quantity by which one can measure the success of a...

  11. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes


    De Luca, F; Perry, G. H.; Di Rienzo, A.


    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human...

  12. Incorporating Development Into Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Bjorklund


    Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.

  13. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  14. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis. (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G


    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time.

  15. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.; Mueller, J.C.


    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by e

  16. Evolutionary Game Theory and Leadership (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J.


    Comments on the article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. This article offers a fresh perspective on leaders, followers, and their possible origins in nonhuman and primitive human behavior patterns. The connections between group coordination, leadership, and game theory have some…

  17. Evolutionary Governance Theory: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.


    This short books offers the reader a remarkable new perspective on the way markets, laws and societies evolve together. It can be of use to anyone interested in development, market and public sector reform, public administration, politics & law. Based on a wide variety of case studies on three c

  18. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.


    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  19. Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E


    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide r

  20. Micro Evolutionary Processes and Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ It would be well to note that in the absence of clear data about the formation of adaptation systems,or mechanisms of their occurrence,all that is recognized is the realization of the micro evolutionary processes.There is no well-defined connection between information exchange and formation of adaptation systems.Obviously,it occurs because mechanisms and systems reacting to any external actions are not considered from the point of view of "coexistence" of dynamic and static processes and structures.

  1. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraes Rabbers


    Full Text Available Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies, adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization.

  2. Self-deception in an evolutionary game. (United States)

    Byrne, C C; Kurland, J A


    From the perspective of philosophy, the idea of humans lying to themselves seems irrational and maladaptive, if even possible. However, the paradigm of cognitive modularity admits the possibility of self-deception. Trivers argues that self-deception can increase fitness by improving the effectiveness of inter-personal deception. Ramachandran criticizes Trivers' conjecture, arguing that the costs of self-deception outweigh its benefits. We first modify a well-known cognitive modularity model of Minsky to formalize a cognitive model of self-deception. We then use Byrne's multi-dimensional dynamic character meta-model to integrate the cognitive model into an evolutionary hawk-dove game in order to investigate Trivers' and Ramachandran's conjectures. By mapping the influence of game circumstances into cognitive states, and mapping the influence of multiple cognitive modules into player decisions, our cognitive definition of self-deception is extended to a behavioral definition of self-deception. Our cognitive modules, referred to as the hunger and fear daemons, assess the benefits and the cost of competition and generate player beliefs. Daemon-assessment of encounter benefits and costs may lead to inter-daemonic conflict, that is, ambivalence, about whether or not to fight. Player-types vary in the manner by which such inter-daemonic conflict is resolved, and varieties of self-deception are modeled as type-specific conflict-resolution mechanisms. In the display phase of the game, players signal to one another and update their beliefs before finally committing to a decision (hawk or dove). Self-deception can affect player beliefs, and hence player actions, before or after signaling. In support of Trivers' conjecture, the self-deceiving types do outperform the non-self-deceiving type. We analyse the sensitivity of this result to parameters of the cognitive model, specifically the cognitive resolution of the players and the influence of player signals on co-player beliefs.

  3. Evolving evolutionary algorithms using linear genetic programming. (United States)

    Oltean, Mihai


    A new model for evolving Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The model is based on the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) technique. Every LGP chromosome encodes an EA which is used for solving a particular problem. Several Evolutionary Algorithms for function optimization, the Traveling Salesman Problem and the Quadratic Assignment Problem are evolved by using the considered model. Numerical experiments show that the evolved Evolutionary Algorithms perform similarly and sometimes even better than standard approaches for several well-known benchmarking problems.

  4. An Introduction to Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Machluf


    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  5. An introduction to evolutionary developmental psychology. (United States)

    Machluf, Karin; Liddle, James R; Bjorklund, David F


    Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  6. Evolutionary Models for Simple Biosystems (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    The concept of evolutionary development of structures constituted a real revolution in biology: it was possible to understand how the very complex structures of life can arise in an out-of-equilibrium system. The investigation of such systems has shown that indeed, systems under a flux of energy or matter can self-organize into complex patterns, think for instance to Rayleigh-Bernard convection, Liesegang rings, patterns formed by granular systems under shear. Following this line, one could characterize life as a state of matter, characterized by the slow, continuous process that we call evolution. In this paper we try to identify the organizational level of life, that spans several orders of magnitude from the elementary constituents to whole ecosystems. Although similar structures can be found in other contexts like ideas (memes) in neural systems and self-replicating elements (computer viruses, worms, etc.) in computer systems, we shall concentrate on biological evolutionary structure, and try to put into evidence the role and the emergence of network structure in such systems.

  7. Evolutionary potential games on lattices (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István


    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  8. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik


    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  9. Evolutionary expansion of the Monogenea. (United States)

    Kearn, G C


    The evolutionary expansion of the monogeneans has taken place in parallel with the diversification of the fish-like vertebrates. In this article the main trends in monogenean evolution are traced from a hypothetical skin-parasitic ancestor on early vertebrates. Special consideration is given to the following topics: early divergence between skin feeders and blood feeders; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to skin; transfer from host to host, viviparity and the success of the gyrodactylids; predation on skin parasites and camouflage; colonization of the buccal and branchial cavities; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to the gills; phoresy in gill parasites; the development of endoparasitism and the origin of the cestodes; the success of dactylogyroidean gill parasites; the uniqueness of the polyopisthocotyleans; ovoviviparity and the colonization of the tetrapods. Host specificity has been the guiding force of coevolution between monogeneans and their vertebrate hosts, but the establishment of monogeneans on unrelated hosts sharing the same environment (host-switching) may have been underestimated. Host-switching has provided significant opportunities for evolutionary change of direction and is probably responsible for the establishment of monogeneans on cephalopod molluscs, on the hippopotamus and possibly on chelonians. There are indications that host-switching may be more common in monogeneans that spread by direct transfer of adults/juveniles from host to host. A limitation on the further expansion of monogeneans is the need for water for the dispersal of the infective larva (oncomiracidium).

  10. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail:; Borsos, István, E-mail:


    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  11. Unifying evolutionary and network dynamics (United States)

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les


    Many important real-world networks manifest small-world properties such as scale-free degree distributions, small diameters, and clustering. The most common model of growth for these networks is preferential attachment, where nodes acquire new links with probability proportional to the number of links they already have. We show that preferential attachment is a special case of the process of molecular evolution. We present a single-parameter model of network growth that unifies varieties of preferential attachment with the quasispecies equation (which models molecular evolution), and also with the Erdős-Rényi random graph model. We suggest some properties of evolutionary models that might be applied to the study of networks. We also derive the form of the degree distribution resulting from our algorithm, and we show through simulations that the process also models aspects of network growth. The unification allows mathematical machinery developed for evolutionary dynamics to be applied in the study of network dynamics, and vice versa.

  12. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics. (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E


    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller.

  13. An introduction to comparative evolutionary psychology. (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd K


    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology." This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  14. An Introduction to Comparative Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk


    Full Text Available Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of “comparative evolutionary psychology.” This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  15. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  16. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.


    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles...... in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use...

  17. Evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xin


    This book provides a compilation on the state-of-the-art and recent advances of evolutionary computation for dynamic optimization problems. The motivation for this book arises from the fact that many real-world optimization problems and engineering systems are subject to dynamic environments, where changes occur over time. Key issues for addressing dynamic optimization problems in evolutionary computation, including fundamentals, algorithm design, theoretical analysis, and real-world applications, are presented. "Evolutionary Computation for Dynamic Optimization Problems" is a valuable reference to scientists, researchers, professionals and students in the field of engineering and science, particularly in the areas of computational intelligence, nature- and bio-inspired computing, and evolutionary computation.

  18. Evolutionary ecology in silico: Does mathematical modelling help in understanding `generic' trends?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debashish Chowdhury; Dietrich Stauffer


    Motivated by the results of recent laboratory experiments, as well as many earlier field observations, that evolutionary changes can take place in ecosystems over relatively short ecological time scales, several ‘unified’ mathematical models of evolutionary ecology have been developed over the last few years with the aim of describing the statistical properties of data related to the evolution of ecosystems. Moreover, because of the availability of sufficiently fast computers, it has become possible to carry out detailed computer simulations of these models. For the sake of completeness and to put these recent developments in perspective, we begin with a brief summary of some older models of ecological phenomena and evolutionary processes. However, the main aim of this article is to review critically these ‘unified’ models, particularly those published in the physics literature, in simple language that makes the new theories accessible to a wider audience.

  19. Introductory Psychology Texts as a View of Sociobiology/Evolutionary Psychology's Role in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elisabeth Cornwell


    Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.

  20. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence. (United States)

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M


    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  1. Utilizing worldview theory to determine the factors influencing the understanding of evolutionary concepts (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.


    The purpose of this study was to identify factors impacting students' ability to develop understanding of evolutionary theory. A novel approach to worldview theory was employed according to which individuals are seen as having one worldview that is comprised of many perspectives. One's worldview is comprised of numerous worldview assumptions, some of which coalesce to form worldview perspectives. Some assumptions are consistent with a scientific perspective while others are more consistent with a religious perspective. Scientific and religious perspectives were quantified based on participants' agreement with assumptions associated with each perspective. Participants completed a 103-item questionnaire addressing several variables: understanding of evolution, understanding of photosynthesis (non-confounding variable), strength of worldview perspectives and exposure to factors influencing the development of worldview perspectives. Increased exposure to factors influencing the development of a strong scientific worldview perspective was hypothesized to cause an increased understanding of evolution. The dependent variable understanding was measured by scores on two Likert-type measures. A causal-comparative study was conducted with 13 high school biology teachers and 67 high school biology students. To determine causation t-tests compared the mean scores on the variables measured. Extreme-group methods were used and data was analyzed for statistical differences between mean scores. Strong scientific worldview perspectives (t=1.003, p=3.19) and exposure to scientific factors (t=2.373, p=.02) were associated with a higher understanding of evolution. Strong religious worldview perspectives (t=-1.991, p=.05) and exposure to religious factors (t=-1.059, p=.31) were associated with a lower understanding of evolution. The results suggest that scientific worldview perspectives play an important role in increasing understanding of evolution; however, religious worldview

  2. Evolutionary concepts in ecotoxicology: tracing the genetic background of differential cadmium sensitivities in invertebrate lineages. (United States)

    Dallinger, Reinhard; Höckner, Martina


    In many toxicological and ecotoxicological studies and experimental setups, the investigator is mainly interested in traditional parameters such as toxicity data and effects of toxicants on molecular, cellular or physiological functions of individuals, species or statistical populations. It is clear, however, that such approaches focus on the phenotype level of animal species, whilst the genetic and evolutionary background of reactions to environmental toxicants may remain untold. In ecotoxicological risk assessment, moreover, species sensitivities towards pollutants are often regarded as random variables in a statistical approach. Beyond statistics, however, toxicant sensitivity of every species assumes a biological significance, especially if we consider that sensitivity traits have developed in lineages of species with common evolutionary roots. In this article, the genetic and evolutionary background of differential Cd sensitivities among invertebrate populations and species and their potential of adaptation to environmental Cd exposure will be highlighted. Important evolutionary and population genetic concepts such as genome structure and their importance for evolutionary adaptation, population structure of affected individuals, as well as micro and macroevolutionary mechanisms of Cd resistance in invertebrate lineages will be stressed by discussing examples of work from our own laboratory along with a review of relevant literature data and a brief discussion of open questions along with some perspectives for further research. Both, differences and similarities in Cd sensitivity traits of related invertebrate species can only be understood if we consider the underlying evolutionary processes and genetic (or epigenetic) mechanisms. Keeping in mind this perception can help us to better understand and interpret more precisely why the sensitivity of some species or species groups towards a certain toxicant (or metal) may be ranked in the lower or higher range of

  3. Scalable computing for evolutionary genomics. (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Belhachemi, Dominique; Möller, Steffen; Smant, Geert


    Genomic data analysis in evolutionary biology is becoming so computationally intensive that analysis of multiple hypotheses and scenarios takes too long on a single desktop computer. In this chapter, we discuss techniques for scaling computations through parallelization of calculations, after giving a quick overview of advanced programming techniques. Unfortunately, parallel programming is difficult and requires special software design. The alternative, especially attractive for legacy software, is to introduce poor man's parallelization by running whole programs in parallel as separate processes, using job schedulers. Such pipelines are often deployed on bioinformatics computer clusters. Recent advances in PC virtualization have made it possible to run a full computer operating system, with all of its installed software, on top of another operating system, inside a "box," or virtual machine (VM). Such a VM can flexibly be deployed on multiple computers, in a local network, e.g., on existing desktop PCs, and even in the Cloud, to create a "virtual" computer cluster. Many bioinformatics applications in evolutionary biology can be run in parallel, running processes in one or more VMs. Here, we show how a ready-made bioinformatics VM image, named BioNode, effectively creates a computing cluster, and pipeline, in a few steps. This allows researchers to scale-up computations from their desktop, using available hardware, anytime it is required. BioNode is based on Debian Linux and can run on networked PCs and in the Cloud. Over 200 bioinformatics and statistical software packages, of interest to evolutionary biology, are included, such as PAML, Muscle, MAFFT, MrBayes, and BLAST. Most of these software packages are maintained through the Debian Med project. In addition, BioNode contains convenient configuration scripts for parallelizing bioinformatics software. Where Debian Med encourages packaging free and open source bioinformatics software through one central project

  4. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila


    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  5. Evolutionary Industrial Physical Model Generation (United States)

    Carrascal, Alberto; Alberdi, Amaia

    Both complexity and lack of knowledge associated to physical processes makes physical models design an arduous task. Frequently, the only available information about the physical processes are the heuristic data obtained from experiments or at best a rough idea on what are the physical principles and laws that underlie considered physical processes. Then the problem is converted to find a mathematical expression which fits data. There exist traditional approaches to tackle the inductive model search process from data, such as regression, interpolation, finite element method, etc. Nevertheless, these methods either are only able to solve a reduced number of simple model typologies, or the given black-box solution does not contribute to clarify the analyzed physical process. In this paper a hybrid evolutionary approach to search complex physical models is proposed. Tests carried out on a real-world industrial physical process (abrasive water jet machining) demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  6. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg


    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  7. Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Siddhartha


    Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs).  EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...

  8. Piaget, Pedagogy, and Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. C. Genovese


    Full Text Available Constructivist pedagogy draws on Piaget's developmental theory. Because Piaget depicted the emergence of formal reasoning skills in adolescence as part of the normal developmental pattern, many constructivists have assumed that intrinsic motivation is possible for all academic tasks. This paper argues that Piaget's concept of a formal operational stage has not been empirically verified and that the cognitive skills associated with that stage are in fact “biologically secondary abilities” (Geary and Bjorklund, 2000 culturally determined abilities that are difficult to acquire. Thus, it is unreasonable to expect that intrinsic motivation will suffice for most students for most higher level academic tasks. In addition, a case is made that educational psychology must incorporate the insights of evolutionary psychology.

  9. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes. (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A


    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  10. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  11. Evolutionary history of exon shuffling. (United States)

    França, Gustavo S; Cancherini, Douglas V; de Souza, Sandro J


    Exon shuffling has been characterized as one of the major evolutionary forces shaping both the genome and the proteome of eukaryotes. This mechanism was particularly important in the creation of multidomain proteins during animal evolution, bringing a number of functional genetic novelties. Here, genome information from a variety of eukaryotic species was used to address several issues related to the evolutionary history of exon shuffling. By comparing all protein sequences within each species, we were able to characterize exon shuffling signatures throughout metazoans. Intron phase (the position of the intron regarding the codon) and exon symmetry (the pattern of flanking introns for a given exon or block of adjacent exons) were features used to evaluate exon shuffling. We confirmed previous observations that exon shuffling mediated by phase 1 introns (1-1 exon shuffling) is the predominant kind in multicellular animals. Evidence is provided that such pattern was achieved since the early steps of animal evolution, supported by a detectable presence of 1-1 shuffling units in Trichoplax adhaerens and a considerable prevalence of them in Nematostella vectensis. In contrast, Monosiga brevicollis, one of the closest relatives of metazoans, and Arabidopsis thaliana, showed no evidence of 1-1 exon or domain shuffling above what it would be expected by chance. Instead, exon shuffling events are less abundant and predominantly mediated by phase 0 introns (0-0 exon shuffling) in those non-metazoan species. Moreover, an intermediate pattern of 1-1 and 0-0 exon shuffling was observed for the placozoan T. adhaerens, a primitive animal. Finally, characterization of flanking intron phases around domain borders allowed us to identify a common set of symmetric 1-1 domains that have been shuffled throughout the metazoan lineage.

  12. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez


    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs.Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants.While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both existing

  13. Oversimplifying Evolutionary Psychology Leads to Explanatory Gaps (United States)

    Tate, Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N.


    Comments on Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations by Confer et al. They argued that SST cannot explain the existence of either homosexuality or suicide within the human species. We contend that a sufficiently nuanced evolutionary position has no difficulties explaining either phenomenon. Also in this…

  14. Information Geometry and Evolutionary Game Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, Marc


    The Shahshahani geometry of evolutionary game theory is realized as the information geometry of the simplex, deriving from the Fisher information metric of the manifold of categorical probability distributions. Some essential concepts in evolutionary game theory are realized information-theoretically. Results are extended to the Lotka-Volterra equation and to multiple population systems.

  15. Handbook of differential equations evolutionary equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, CM


    The material collected in this volume discusses the present as well as expected future directions of development of the field with particular emphasis on applications. The seven survey articles present different topics in Evolutionary PDE's, written by leading experts.- Review of new results in the area- Continuation of previous volumes in the handbook series covering Evolutionary PDEs- Written by leading experts

  16. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Beasley, DeAnna E.


    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales...

  17. Evolutionary Biology in the Medical School Curriculum. (United States)

    Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.


    Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)

  18. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary...

  19. A Hybrid Chaotic Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Y.; Zhang, M.; Cai, H.


    A hybrid chaotic quantum evolutionary algorithm is proposed to reduce amount of computation, speed up convergence and restrain premature phenomena of quantum evolutionary algorithm. The proposed algorithm adopts the chaotic initialization method to generate initial population which will form...... and enhance the global search ability. A large number of tests show that the proposed algorithm has higher convergence speed and better optimizing ability than quantum evolutionary algorithm, real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm and hybrid quantum genetic algorithm. Tests also show that when chaos...... is introduced to quantum evolutionary algorithm, the hybrid chaotic search strategy is superior to the carrier chaotic strategy, and has better comprehensive performance than the chaotic mutation strategy in most of cases. Especially, the proposed algorithm is the only one that has 100% convergence rate in all...

  20. The Citation Field of Evolutionary Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Dolfsma, Wilfred


    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal that is indispensable in the exchange of expert knowledge on topics and using approaches that relate naturally with it. Analyzing citation data for the relevant academic field for the Journal of Evolutionary Economics, we use insights from scientometrics and social network analysis to find that, indeed, the JEE is a central player in this interdisciplinary field aiming mostly at understanding technological and regional dynamics. It does not, however, link firmly with the natural sciences (including biology) nor to management sciences, entrepreneurship, and organization studies. Another journal that could be perceived to have evolutionary acumen, the Journal of Economic Issues, does relate to heterodox economics journa...

  1. Ten principles from evolutionary ecology essential for effective marine conservation. (United States)

    Kindsvater, Holly K; Mangel, Marc; Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K


    Sustainably managing marine species is crucial for the future health of the human population. Yet there are diverse perspectives concerning which species can be exploited sustainably, and how best to do so. Motivated by recent debates in the published literature over marine conservation challenges, we review ten principles connecting life-history traits, population growth rate, and density-dependent population regulation. We introduce a framework for categorizing life histories, POSE (Precocial-Opportunistic-Survivor-Episodic), which illustrates how a species' life-history traits determine a population's compensatory capacity. We show why considering the evolutionary context that has shaped life histories is crucial to sustainable management. We then review recent work that connects our framework to specific opportunities where the life-history traits of marine species can be used to improve current conservation practices.

  2. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Faucher


    Full Text Available In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention (for a number of reasons that I will mention later, is one put forward by Jerome Wakefield. Despite my sympathy for his position, I must indicate a few reasons why I think his attempt might not be able to resolve the problems related to current nosologies. I suggest that it might be wiser for an evolutionary psychiatrist to adopt the more integrative framework of “treatable conditions” (Cosmides and Tooby, 1999. As it is thought that an evolutionary approach can contribute to transforming the way we look at mental disorders, I will provide the reader with a brief sketch of the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. The picture of the architecture of the human mind that emerges from evolutionary psychology is thought by some to be the crucial backdrop to identifying specific mental disorders and distinguishing them from normal conditions. I will also provide two examples of how evolutionary thinking is supposed to change our thinking about some disorders. Using the case of depression, I will then show what kind of problems evolutionary explanations of particular psychopathologies encounter. In conclusion, I will evaluate where evolutionary thinking leaves us in regard to what I identify as the main problems of our current nosologies. I’ll then argue that the prospects of evolutionary psychiatry are not good.

  3. Abrupt community transitions and cyclic evolutionary dynamics in complex food webs☆ (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Brännström, Åke; Mazzucco, Rupert; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Dieckmann, Ulf


    Understanding the emergence and maintenance of biodiversity ranks among the most fundamental challenges in evolutionary ecology. While processes of community assembly have frequently been analyzed from an ecological perspective, their evolutionary dimensions have so far received less attention. To elucidate the eco-evolutionary processes underlying the long-term build-up and potential collapse of community diversity, here we develop and examine an individual-based model describing coevolutionary dynamics driven by trophic interactions and interference competition, of a pair of quantitative traits determining predator and prey niches. Our results demonstrate the (1) emergence of communities with multiple trophic levels, shown here for the first time for stochastic models with linear functional responses, and (2) intermittent and cyclic evolutionary transitions between two alternative community states. In particular, our results indicate that the interplay of ecological and evolutionary dynamics often results in extinction cascades that remove the entire trophic level of consumers from a community. Finally, we show the (3) robustness of our results under variations of model assumptions, underscoring that processes of consumer collapse and subsequent rebound could be important elements of understanding biodiversity dynamics in natural communities. PMID:23948552

  4. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George


    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  5. Introduction: integrating genetic and cultural evolutionary approaches to language. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G; Adger, David


    The papers in this special issue of Human Biology address recent research in the field of language evolution, both the genetic evolution of the language faculty and the cultural evolution of specific languages. While both of these areas have received increasing interest in recent years, there is also a need to integrate these somewhat separate efforts and explore the relevant gene-culture coevolutionary interactions. Here we summarize the individual contributions, set them in the context of the wider literature, and identify outstanding future research questions. The first set of papers concerns the comparative study of nonhuman communication in primates and birds from both a behavioral and neurobiological perspective, revealing evidence for several common language-related traits in various nonhuman species and providing clues as to the evolutionary origin and function of the human language faculty. The second set of papers discusses the consequences of viewing language as a culturally evolving system in its own right, including claims that this removes the need for strong genetic biases for language acquisition, and that phylogenetic evolutionary methods can be used to reconstruct language histories. We conclude by highlighting outstanding areas for future research, including identifying the precise selection pressures that gave rise to the language faculty in ancestral hominin species, and determining the strength, domain specificity, and origin of the cultural transmission biases that shape languages as they pass along successive generations of language learners.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis of the neprilysin (M13 family of peptidases reveals complex evolutionary and functional relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinney John W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neprilysin (M13 family of endopeptidases are zinc-metalloenzymes, the majority of which are type II integral membrane proteins. The best characterised of this family is neprilysin, which has important roles in inactivating signalling peptides involved in modulating neuronal activity, blood pressure and the immune system. Other family members include the endothelin converting enzymes (ECE-1 and ECE-2, which are responsible for the final step in the synthesis of potent vasoconstrictor endothelins. The ECEs, as well as neprilysin, are considered valuable therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular disease. Other members of the M13 family have not been functionally characterised, but are also likely to have biological roles regulating peptide signalling. The recent sequencing of animal genomes has greatly increased the number of M13 family members in protein databases, information which can be used to reveal evolutionary relationships and to gain insight into conserved biological roles. Results The phylogenetic analysis successfully resolved vertebrate M13 peptidases into seven classes, one of which appears to be specific to mammals, and insect genes into five functional classes and a series of expansions, which may include inactive peptidases. Nematode genes primarily resolved into groups containing no other taxa, bar the two nematode genes associated with Drosophila DmeNEP1 and DmeNEP4. This analysis reconstructed only one relationship between chordate and invertebrate clusters, that of the ECE sub-group and the DmeNEP3 related genes. Analysis of amino acid utilisation in the active site of M13 peptidases reveals a basis for their biochemical properties. A relatively invariant S1' subsite gives the majority of M13 peptidases their strong preference for hydrophobic residues in P1' position. The greater variation in the S2' subsite may be instrumental in determining the specificity of M13 peptidases for their substrates

  7. Toward an alternative evolutionary theory of religion: looking past computational evolutionary psychology to a wider field of possibilities. (United States)

    Barrett, Nathaniel F


    Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or by-product of universal information processing mechanisms that were adaptive in our ancestral environment. The rigidity of such explanations is at odds with the highly context-sensitive nature of historical studies of religion, and thus contributes to the apparent tug-of-war between scientific and humanistic perspectives. This essay argues that this antagonism stems in part from a deep flaw of computational theory, namely its notion of information as pre-given and context-free. In contrast, non-computational theories that picture mind as an adaptive, interactive process in which information is jointly constructed by organism and environment offer an alternative approach to an evolutionary understanding of human religiosity, one that is compatible with historical studies and amenable to a wide range of inquiries, including some limited kinds of theological inquiry.

  8. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation. (United States)

    Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György


    We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of 'natural pedagogy' in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.

  9. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu


    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  10. Evolutionary games in the multiverse. (United States)

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne


    Evolutionary game dynamics of two players with two strategies has been studied in great detail. These games have been used to model many biologically relevant scenarios, ranging from social dilemmas in mammals to microbial diversity. Some of these games may, in fact, take place between a number of individuals and not just between two. Here we address one-shot games with multiple players. As long as we have only two strategies, many results from two-player games can be generalized to multiple players. For games with multiple players and more than two strategies, we show that statements derived for pairwise interactions no longer hold. For two-player games with any number of strategies there can be at most one isolated internal equilibrium. For any number of players with any number of strategies , there can be at most isolated internal equilibria. Multiplayer games show a great dynamical complexity that cannot be captured based on pairwise interactions. Our results hold for any game and can easily be applied to specific cases, such as public goods games or multiplayer stag hunts.

  11. Evolutionary theory and the naturalist fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh


    that great work of art are also automatically fitness-enhancing in the present day environment, at that there are simple correllations between whether a work of art has a high aesthetic value and whether it is fitness-enhancing or not.  Keywords :  Evolutionary aesthetics, film theory, literary theory......The article is an invited response to a target article by Joseph Carroll entitled "An evolutionary paradigm for literary study". It argues that the target article  misuse the fact that works of art are based on adaptations that were fitness-enhancing in the era of evolutionary adaptations to claim...

  12. Investigation on evolutionary optimization of chaos control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Ivan [Faculty of Applied Informatics, Tomas Bata University in Zli' n, Nad Stranemi 4511, 762 72 Zli' n (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Senkerik, Roman [Faculty of Applied Informatics, Tomas Bata University in Zli' n, Nad Stranemi 4511, 762 72 Zli' n (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Navratil, Eduard [Faculty of Applied Informatics, Tomas Bata University in Zli' n, Nad Stranemi 4511, 762 72 Zli' n (Czech Republic)], E-mail:


    This work deals with an investigation on optimization of the feedback control of chaos based on the use of evolutionary algorithms. The main objective is to show that evolutionary algorithms are capable of optimization of chaos control. As models of deterministic chaotic systems, one-dimensional Logistic equation and two-dimensional Henon map were used. The optimizations were realized in several ways, each one for another set of parameters of evolution algorithms or separate cost functions. The evolutionary algorithm SOMA (self-organizing migrating algorithm) was used in four versions. For each version simulations were repeated several times to show and check for robustness of the applied method.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Evolutionary Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofge, D A; Bugajska, M D; Schultz, A C


    Robotic hardware designs are becoming more complex as the variety and number of on-board sensors increase and as greater computational power is provided in ever-smaller packages on-board robots. These advances in hardware, however, do not automatically translate into better software for controlling complex robots. Evolutionary techniques hold the potential to solve many difficult problems in robotics which defy simple conventional approaches, but present many challenges as well. Numerous disciplines including artificial life, cognitive science and neural networks, rule-based systems, behavior-based control, genetic algorithms and other forms of evolutionary computation have contributed to shaping the current state of evolutionary robotics. This paper provides an overview of developments in the emerging field of evolutionary robotics, and discusses some of the opportunities and challenges which currently face practitioners in the field.

  14. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal


    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  15. Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership. (United States)

    Van Vugt, Mark


    Drawing upon evolutionary logic, leadership is reconceptualized in terms of the outcome of strategic interactions among individuals who are following different, yet complementary, decision rules to solve recurrent coordination problems. This article uses the vast psychological literature on leadership as a database to test several evolutionary hypotheses about the origins of leadership and followership in humans. As expected, leadership correlates with initiative taking, trait measures of intelligence, specific task competencies, and several indicators of generosity. The review finds no link between leadership and dominance. The evolutionary analysis accounts for reliable age, health, and sex differences in leadership emergence. In general, evolutionary theory provides a useful, integrative framework for studying leader-follower relationships and generates various novel research hypotheses.

  16. How mutation affects evolutionary games on graphs. (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Traulsen, Arne; Tarnita, Corina E; Nowak, Martin A


    Evolutionary dynamics are affected by population structure, mutation rates and update rules. Spatial or network structure facilitates the clustering of strategies, which represents a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Mutation dilutes this effect. Here we analyze how mutation influences evolutionary clustering on graphs. We introduce new mathematical methods to evolutionary game theory, specifically the analysis of coalescing random walks via generating functions. These techniques allow us to derive exact identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities, which characterize spatial assortment on lattices and Cayley trees. From these IBD probabilities we obtain exact conditions for the evolution of cooperation and other game strategies, showing the dual effects of graph topology and mutation rate. High mutation rates diminish the clustering of cooperators, hindering their evolutionary success. Our model can represent either genetic evolution with mutation, or social imitation processes with random strategy exploration.

  17. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines. (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G


    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  18. Evolutionary Phylogenetic Networks: Models and Issues (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay

    Phylogenetic networks are special graphs that generalize phylogenetic trees to allow for modeling of non-treelike evolutionary histories. The ability to sequence multiple genetic markers from a set of organisms and the conflicting evolutionary signals that these markers provide in many cases, have propelled research and interest in phylogenetic networks to the forefront in computational phylogenetics. Nonetheless, the term 'phylogenetic network' has been generically used to refer to a class of models whose core shared property is tree generalization. Several excellent surveys of the different flavors of phylogenetic networks and methods for their reconstruction have been written recently. However, unlike these surveys, this chapte focuses specifically on one type of phylogenetic networks, namely evolutionary phylogenetic networks, which explicitly model reticulate evolutionary events. Further, this chapter focuses less on surveying existing tools, and addresses in more detail issues that are central to the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic networks.

  19. Litter feedbacks, evolutionary change and exotic plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Kaproth, M.A.; Collins, A.R.; Molofsky, J.


    1. Understanding the mechanisms driving exotic plant invasions is important for designing successful invader control strategies. Previous studies have highlighted different invasion mechanisms, including alteration of nutrient cycles through plant–soil feedback and evolutionary change toward more co

  20. Teaching Evolutionary Theory as General Education. (United States)

    Todd, Paul


    Provides a rationale for including evolution as part of a college general education curriculum, discussing the content of evolutionary theory, instructional principles, Darwin's contributions, evolution and religion, and the relationship of evolution with current events. (DMM)

  1. Still doing evolutionary algorithms with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Guervos, Juan J Merelo


    Algorithm::Evolutionary (A::E from now on) was introduced in 2002, after a talk in YAPC::EU in Munich. 7 years later, A::E is in its 0.67 version (past its "number of the beast" 0.666), and has been used extensively, to the point of being the foundation of much of the (computer) science being done by our research group (and, admittedly, not many others). All is not done, however; now A::E is being integrated with POE so that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be combined with all kinds of servers and used in client, servers, and anything in between. In this companion to the talk I will explain what evolutionary algorithms are, what they are being used for, how to do them with Perl (using these or other fine modules found in CPAN) and what evolutionary algorithms can do for Perl at large.

  2. Global Education--An Educational Perspective to Cope with Globalisation? (United States)

    Lehner, Daniela; Wurzenberger, Julia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Global Education (GE) from a "theory of action plan" and an "evolutionary and systems theory" approach as an educational perspective to cope with globalisation--more specifically, the challenges of globalisation. Moreover, an additional aim is to analyse the…

  3. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.


    Full Text Available The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demographic rates, such as survival, fecundity, and age of first breeding, and biologists from both fields have a vested interest in good analytical machinery for the estimation and analysis of these demographic rates. In the EURING conferences, we have been striving since the mid 1980s to promote a quantitative understanding of demographic rates through interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and statisticians. From the ecological side, the principal impetus has come from population biology, and in particular from wildlife biology, but the importance of good quantitative insights into demographic processes has long been recognized by a number of evolutionary biologists (e.g., Nichols & Kendall, 1995; Clobert, 1995; Cooch et al., 2002. In organizing this session, we have aimed to create a forum for those committed to gaining the best possible understanding of evolutionary processes through the application of modern quantitative methods for the collection and interpretation of data on marked animal populations. Here we present a short overview of the material presented in the session on evolutionary biology and life histories. In a plenary talk, Brown & Brown (2004 explored how mark–recapture methods have allowed a better understanding of the evolution of group–living and alternative reproductive tactics in colonial cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. By estimating the number of transient birds passing through colonies of different sizes, they

  4. An Introduction to Comparative Evolutionary Psychology


    Jennifer Vonk; Todd K. Shackelford


    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of “comparative evolutionary psychology.” This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate compara...

  5. Evolutionary approaches of economic dynamics (In French)


    Yildizoglu, Murat


    This chapter presents the methods and contributions of evolutionary approach to economic dynamics. First, we expose why economic dynamics can indeed be considered as evolutionary. Second, we discuss sources of diversity and selection mechanisms that drive these dynamics, in the context of industrial dynamics. Third, we expose the main methods of this approach. Last, we give a partial survey of this approach’s contributions in economic systems covering a full spectrum, from organizational to m...

  6. Evolutionary genetics of insect innate immunity


    Viljakainen, Lumi


    Patterns of evolution in immune defense genes help to understand the evolutionary dynamics between hosts and pathogens. Multiple insect genomes have been sequenced, with many of them having annotated immune genes, which paves the way for a comparative genomic analysis of insect immunity. In this review, I summarize the current state of comparative and evolutionary genomics of insect innate immune defense. The focus is on the conserved and divergent components of immunity with an emphasis on g...

  7. Extinction as the loss of evolutionary history


    Erwin, Douglas H.


    Current plant and animal diversity preserves at most 1–2% of the species that have existed over the past 600 million years. But understanding the evolutionary impact of these extinctions requires a variety of metrics. The traditional measurement is loss of taxa (species or a higher category) but in the absence of phylogenetic information it is difficult to distinguish the evolutionary depth of different patterns of extinction: the same species loss can encompass very different losses of evolu...

  8. Humanism and multiculturalism: an evolutionary alliance. (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian


    Humanism and multiculturalism are partners in an evolutionary alliance. Humanistic and multicultural psychotherapies have historically influenced each other. Humanism represents the third force in psychotherapy, while multiculturalism embodies the fourth developmental stage. Multiculturalism embraces humanistic values grounded in collective and social justice contexts. Examples of multicultural humanistic constructs include contextualism, holism, and liberation. Certainly, the multicultural-humanistic connection is a necessary shift in the evolution of psychotherapy. Humanism and multiculturalism participate in the development of an inclusive and evolutionary psychotherapy.

  9. The Evolutionary Robustness of Forgiveness and Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Bó, Pedro Dal


    We study the evolutionary robustness of strategies in infinitely repeated prisoners' dilemma games in which players make mistakes with a small probability and are patient. The evolutionary process we consider is given by the replicator dynamics. We show that there are strategies with a uniformly large basin of attraction independently of the size of the population. Moreover, we show that those strategies forgive defections and, assuming that they are symmetric, they cooperate.

  10. 基于演化博弈理论的互联网金融与商业银行征信平台共建研究%Study on the Credit Investigation Platform Co-established by the Internet Finance and Commercial Bank Based on the Perspective of Evolutionary Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 耿丽; 赵天琪


    In terms of the information acquisition channel,internet finance and commercial banks both have their own advantages and disadvantages and they have the same target in risk control and reducing the cost of acquiring infor-mation. We can study the feasibility of co-establishing credit data system through the evolutionary game theory and point out the conditions for the cooperation between them as a result of the evolutionary game theory. The co-estab-lished platform will contribute to reducing the level of information asymmetry between them and raising the success ra-tio of the loans. Finally,we will put forward pertinent suggestions for promoting the cooperation through the evolution-ary game.%互联网金融与商业银行在其信息获取渠道方面各有优劣,双方在风险控制与降低信息成本方面有共同目标.本文通过演化博弈理论来研究两个行业共同构建征信平台的可行性,并指出演化博弈结果趋于合作的条件,双方共建征信平台有助于降低信息不对称程度,提高贷款成功率,最后对于促进演化博弈合作实现提出针对性的建议.

  11. Integrating evolutionary and molecular genetics of aging. (United States)

    Flatt, Thomas; Schmidt, Paul S


    Aging or senescence is an age-dependent decline in physiological function, demographically manifest as decreased survival and fecundity with increasing age. Since aging is disadvantageous it should not evolve by natural selection. So why do organisms age and die? In the 1940s and 1950s evolutionary geneticists resolved this paradox by positing that aging evolves because selection is inefficient at maintaining function late in life. By the 1980s and 1990s this evolutionary theory of aging had received firm empirical support, but little was known about the mechanisms of aging. Around the same time biologists began to apply the tools of molecular genetics to aging and successfully identified mutations that affect longevity. Today, the molecular genetics of aging is a burgeoning field, but progress in evolutionary genetics of aging has largely stalled. Here we argue that some of the most exciting and unresolved questions about aging require an integration of molecular and evolutionary approaches. Is aging a universal process? Why do species age at different rates? Are the mechanisms of aging conserved or lineage-specific? Are longevity genes identified in the laboratory under selection in natural populations? What is the genetic basis of plasticity in aging in response to environmental cues and is this plasticity adaptive? What are the mechanisms underlying trade-offs between early fitness traits and life span? To answer these questions evolutionary biologists must adopt the tools of molecular biology, while molecular biologists must put their experiments into an evolutionary framework. The time is ripe for a synthesis of molecular biogerontology and the evolutionary biology of aging.

  12. Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator-prey system. (United States)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Ayan, Gökçe B; Becks, Lutz


    Environmental fluctuations, species interactions and rapid evolution are all predicted to affect community structure and their temporal dynamics. Although the effects of the abiotic environment and prey evolution on ecological community dynamics have been studied separately, these factors can also have interactive effects. Here we used bacteria-ciliate microcosm experiments to test for eco-evolutionary dynamics in fluctuating environments. Specifically, we followed population dynamics and a prey defence trait over time when populations were exposed to regular changes of bottom-up or top-down stressors, or combinations of these. We found that the rate of evolution of a defence trait was significantly lower in fluctuating compared with stable environments, and that the defence trait evolved to lower levels when two environmental stressors changed recurrently. The latter suggests that top-down and bottom-up changes can have additive effects constraining evolutionary response within populations. The differences in evolutionary trajectories are explained by fluctuations in population sizes of the prey and the predator, which continuously alter the supply of mutations in the prey and strength of selection through predation. Thus, it may be necessary to adopt an eco-evolutionary perspective on studies concerning the evolution of traits mediating species interactions.

  13. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection. (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc


    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  14. EvoluCode: Evolutionary Barcodes as a Unifying Framework for Multilevel Evolutionary Data. (United States)

    Linard, Benjamin; Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D


    Evolutionary systems biology aims to uncover the general trends and principles governing the evolution of biological networks. An essential part of this process is the reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary histories of these complex, dynamic networks. Unfortunately, the methodologies for representing and exploiting such complex evolutionary histories in large scale studies are currently limited. Here, we propose a new formalism, called EvoluCode (Evolutionary barCode), which allows the integration of different evolutionary parameters (eg, sequence conservation, orthology, synteny …) in a unifying format and facilitates the multilevel analysis and visualization of complex evolutionary histories at the genome scale. The advantages of the approach are demonstrated by constructing barcodes representing the evolution of the complete human proteome. Two large-scale studies are then described: (i) the mapping and visualization of the barcodes on the human chromosomes and (ii) automatic clustering of the barcodes to highlight protein subsets sharing similar evolutionary histories and their functional analysis. The methodologies developed here open the way to the efficient application of other data mining and knowledge extraction techniques in evolutionary systems biology studies. A database containing all EvoluCode data is available at:

  15. Evolutionary biology of CD1. (United States)

    Dascher, C C


    The recognition more than a decade ago that lipids presented by CD1 could function as T cell antigens revealed a startling and previously unappreciated complexity to the adaptive immune system. The initial novelty of lipid antigen presentation by CD1 has since given way to a broader perspective of the immune system's capacity to sense and respond to a diverse array of macromolecules. Some immune recognition systems such as Toll-like receptors can trace their origins back into the deep history of sea urchins and arthropods. Others such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) appear relatively recently and interestingly, only in animals that also possess a jaw. The natural history of CD1 is thus part of the wider story of immune system evolution and should be considered in this context. Most evidence indicates that CD1 probably evolved from a classical MHC class I (MHC I) gene at some point during vertebrate evolution. This chapter reviews the evidence for this phylogenetic relationship and attempts to connect CD1 to existing models of MHC evolution. This endeavor is facilitated today by the recent availability of whole genome sequence data from a variety of species. Investigators have used these data to trace the ultimate origin of the MHC to a series of whole genome duplications that occurred roughly 500 million years ago. Sequence data have also revealed homologs of the mammalian MHC I and MHC II gene families in virtually all jawed vertebrates including sharks, bony fishes, reptiles, and birds. In contrast, CD1 genes have thus far been found only in a subset of these animal groups. This pattern of CD1 occurrence in the genomes of living species suggests the emergence of CD 1 in an early terrestrial vertebrate.

  16. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology (United States)

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R. Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard C, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G.; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G. A.; Camargo, José L. C.; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry L.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A.; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A.; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A.; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C.; Pipoly, John J.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; van der Meer, Peter J.; Vasquez, Rodolfo V.; Vieira, Simone A.; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Baker, Timothy R.


    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. PMID:27974517

  17. Evolutionary mechanisms acting on proteinase inhibitor variability. (United States)

    Christeller, John T


    The interaction of proteinase inhibitors produced, in most cases, by host organisms and the invasive proteinases of pathogens or parasites or the dietary proteinases of predators, results in an evolutionary 'arms race' of rapid and ongoing change in both interacting proteins. The importance of these interactions in pathogenicity and predation is indicated by the high level and diversity of observable evolutionary activity that has been found. At the initial level of evolutionary change, recruitment of other functional protein-folding families has occurred, with the more recent evolution of one class of proteinase inhibitor from another, using the same mechanism and proteinase contact residues. The combination of different inhibitor domains into a single molecule is also observed. The basis from which variation is possible is shown by the high rate of retention of gene duplication events and by the associated process of inhibitory domain multiplication. At this level of reorganization, mutually exclusive splicing is also observed. Finally, the major mechanism by which variation is achieved rapidly is hypervariation of contact residues, an almost ubiquitous feature of proteinase inhibitors. The diversity of evolutionary mechanisms in a single class of proteins is unlikely to be common, because few systems are under similar pressure to create variation. Proteinase inhibitors are therefore a potential model system in which to study basic evolutionary process such as functional diversification.

  18. Landscape community genomics: understanding eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon


    Extrinsic factors influencing evolutionary processes are often categorically lumped into interactions that are environmentally (e.g., climate, landscape) or community-driven, with little consideration of the overlap or influence of one on the other. However, genomic variation is strongly influenced by complex and dynamic interactions between environmental and community effects. Failure to consider both effects on evolutionary dynamics simultaneously can lead to incomplete, spurious, or erroneous conclusions about the mechanisms driving genomic variation. We highlight the need for a landscape community genomics (LCG) framework to help to motivate and challenge scientists in diverse fields to consider a more holistic, interdisciplinary perspective on the genomic evolution of multi-species communities in complex environments.

  19. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological and evolutionary role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jesper G Sørensen; Volker Loeschcke


    Most investigations on the effects of and responses to stress exposures have been performed on a limited number of model organisms in the laboratory. Here much progress has been made in terms of identifying and describing beneficial and detrimental effects of stress, responses to stress and the mechanisms behind stress tolerance. However, to gain further understanding of which genes are involved in stress resistance and how the responses are regulated from an ecological and evolutionary perspective there is a need to combine studies on multiple levels of biological organization from DNA to phenotypes. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying ecologically relevant traits and natural or semi-natural conditions to verify whether the results obtained are representative of the ecological and evolutionary processes in the field. Here, we will review what we currently know about thermal adaptation and the role of different stress responses to thermal challenges in insects, particularly Drosophila. Furthermore, we address some key questions that require future attention.

  20. Social Defense: An Evolutionary-Developmental Model of Children's Strategies for Coping with Threat in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith J. Martin


    Full Text Available Navigating the ubiquitous conflict, competition, and complex group dynamics of the peer group is a pivotal developmental task of childhood. Difficulty negotiating these challenges represents a substantial source of risk for psychopathology. Evolutionary developmental psychology offers a unique perspective with the potential to reorganize the way we think about the role of peer relationships in shaping how children cope with the everyday challenges of establishing a social niche. To address this gap, we utilize the ethological reformulation of the emotional security theory as a guide to developing an evolutionary framework for advancing an understanding of the defense strategies children use to manage antagonistic peer relationships and protect themselves from interpersonal threat (Davies and Sturge-Apple, 2007. In this way, we hope to illustrate the value of an evolutionary developmental lens in generating unique theoretical insight and novel research directions into the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology.

  1. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch


    Full Text Available The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The "continuist" perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The "exaptationist" perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasiculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca's area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates and convergence (typically analyzed in birds for testing such evolutionary hypotheses.

  2. Do we need an extended evolutionary synthesis? (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo


    The Modern Synthesis (MS) is the current paradigm in evolutionary biology. It was actually built by expanding on the conceptual foundations laid out by its predecessors, Darwinism and neo-Darwinism. For sometime now there has been talk of a new Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES), and this article begins to outline why we may need such an extension, and how it may come about. As philosopher Karl Popper has noticed, the current evolutionary theory is a theory of genes, and we still lack a theory of forms. The field began, in fact, as a theory of forms in Darwin's days, and the major goal that an EES will aim for is a unification of our theories of genes and of forms. This may be achieved through an organic grafting of novel concepts onto the foundational structure of the MS, particularly evolvability, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance, complexity theory, and the theory of evolution in highly dimensional adaptive landscapes.

  3. Organisations’ evolutionary dynamics: a group dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Vargas


    Full Text Available Colombian entrepreneurs’ straggling, reactionary and inertial orientation has been inconsistently lustified by the availability of internal and leveraged resources, a concept intensifying deficient technological capacity. Company activity (seen as being a socioeconomic unit has been integrally orientated within an evolutionary framework by company identity and cohesion as well as adaptation and evolutionary mechanisms. The present document uses a group dynamics’ model to illustrate how knowledge-based strategic orientation and integration for innovation have become an imperative for development, from slight leverage, distinguishing between two evolutionary company forms: traditional economic (inertial, as they introduce sporadic incremental improvements and modern companies (dynamic and radical innovators. Revealing conclusions obtained from such model may be used for intervening in and modernising company activity.

  4. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models. (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G


    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  5. Neurocontroller analysis via evolutionary network minimization. (United States)

    Ganon, Zohar; Keinan, Alon; Ruppin, Eytan


    This study presents a new evolutionary network minimization (ENM) algorithm. Neurocontroller minimization is beneficial for finding small parsimonious networks that permit a better understanding of their workings. The ENM algorithm is specifically geared to an evolutionary agents setup, as it does not require any explicit supervised training error, and is very easily incorporated in current evolutionary algorithms. ENM is based on a standard genetic algorithm with an additional step during reproduction in which synaptic connections are irreversibly eliminated. It receives as input a successfully evolved neurocontroller and aims to output a pruned neurocontroller, while maintaining the original fitness level. The small neurocontrollers produced by ENM provide upper bounds on the neurocontroller size needed to perform a given task successfully, and can provide for more effcient hardware implementations.

  6. Computational and evolutionary aspects of language (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha


    Language is our legacy. It is the main evolutionary contribution of humans, and perhaps the most interesting trait that has emerged in the past 500 million years. Understanding how darwinian evolution gives rise to human language requires the integration of formal language theory, learning theory and evolutionary dynamics. Formal language theory provides a mathematical description of language and grammar. Learning theory formalizes the task of language acquisition-it can be shown that no procedure can learn an unrestricted set of languages. Universal grammar specifies the restricted set of languages learnable by the human brain. Evolutionary dynamics can be formulated to describe the cultural evolution of language and the biological evolution of universal grammar.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Cheshko


    Full Text Available Purpose (metatask of the present work is to attempt to give a glance at the problem of existential and anthropological risk caused by the contemporary man-made civilization from the perspective of comparison and confrontation of aesthetics, the substrate of which is emotional and metaphorical interpretation of individual subjective values and politics feeding by objectively rational interests of social groups. In both cases there is some semantic gap present between the represented social reality and its representation in perception of works of art and in the political doctrines as well. Methodology of the research is evolutionary anthropologicalcomparativistics. Originality of the conducted analysis comes to the following: As the antithesis to biological and social reductionism in interpretation of the phenomenon of bio-power it is proposed a co-evolutionary semantic model in accordance with which the described semantic gap is of the substantial nature related to the complex module organization of a consistent and adaptive human strategy consisting of three associated but independently functional modules (genetic, cultural and techno-rational. Evolutionary trajectory of all anthropogenesis components including civilization cultural and social-political evolution is identified by the proportion between two macro variables – evolutionary effectiveness and evolutionary stability (sameness, i.e. preservation in the context of consequential transformations of some invariants of Homo sapiens species specificity organization. It should be noted that inasmuch as in respect to human, some modules of the evolutionary (adaptive strategy assume self-reflection attributes, it would be more correctly to state about evolutionary correctness, i.e. correspondence to some perfection. As a result, the future of human nature depends not only on the rationalist principles of ethics of Homo species (the archaism of Jurgen Habermas, but also on the holistic and

  8. Yransfer of Contractual Right of Land in China’s Rural Area- -Based on the Perspective of Evolutionary Game%我国农村土地承包经营权的流转分析--基于进化博弈角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    农村土地承包经营权流转作为农地流转的重要内容之一,一直受到人们极大的关注。农村土地承包经营权的流转过程亦是参与各方在现有制度下围绕权利流转追求其利益最大化的博弈过程。在分析我国当前农地承包经营权流转中存在的问题的基础上,根据这种流转是否发生在农村集体经济组织内分两种情况展开分析,分别建立各自的进化博弈模型,寻求进化稳定策略,并在此基础上提出促进农地承包经营权有序流转的对策建议。%As an important part of rural land transfer,transfer of contractual right of land in China’s rural area has at-tracted attention,and the ttransfer of rural land reflects game process pursuing their maximum interests. This article ana-lyzes existing problems in transfer of contractual right of land,sets evolutionary game model,seeks stable evolutionary strategy and finally proposes to promote orderly transfer of contractual right of land.

  9. Langley's CSI evolutionary model: Phase O (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.; Bailey, Jim P.; Bruner, Anne M.; Sulla, Jeffrey L.; Won, John; Ugoletti, Roberto M.


    A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology to improve space science platform pointing is described. The evolutionary nature of the testbed will permit the study of global line-of-sight pointing in phases 0 and 1, whereas, multipayload pointing systems will be studied beginning with phase 2. The design, capabilities, and typical dynamic behavior of the phase 0 version of the CSI evolutionary model (CEM) is documented for investigator both internal and external to NASA. The model description includes line-of-sight pointing measurement, testbed structure, actuators, sensors, and real time computers, as well as finite element and state space models of major components.

  10. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.


    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  11. Human Resource Ecosystem and its evolutionary rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Paper,based on the concept and the elements of human resource ecosystem(HR Ecosystem),studies the function and structure of HR Ecosystem,introduces the entropy theory to define the content of entropy of HR Ecosystem,constructs the corresponding distinctive model to distinguish the direction of the evolution of HR Ecosystem and the evolutionary entropy model, and applies the models to demonstrate the evolutionary rules of HR Ecosystem.The study shows that the entropy theory can be well applied to the analysis on HR Ecosystem and that it opens up a new field in the research of human resource management and provides a new effective technical method.

  12. Applying Evolutionary Algorithm to Public Key Cryptosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Hang; Li Li; Wu Tao-jun; Li Yuan- xiang


    A best algorithm generated scheme is proposed in the paper by making use of the thought of evolutionary algorithm, which can generate dynamically the best algorithm of generating primes in RSA cryptography under different conditions. Taking into account the factors of time, space and security integrated, this scheme possessed strong practicability. The paper also proposed a model of multi degree parallel evolutionary algorithrn to evaluate synthetically the efficiency and security of the public key cryptography. The model con tributes to designing public key cryptography system too.

  13. Genomes, Phylogeny, and Evolutionary Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica


    With the completion of the human genome and the growing number of diverse genomes being sequenced, a new age of evolutionary research is currently taking shape. The myriad of technological breakthroughs in biology that are leading to the unification of broad scientific fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science are now known as systems biology. Here I present an overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology.

  14. A Generic Design Model for Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Feng; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping


    A generic design model for evolutionary algo rithms is proposed in this paper. The model, which was described by UML in details, focuses on the key concepts and mechanisms in evolutionary algorithms. The model not only achieves separation of concerns and encapsulation of implementations by classification and abstraction of those concepts,it also has a flexible architecture due to the application of design patterns. As a result, the model is reusable, extendible,easy to understand, easy to use, and easy to test. A large number of experiments applying the model to solve many different problems adequately illustrate the generality and effectivity of the model.

  15. Evolutionary algorithms for hard quantum control (United States)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Schirmer, Sophie; Sanders, Barry C.


    Although quantum control typically relies on greedy (local) optimization, traps (irregular critical points) in the control landscape can make optimization hard by foiling local search strategies. We demonstrate the failure of greedy algorithms as well as the (nongreedy) genetic-algorithm method to realize two fast quantum computing gates: a qutrit phase gate and a controlled-not gate. We show that our evolutionary algorithm circumvents the trap to deliver effective quantum control in both instances. Even when greedy algorithms succeed, our evolutionary algorithm can deliver a superior control procedure, for example, reducing the need for high time resolution.

  16. Integrating Evolutionary and Molecular Genetics of Aging


    Flatt, Thomas; Schmidt, Paul S.


    Aging or senescence is an age-dependent decline in physiological function, demographically manifest as decreased survival and fecundity with increasing age. Since aging is disadvantageous it should not evolve by natural selection. So why do organisms age and die? In the 1940’s and 1950’s evolutionary geneticists resolved this paradox by positing that aging evolves because selection is inefficient at maintaining function late in life. By the 1980’s and 1990’s this evolutionary theory of aging ...

  17. Aging perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosco, T.D.; Brehme, D.; Grigoruta, N.; Kaufmann, L.K.; Lemsalu, L.; Meex, R.C.R.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Sener, N.


    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisation

  18. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.;


    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  19. Beyond just deserts and deterrence: An evolutionary psychology of punishment and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang


    Recent studies indicate that punishment is driven by just deserts motives rather than deterrence motives. In the just deserts perspective, punishment is based on the seriousness of the crime, and rehabilitative alternatives to punishment are only expected to be considered when the seriousness...... is low. By drawing on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, a range of contrasting expectations are developed. Especially, it is expected that the choice between punishment and rehabilitation is determined by assessing the future social value of the criminal. The expectations are supported by data...

  20. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization: some current research trends and topics that remain to be explored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper provides a short review of some of the main topics in which the current research in evolutionary multi-objective optimization is being focused. The topics discussed include new algorithms, efficiency, relaxed forms of dominance, scalability, and alternative metaheuristics. This discussion motivates some further topics which,from the author's perspective, constitute good potential areas for future research, namely, constraint-handling techniques,incorporation of user's preferences and parameter control,This information is expected to be useful for those interested in pursuing research in this area.

  1. The evolutionary roots of our environmental problems: toward a Darwinian ecology. (United States)

    Penn, Dustin J


    It is widely acknowledged that we need to stabilize population growth and reduce our environmental impact; however, there is little consensus about how we might achieve these changes. Here I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior provide important, though generally ignored, insights into our environmental problems. First, I review increasing evidence that Homo sapiens has a long history of causing ecological problems. This means that, contrary to popular belief, our species' capacity for ecological destruction is not simply due to "Western" culture. Second, I provide an overview of how evolutionary research can help to understand why humans are ecologically destructive, including the reasons why people often overpopulate, overconsume, exhaust common-pool resources, discount the future, and respond maladaptively to modern environmental hazards. Evolutionary approaches not only explain our darker sides, they also provide insights into why people cherish plants and animals and often support environmental and conservation efforts (e.g., Wilson's "biophilia hypothesis"). Third, I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior offer practical implications for environmental policy, education, and activism. I suggest that education is necessary but insufficient because people also need incentives. Individual incentives are likely to be the most effective, but these include much more than narrow economic interests (e.g., they include one's reputation in society). Moralizing and other forms of social pressure used by environmentalists to bring about change appear to be effective, but this idea needs more research. Finally, I suggest that integrating evolutionary perspectives into the environmental sciences will help to break down the artificial barriers that continue to divide the biological and social sciences, which unfortunately obstruct our ability to understand ourselves and effectively address our environmental problems.

  2. The Behavioural Biogeosciences: Moving Beyond Evolutionary Adaptation and Innate Reasoning (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.


    Human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharp distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Human behavior, however, is not well adapted to the more diffusely experienced (i.e. less immediately/locally acute) problems and issues that scientists and society often seek to address today. Several human biases are identified that affect how science is conducted and used. These biases include an innate discounting of less visible phenomena/systems and of long-term perspectives; as well as a general lack of consideration of the coupling between the resources that we use and the waste that we consequently produce. Other biases include strong beliefs in human exceptionalism and separatedness from "nature". Francis Bacon (The New Organon, 1620) provided a classification of the factors, of the "idols of the mind", that bias pursuit of greater knowledge. How can we address these biases and the factors that affect behaviour and pursuit of knowledge; and ultimately impact the sustainability and resilience of human societies, resources and environments? A process for critical analysis is proposed that solicits explicit accounting and cognizance of these potential human biases and factors. Seeking a greater diversity of independant perspectives is essential: in both the conduct of science and in its application to the management of natural resources and environments. Accountability, traceability and structured processes are critical in this endeavor. The scientific methods designed during the industrial revolution are necessary, but insufficient, in addressing the issues of today. A new area of study in "the behavioral biogeosciences" is suggested that counters, or at least closely re-evaluates, our normal (i.e. adapted) human priorities of observation and study, as well as our judgements and decision-making.

  3. Embracing a systems perspective of innovation – Evidence from Ireland on the use of innovation links, 1991 to 2002


    Hewitt-Dundas, Nola; Leonard, Ciara


    Conceptual perspectives on the innovation process have moved dramatically in the past decade from a linear model of the innovation process to one based on an evolutionary or systems perspective of innovation. This has also been referred to as moving from a closed to an open innovation paradigm. In this systems perspective, innovation networks are critical with innovation being driven by interaction and co-operation between firms and other organisations. Empirical research has supported this p...

  4. Genomes and evolutionary genomics of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luting SONG; Wen WANG


    Alongside recent advances and booming applications of DNA sequencing technologies,a great number of complete genome sequences for animal species are available to researchers.Hundreds of animals have been involved in whole genome sequencing,and at least 87 non-human animal species' complete or draft genome sequences have been published since 1998.Based on these technological advances and the subsequent accumulation of large quantity of genomic data,evolutionary genomics has become one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines in biology.Scientists now can perform a number of comparative and evolutionary genomic studies for animals,to identify conserved genes or other functional elements among species,genomic elements that confer animals their own specific characteristics and new phenotypes for adaptation.This review deals with the current genomic and evolutionary research on non-human animals,and displays a comprehensive landscape of genomes and the evolutionary genomics of non-human animals.It is very helpful to a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the myriad forms within the animal kingdom [Current Zoology 59 (1):87-98,2013].

  5. A Clustal Alignment Improver Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rene; Fogel, Gary B.; Krink, Thimo


    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a crucial task in bioinformatics. In this paper we extended previous work with evolutionary algorithms (EA) by using MSA solutions obtained from the wellknown Clustal V algorithm as a candidate solution seed of the initial EA population. Our results clearly show...

  6. Evolutionary Computing in Visual Art and Music


    Johnson, Colin G.; Romero Cardalda, Juan J.


    This paper is an introduction to the special section of Leonardo on Genetic Algorithms in Visual Art and Music, which arose from a workshop at the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computing Conference. This introduction gives a background review of the area, takes a look at some open questions provoked by the workshop, and summarizes the papers in the section.

  7. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter


    of the BPMN language, we employ an evolutionary algorithm where stochastic model checking is used as a fitness function to determine the degree of improvement of candidate processes derived from the original process through mutation and cross-over operations. We illustrate this technique using a case study...

  8. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas


    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  9. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.


    This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha

  10. An evolutionary economics approach to ecosystem dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, V.B; Angeren, van J.; Brinkkemper, S.


    Biology and evolution lie at the heart of the ecosystem metaphor that is recurrently applied in the digital era. Although the evolution and analogy with evolutionary biology is acknowledged within the research domains of business ecosystems and digital ecosystems, several key definitions and self-or

  11. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L.


    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  12. QDist—Quartet Distance Between Evolutionary Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Pedersen, Christian N. Storm


    QDist is a program for computing the quartet distance between two unrooted evolutionary trees, i.e. the number of quartet topology differences between the two trees, where a quartet topology is the topological subtree induced by four species. The implementation is based on an algorithm with running...... time O(n log² n), which makes it practical to compare large trees....

  13. Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; Andersson, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.


    Abstract: Question: How is the process of evolutionary branching influenced by demographic stochasticity? Mathematical methods: Adaptive dynamics of (i) a simple consumer-resource model and (ii) an analogous but individual-based model with finite population size. Key assumptions: Consumers have acce

  14. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines (United States)

    Liu, Peng


    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  15. On evolutionary ray-projection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud; Roorda, Berend


    We introduce the ray-projection dynamics in evolutionary game theory by employing a ray projection of the relative fitness (vector) function, i.e., a projection unto the unit simplex along a ray through the origin. Ray-projection dynamics are weakly compatible in the terminology of Friedman (Econome

  16. Flexible Ligand Docking Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rene


    The docking of ligands to proteins can be formulated as a computational problem where the task is to find the most favorable energetic conformation among the large space of possible protein–ligand complexes. Stochastic search methods such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to sample large...

  17. Knowledge Guided Evolutionary Algorithms in Financial Investing (United States)

    Wimmer, Hayden


    A large body of literature exists on evolutionary computing, genetic algorithms, decision trees, codified knowledge, and knowledge management systems; however, the intersection of these computing topics has not been widely researched. Moving through the set of all possible solutions--or traversing the search space--at random exhibits no control…

  18. On the Evolutionary Bases of Consumer Reinforcement (United States)

    Nicholson, Michael; Xiao, Sarah Hong


    This article locates consumer behavior analysis within the modern neo-Darwinian synthesis, seeking to establish an interface between the ultimate-level theorizing of human evolutionary psychology and the proximate level of inquiry typically favored by operant learning theorists. Following an initial overview of the central tenets of neo-Darwinism,…

  19. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.


    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale correla

  20. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierson, J.C.; Beissinger, S.R.; Bragg, J.G.; Coates, D.J.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Sunnucks, P.; Schumaker, N.H.; Trotter, M.V.; Young, A.G.


    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand

  1. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Wagener, F.


    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics. Pri

  2. Evolutionary Software Development (Developpement evolutionnaire de logiciels) (United States)


    Développement évolutionnaire de logiciels (RTO-TR-IST-026) Synthèse Ceci est le rapport final du groupe de travail IST-026/RTG-008. Pendant...the arrival of a long-standing and passionate voice for evolutionary and iterative development. Gilb is one of the earliest and most active IID

  3. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  4. Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Duanduan; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Anton; Zha, H.; Taniguchi, R.-I.; Maybank, S.


    In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the f

  5. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review (United States)

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana


    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct…

  6. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.


    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chines

  7. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnow, T.; Ringe, D.; Taylor, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    In this paper we present a new methodology for determining the evolutionary history of related languages. Our methodology uses linguistic information encoded as qualitative characters, and provides much greater precision than previous methods. Our analysis of Indo-European (IE) languages resolves questions that have troubled scholars for over a century.

  8. The population genetics of evolutionary rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Allen Orr


    Full Text Available Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is threatened with extinction by an environmental change adapts to the change sufficiently rapidly to survive. Here we extend the mathematical theory of evolutionary rescue. In particular, we model evolutionary rescue to a sudden environmental change when adaptation involves evolution at a single locus. We consider adaptation using either new mutations or alleles from the standing genetic variation that begin rare. We obtain several results: i the total probability of evolutionary rescue from either new mutation or standing variation; ii the conditions under which rescue is more likely to involve a new mutation versus an allele from the standing genetic variation; iii a mathematical description of the U-shaped curve of total population size through time, conditional on rescue; and iv the time until the average population size begins to rebound as well as the minimal expected population size experienced by a rescued population. Our analysis requires taking into account a subtle population-genetic effect (familiar from the theory of genetic hitchhiking that involves "oversampling" of those lucky alleles that ultimately sweep to high frequency. Our results are relevant to conservation biology, experimental microbial evolution, and medicine (e.g., the dynamics of antibiotic resistance.

  9. Using Human Evolution to Teach Evolutionary Theory (United States)

    Besterman, Hugo; La Velle, Linda Baggott


    This paper discusses some traditional approaches to the teaching of evolutionary theory at pre-university level, criticising in particular some of the more commonly used models and exemplars. Curricular demands are described and an alternative approach is suggested, using the emerging story of human evolution. Recent discoveries help to illustrate…

  10. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray


    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  11. 我国企业复杂技术创新能力研究:基于三维模型的成长路径%A Study on Complex Technology Innovation Capability of Chinese Firms: A Three-Dimension Model Perspective based on Evolutionary Paths WT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Complex technology industries will play important roles in the economic prosperity of China. This paper explores key dimensions of complex technology innovation capability according to complex technology characteristics and addresses the evolutionary paths of a firm's complex technology innovation capability.This paper investigates three business cases on communications system equipment, shipbuilding and automobile industries. This paper makes three major academic contributions. First, this study advances our understanding of the three-is intension model of complex technology innovation capability, including systems technology innovation capability, core technology innovation capability, and industry chain innovation capability. Second, three evolutionary paths of a firm's complex technology innovation capability are discovered. The first path moves from core technology innovation capability to systems technology innovation capability, and then industry chain innovation capability. The second path moves from systems technology innovation capability to core technology innovation capability and then to industry chain innovation capability. The third path moves from systems technology innovation capability and core technology innovation capability to industry chain innovation capability. Third, we identify important driving forces for different evolutionary paths of a firm's complex technology innovation capability. These forces include market characteristics, technology characteristics, organizational characteristics, and the speed and scope of a firm's complex technology innovation capability.%我国经济强国之路需要复杂技术产业的创新和发展.本文针对复杂技术的特点来解构复杂技术创新能力的维度构成,并结合后发国家特点从企业层面来探讨复杂技术创新能力演化的路径.本文对我国通信系统设备、造船和汽车产业三家企业的复杂技术创新能力成长路径进行了案例研究.

  12. Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time (United States)

    Oyola Morales, José R.; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Hews, Diana K.; Martins, Emília P.


    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours. PMID:28018661

  13. Fructans As DAMPs or MAMPs: Evolutionary Prospects, Cross-Tolerance, and Multistress Resistance Potential (United States)

    Versluys, Maxime; Tarkowski, Łukasz P.; Van den Ende, Wim


    This perspective paper proposes that endogenous apoplastic fructans in fructan accumulating plants, released after stress-mediated cellular leakage, or increased by exogenous application, can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), priming plant innate immunity through ancient receptors and defense pathways that most probably evolved to react on microbial fructans acting as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The proposed model is placed in an evolutionary perspective. How this type of DAMP signaling may contribute to cross-tolerance and multistress resistance effects in plants is discussed. Besides apoplastic ATP, NAD and fructans, apoplastic polyamines, secondary metabolites, and melatonin may be considered potential players in DAMP-mediated stress signaling. It is proposed that mixtures of DAMP priming formulations hold great promise as natural and sustainable alternatives for toxic agrochemicals. PMID:28123393

  14. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W


    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  15. Inferring the determinants of protein evolutionary rates in mammals. (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Shao, Xiaojian; Dong, Dong


    Understanding the determinants of protein evolutionary rates is one of the most fundamental evolutionary questions. Previous studies have revealed that many biological variables are tightly associated with protein evolutionary rates in mammals. However, the dominant role of these biological variables and their combinatorial effects to evolutionary rates of mammalian proteins are still less understood. In this work, we derived a quantitative model to correlate protein evolutionary rates with the levels of these variables. The result showed that only a small number of variables are necessary to accurately predict protein evolutionary rates, among which miRNA regulation plays the most important role. Our result suggested that biological variables are extensively interrelated and suffer from hidden redundancies in determining protein evolutionary rates. Various variables should be considered in a natural ensemble to comprehensively assess the determinants of protein evolutionary rate.

  16. Digitisation Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rikowski, R


    This book examines various views and perspectives on digitisation. Topics covered include electronic theses, search engine technology, digitisation in Africa, citation indexing, reference services, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, new media, and scholarly publishing. The final chapter explores virtual libraries, and poses some interesting questions for possible futures. The book will be of particular interest to information professionals, educators, librarians, academics and I.T. and knowledge experts.

  17. New perspectives on red supergiants (United States)

    Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.; Tabernero H. M.


    There is a high interest in cool supergiants (CSGs), because they play a key role in the understanding of the evolution and death of massive stars: most high-mass stars pass through this phase at some point of their evolution, and the physical conditions during it will determine their subsequent evolution. In addition, these stars are a powerful high-mass stellar formation tracers and also the main progenitors of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). Despite this, they are poorly characterized in some aspects: their extreme sizes and peculiar conditions defy the predictions of present-day atmospheric and evolutionary models. To bring perspective to this topic, we investigate the behaviour of CSGs as a population. For this, we studied the largest homogeneous multiepoch spectroscopic sample of CSGs (from the SMC and LMC) to date (>500). Our results give a new global view about the physical conditions of CSGs and their evolution

  18. Form of an evolutionary tradeoff affects eco-evolutionary dynamics in a predator-prey system. (United States)

    Kasada, Minoru; Yamamichi, Masato; Yoshida, Takehito


    Evolution on a time scale similar to ecological dynamics has been increasingly recognized for the last three decades. Selection mediated by ecological interactions can change heritable phenotypic variation (i.e., evolution), and evolution of traits, in turn, can affect ecological interactions. Hence, ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be tightly linked and important to predict future dynamics, but our understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics is still in its infancy and there is a significant gap between theoretical predictions and empirical tests. Empirical studies have demonstrated that the presence of genetic variation can dramatically change ecological dynamics, whereas theoretical studies predict that eco-evolutionary dynamics depend on the details of the genetic variation, such as the form of a tradeoff among genotypes, which can be more important than the presence or absence of the genetic variation. Using a predator-prey (rotifer-algal) experimental system in laboratory microcosms, we studied how different forms of a tradeoff between prey defense and growth affect eco-evolutionary dynamics. Our experimental results show for the first time to our knowledge that different forms of the tradeoff produce remarkably divergent eco-evolutionary dynamics, including near fixation, near extinction, and coexistence of algal genotypes, with quantitatively different population dynamics. A mathematical model, parameterized from completely independent experiments, explains the observed dynamics. The results suggest that knowing the details of heritable trait variation and covariation within a population is essential for understanding how evolution and ecology will interact and what form of eco-evolutionary dynamics will result.

  19. Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. White


    Full Text Available Second-generation sequencing technologies have granted us greater access to the diversity and genetics of microbial communities that naturally reside endo- and ecto-symbiotically with animal hosts. Substantial research has emerged describing the diversity and broader trends that exist within and between host species and their associated microbial ecosystems, yet the application of these data to our evolutionary understanding of microbiomes appears fragmented. For the most part biological perspectives are based on limited observations of oversimplified communities, while mathematical and/or computational modeling of these concepts often lack biological precedence. In recognition of this disconnect, both fields have attempted to incorporate ecological theories, although their applicability is currently a subject of debate because most ecological theories were developed based on observations of macro-organisms and their ecosystems. For the purposes of this review, we attempt to transcend the biological, ecological and computational realms, drawing on extensive literature, to forge a useful framework that can, at a minimum be built upon, but ideally will shape the hypotheses of each field as they move forward. In evaluating the top-down selection pressures that are exerted on a microbiome we find cause to warrant reconsideration of the much-maligned theory of multi-level selection and reason that complexity must be underscored by modularity.

  20. Energy, genes and evolution: introduction to an evolutionary synthesis. (United States)

    Lane, Nick; Martin, William F; Raven, John A; Allen, John F


    Life is the harnessing of chemical energy in such a way that the energy-harnessing device makes a copy of itself. No energy, no evolution. The 'modern synthesis' of the past century explained evolution in terms of genes, but this is only part of the story. While the mechanisms of natural selection are correct, and increasingly well understood, they do little to explain the actual trajectories taken by life on Earth. From a cosmic perspective-what is the probability of life elsewhere in the Universe, and what are its probable traits?-a gene-based view of evolution says almost nothing. Irresistible geological and environmental changes affected eukaryotes and prokaryotes in very different ways, ones that do not relate to specific genes or niches. Questions such as the early emergence of life, the morphological and genomic constraints on prokaryotes, the singular origin of eukaryotes, and the unique and perplexing traits shared by all eukaryotes but not found in any prokaryote, are instead illuminated by bioenergetics. If nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution, nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of energetics. This Special Issue of Philosophical Transactions examines the interplay between energy transduction and genome function in the major transitions of evolution, with implications ranging from planetary habitability to human health. We hope that these papers will contribute to a new evolutionary synthesis of energetics and genetics.

  1. Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Human Language Evolution: Constraints on Adaptation. (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh


    A tension has long existed between those biologists who emphasize the importance of adaptation by natural selection and those who highlight the role of phylogenetic and developmental constraints on organismal form and function. This contrast has been particularly noticeable in recent debates concerning the evolution of human language. Darwin himself acknowledged the existence and importance of both of these, and a long line of biologists have followed him in seeing, in the concept of "descent with modification", a framework naturally able to incorporate both adaptation and constraint. Today, the integrated perspective of modern evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") allows a more subtle and pluralistic approach to these traditional questions, and has provided several examples where the traditional notion of "constraint" can be cashed out in specific, mechanistic terms. This integrated viewpoint is particularly relevant to the evolution of the multiple mechanisms underlying human language, because of the short time available for novel aspects of these mechanisms to evolve and be optimized. Comparative data indicate that many cognitive aspects of human language predate humans, suggesting that pre-adaptation and exaptation have played important roles in language evolution. Thus, substantial components of what many linguists call "Universal Grammar" predate language itself. However, at least some of these older mechanisms have been combined in ways that generate true novelty. I suggest that we can insightfully exploit major steps forward in our understanding of evolution and development, to gain a richer understanding of the principles that underlie human language evolution.

  2. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group (United States)

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul


    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research.

  3. An exploration of computer-simulated evolution and small group discussion on pre-service science teachers' perceptions of evolutionary concepts (United States)

    MacDonald, Ronald Douglas

    The primary goal of this study was to explore how the use of a computer simulation of basic evolutionary processes, in combination with small-group discussions, affected Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' perspectives of basic evolutionary concepts. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in a case study approach with 19 pre-service Intermediate/Senior science teachers at an Ontario university. Several sub-goals were explored. The first sub-goal was to assess Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' current conceptions of evolution. The results indicated that approximately two-thirds of the participants had a poor understanding of basic evolutionary concepts, with only 2 of the 19 participants demonstrating a strong comprehension. These results were found to be very similar to comparable samples of subjects from other research. The second sub-goal was to explore the relationships among Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' understanding of contemporary evolutionary concepts, their perspectives of the nature of science, and their intentions to teach evolutionary concepts in the classroom. Participants' knowledge of evolutionary concepts was found to be associated strongly with their intentions to teach evolution by natural selection (r = .42). However, knowledge of evolutionary concepts was not found to be associated with any particular science epistemology perspective. The third sub-goal was to analyze and to interpret the small-group discussions as members interacted with the simulation. The simulation was found to be highly engaging and a very effective method of encouraging participants to speculate, question, discuss and learn about important evolutionary concepts. Analyses of the discussions revealed that the simulation evoked a wide array of correct conceptions as well as misconceptions. The fourth sub-goal was to assess the extent to which creating a lesson plan on the topic of natural selection could affect

  4. Evolutionary Computing for Intelligent Power System Optimization and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book focuses on how evolutionary computing techniques benefit engineering research and development tasks by converting practical problems of growing complexities into simple formulations, thus largely reducing development efforts. This book begins with an overview of the optimization the...... theory and modern evolutionary computing techniques, and goes on to cover specific applications of evolutionary computing to power system optimization and control problems....

  5. A Note on Evolutionary Algorithms and Its Applications (United States)

    Bhargava, Shifali


    This paper introduces evolutionary algorithms with its applications in multi-objective optimization. Here elitist and non-elitist multiobjective evolutionary algorithms are discussed with their advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss constrained multiobjective evolutionary algorithms and their applications in various areas.

  6. Gender Inequality in Interaction--An Evolutionary Account (United States)

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.


    In this article I argue that evolutionary theorizing can help sociologists and feminists better understand gender inequality. Evolutionary theory explains why control of the sexuality of young women is a priority across most human societies both past and present. Evolutionary psychology has extended our understanding of male violence against…

  7. Classical vs Quantum Games: Continuous-time Evolutionary Strategy Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Ming Lam


    This paper unifies the concepts of evolutionary games and quantum strategies. First, we state the formulation and properties of classical evolutionary strategies, with focus on the destinations of evolution in 2-player 2-strategy games. We then introduce a new formalism of quantum evolutionary dynamics, and give an example where an evolving quantum strategy gives reward if played against its classical counterpart.

  8. Cognitive evolutionary therapy for depression: a case study


    Giosan, Cezar; Muresan, Vlad; Moldovan, Ramona


    Key Clinical Message We present an evolutionary-driven cognitive–behavioral intervention for a moderately depressed patient. Standard cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques focused on the patient's perfectionistic and self-downing beliefs, while novel, evolutionary-informed techniques were used to guide behavioral activation and conceptualize secondary emotional problems related to anger. The treatment reduced depressive symptomatology and increased evolutionary fitness.

  9. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.


    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  10. Shared Social Fields: evolutionary convergence in prehistory and contemporary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl, Philip L.


    Full Text Available In this article, I distinguish between evolutionary and historica1 perspectives on the past, adopting the concept of “social fields” to argue for a macrohistorical interpretation of the archaeological record. The unit of analysis is not an archaeological culture or civilization but social groups inextricably involved with other groups in weblike interconnections in which technologies are diffused and modified by other groups caught up in these same processes. Such interconnections can best be traced archaeologically by examining the spread of technologies and subsistence practices. Other macrohistorical perspectives on the past, such as world systems analysis, often demand too much of the archaeological record and are used anachronistically. Prehistory documents the ever-increasing participation of groups in social fields that ultimately converge. I conclude by emphasizing the need for a perspective on the past that emphasizes its shared nature in which all peoples have contributed and benefited from interactions with their neighbours.

    En este artículo distingo entre perspectivas evolucionistas e históricas sobre el pasado, adoptando el concepto de “ámbitos sociales” para defender una interpretación macrohistórica del registro arqueológico. La unidad de análisis no es una cultura o civilización arqueológica sino los grupos sociales implicados de manera inextricable con otros grupos en interconexiones reticulares en las que las tecnologías son difundidas y modificadas por otros grupos atrapados en esos mismos procesos. Tales interconexiones pueden ser trazadas mejor arqueológicamente examinando la expansión de las tecnologías y las prácticas subsistenciales. Otras perspectivas macrohistóricas sobre el pasado, como el análisis de los sistemas mundiales, a menudo exigen demasiado del registro arqueológico y son empleadas de manera anacrónica. La Prehistoria documenta la siempre creciente participación de los grupos

  11. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Verkaaik


    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buil

  12. 电子商务诱致新型专业市场生发机制与路径——基于演化博弈视角%The Growing Mechanism and Path of the New-type Specialized Market Induced by Electronic Commerce from the Perspective of Evolutionary Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Firstly, this paper describes the meaning and main characteristics of new-type specialized market, and ex-plores the growing mechanism and path of the new-type specialized market induced by electronic commerce from the ev-olutionary game logic angle. Then, this paper builds the evolutionary game model about how the new specialized market forms, and comes to an evolutionarily stable strategies ( ESS) that traditional specialized market's transition to the new-type specialized market. The study finds that the new-type specialized market's growth process induced by electronic commerce is also market entity's adaptive evolution process under the joint action of variation mechanism, selection mechanism, learning mechanism, and the mechanism of self-organization and hetero-organization, is a dynamic evolu-tion game process with an organic interaction by multiple and multilevel system, and it has obvious characteristics of peri-od. In this process, market participants that pursue maximum expected returns ( utility) by means of nonlinear interac-tion or strategic interaction with other game players in the specific environment, gradually form the complementary evolu-tion of multivariate system and achieve a balance of interests. Therefore, market managers and government departments concerned should attach importance to the balance of interests and constraint conditions in the process of marginal effect's reconstruction to each economic subject in different stages, and strengthen the combination between top-level design of the system and endogenous evolution of the market in the process of construction of the new-type specialized market.%本文在阐述基于电子商务的新型专业市场的内涵及其主要特征的基础上, 从演化博弈的逻辑视角, 探讨了电子商务诱致下我国新型专业市场的生发机制及路径, 构建了新型专业市场形成的演化博弈模型, 得出传统专业市场向基于电子商务的新型专业市

  13. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller


    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  14. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck


    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  15. Evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore. (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz


    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin. Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that currently inhabit the new world was certainly a topic about which zoologists could disagree. But it was in discussing the broader implications of the theory...that tempers flared and statements were made which could transform what otherwise would have been a quiet scholarly meeting into a social scandal' (Farber 1994, 22). Some resistance to the biological thesis of Darwinism sprung from the thought that it was incompatible with traditional morality and, since one of them had to go, many thought that Darwinism should be rejected. However, some people did realize that a secular ethics was possible so, even if Darwinism did undermine traditional religious beliefs, it need not have any effects on moral thought. Before I begin my discussion of evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore, I would like to make some more general remarks about its development. There are three key events during this history of evolutionary ethics. First, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859). Since one did not have a fully developed theory of evolution until 1859, there exists little work on evolutionary ethics until then. Shortly thereafter, Herbert Spencer (1898) penned the first systematic theory of evolutionary ethics, which was promptly attacked by T.H. Huxley (Huxley 1894). Second, at about the turn of the century, moral philosophers entered the fray and attempted to demonstrate logical errors in Spencer's work; such errors were alluded

  16. Evolutionary stability in Lotka-Volterra systems. (United States)

    Cressman, Ross; Garay, József


    The Lotka-Volterra model of population ecology, which assumes all individuals in each species behave identically, is combined with the behavioral evolution model of evolutionary game theory. In the resultant monomorphic situation, conditions for the stability of the resident Lotka-Volterra system, when perturbed by a mutant phenotype in each species, are analysed. We develop an evolutionary ecology stability concept, called a monomorphic evolutionarily stable ecological equilibrium, which contains as a special case the original definition by Maynard Smith of an evolutionarily stable strategy for a single species. Heuristically, the concept asserts that the resident ecological system must be stable as well as the phenotypic evolution on the "stationary density surface". The conditions are also shown to be central to analyse stability issues in the polymorphic model that allows arbitrarily many phenotypes in each species, especially when the number of species is small. The mathematical techniques are from the theory of dynamical systems, including linearization, centre manifolds and Molchanov's Theorem.

  17. Collective behavior and evolutionary games - An introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz


    This is an introduction to the special issue titled "Collective behavior and evolutionary games" that is in the making at Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. The term collective behavior covers many different phenomena in nature and society. From bird flocks and fish swarms to social movements and herding effects, it is the lack of a central planner that makes the spontaneous emergence of sometimes beautifully ordered and seemingly meticulously designed behavior all the more sensational and intriguing. The goal of the special issue is to attract submissions that identify unifying principles that describe the essential aspects of collective behavior, and which thus allow for a better interpretation and foster the understanding of the complexity arising in such systems. As the title of the special issue suggests, the later may come from the realm of evolutionary games, but this is certainly not a necessity, neither for this special issue, and certainly not in general. Interdisciplinary work on all aspects of collec...

  18. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf


    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  19. Investigation on Evolutionary Synthesis of Movement Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Oplatková


    Full Text Available This paper deals with usage of an alternative tool for symbolic regression—analytic programming which is able to solve various problems from the symbolic domain, as well as genetic programming and grammatical evolution. This paper describes a setting of an optimal trajectory for a robot (originally designed as an artificial ant on Santa Fe trail solved by means of analytic programming. Firstly, main principles of analytic programming are described and explained. The second part shows how analytic programming was used for the application of finding a suitable trajectory step by step. Because analytic programming needs evolutionary algorithms for its run, three evolutionary algorithms were used—self-organizing migrating algorithm, differential evolution, and simulated annealing—to show that anyone can be used. The total number of simulations was 150 and results show that the first two used algorithms were more successful than not so robust simulated annealing.

  20. A brief introduction to continuous evolutionary optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver


    Practical optimization problems are often hard to solve, in particular when they are black boxes and no further information about the problem is available except via function evaluations. This work introduces a collection of heuristics and algorithms for black box optimization with evolutionary algorithms in continuous solution spaces. The book gives an introduction to evolution strategies and parameter control. Heuristic extensions are presented that allow optimization in constrained, multimodal, and multi-objective solution spaces. An adaptive penalty function is introduced for constrained optimization. Meta-models reduce the number of fitness and constraint function calls in expensive optimization problems. The hybridization of evolution strategies with local search allows fast optimization in solution spaces with many local optima. A selection operator based on reference lines in objective space is introduced to optimize multiple conflictive objectives. Evolutionary search is employed for learning kernel ...

  1. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: A colloquium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz


    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling th...

  2. Modified evolutionary algorithm for global optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇慧; 陆玉昌; 唐焕文


    A modification of evolutionary programming or evolution strategies for n-dimensional global optimization is proposed. Based on the ergodicity and inherent-randomness of chaos, the main characteristic of the new algorithm which includes two phases is that chaotic behavior is exploited to conduct a rough search of the problem space in order to find the promising individuals in Phase Ⅰ. Adjustment strategy of step-length and intensive searches in Phase Ⅱ are employed.The population sequences generated by the algorithm asymptotically converge to global optimal solutions with probability one. The proposed algorithm is applied to several typical test problems. Numerical results illustrate that this algorithm can more efficiently solve complex global optimization problems than evolutionary programming and evolution strategies in most cases.

  3. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry


    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  4. Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Immune Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; JIAO Licheng


    A novel evolutionary algorithm,evolution-immunity strategies(EIS), is proposed with reference to the immune theory in biology, which constructs an immune operator accomplished by two steps, a vaccination and an immune selection. The aim of introducing the immune concepts and methods into ES is for finding the ways and means obtaining the optimal solution of difficult problems with locally characteristic information. The detail processes of realizing EIS are presented which contain 6 steps. EIS is analyzed with Markovian theory and it is approved to be convergent with probability 1. In EIS, an immune operator is an aggregation of specific operations and procedures, and methods of selecting vaccines and constructing an immune operator are given in this paper. It is shown with an example of the 442-city TSP that the EIS can restrain the degenerate phenomenon during the evolutionary process by simulated calculating result, improve the searching capability and efficiency, and therefore, increase the convergent speed greatly.

  5. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory. (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry


    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  6. Evolutionary Catastrophes and the Goldilocks Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, Milan M


    One of the mainstays of the controversial "rare Earth" hypothesis is the "Goldilocks problem" regarding various parameters describing a habitable planet, partially involving the role of mass extinctions and other catastrophic processes in biological evolution. Usually, this is construed as support for the uniqueness of the Earth's biosphere and intelligent human life. Here I argue that this is a misconstrual and that, on the contrary, observation-selection effects, when applied to catastrophic processes, make it very difficult for us to discern whether the terrestrial biosphere and evolutionary processes which created it are exceptional in the Milky Way or not. In particular, an anthropic overconfidence bias related to the temporal asymmetry of evolutionary processes appears when we try to straightforwardly estimate catastrophic risks from the past records on Earth. This agnosticism, in turn, supports the validity and significance of practical astrobiological and SETI research.

  7. Teaching About Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas


    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to the survival and reproduction of its possessors. Finally, adaptation has been defined as a process, as well. Consequently, two questions arise: the first is a philosophical one and focuses on what adaptation actually is; the second is a pedagogical one and focuses on what science teachers and educators should teach about it. In this article, the various definitions of adaptation are discussed and their uses in some textbooks are presented. It is suggested that, given elementary students' intuitions about purpose and design in nature and secondary students' teleological explanations for the origin of adaptations, any definition of adaptation as a trait should include some information about its evolutionary history.

  8. Evolutionary biology of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P


    Opiliones are one of the largest arachnid orders, with more than 6,500 species in 50 families. Many of these families have been erected or reorganized in the last few years since the publication of The Biology of Opiliones. Recent years have also seen an explosion in phylogenetic work on Opiliones, as well as in studies using Opiliones as test cases to address biogeographic and evolutionary questions more broadly. Accelerated activity in the study of Opiliones evolution has been facilitated by the discovery of several key fossils, including the oldest known Opiliones fossil, which represents a new, extinct suborder. Study of the group's biology has also benefited from rapid accrual of genomic resources, particularly with respect to transcriptomes and functional genetic tools. The rapid emergence and utility of Phalangium opilio as a model for evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods serve as demonstrative evidence of a new area of study in Opiliones biology, made possible through transcriptomic data.

  9. MELEC: Meta-Level Evolutionary Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Calvo


    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA’s are global search mechanisms that have been applied to many disciplines including music composition. Computer system MELEC composes music using evolutionary computation on two levels: the object and the meta. At the object-level, MELEC employs GAs to compose melodic motifs and iteratively refine them through evolving generations. At the meta-level, MELEC forms the overall musical structure by concatenating the generated motifs in an order that depends on the evolutionary process. In other words, the structure of the music is determined by a geneological traversal of the algorithm’s execution sequence. In this implementation, we introduce a new data structure that tracks the execution of the GA, the Genetic Algorithm Traversal Tree, and uses its traversal to define the musical structure. Moreover, we employ a Fibonacci-based fitness function to shape the melodic evolution.

  10. Graphical model construction based on evolutionary algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youlong YANG; Yan WU; Sanyang LIU


    Using Bayesian networks to model promising solutions from the current population of the evolutionary algorithms can ensure efficiency and intelligence search for the optimum. However, to construct a Bayesian network that fits a given dataset is a NP-hard problem, and it also needs consuming mass computational resources. This paper develops a methodology for constructing a graphical model based on Bayesian Dirichlet metric. Our approach is derived from a set of propositions and theorems by researching the local metric relationship of networks matching dataset. This paper presents the algorithm to construct a tree model from a set of potential solutions using above approach. This method is important not only for evolutionary algorithms based on graphical models, but also for machine learning and data mining.The experimental results show that the exact theoretical results and the approximations match very well.

  11. Evolutionary robotics in two decades: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameer Gupta; Ekta Singla


    Evolutionary robotics (ER) has emerged as a fast growing field in the last two decades and has earned the attention of a number of researchers. Principles of biological evolution are applied in the form of evolutionary techniques for solving the complicated problems in the areas of robotic design and control. The diversity and the intensity of this growing field is presented in this paper through the contributions made by several researchers in the categories of robot controller design, robot body design, co-evolution of body and brain and in transforming the evolved robots in physical reality. The paper discusses some of the recent achievements in each of these fields along with some expected applications which are likely to motivate the future research. For the quick reference of the readers, a digest of all the works is presented in the paper, spanning the years and the areas of the research contributions.

  12. Contributions of the Evolutive Perspective for Gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briseida Dôgo de Resende


    Full Text Available This paper presents the contributions that researches from Ethology and Evolutive Psychology can bring to Gerontology. From this perspective, human behavior may be understood under the light of Natural Selection. Thus, it is extremely important to consider how society and environment during human evolution were. This comprehension may facilitate the knowledge about how the mind and human society work, and may help to build a modern environment more similar to that of our ancestors. This paper introduces examples of evolutionary researches related to important aspects for gerontology, such as bereavement, depression and the role of grandmothers for raising children.

  13. Mechanism of Industrial Cluster Brand Impact Embedded Brand ——Based on the Co-Evolutionary Perspective%产业集群品牌影响嵌入品牌的机理——基于协同演化的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐利新; 王胜杰; 张文锁


      From time series of the continued fusion development of industrial cluster brand and embedded brand, the influenc⁃ing mechanism of the former on the latter is both continuous and evolving. Based on the principles of co-evolution, this paper ex⁃plored its impetus. And this paper analyzed the influencing mechanism of industrial cluster brand on the things which were structural instability and innovation, adaptive evolution or negotiate improvements, competitive cooperative co-evolutionary, co-evolution of complementarily in regional industrial cluster brand’s stage of branded sprout, leading brands, branding jungle, brand population. Finally, this paper did a case study on the industrial cluster of Yiwu hosiery.%  文章从产业集群品牌与嵌入品牌不断融合发展的时间序列来看,前者对后者的影响机制既是持续的,又是不断演化的。文章运用协同演化原理,在揭示其动力基础上,分析了产业集群品牌在品牌萌芽、领导品牌、品牌丛林和品牌种群等不同发展阶段,对嵌入品牌影响的结构失稳与创新、自适应进化或协商改进、竞争性协同进化、互补性协同进化等协同演化机制,最后以义乌袜业产业集群进行案例分析。

  14. Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.


    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

  15. An evolutionary model of cooperation, fairness and altruistic punishment in public good games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Hetzer

    Full Text Available We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment.

  16. The Eco-Evolutionary Imperative: Revisiting Weed Management in the Midst of an Herbicide Resistance Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian D. Menalled


    Full Text Available Modern weed science is at a crossroads. Born out of advances in chemistry, it has focused on minimizing weed competition with genetically uniform crops and heavy reliance on herbicides. Paradoxically, the success obtained with such an approach and the reluctance to conduct integrated and multidisciplinary research has resulted in unintended, but predictable, consequences, including the selection of herbicide resistant biotypes. Advances in eco-evolutionary biology, a relatively recent discipline that seeks to understand how local population dynamics arise from phenotypic variation resulting from natural selection, habitat distribution, and propagule dispersal across the landscape are transforming our understanding of the processes that regulate agroecosystems. Within this framework, complementary tactics to develop alternative weed management programs include the following: (1 weed scientists must recognize that evolution occurs within crop fields at ecologically-relevant time scales and is rooted in the inherent variation that exists in all populations; (2 weed management should recognize that the probability of a resistant mutant is directly related to the population size; (3 farmers need to acknowledge that herbicide resistance transcends any one farm and should coordinate local practices with regional actions; (4 incentives should be developed and implemented to help the adoption of eco-evolutionary management programs; and (5 risk analysis can help incorporate an eco-evolutionary perspective into integrated weed management programs.

  17. Solving Integer Programming by Evolutionary Soft Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jian


    Many practical problems in commerce and industry involve finding the best way to allocate scarce resources a mong competing activities. This paper focuses on the problem of integer programming, and describes an evolutionary soft agent model to solve it. In proposed model, agent is composed of three components: goal, environment and behavior. Experirnental shows thne model has the characters of parallel computing and goal driving.

  18. Asexual reproduction : genetics and evolutionary aspects


    DE Meeûs, Thierry; Prugnolle, Franck; Agnew, Philip


    Reproduction is essential to all organisms if they are to contribute to the next generation. There are various means and ways of achieving this goal. This review focuses on the role of asexual reproduction for eukaryotic organisms and how its integration in a life cycle can influence their population genetics and evolution. An important question for evolutionary biologists as to why some organisms reproduce sexually, as opposed to asexually, is addressed. We also discuss the economic and medi...

  19. Asexual reproduction: genetics and evolutionary aspects. (United States)

    de Meeûs, T; Prugnolle, F; Agnew, P


    Reproduction is essential to all organisms if they are to contribute to the next generation. There are various means and ways of achieving this goal. This review focuses on the role of asexual reproduction for eukaryotic organisms and how its integration in a life cycle can influence their population genetics and evolution. An important question for evolutionary biologists as to why some organisms reproduce sexually, as opposed to asexually, is addressed. We also discuss the economic and medical importance of asexual organisms.

  20. Why is economic geography an evolutionary science?


    Boschma, Ron; Frenken, Koen


    During the past two decades, evolutionary economics has emerged as one of the innovative fields of research in economics, and in particular in the fields of the economics of technical change and theory of the firm (Nelson and Winter 1982; Dosi et al. 1988; Arthur 1994; Dosi et al. 2000). Parts of their subjects concern issues traditionally dealt with by economic geographers and regional scientists, including localised technological spill-overs, agglomeration economies, product life-cycle stud...