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Sample records for chordate anterior neuroectodermal

  1. Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates

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    Natale Alfonso

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hox family of transcription factors has a fundamental role in segmentation pathways and axial patterning of embryonic development and their clustered organization is linked with the regulatory mechanisms governing their coordinated expression along embryonic axes. Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed. Results To investigate the degree of conservation in cis-regulatory components that form the basis of Hox expression in the anterior nervous system, we have used assays for transcriptional activity in ascidians and vertebrates to compare and contrast regulatory potential. We identified four regulatory sequences located near the CiHox1, CiHox2 and CiHox4 genes of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis which direct neural specific domains of expression. Using functional assays in Ciona and vertebrate embryos in combination with sequence analyses of enhancer fragments located in similar positions adjacent to Hox paralogy group genes, we compared the activity of these four Ciona cis-elements with a series of neural specific enhancers from the amphioxus Hox1-3 genes and from mouse Hox paralogous groups 1-4. Conclusions This analysis revealed that Kreisler and Krox20 dependent enhancers critical in segmental regulation of the hindbrain appear to be specific for the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, neural enhancers that function as Hox response elements through the action of Hox/Pbx binding motifs have been conserved during chordate evolution. The functional assays reveal that these Hox response cis-elements are recognized by the regulatory components of different and extant species. Together, our results indicate that during chordate evolution, cis-elements dependent upon Hox/Pbx regulatory complexes, are responsible for key aspects of

  2. Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Natale Alfonso; Sims Carrie; Chiusano Maria L; Amoroso Alessandro; D'Aniello Enrico; Fucci Laura; Krumlauf Robb; Branno Margherita; Locascio Annamaria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Hox family of transcription factors has a fundamental role in segmentation pathways and axial patterning of embryonic development and their clustered organization is linked with the regulatory mechanisms governing their coordinated expression along embryonic axes. Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest struc...

  3. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  4. Retinoic acid signaling targets Hox genes during the amphioxus gastrula stage: insights into early anterior-posterior patterning of the chordate body plan.

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    Koop, Demian; Holland, Nicholas D; Sémon, Marie; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel Rodriguez; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z; Schubert, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies of vertebrate development have shown that retinoic acid (RA) signaling at the gastrula stage strongly influences anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the neurula and later stages. However, much less is known about the more immediate effects of RA signaling on gene transcription and developmental patterning at the gastrula stage. To investigate the targets of RA signaling during the gastrula stage, we used the basal chordate amphioxus, in which gastrulation involves very minimal tissue movements. First, we determined the effect of altered RA signaling on expression of 42 genes (encoding transcription factors and components of major signaling cascades) known to be expressed in restricted domains along the A-P axis during the gastrula and early neurula stage. Of these 42 genes, the expression domains during gastrulation of only four (Hox1, Hox3, HNF3-1 and Wnt3) were spatially altered by exposure of the embryos to excess RA or to the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, blocking protein synthesis with puromycin before adding RA or BMS009 showed that only three of these genes (Hox1, Hox3 and HNF3-1) are direct RA targets at the gastrula stage. From these results we conclude that in the amphioxus gastrula RA signaling primarily acts via regulation of Hox transcription to establish positional identities along the A-P axis and that Hox1, Hox3, HNF3-1 and Wnt3 constitute a basal module of RA action during chordate gastrulation. PMID:19914237

  5. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest

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    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  6. Developmental genetics in primitive chordates.

    OpenAIRE

    P. SORDINO; L. Belluzzi; De Santis, R; Smith, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the genetics and genomics of urochordates testify to a renewed interest in this chordate subphylum, believed to be the most primitive extant chordate relatives of the vertebrates. In addition to their primitive nature, many features of their reproduction and early development make the urochordates ideal model chordates for developmental genetics. Many urochordates spawn large numbers of transparent and externally developing embryos on a daily basis. Additionall...

  7. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

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    Christopher J Lowe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates

  8. Vertebrate-like regeneration in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Somorjai, Ildikó M. L.; Rajmund L. Somorjai; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Escrivà, Hector

    2011-01-01

    An important question in biology is why some animals are able to regenerate, whereas others are not. The basal chordate amphioxus is uniquely positioned to address the evolution of regeneration. We report here the high regeneration potential of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Adults regenerate both anterior and posterior structures, including neural tube, notochord, fin, and muscle. Development of a classifier based on tail regeneration profiles predicts the assignment of yo...

  9. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

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    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Hemichordates and the origin of chordates

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    Gerhart, John; Lowe, Christopher; Kirschner, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Hemichordates, the phylum of bilateral animals most closely related to chordates, could reveal the evolutionary origins of chordate traits such as the nerve cord, notochord, gill slits and tail. The anteroposterior maps of gene expression domains for 38 genes of chordate neural patterning are highly similar for hemichordates and chordates, even though hemichordates have a diffuse nerve-net. About 40% of the domains are not present in protostome maps. We propose that this map, the gill slits and the tail date to the deuterostome ancestor. The map of dorsoventral expression domains, centered on a Bmp-Chordin axis, differs between the two groups; hemichordates resemble protostomes more than they do chordates. The dorsoventral axis might have undergone extensive modification in the chordate line, including centralization of the nervous system, segregation of epidermis, derivation of the notochord, and an inversion of organization.

  11. Seeing chordate evolution through the Ciona genome sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Cañestro, Cristian; Bassham, Susan; Postlethwait, John H.

    2003-01-01

    A draft sequence of the compact genome of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, a non-vertebrate chordate that diverged very early from other chordates, including vertebrates, illuminates how chordates originated and how vertebrate developmental innovations evolved.

  12. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy.

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    Wu, Xiao; Shankar, Samantha; Munday, William R; Malhotra, Ajay

    2016-09-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented craniofacial tumor of newborns and infants. We report the imaging findings of a 3-month old male patient with a maxillary MNTI. Detailed discussion on imaging features on various magnetic resonance sequences and CT scan are included. Characteristic radiographic appearance is also described. MNTI, of neural crest origin, display a biphasic population of melanin containing cells and neuroblastic cells, within a moderately vascularized fibrous stroma. The child underwent complete surgical excision with no evidence of recurrence at one year follow up. MNTI is an unusual tumor occurring in early childhood with a predilection for the maxilla. Clinical findings, CT scan and MRI may allow a preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27095686

  13. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

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    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. MR findings and a review of the literature

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    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.; Davis, P.C.; Patrick, L.E.; Winn, K.J.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm occurring primarily in the child one year or less in age. Difficulty in deciding the cellular origin of this tumor has led to numerous names, including congenital melanocarcinoma, melanotic epithelial odontoma, melanotic ameloblastoma, and retinal anlage tumor, to list a few. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies, however, have now established the neural crest the most likely origin. The most frequent site of occurrence is the maxilla followed by the skull, the brain and the mandible. The genital organs are the most frequent extracranial site. Within the skull, there is a predilection for the anterior fontanel. The following is a case report of a young child with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising at the anterior fontanel. Included is a discussion of magnetic resonance (MR) findings, which to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in this tumor. (orig.).

  15. The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates

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    Philippe Vernier

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory–motor program...

  16. Molecular evolution of a chordate specific family of G protein-coupled receptors

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    Leese Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chordate evolution is a history of innovations that is marked by physical and behavioral specializations, which led to the development of a variety of forms from a single ancestral group. Among other important characteristics, vertebrates obtained a well developed brain, anterior sensory structures, a closed circulatory system and gills or lungs as blood oxygenation systems. The duplication of pre-existing genes had profound evolutionary implications for the developmental complexity in vertebrates, since mutations modifying the function of a duplicated protein can lead to novel functions, improving the evolutionary success. Results We analyzed here the evolution of the GPRC5 family of G protein-coupled receptors by comprehensive similarity searches and found that the receptors are only present in chordates and that the size of the receptor family expanded, likely due to genome duplication events in the early history of vertebrate evolution. We propose that a single GPRC5 receptor coding gene originated in a stem chordate ancestor and gave rise by duplication events to a gene family comprising three receptor types (GPRC5A-C in vertebrates, and a fourth homologue present only in mammals (GPRC5D. Additional duplications of GPRC5B and GPRC5C sequences occurred in teleost fishes. The finding that the expression patterns of the receptors are evolutionarily conserved indicates an important biological function of these receptors. Moreover, we found that expression of GPRC5B is regulated by vitamin A in vivo, confirming previous findings that linked receptor expression to retinoic acid levels in tumor cell lines and strengthening the link between the receptor expression and the development of a complex nervous system in chordates, known to be dependent on retinoic acid signaling. Conclusions GPRC5 receptors, a class of G protein-coupled receptors with unique sequence characteristics, may represent a molecular novelty that helped non-chordates

  17. Molecular evolution of a chordate specific family of G protein-coupled receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Leese Florian; Hatt Hanns; Pelz Thomas; Mayer Christoph; Kurtenbach Stefan; Neuhaus Eva M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chordate evolution is a history of innovations that is marked by physical and behavioral specializations, which led to the development of a variety of forms from a single ancestral group. Among other important characteristics, vertebrates obtained a well developed brain, anterior sensory structures, a closed circulatory system and gills or lungs as blood oxygenation systems. The duplication of pre-existing genes had profound evolutionary implications for the developmental ...

  18. Hemichordates and the Origin of Chordates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, John; Kirschner, Marc; Lowe, Chris

    2002-01-01

    At the start of the period of the NASA grant three years ago, we had no information on the organization and development of the body axis of the hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Now we have substantial findings about the anteroposterior axis and dorsoventral axis, and based on this information, we have new insights about the origin of chordates from ancestral deuterostomes. We found ways to obtain and preserve large numbers of embryos and hatched juveniles. We can now collect about 40,000 embryos in the month of September, the time of S. kowalevskii spawning at Woods Hole. Excellent cDNA libraries were prepared from three developmental stages. From these libraries, we directly isolated about 30 gene ortholog sequences by screening and pcr techniques, all of these sequences of interest in the inquiry about the animal's organization and development. We also performed a mid-sized EST project (60,000 randomly picked clones, many of these arrayed). About half of these have been analyzed so far by blastx and are suitable for direct use of clones. We have obtained about 50 interesting sequences from this set. The rest still await analysis. Thus, at this time we have isolated orthologs of 80 genes that are known to be expressed in chordates in conserved domains and known to have interesting roles in chordate organization and development. The orthology of the S. kowalevskii sequences has been verified by neighbor joining and parsimony methods, with bootstrap estimates of validity. The S. kowalevskii sequences cluster with other deuterostome sequences, namely, other hemichordates, echinoderms, ascidians, amphioxus, or vertebrates, depending on what sequences are available in the database for comparison. We have used these sequences to do high quality in situ hybridization on S. kowalevskii embryos, and the results can be divided into three sections-those concerning the anteroposterior axis of S. kowalevskii in comparison to the same axis of chordates, those concerning

  19. New Early Cambrian Chordates from Haikou, Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two new chordates, Cathaymyrus haikouensis Luo et Hu sp. nov. andZhongxiniscus intermedius Luo et Hu gen. et sp. nov. are studied in this paper. Both display numerous S-shaped myomeres on their trunk. C. haikouensis shows a long and slim body similar to that of Cathaymyrus diadexus Shu et al., Zhongxiniscus approaches to Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthvs in the dorsal fin, but differs in the myomeres. Zhongxiniscus may be the intermediate form between Ca thaymyrus and Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthys.

  20. Evolution of the Role of RA and FGF Signals in the Control of Somitogenesis in Chordates.

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    Stéphanie Bertrand

    Full Text Available During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together with tunicates and vertebrates, the dorsal paraxial mesendoderm also periodically forms somites, although this process is asymmetric and extends along the whole body. It has been previously shown that the formation of the most anterior somites in amphioxus is dependent upon FGF signalling. However, the signals controlling somitogenesis during posterior elongation in amphioxus are still unknown. Here we show that, contrary to vertebrates, RA and FGF signals act independently during posterior elongation and that they are not mandatory for posterior somites to form. Moreover, we show that RA is not able to buffer the left/right asymmetry machinery that is controlled through the asymmetric expression of Nodal pathway actors. Our results give new insights into the evolution of the somitogenesis process in chordates. They suggest that RA and FGF pathways have acquired specific functions in the control of somitogenesis in vertebrates. We propose that the "clock and wavefront" system was selected specifically in vertebrates in parallel to the development of more complex somite-derived structures but that it was not required for somitogenesis in the ancestor of chordates.

  1. Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

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    Animesh Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS consists of a triad of hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia along with secondary hypocalcemia. It results from the massive release of intracellular ions from chemosensitive tumor cell death. Hematological malignancies such as acute leukemia and non- Hodgkin lymphoma are considered high risk for developing TLS. Solid tumors are considered less likely to develop TLS. We herein report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor developing TLS within 24 h of starting chemotherapy. The child developed severe clinical TLS and could not be saved. We think solid tumors with large tumor load needs to be classified as high risk for development of TLS. Prophylactic use of hyperhydration and other medical measures to prevent TLS is warranted in such cases.

  2. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  3. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates

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    Kei eYamamoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2 revealed new populations of DA synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g. teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

  4. Prostatic stromal sarcoma with neuroectodermal differentiation

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    Yamazaki Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostatic stromal sarcoma is a fairly rare tumor that constitutes approximately 0.1–0.2% of all prostatic cancers. Detailed characteristics of the tumor are still unclear due to its rarity. We describe a case of prostatic stromal sarcoma in a 63 year-old man who suffered from urinary obstructive symptoms. Palliative transuterine resection was performed and the preliminary histopathological diagnosis was neuroendocrine carcinoma. After chemotherapy, total pelvic exenteration was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of monotonously proliferating small to medium-sized round cells, which existed in compact islands with loose or dense fibrovascular networks. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were widely positive for vimentin, CD56, CD99 and focally positive for synaptophysin, CD10, progesterone receptor, desmin and CD34, but negative for EMA, cytokeratin, estrogen receptor, S-100 and myoglobin. Most of the previously reported tumors exhibited positive stainability for CD10 and progesterone receptor. In addition to these markers, expressions of CD56, CD99 and synaptophysin were characteristically detected in our case. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of prostatic stromal sarcoma with characteristic immunohistochemical staining properties. Although the biological characteristics of this rare tumor have not yet been elucidated, these findings suggest prostatic stromal sarcoma can potentially show neuroectodermal differentiation. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7291874028051262

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  6. Case Report: Intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor – Ewing's sarcoma of dura with transcalvarial–subgaleal extension: An unusual radiological presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of the intracranial, peripheral, primitive, neuroectodermal tumor, Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET-ES) of the dura, is very rare. Immunophenotypical as well as genetic analyses play key roles in its diagnosis and differentiation from central PNET. We describe here the CT scan and MRI findings of an interesting case of intracranial pPNET-ES arising from the anterior falx cerebri with a trancalvarial–subgaleal extension

  7. The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype

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    Putnam, Nicholas H.; Butts, Thomas; Ferrier, David E.K.; Furlong, Rebecca F.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Terry, Astrid; Yu, Jr-Kai; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Dubchak, Inna; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Horton, Amy C.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Kohara, Yuji; Kuroki, Yoko; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Pennacchio, Len A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Satou, Yutaka; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Schmutz[, Jeremy; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Fujiyama, Asao; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Peter W. H.; Satoh, Nori; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-04-01

    Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian. We describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic {approx}520 million base pair genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyze it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates), and allow reconstruction of not only the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor, but also a partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.

  8. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA) has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, ...

  9. Inversion of the chordate body axis: are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, J.

    2000-01-01

    One major morphological difference between chordates and annelids or arthropods is the opposite orientation of the nerve cord and heart. A long-standing proposal is that the chordate axis evolved by inverting the body of an ancestor with the annelid/arthropod orientation. However, the data can also be explained by a common ancestor with diffuse dorsoventral organization, followed by oppositely directed condensation of the nerve cord and relocation of the heart in the two lines.

  10. Ascidians and the plasticity of the chordate developmental program

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    Lemaire, Patrick; Smith, William C.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the ancient chordates that gave rise to the first vertebrates, but the descendants of other invertebrate chordates extant at the time still flourish in the ocean. These invertebrates include the cephalochordates and tunicates, whose larvae share with vertebrate embryos a common body plan with a central notochord and a dorsal nerve cord. Tunicates are now thought to be the sister group of vertebrates. However, research based on several species of ascidians, a diverse and ...

  11. Inversion of the chordate body axis: Are there alternatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhart, J.

    2000-01-01

    One major morphological difference between chordates and annelids or arthropods is the opposite orientation of the nerve cord and heart. A long-standing proposal is that the chordate axis evolved by inverting the body of an ancestor with the annelid/arthropod orientation. However, the data can also be explained by a common ancestor with diffuse dorsoventral organization, followed by oppositely directed condensation of the nerve cord and relocation of the heart in the t...

  12. Unique Development in Hemichordates Suggest Some Unique Features of Chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Christopher J.; Mark Terasaki; Michael Wu; Freeman, Robert M.; Linda Runft; Kristen Kwan; Saori Haigo; Jochanan Aronowicz; Eric Lander; Chris Gruber; Mark Smith; Marc Kirschner; John Gerhart

    2006-01-01

    We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, t...

  13. Chordate evolution and the three-phylum system

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Noriyuki; Rokhsar, Daniel; Nishikawa, Teruaki

    2014-01-01

    Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although the origin and evolution of chordates has been studied for more than a century, few authors have intimately discussed taxonomi...

  14. Evolutionary conservation of the presumptive neural plate markers AmphiSox1/2/3 and AmphiNeurogenin in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. Z.; Schubert, M.; Holland, N. D.; Neuman, T.

    2000-01-01

    Amphioxus, as the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, can give insights into the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate body plan. Therefore, to investigate the evolution of genetic mechanisms for establishing and patterning the neuroectoderm, we cloned and determined the embryonic expression of two amphioxus transcription factors, AmphiSox1/2/3 and AmphiNeurogenin. These genes are the earliest known markers for presumptive neuroectoderm in amphioxus. By the early neurula stage, AmphiNeurogenin expression becomes restricted to two bilateral columns of segmentally arranged neural plate cells, which probably include precursors of motor neurons. This is the earliest indication of segmentation in the amphioxus nerve cord. Later, expression extends to dorsal cells in the nerve cord, which may include precursors of sensory neurons. By the midneurula, AmphiSox1/2/3 expression becomes limited to the dorsal part of the forming neural tube. These patterns resemble those of their vertebrate and Drosophila homologs. Taken together with the evolutionarily conserved expression of the dorsoventral patterning genes, BMP2/4 and chordin, in nonneural and neural ectoderm, respectively, of chordates and Drosophila, our results are consistent with the evolution of the chordate dorsal nerve cord and the insect ventral nerve cord from a longitudinal nerve cord in a common bilaterian ancestor. However, AmphiSox1/2/3 differs from its vertebrate homologs in not being expressed outside the CNS, suggesting that additional roles for this gene have evolved in connection with gene duplication in the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, expression in the midgut of AmphiNeurogenin together with the gene encoding the insulin-like peptide suggests that amphioxus may have homologs of vertebrate pancreatic islet cells, which express neurogenin3. In addition, AmphiNeurogenin, like its vertebrate and Drosophila homologs, is expressed in apparent precursors of epidermal chemosensory and

  15. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Arora, Jyoti; Parakh, Anushri; Goel, Ruchika Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  16. Retinoic acid signaling and the evolution of chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In chordates, which comprise urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates, the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA has a pivotal role during development. Altering levels of endogenous RA signaling during early embryology leads to severe malformations, mainly due to incorrect positional codes specifying the embryonic anteroposterior body axis. In this review, we present our current understanding of the RA signaling pathway and its roles during chordate development. In particular, we focus on the conserved roles of RA and its downstream mediators, the Hox genes, in conveying positional patterning information to different embryonic tissues, such as the endoderm and the central nervous system. We find that some of the control mechanisms governing RA-mediated patterning are well conserved between vertebrates and invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus. In contrast, outside the chordates, evidence for roles of RA signaling is scarce and the evolutionary origin of the RA pathway itself thus remains elusive. In sum, to fully understand the evolutionary history of the RA pathway, future research should focus on identification and study of components of the RA signaling cascade in non-chordate deuterostomes (such as hemichordates and echinoderms and other invertebrates, such as insects, mollusks and cnidarians.

  17. Retinoic acid signaling acts via Hox1 to establish the posterior limit of the pharynx in the chordate amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Michael; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z

    2004-01-01

    In the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, as in vertebrates, retinoic acid (RA) specifies position along the anterior/posterior axis with elevated RA signaling in the middle third of the endoderm setting the posterior limit of the pharynx. Here we show that AmphiHox1 is also expressed in the middle third of the developing amphioxus endoderm and is activated by RA signaling. Knockdown of AmphiHox1 function with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide shows that AmphiHox1 mediates the role of RA ...

  18. Evolution of the organizer and the chordate body plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of the organizer by Spemann and Mangold in 1924 raised two kinds of questions: those about the means of patterning the chordate body axis and those about the mechanisms of cell determination by induction. Some researchers, stressing the second, have suggested over the years that the organizer is poorly named and doesn't really organize because inducers act permissively, because they are not unique to the organizer, and because multipotent responsive cells develop complex local differentiations under artificial conditions. Furthermore, with the discovery of meso-endoderm induction in 1969, the possibility arose that this earlier induction generates as much organization as, or more than, does the organizer itself. Evidence is summarized in this article that the organizer does fulfill its title with regard to pattern formation: it adds greatly to embryonic organization by providing information about time, place, scale, and orientation for development by nearby members of the large multipotent competence groups surrounding the organizer. Embryos having smaller or larger organizers due to experimental intervention develop defective axial organization. Without an organizer the embryo develops no body axis and none of the four chordate characters: the notochord, gill slits, dorsal hollow nerve chord, and post-anal tail. For normal axis formation, the organizer's tripartite organization is needed. Each part differs in inducers, morphogenesis, and self-differentiation. The organizer is a trait of development of all members of the chordate phylum. In comparison to hemichordates, which constitute a phylum with some similarities to chordates, the chordamesoderm part is unique to the chordate organizer (the trunk-tail organizer). Its convergent extension displaces the gastrula posterior pole from alignment with the animal-vegetal axis and generates a new anteroposterior axis orthogonal to this old one. Once it has extended to full length, its signaling modifies

  19. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  20. Developmental Control of Cell-Cycle Compensation Provides a Switch for Patterned Mitosis at the Onset of Chordate Neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yosuke; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2016-04-18

    During neurulation of chordate ascidians, the 11th mitotic division within the epidermal layer shows a posterior-to-anterior wave that is precisely coordinated with the unidirectional progression of the morphogenetic movement. Here we show that the first sign of this patterned mitosis is an asynchronous anterior-to-posterior S-phase length and that mitotic synchrony is reestablished by a compensatory asynchronous G2-phase length. Live imaging combined with genetic experiments demonstrated that compensatory G2-phase regulation requires transcriptional activation of the G2/M regulator cdc25 by the patterning genes GATA and AP-2. The downregulation of GATA and AP-2 at the onset of neurulation leads to loss of compensatory G2-phase regulation and promotes the transition to patterned mitosis. We propose that such developmentally regulated cell-cycle compensation provides an abrupt switch to spatially patterned mitosis in order to achieve the coordination between mitotic timing and morphogenesis.

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of lumbar spine: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-sheng; ZHAO Jie; HAN Kai-wei; HOU Tie-sheng; Nazakat Hussain; ZHANG Shun-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), derived from the primitive neural crest, are highly malignant and mainly exist in the central nervous system (CNS),chest wall, lower extremities, trunk, kidney, and orbit but rarely in the spine. Though multidisciplinary treatments have been well established as the standard therapy for intracranial PNETs, little is known about the optimal treatment strategy and therapeutic results for intraspinal PNETs. The following report illustrates the operative and non-operative management of an extradural PNET at the level of L5 in a young girl.

  2. Anteroposterior patterning in hemichordates and the origins of the chordate nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher J.; Wu, Mike; Salic, Adrian; Evans, Louise; Lander, Eric; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Gruber, Christian E.; Gerhart, John; Kirschner, Marc

    2003-01-01

    The chordate central nervous system has been hypothesized to originate from either a dorsal centralized, or a ventral centralized, or a noncentralized nervous system of a deuterostome ancestor. In an effort to resolve these issues, we examined the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii and studied the expression of orthologs of genes that are involved in patterning the chordate central nervous system. All 22 orthologs studied are expressed in the ectoderm in an anteroposterior arrangement nearly identical to that found in chordates. Domain topography is conserved between hemichordates and chordates despite the fact that hemichordates have a diffuse nerve net, whereas chordates have a centralized system. We propose that the deuterostome ancestor may have had a diffuse nervous system, which was later centralized during the evolution of the chordate lineage.

  3. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the amphioxus is on the horizon. With Linda Holland and Jeremy Gibson-Brown at the forefront, with all the amphioxus community behind, and with the Joint Genome Institute, the amphioxus genome will see the light this year, 2006. Hope that it will reflect the “prototypical” preduplicative genome of vertebrates. It may answer definitively what the human genome did not: Are we vertebrates octaploid? Will it shed light on the novelties that helped non-chordates to be chordates? And more, will amphioxus, with a simpler genome, be developed to a senior “experimental model system”, allowing the testing of molecular functions in a non-duplicated genome background and allowing genetic modification to “recapitulate” evolution? Thanks to an outstanding collaboration between labs, the laboratory culture of amphioxus is underway after years of hard work in the field. 2007 looks promising for amphioxus research.

  4. Genetic and Genomic Toolbox of the Chordate Ciona intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Stolfi, Alberto; Christiaen, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The experimental malleability and unique phylogenetic position of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis as part of the sister group to the vertebrates have helped establish these marine chordates as model organisms for the study of developmental genetics and evolution. Here we summarize the tools, techniques, and resources available to the Ciona geneticist, citing examples of studies that employed such strategies in the elucidation of gene function in Ciona. Genetic screens, germline transgenesis...

  5. Conservation of Notochord Gene Expression Across Chordates: Insights From the Leprecan Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, Terence D.; Dunn, Matthew P.; Yale J Passamaneck; Selleri, Licia; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The notochord is a defining character of the chordates, and the T-box transcription factor Brachyury has been shown to be required for notochord development in all chordates examined. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, at least 44 notochord genes have been identified as bona fide transcriptional targets of Brachyury. We examined the embryonic expression of a subset of murine orthologs of Ciona Brachyury target genes in the notochord to assess its conservation throughout chordate evolution. W...

  6. rRNA genes from the lower chordate Herdmania momus: structural similarity with higher eukaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, B M; Yan, J.; Hawkins, C J; Lavin, M F

    1990-01-01

    Ascidians, primitive chordates that have retained features of the likely progenitors to all vertebrates, are a useful model to study the evolutionary relationship of chordates to other animals. We have selected the well characterized ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to investigate this relationship, and we describe here the cloning and characterization of an entire ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit from a lower chordate, the ascidian Herdmania momus. rDNA copy number and considerable sequence...

  7. The Middle Cambrian fossil Pikaia and the evolution of chordate swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalli Thurston

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Conway Morris and Caron (2012) have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaia’s anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundari...

  8. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R.; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  9. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morov, Arseniy R; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  10. Evolution of the reproductive endocrine system in chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali

    2010-07-01

    The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates.

  11. Paravaginal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of the female genital tract, particularly those in the vaginal and paravaginal region, are extremely rare. A 36-year-old woman presented with clinical features similar to that of a case of cervical fibroid. It was only after surgery that the histopathology suggested it to be a malignant round cell tumour and was CD99 positive. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with the Ifosfamide and Etoposide alternating with Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Cyclophosphamide regime and radical radiotherapy. She is disease free at 12 months of follow-up. The importance of immunostaining and adequate histopathology report lies in the fact that the correct diagnosis thus achieved enabled us to manage a rare case of paravaginal PNET with a multimodality approach.

  12. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach. PMID:27006299

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajendra Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI is a relatively uncommon osteolytic-pigmented neoplasm that primarily affects the jaws of infants. The early onset and its rapid disfiguring spread necessitate early diagnosis. A 4-month-old male child reported with the complaint of swelling in the right back tooth region of the upper jaw, which rapidly increased in size causing disfigurement of the face. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse osteolytic radiolucent lesion in the right maxilla and displacement and dysmorphic changes in the developing primary tooth buds. Wide surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological report revealed characteristic large pigmented epitheloid cells (melanocyte like cells. The biphasic tumor cell population arranged in a background of fibrous connective tissue stroma is suggestive of MNTI involving the cancellous bone. Early diagnosis and management of such aggressive tumors precludes significant morbidity of the patient.

  14. Roles of retinoic acid and Tbx1/10 in pharyngeal segmentation: amphioxus and the ancestral chordate condition

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, Demian; Chen, Jie; Theodosiou, Maria; Carvalho, João E; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel R.; Holland, Linda Z.; Schubert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Although chordates descend from a segmented ancestor, the evolution of head segmentation has been very controversial for over 150 years. Chordates generally possess a segmented pharynx, but even though anatomical evidence and gene expression analyses suggest homologies between the pharyngeal apparatus of invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate amphioxus, and vertebrates, these homologies remain contested. We, therefore, decided to study the evolution of the chordate hea...

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a delayed sequela to cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient developed a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) many years after therapeutic cerebral radiation and methotrexate treatment for leukemia. The differential radiologic and histologic diagnoses, as well as the possible co-oncogenic effects of radiation and methotrexate, are evaluated

  16. Ciona as a Simple Chordate Model for Heart Development and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Evans Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac cell specification and the genetic determinants that govern this process are highly conserved among Chordates. Recent studies have established the importance of evolutionarily-conserved mechanisms in the study of congenital heart defects and disease, as well as cardiac regeneration. As a basal Chordate, the Ciona model system presents a simple scaffold that recapitulates the basic blueprint of cardiac development in Chordates. Here we will focus on the development and cellular structure of the heart of the ascidian Ciona as compared to other Chordates, principally vertebrates. Comparison of the Ciona model system to heart development in other Chordates presents great potential for dissecting the genetic mechanisms that underlie congenital heart defects and disease at the cellular level and might provide additional insight into potential pathways for therapeutic cardiac regeneration.

  17. Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Philippe

    2015-04-23

    The interrelationships between major living vertebrate, and even chordate, groups are now reasonably well resolved thanks to a large amount of generally congruent data derived from molecular sequences, anatomy and physiology. But fossils provide unexpected combinations of characters that help us to understand how the anatomy of modern groups was progressively shaped over millions of years. The dawn of vertebrates is documented by fossils that are preserved as either soft-tissue imprints, or minute skeletal fragments, and it is sometimes difficult for palaeontologists to tell which of them are reliable vertebrate remains and which merely reflect our idea of an ancestral vertebrate.

  18. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez

    2006-01-01

    The genome of the amphioxus is on the horizon. With Linda Holland and Jeremy Gibson-Brown at the forefront, with all the amphioxus community behind, and with the Joint Genome Institute, the amphioxus genome will see the light this year, 2006. Hope that it will reflect the “prototypical” preduplicative genome of vertebrates. It may answer definitively what the human genome did not: Are we vertebrates octaploid? Will it shed light on the novelties that helped non-chordates to be cho...

  19. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  1. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Saira; Sebire, Neil; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); McCarville, Mary Beth [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm of neural crest origin. To describe three further cases of MNTI, with emphasis on CT and MRI findings. Data for children with histologically confirmed MNTI following biopsy or surgery were retrieved. Three children with available imaging at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. All three children had primary tumour in the head and neck region: one in the maxilla, one in the occipital bone (extra-axial but with intracranial extension) and one with an unusual tumour growing exophytically from the subcutaneous tissues adjacent to the occipital bone. All tumours were iso/hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and showed marked contrast enhancement in their non-ossified components. CT allowed identification of bone destruction and remodelling. Our findings are consistent with previously reported cases of MNTI regarding age at presentation and location in the head and neck region. Our MR findings did not demonstrate the typical pattern of T1-shortening expected from melanin deposition. (orig.)

  2. Dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumor: an ultrastructural study of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Liberski, P P; Kordek, R; Zakrzewski, K; Polis, L; Budka, H

    2001-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumor (DNT) is a rare brain neoplasm. Although the tumor pathology is relatively well charactererized, its full clinicopathological spectrum is still discussed, and ultrastructural data on it are very limited. Here, the authors describe detailed ultrastructural pathology of 7 cases of DNT. Each tumor consisted of 3 major elements: neoplastic cells (oligodendroglial-like cells, OLC), elongated processes forming neuropil-like structure, and expanded "mucoid" extracellular space, the latter giving an impression of cellular elements floating within it. Neoplastic cells had round, oval, or elongated nuclei, no discernible nucleoli, and a relatively narrow rim of cytoplasm. Some nuclei were irregular and invaginated, and pseudoinclusions (invaginations of cytoplasm penetrated into toroid-like nuclear formations) were observed. Part of the cytoplasm sequestrated within pseudoinclusions often appeared degenerated with large blebs and electron-lucent vesicles, and some of these contained, in turn, semicircular profiles of unknown significance. Chromatin was clustered below the nuclear membrane. The cytoplasm contained a few mitochondria, round rather than elongated, a few stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and scanty microtubules and clear vesicles. The second element consisted of innumerable cellular processes. Some of these were elongated and formed stacks connected by symmetric or asymetric adhesive plaque junctions. Others had shorter "neck" containing microtubules extending into bulbous extensions. Dense-cored vesicles were occasionally observed, both in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells and within processes. In one cell, cross-sectioned annulate lamellae were found. In the cytoplasm of a few cells, unusual inclusions reminiscent of ribosome-lamellae resembled "laboratory tubes" with cone-like endings. At higher power, walls of the "tubes" resolved into layered structures composed of several laminae; between these, ribosome

  3. Origins of anteroposterior patterning and Hox gene regulation during chordate evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, T. F.; Knight, R D

    2001-01-01

    All chordates share a basic body plan and many common features of early development. Anteroposterior (AP) regions of the vertebrate neural tube are specified by a combinatorial pattern of Hox gene expression that is conserved in urochordates and cephalochordates. Another primitive feature of Hox gene regulation in all chordates is a sensitivity to retinoic acid during embryogenesis, and recent developmental genetic studies have demonstrated the essential role for retinoid signalling in verteb...

  4. How much does the amphioxus genome represent the ancestor of chordates?

    OpenAIRE

    Louis A.; Roest Crollius H.; Robinson-Rechavi M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main motivations to study amphioxus is its potential for understanding the last common ancestor of chordates, which notably gave rise to the vertebrates. An important feature in this respect is the slow evolutionary rate that seems to have characterized the cephalochordate lineage, making amphioxus an interesting proxy for the chordate ancestor, as well as a key lineage to include in comparative studies. Whereas slow evolution was first noticed at the phenotypic level, it has also ...

  5. Evolutionary Patterns of RNA-Based Duplication in Non-Mammalian Chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Beide Fu; Xin Li; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Xiaoni Gan; Dengqiang Wang; Wen Wang; Manyuan Long; Shunping He

    2011-01-01

    The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young re...

  6. Characterization of an individual neural crest-like cell lineage in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Cone, Angela C.

    2008-01-01

    During embryogenesis, all chordate embryos undergo neurulation to form a dorsal, hollow nerve cord. Neural crest cells (NCC), considered a vertebrate innovation, arise during neurulation and later differentiate into a multitude of tissues that account for much of the structural complexity that distinguishes craniates from invertebrate chordates [1, 2]. NCCs are induced and specified at the border of the neural and non-neural ectoderm by a complex network of inductive signals and transcription...

  7. Tunicate mitogenomics and phylogenetics: peculiarities of the Herdmania momus mitochondrial genome and support for the new chordate phylogeny.

    OpenAIRE

    Loya Yossi; Shenkar Noa; Blanquart Samuel; Delsuc Frédéric; Tsagkogeorga Georgia; Singh Tiratha; Douzery Emmanuel JP; Huchon Dorothée

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Tunicates represent a key metazoan group as the sister-group of vertebrates within chordates. The six complete mitochondrial genomes available so far for tunicates have revealed distinctive features. Extensive gene rearrangements and particularly high evolutionary rates have been evidenced with regard to other chordates. This peculiar evolutionary dynamics has hampered the reconstruction of tunicate phylogenetic relationships within chordates based on mitogenomic data. Res...

  8. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Presentation of a case affecting the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare, distinctive neoplasm of early infancy with rapid expansile growth and a high rate of recurrence. Most commonly, the lesion affects the maxilla of infants during the first year of life. One such case was diagnosed in the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology in Subharti Dental College, Meerut.

  9. The genome sequence of the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Neff, Norma F; Sahoo, Debashis; Newman, Aaron M; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Koh, Winston; Passarelli, Benedetto; Fan, H Christina; Mantalas, Gary L; Palmeri, Karla J; Ishizuka, Katherine J; Gissi, Carmela; Griggio, Francesca; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Corey, Daniel M; Penland, Lolita; White, Richard A; Weissman, Irving L; Quake, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate that follows the chordate plan of development following sexual reproduction, but invokes a stem cell-mediated budding program during subsequent rounds of asexual reproduction. As urochordates are considered to be the closest living invertebrate relatives of vertebrates, they are ideal subjects for whole genome sequence analyses. Using a novel method for high-throughput sequencing of eukaryotic genomes, we sequenced and assembled 580 Mbp of the B. schlosseri genome. The genome assembly is comprised of nearly 14,000 intron-containing predicted genes, and 13,500 intron-less predicted genes, 40% of which could be confidently parceled into 13 (of 16 haploid) chromosomes. A comparison of homologous genes between B. schlosseri and other diverse taxonomic groups revealed genomic events underlying the evolution of vertebrates and lymphoid-mediated immunity. The B. schlosseri genome is a community resource for studying alternative modes of reproduction, natural transplantation reactions, and stem cell-mediated regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00569.001 PMID:23840927

  10. Evolution of a core gene network for skeletogenesis in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hecht

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton is one of the most important features for the reconstruction of vertebrate phylogeny but few data are available to understand its molecular origin. In mammals the Runt genes are central regulators of skeletogenesis. Runx2 was shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation, tooth development, and bone formation. Both Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation. Furthermore, Runx2 directly regulates Indian hedgehog expression, a master coordinator of skeletal development. To clarify the correlation of Runt gene evolution and the emergence of cartilage and bone in vertebrates, we cloned the Runt genes from hagfish as representative of jawless fish (MgRunxA, MgRunxB and from dogfish as representative of jawed cartilaginous fish (ScRunx1-3. According to our phylogenetic reconstruction the stem species of chordates harboured a single Runt gene and thereafter Runt locus duplications occurred during early vertebrate evolution. All newly isolated Runt genes were expressed in cartilage according to quantitative PCR. In situ hybridisation confirmed high MgRunxA expression in hard cartilage of hagfish. In dogfish ScRunx2 and ScRunx3 were expressed in embryonal cartilage whereas all three Runt genes were detected in teeth and placoid scales. In cephalochordates (lancelets Runt, Hedgehog and SoxE were strongly expressed in the gill bars and expression of Runt and Hedgehog was found in endo- as well as ectodermal cells. Furthermore we demonstrate that the lancelet Runt protein binds to Runt binding sites in the lancelet Hedgehog promoter and regulates its activity. Together, these results suggest that Runt and Hedgehog were part of a core gene network for cartilage formation, which was already active in the gill bars of the common ancestor of cephalochordates and vertebrates and diversified after Runt duplications had occurred during vertebrate evolution. The similarities in expression patterns of Runt genes support the view

  11. Symmetry breaking and convergent extension in early chordate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Yoram

    2006-10-01

    The initiation of axis, polarity, cell differentiation, and gastrulation in the very early chordate development is due to the breaking of radial symmetry. It is believed that this occurs by an external signal. We suggest instead spontaneous symmetry breaking through the agency of the Turing-Child field. Increased size or decreased diffusivity, both brought about by mitotic activity, cause the spontaneous loss of stability of the homogeneous state and the evolution of the metabolic pattern during development. The polar metabolic pattern is the cause of polar gene expression, polar morphogenesis (gastrulation), and polar mitotic activity. The Turing-Child theory explains not only the spontaneous formation of the invagination in gastrulation but also the coherent cell movement observed in convergence and extension during gastrulation and neurulation. The theory is demonstrated with respect to experimental observations on the early development of fish, amphibian, and the chick. The theory can explain a multitude of experimental details. For example, it explains the splayed polar progression of reduction in the fish blastoderm. Reduction starts on that side of the blastoderm margin, which will initiate invagination several hours later. It progresses toward the blastoderm center and somewhat laterally from this future "dorsal lip". This is precisely as predicted by a Turing-Child system in a circle. And for a fish like zebrafish with a blastoderm that is slightly oval, reduction is observed to progress along the long axis of the ellipse, which is what Turing-Child theory predicts. In general the shape and the chemical nature of the experimental patterns are the same as predicted by the Turing couple (cAMP, ATP). Embryological polarity and convergent extension are based on polar eigenfunction and saddle-shaped eigenfunction, respectively.

  12. Distinctive expression patterns of Hedgehog pathway genes in the Ciona intestinalis larva: implications for a role of Hedgehog signaling in postembryonic development and chordate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F M Tariqul; Moly, Pricila Khan; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G

    2010-02-01

    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family are soluble ligands that orchestrate a wide spectrum of developmental processes ranging from left-right axis determination of the embryo to tissue patterning and organogenesis. Tunicates, including ascidians, are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and elucidation of Hh signaling in ascidians should provide an important clue towards better understanding the role of this pathway in development. In previous studies, expression patterns of genes encoding Hh and its downstream factor Gli have been examined up to the tailbud stage in the ascidian embryo, but their expression in the larva has not been reported. Here we show the spatial expression patterns of hedgehog (Ci-hh1, Ci-hh2), patched (Ci-ptc), smoothened (Ci-smo), and Gli (Ci-Gli) orthologs in larvae of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The expression patterns of Ci-hh2 and Ci-Gli dramatically change during the period between the late tailbud embryo and the swimming larva. At the larval stage, expression of Ci-Gli was found in a central part of the endoderm and in the visceral ganglion, while Ci-hh2 was expressed in two discrete endodermal regions, anteriorly and posteriorly adjacent to the cells expressing Gli. The expression patterns of these genes suggest that the Hh ligand controls postembryonic development of the endoderm and the central nervous system. Expression of a gene encoding Hh in the anterior and/or pharyngeal endoderm is probably an ancient chordate character; diversification of regulation and targets of the Hh signaling in this region may have played a major role in the evolution of chordate body structures.

  13. Primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkure Purna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the genital tract of women is uncommon. Rarer still is its occurrence in the vagina, with only five cases described so far. Out of these, only one case was confirmed using molecular analysis. Case presentation We present an extremely rare case of Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 17-year-old Indian girl. She presented with a vaginal mass that was initially diagnosed as a malignant round cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positivity for vimentin, membranous positivity for MIC2, and positivity for BCL2 and FLI-1. On the other hand, she was negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, Myo D-1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin. A diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor was thus offered. Furthermore, a molecular analysis of our patient using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique showed positivity for t(11; 22 (q24; q12 (EWSR1-FLI1, thus confirming the diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Our patient was offered chemotherapy on Institutional protocol EFT 2001. Conclusion This is a rare case of primary vaginal Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, which was confirmed with molecular analysis, in the youngest patient known so far. This study reinforces the value of integrating morphological features with membranous MIC2 positivity, along with application of molecular techniques in objective identification of an Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor at uncommon sites.

  14. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing Sarcoma Presenting with Pulmonary Nodular Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Asker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs and Ewing sarcoma (EWS belong to the same family of malignant, small, round cell neoplasms of soft tissue or bone origin. EWS-PNETs that arise in the lung parenchyma involvement are extremely rare in adults. A case of a 32-year-old male presenting with chest pain and diffuse pulmonary nodules on chest X-ray and diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma-PNETs will be presented here.

  15. Genome-wide molecular characterization of central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor and pineoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Suzanne; Rogers, Hazel A; Lyon, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Clifford, Steven C; Hayden, James T.; Dyer, Sara; Pfister, Stefan; Korshunov, Andrey; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Lowe, James; Coyle, Beth; Grundy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS PNET) and pineoblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors with poor prognoses. Current therapies are based on the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma, even though these tumors are distinct at both the anatomical and molecular level. CNS PNET and pineoblastoma have a worse clinical outcome than medulloblastoma; thus, improved therapies based on an understanding of the underlying biology of CNS PNET and pineoblastoma are n...

  16. Origin of Ameloblastoma From Basal Cells of the Oral Epithelium- Establishing the Relation Using Neuroectodermal Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneela, S; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana; Swaminathan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Basal cell layer of the oral epithelium has been rightfully regarded as a potential source of odontogenic tumours and cysts, but, without substantial evidence. Also, whether the basal cell layer retains within it, some properties of ectomesenchyme, which was imbibed during the early embryogenesis and hence its neuroectodermal relation, is not known. Here, an attempt is made to establish the hidden neuroectodermal potential of the oral epithelium, especially the basal layer, by observing the expression of known neuroectodermal markers, NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase), Synaptophysin and CD99. The expression of the same markers has also been studied in Ameloblastoma, connecting it with oral epithelium, in turn establishing basal cell layer as a potential source of Ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Sections of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples of 20 cases of Ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Normal Retromolar mucosa, were stained immunohistochemically with NSE, Synaptophysin, CD99 and also with CK-19 and evaluated for positive expression. Results: Positive reaction was obtained in all the cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM (Normal Retromolar mucosa) with NSE, all the cases of Ameloblastoma and eight cases of NRM with Synaptophysin and in six cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM with CD99. The staining was diffuse and more marked in case of NSE than Synaptophysin and CD99. CK19 staining done to assure that the tissue antigenicity was maintained was positive in all the samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: A strong relationship between the neuroectoderm, Ameloblastoma and the basal layer of the oral epithelium is established by the study. It favours the hypothesis that the basal cell layer of oral mucosa may be the sought out culprit in most cases of the Ameloblastomas, especially those occurring in the non-tooth bearing area. This would call for the need to incorporate additional therapy in the form of mucosal striping along with the

  17. Primary Epidural Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Jung; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam; Jun, Young Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Dept. of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a highly malignant tumor in children and young adults, and extremely rare in the spine. We report a case of a primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine. The present extremely rare case of primary epidural peripheral PNET of the lumbar spine illustrates the unexpected occurrence and should be included in differential diagnoses for patients with spinal tumors.

  18. Evolutionary patterns of RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young retrocopies in ancient chordate species. Upon comparing these non-mammalian chordate species to the mammalian species, we observed that a larger fraction of the non-mammalian retrocopies was under strong evolutionary constraints than mammalian retrocopies are, as evidenced by signals of purifying selection and expression profiles. For the Western clawed frog, Medaka, and Sea squirt, many retrogenes have evolved gonad and brain expression patterns, similar to what was observed in human. Testing of retrogene movement in the Medaka genome, where the nascent sex chrosomes have been well assembled, did not reveal any significant gene movement. Taken together, our analyses demonstrate that RNA-based duplication generates many functional genes and can make a significant contribution to the evolution of non-mammalian genomes.

  19. Phylostratigraphic profiles in zebrafish uncover chordate origins of the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestak, Martin Sebastijan; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav

    2015-02-01

    An elaborated tripartite brain is considered one of the important innovations of vertebrates. Other extant chordate groups have a more basic brain organization. For instance, cephalochordates possess a relatively simple brain possibly homologous to the vertebrate forebrain and hindbrain, whereas tunicates display the tripartite organization, but without the specialized brain centers. The difference in anatomical complexity is even more pronounced if one compares chordates with other deuterostomes that have only a diffuse nerve net or alternatively a rather simple central nervous system. To gain a new perspective on the evolutionary roots of the complex vertebrate brain, we made here a phylostratigraphic analysis of gene expression patterns in the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). The recovered adaptive landscape revealed three important periods in the evolutionary history of the zebrafish brain. The oldest period corresponds to preadaptive events in the first metazoans and the emergence of the nervous system at the metazoan-eumetazoan transition. The origin of chordates marks the next phase, where we found the overall strongest adaptive imprint in almost all analyzed brain regions. This finding supports the idea that the vertebrate brain evolved independently of the brains within the protostome lineage. Finally, at the origin of vertebrates we detected a pronounced signal coming from the dorsal telencephalon, in agreement with classical theories that consider this part of the cerebrum a genuine vertebrate innovation. Taken together, these results reveal a stepwise adaptive history of the vertebrate brain where most of its extant organization was already present in the chordate ancestor. PMID:25415965

  20. AmphiFoxQ2, a novel winged helix/forkhead gene, exclusively marks the anterior end of the amphioxus embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.

    2003-01-01

    A full-length FoxQ-related gene (AmphiFoxQ2) was isolated from amphioxus. Expression is first detectable in the animal/anterior hemisphere at the mid blastula stage. The midpoint of this expression domain coincides with the anterior pole of the embryo and is offset dorsally by about 20 degrees from the animal pole. During the gastrula stage, expression is limited to the anterior ectoderm. By the early neurula stage, expression remains in the anterior ectoderm and also appears in the adjacent anterior mesendoderm. By the early larval stages, expression is detectable in the anteriormost ectoderm and in the rostral tip of the notochord. AmphiFoxQ2 is never expressed anywhere except at the anterior tip of amphioxus embryos and larvae. This is the first gene known that exclusively marks the anterior pole of chordate embryos. It may, therefore, play an important role in establishing and/or maintaining the anterior/posterior axis.

  1. Modeling RNA polymerase interaction in mitochondria of chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubetsky Vassily A

    2012-08-01

    selected genes only relative RNA concentrations have been experimentally determined. Conversely, these characteristics and absolute transcription levels can be obtained using relative RNA concentrations and RNA half-lives known from various experimental studies. In this case, the “inverse problem” is solved with multi-objective optimization. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that our model accurately reproduces all relevant experimental data available for plant plastids, as well as the mitochondria of chordates. Using experimental data, the model is applied to estimate binding intensities of phage-type RNA polymerases to their promoters as well as predicting terminator characteristics, including polarization. In addition, one can predict characteristics of phage-type RNA polymerases and the transcription process that are difficult to measure directly, e.g., the association between the promoter’s nucleotide composition and the intensity of polymerase binding. To illustrate the application of our model in functional predictions, we propose a possible mechanism for MELAS syndrome development in human involving a decrease of Phe-tRNA, Val-tRNA and rRNA concentrations in the cell. In addition, we describe how changes in methylation patterns of the mTERF binding site and three promoters in hypothyroid rat correlate with changes in intensities of the mTERF binding and transcription initiations. Finally, we introduce an auxiliary model to describe the interaction between polysomal mRNA and ribonucleases.

  2. Threshold-dependent BMP-mediated repression: a model for a conserved mechanism that patterns the neuroectoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mieko Mizutani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three rows of cells along the dorsal-ventral axis by neural identity genes is a highly conserved developmental process. While neural identity genes are expressed in remarkably similar patterns in vertebrates and invertebrates, previous work suggests that these patterns may be regulated by distinct upstream genetic pathways. Here we ask whether a potential conserved source of positional information provided by the BMP signaling contributes to patterning the neuroectoderm. We have addressed this question in two ways: First, we asked whether BMPs can act as bona fide morphogens to pattern the Drosophila neuroectoderm in a dose-dependent fashion, and second, we examined whether BMPs might act in a similar fashion in patterning the vertebrate neuroectoderm. In this study, we show that graded BMP signaling participates in organizing the neural axis in Drosophila by repressing expression of neural identity genes in a threshold-dependent fashion. We also provide evidence for a similar organizing activity of BMP signaling in chick neural plate explants, which may operate by the same double negative mechanism that acts earlier during neural induction. We propose that BMPs played an ancestral role in patterning the metazoan neuroectoderm by threshold-dependent repression of neural identity genes.

  3. Essential role of Bmp signaling and its positive feedback loop in the early cell fate evolution of chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Kozmiková, I. (Iryna); S Candiani; P. Fabian; Gurská, D. (Daniela); Kozmik, Z

    2013-01-01

    In chordates, early separation of cell fate domains occurs prior to the final specification of ectoderm to neural and non-neural as well as mesoderm to dorsal and ventral during development. Maintaining such division with the establishment of an exact border between the domains is required for the formation of highly differentiated structures such as neural tube and notochord. We hypothesized that the key condition for efficient cell fate separation in a chordate embryo is the presence of a p...

  4. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors in chordates: insights from three lamprey species, Lampetra fluviatilis, Petromyzon marinus, and Lethenteron japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Jandzik, David; Takio-Ogawa, Yoko; Cattell, Maria V; Neef, Haley C; Langeland, James A.; Kuratani, Shigeru; Medeiros, Daniel M.; Mazan, Sylvie; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls many developmental processes in chordates, from early axis specification to late organogenesis. The functions of RA are chiefly mediated by a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. While RARs have been extensively studied in jawed vertebrates (that is, gnathostomes) and invertebrate chordates, very little is known about the repertoire and developmental role...

  5. Ancient homeobox gene loss and the evolution of chordate brain and pharynx development : deductions from amphioxus gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Thomas; Holland, Peter W. H.; Ferrier, David Ellard Keith

    2010-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode a large superclass of transcription factors with widespread roles in animal development. Within chordates there are over 100 homeobox genes in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus and over 200 in humans. Set against this general trend of increasing gene number in vertebrate evolution, some ancient homeobox genes that were present in the last common ancestor of chordates have been lost from vertebrates. Here, we describe the embryonic expression of four amphioxus de...

  6. Retinoic acid influences anteroposterior positioning of epidermal sensory neurons and their gene expression in a developing chordate (amphioxus)

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Michael; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In developing chordates, retinoic acid (RA) signaling patterns the rostrocaudal body axis globally and affects gene expression locally in some differentiating cell populations. Here we focus on development of epidermal sensory neurons in an invertebrate chordate (amphioxus) to determine how RA signaling influences their rostrocaudal distribution and gene expression (for AmphiCoe, a neural precursor gene; for amphioxus islet and AmphiERR, two neural differentiation genes; and for AmphiHox1, -3...

  7. Mutational analysis of the NF1 GAP-related domain in neuroectodermal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinanzi, C.; Basso, G.; Perilongo, G. [Universita di Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To try to contribute to the more precise characterization of the function of the NF1 gene in tumorigenesis we have analyzed the most conserved region of its coding sequence, the GAP-related domain (NF1 GRD), which is attributed with tumor suppressor function. The rationale for the study was based on the likelihood of finding structural alterations resulting in loss of function of this region, in situations such as tumors of neuroepithelial tissues. In these situations, the activity of the NF1 gene product, neurofibromis, a GTPase activating protein, seems to be crucial in regulating the mechanisms of signal transduction mediated by p21 ras. We have studied the NF1 GRD region by PCR amplification of each exon (exons 21-27a) followed by subsequent PAGE and SSCP analysis of the amplification products in 60 primary sporadic neuroectodermal tumors. Our sample included: 14 neuroblastoma, 11 glioblastoma, 8 medulloblastoma, 7 ependimoma, 6 peripheral PNET, 1 ganglioneuroma, 1 glioma, 1 Ewing sarcoma, 1 meningioma and 1 schwannoma. We have not identified structural alterations of the NF1 GRD region in the tumors analysed, with one possible exception now in the process of being characterized. We can conclude that the loss of the NF1 gene tumor suppressor function that might lead or contribute to the development of malignancies in tissues of neuroectodermal origin is not due to structural abnormalities of the region of the gene interacting with p21 ras, either as a negative regulator or as a downstream effector of it. These data, together with the observation that the oncogene ras 21 is not typically mutated in neuroectodermal tumors, and that GTP-ras has been found normally regulated in neurofibromis-deficient melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines, seem to support the hypothesis that the antioncogene activity of the NF1 gene could be totally independent from its interaction with ras.

  8. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathya; Chinnaa; Chandan; J; Das; Sanjay; Sharma; Prabhjot; Singh; Amlesh; Seth; Suvendu; Purkait; Sandeep; R; Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava(IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up.

  9. EWING’S SARCOMA OR PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOUR OF CERVIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor ( PNET is extremely rare in the female genital tract but it has high grade malignant potential. EFT of cervix can be easily confused with other small round cell neoplasm. It reinforces the value of IHC in its objective identification especially at unusual sites where they are found to have the same aggressive behavior as those arising from usual sites & are similarly found to be responsive to optimum local treatment & combination chemotherapy with radiotherapy. We herein report the case of PNET presenting in intrapartum period.

  10. The Middle Cambrian fossil Pikaia and the evolution of chordate swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalli Thurston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conway Morris and Caron (2012 have recently published an account of virtually all the available information on Pikaia gracilens, a well-known Cambrian fossil and supposed basal chordate, and propose on this basis some new ideas about Pikaia’s anatomy and evolutionary significance. Chief among its chordate-like features are the putative myomeres, a regular series of vertical bands that extends the length of the body. These differ from the myomeres of living chordates in that boundaries between them (the myosepta are gently curved, with minimal overlap, whereas amphioxus and vertebrates have strongly overlapping V- and W-shaped myomeres. The implication, on biomechanical grounds, is that myomeres in Pikaia exerted much less tension on the myosepta, so the animal would have been incapable of swimming as rapidly as living chordates operating in the fast-twitch mode used for escape and attack. Pikaia either lacked the fast-twitch fibers necessary for such speeds, having instead only slow-twitch fibers, or it had an ancestral fiber type with functional capabilities more like modern slow fibers than fast ones. The first option is supported by the sequence of development in zebrafish, where both myoseptum formation and fast fiber deployment show a dependence on slow fibers, which develop first. For Pikaia, the absence of fast fibers has both behavioral and anatomical implications, which are discussed. Among the latter is the possibility that a notochord may not have been needed as a primary stiffening device if other structures (for example, the dorsal organ could perform that role.

  11. Evolution of the role of RA and FGF signals in the control of somitogenesis in chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Bertrand; Daniel Aldea; Silvan Oulion; Lucie Subirana; de Lera, Angel R.; Ildiko Somorjai; Hector Escriva

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate development, the paraxial mesoderm becomes segmented, forming somites that will give rise to dermis, axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. Although recently challenged, the "clock and wavefront" model for somitogenesis explains how interactions between several cell-cell communication pathways, including the FGF, RA, Wnt and Notch signals, control the formation of these bilateral symmetric blocks. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, which belongs to the chordate phylum together ...

  12. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardi Fiorenza; Pennati Roberta; Moronti Luca; Candiani Simona; Benfenati Fabio; Pestarino Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the...

  13. Diversification of the expression patterns and developmental functions of the Dishevelled gene family during chordate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Ryan S.; Bayly, Robbie D.; Green, Stephen A.; Agarwala, Seema; Lowe, Christopher J.; Wallingford, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are key transducers of Wnt signaling encoded by members of a multi-gene family in vertebrates. We report here the divergent, tissue-specific expression patterns for all three Dvl genes in Xenopus embryos, which contrast dramatically with their expression patterns in mice. Moreover, we find that the expression patterns of Dvl genes in the chick diverge significantly from those of Xenopus. In addition, in hemichordates, an outgroup to chordates, we find that the one D...

  14. The Transcriptome of an Amphioxus, Asymmetron lucayanum, from the Bahamas: A Window into Chordate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Yu, Jr-Kai; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Holland, Linda Z

    2014-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of tunicates plus vertebrates, have been called “living fossils” due to their resemblance to fossil chordates from Cambrian strata. The genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae shares remarkable synteny with vertebrates and is free from whole-genome duplication. We performed RNA sequencing from larvae and adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, a cephalochordate distantly related to B. floridae. Comparisons of about 430 orthologous gene groups among both...

  15. Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Chris B.; Garey, James R.; Swalla, Billie J.

    2000-01-01

    The deuterostome phyla include Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata. Chordata is composed of three subphyla, Vertebrata, Cephalochordata (Branchiostoma), and Urochordata (Tunicata). Careful analysis of a new 18S rDNA data set indicates that deuterostomes are composed of two major clades: chordates and echinoderms + hemichordates. This analysis strongly supports the monophyly of each of the four major deuterostome taxa: Vertebrata + Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Hemichordata, and Echinode...

  16. {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in the management of neuroectodermal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Meeran [Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust, Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Maidstone (United Kingdom); Al-Nahhas, Adil [Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Neuroectodermal tumours arise from chromaffin cells and possess the ability to secrete catecholamines. They are generally rare and may occur in association with a variety of hereditary syndromes such as MEN-2A and 2B, neurofibromatosis type 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. The most common types are phaeochromocytoma arising from the adrenal medulla and paraganglioma of extra-adrenal origin. Phaeochromocytomas tend to be benign and are often associated with a gene mutation if the disease is bilateral, while paragangliomas are often malignant, have a more aggressive nature and tend to metastasize. There are no specific histological or immunohistochemical features that indicate the malignant potential and the diagnosis of malignancy can only be established by the presence of distant metastases. Therefore, imaging can play a vital role in the diagnosis, localization, staging and assessment of spread. Traditionally, this is achieved with a combination of cross-sectional (CT and MRI) and functional ({sup 123}I-MIBG or {sup 111}In-octreotide) imaging. However, these modalities are not adequate and achieve moderate sensitivity. The introduction of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA peptide in PET/CT imaging has led to improved receptor targeting and superb PET resolution, as well as accurate localization of lesions. The use of this technique in neuroectodermal tumours has been shown to be superior to all available modalities, but the available data are limited and larger studies are awaited to establish its role in the management of these tumours. (orig.)

  17. Conservative multimodal management of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Haudebourg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET represent 1% of sarcomas. Head and neck peripheral PNETs have an intermediate prognosis between abdominopelvic disease and extremities. We here report the case of a 40-year old male who presented with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid and was treated by multimodal treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and intermediate dose radiotherapy. The patient is alive and fit with a functional larynx at 27 months. Multimodal treatments yield five-year survival rates of about 60%. Major drug regimens use vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin and/or etoposide. Complete surgical excision is undertaken whenever possible to improve long-term survival. However, the relative radiosensitivity of tumors of the Ewing family, suggest multimodal treatment including adjuvant conformal radiotherapy in case of positive margins or poor response to chemotherapy rather than resection with 2-3 cm margins, which would imply laryngeal sacrifice for thyroid tumors. The role of expert rare tumor networks is crucial for optimal decision-making and management of such rare tumors on a case by case basis.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Extra Ocular Muscle Harbor Neuroectodermal Differentiation Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darilang Mawrie

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed as suitable candidates for cell therapy for neurological disorderssince they exhibit good neuronal differentiation capacity. However, for better therapeutic outcomes, it is necessary to isolate MSC from a suitable tissue sourcethat posses high neuronal differentiation. In this context, we isolated MSC from extra ocular muscle (EOM tissue and tested the in vitro neuronal differentiation potential. In the current study, EOM tissue derived MSC were characterized and compared with bone marrow derived MSC. We found that EOM derived MSC proliferated as a monolayer and showed similarities in morphology, growth properties and cell surface marker expression with bone marrow derived MSC and expressed high levels of NES, OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 in its undifferentiated state. They also expressed embryonic cell surface marker SSEA4 and their intracellular mitochondrial distribution pattern was similar to that of multipotent stem cells. Although EOM derived MSC differentiated readily into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, they differentiated more efficiently into neuroectodermal cells. The differentiation into neuroectodermal cellswas confirmed by the expression of neuronal markers NGFR and MAP2B. Thus, EOM derived MSC might be good candidates for stem cell based therapies for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Extra Ocular Muscle Harbor Neuroectodermal Differentiation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalene, Damaris; Bhattacharyya, Jina; Jaganathan, Bithiah Grace

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proposed as suitable candidates for cell therapy for neurological disorderssince they exhibit good neuronal differentiation capacity. However, for better therapeutic outcomes, it is necessary to isolate MSC from a suitable tissue sourcethat posses high neuronal differentiation. In this context, we isolated MSC from extra ocular muscle (EOM) tissue and tested the in vitro neuronal differentiation potential. In the current study, EOM tissue derived MSC were characterized and compared with bone marrow derived MSC. We found that EOM derived MSC proliferated as a monolayer and showed similarities in morphology, growth properties and cell surface marker expression with bone marrow derived MSC and expressed high levels of NES, OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 in its undifferentiated state. They also expressed embryonic cell surface marker SSEA4 and their intracellular mitochondrial distribution pattern was similar to that of multipotent stem cells. Although EOM derived MSC differentiated readily into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, they differentiated more efficiently into neuroectodermal cells. The differentiation into neuroectodermal cellswas confirmed by the expression of neuronal markers NGFR and MAP2B. Thus, EOM derived MSC might be good candidates for stem cell based therapies for treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27248788

  20. A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, C.W.; Hasle, H.; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET). A novel splice site mutation of the TP53-gene, likely to be associated with a nonfunctional protein, was found in the proband, his father...

  1. Diverse ETS transcription factors mediate FGF signaling in the Ciona anterior neural plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainous, T Blair; Wagner, Eileen; Levine, Michael

    2015-03-15

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a marine invertebrate belonging to the sister group of the vertebrates, the tunicates. Its compact genome and simple, experimentally tractable embryos make Ciona well-suited for the study of cell-fate specification in chordates. Tunicate larvae possess a characteristic chordate body plan, and many developmental pathways are conserved between tunicates and vertebrates. Previous studies have shown that FGF signals are essential for neural induction and patterning at sequential steps of Ciona embryogenesis. Here we show that two different ETS family transcription factors, Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4, have partially redundant activities in the anterior neural plate of gastrulating embryos. Whereas Ets1/2 promotes pigment cell formation in lateral lineages, both Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4 are involved in the activation of Myt1L in medial lineages and the restriction of Six3/6 expression to the anterior-most regions of the neural tube. We also provide evidence that photoreceptor cells arise from posterior regions of the presumptive sensory vesicle, and do not depend on FGF signaling. Cells previously identified as photoreceptor progenitors instead form ependymal cells and neurons of the larval brain. Our results extend recent findings on FGF-dependent patterning of anterior-posterior compartments in the Ciona central nervous system.

  2. LRRCE: a leucine-rich repeat cysteine capping motif unique to the chordate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Paul N

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small leucine-rich repeat proteins and proteoglycans (SLRPs form an important family of regulatory molecules that participate in many essential functions. They typically control the correct assembly of collagen fibrils, regulate mineral deposition in bone, and modulate the activity of potent cellular growth factors through many signalling cascades. SLRPs belong to the group of extracellular leucine-rich repeat proteins that are flanked at both ends by disulphide-bonded caps that protect the hydrophobic core of the terminal repeats. A capping motif specific to SLRPs has been recently described in the crystal structures of the core proteins of decorin and biglycan. This motif, designated as LRRCE, differs in both sequence and structure from other, more widespread leucine-rich capping motifs. To investigate if the LRRCE motif is a common structural feature found in other leucine-rich repeat proteins, we have defined characteristic sequence patterns and used them in genome-wide searches. Results The LRRCE motif is a structural element exclusive to the main group of SLRPs. It appears to have evolved during early chordate evolution and is not found in protein sequences from non-chordate genomes. Our search has expanded the family of SLRPs to include new predicted protein sequences, mainly in fishes but with intriguing putative orthologs in mammals. The chromosomal locations of the newly predicted SLRP genes would support the large-scale genome or gene duplications that are thought to have occurred during vertebrate evolution. From this expanded list we describe a new class of SLRP sequences that could be representative of an ancestral SLRP gene. Conclusion Given its exclusivity the LRRCE motif is a useful annotation tool for the identification and classification of new SLRP sequences in genome databases. The expanded list of members of the SLRP family offers interesting insights into early vertebrate evolution and suggests an

  3. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  4. mRNA 5′-leader trans-splicing in the chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Amanda E.; Meedel, Thomas H.; Hastings, Kenneth E.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of mRNA 5′-leader trans-splicing (SL trans-splicing) in the chordates. In the ascidian protochordate Ciona intestinalis, the mRNAs of at least seven genes undergo trans-splicing of a 16-nucleotide 5′-leader apparently derived from a 46-nucleotide RNA that shares features with previously characterized splice donor SL RNAs. SL trans-splicing was known previously to occur in several protist and metazoan phyla, however, this is the first report of SL trans-splicing within ...

  5. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  6. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    Full Text Available Paired box (PAX genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.

  7. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  8. Ontology for the asexual development and anatomy of the colonial chordate Botryllus schlosseri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Manni

    Full Text Available Ontologies provide an important resource to integrate information. For developmental biology and comparative anatomy studies, ontologies of a species are used to formalize and annotate data that are related to anatomical structures, their lineage and timing of development. Here, we have constructed the first ontology for anatomy and asexual development (blastogenesis of a bilaterian, the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Tunicates, like Botryllus schlosseri, are non-vertebrates and the only chordate taxon species that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Their tadpole larval stage possesses structures characteristic of all chordates, i.e. a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, and gill slits. Larvae settle and metamorphose into individuals that are either solitary or colonial. The latter reproduce both sexually and asexually and these two reproductive modes lead to essentially the same adult body plan. The Botryllus schlosseri Ontology of Development and Anatomy (BODA will facilitate the comparison between both types of development. BODA uses the rules defined by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. It is based on studies that investigate the anatomy, blastogenesis and regeneration of this organism. BODA features allow the users to easily search and identify anatomical structures in the colony, to define the developmental stage, and to follow the morphogenetic events of a tissue and/or organ of interest throughout asexual development. We invite the scientific community to use this resource as a reference for the anatomy and developmental ontology of B. schlosseri and encourage recommendations for updates and improvements.

  9. The transcriptome of an amphioxus, Asymmetron lucayanum, from the Bahamas: a window into chordate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Yu, Jr-Kai; Putnam, Nicholas H; Holland, Linda Z

    2014-10-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of tunicates plus vertebrates, have been called "living fossils" due to their resemblance to fossil chordates from Cambrian strata. The genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae shares remarkable synteny with vertebrates and is free from whole-genome duplication. We performed RNA sequencing from larvae and adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, a cephalochordate distantly related to B. floridae. Comparisons of about 430 orthologous gene groups among both cephalochordates and 10 vertebrates using an echinoderm, a hemichordate, and a mollusk as outgroups showed that cephalochordates are evolving more slowly than the slowest evolving vertebrate known (the elephant shark), with A. lucayanum evolving even more slowly than B. floridae. Against this background of slow evolution, some genes, notably several involved in innate immunity, stand out as evolving relatively quickly. This may be due to the lack of an adaptive immune system and the relatively high levels of bacteria in the inshore waters cephalochordates inhabit. Molecular dating analysis including several time constraints revealed a divergence time of ∼120 Ma for A. lucayanum and B. floridae. The divisions between cephalochordates and vertebrates, and that between chordates and the hemichordate plus echinoderm clade likely occurred before the Cambrian. PMID:25240057

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the zygomaticoorbital complex: a rare location and ways of surgical repair of the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. R. Ragimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital region is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. Due to the necessity for wide radical excision of a primary tumor, there may be serious functional and cosmetic disorders that substantially affect quality of life in patients. Restoration of this region is one of the challenges of reconstructive surgery because of the specific features of the relief of bone structures. The paper describes a clinical case of the site of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital complex and a method for repairing postresectional defect and completely recovering the function of the organ of vision and aesthetic parameters of the face.

  11. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (progonoma): a case report emphasizing the computed tomography findings and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)

  12. Positioning of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary organizer through global posteriorization of the neuroectoderm mediated by Wnt8 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinn, Muriel; Lun, Klaus; Luz, Marta; Werner, Michaela; Brand, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The organizing center located at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate. Studies in several vertebrates showed that the interface between cells expressing Otx and Gbx transcription factors marks the location in the neural plate where the organizer forms, but it is unclear how this location is set up. Using mutant analyses and shield ablation experiments in zebrafish, we find that axial mesendoderm, as a candidate tissue, has only a minor role in positioning the MHB. Instead, the blastoderm margin of the gastrula embryo acts as a source of signal(s) involved in this process. We demonstrate that positioning of the MHB organizer is tightly linked to overall neuroectodermal posteriorization, and specifically depends on Wnt8 signaling emanating from lateral mesendodermal precursors. Wnt8 is required for the initial subdivision of the neuroectoderm, including onset of posterior gbx1 expression and establishment of the posterior border of otx2 expression. Cell transplantation experiments further show that Wnt8 signaling acts directly and non-cell-autonomously. Consistent with these findings, a GFP-Wnt8 fusion protein travels from donor cells through early neural plate tissue. Our findings argue that graded Wnt8 activity mediates overall neuroectodermal posteriorization and thus determines the location of the MHB organizer. PMID:15703279

  13. Protective and detrimental effects of neuroectodermal cell–derived tissue factor in mouse models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Reeves, Brandi; Sparkenbaugh, Erica M.; Russell, Janice; Soltys, Zbigniew; Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E.; Key, Nigel S.; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Granger, D. Neil; Mackman, Nigel; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Within the CNS, a dysregulated hemostatic response contributes to both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, plays an essential role in hemostasis and also contributes to thrombosis. Using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we characterized the contribution of neuroectodermal (NE) cell TF to the pathophysiology of stroke. We used mice with various levels of TF expression and found that astrocyte TF activity reduced to ~5% of WT levels was still sufficient to maintain hemostasis after hemorrhagic stroke but was also low enough to attenuate inflammation, reduce damage to the blood-brain barrier, and improve outcomes following ischemic stroke. Pharmacologic inhibition of TF during the reperfusion phase of ischemic stroke attenuated neuronal damage, improved behavioral deficit, and prevented mortality of mice. Our data demonstrate that NE cell TF limits bleeding complications associated with the transition from ischemic to hemorrhagic stroke and also contributes to the reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke. The high level of TF expression in the CNS is likely the result of selective pressure to limit intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after traumatic brain injury but, in the modern era, poses the additional risk of increased ischemia-reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the chest wall (Askin tumour)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallustio, G.; Pirronti, T.; Natale, L.; Bray, A.; Marano, P. [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Lasorella, A. [Rome Univ. (Italy). Paediatric Inst.

    1998-09-01

    Objectives. To describe the radiological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the chest wall (Askin tumour) at diagnosis and to analyse the radiological changes occurring as a consequence of treatment and during follow-up. Results. CT demostrated a solid heterogeneous chest wall mass in all children at diagnosis and six had a rib lesion. Small nodular densities in the extra-pleural fat were identified in three patients, excluded tumour infiltration of the lunge or diaphragm, which had been suspected on CT. On MR, the lesions showed high signal intensity in T1-weighted/proton-denisty images and intermediate/high signal intensity in T2-weighted images compared with muscle. Minimal chest wall involvement was demonstrated in one case by MRI. Extensive necrosis of tumour mass with pseudo-cystic appearance was documented in the five patients who underwent chemotherapy. Macroscopical complete resection was performed in five patients but there was early local recurrence after surgery in two, identified by CT in one and by MR in the other.

  15. Ex vivo organ culture of human hair follicles: a model epithelial-neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The development of hair follicle organ culture techniques is a significant milestone in cutaneous biology research. The hair follicle, or more accurately the "pilo-sebaceous unit", encapsulates all the important physiologic processes found in the human body; controlled cell growth/death, interactions between cells of different histologic type, cell differentiation and migration, and hormone responsitivity to name a few. Thus, the value of the hair follicle as a model for biological scientific research goes way beyond its scope for cutaneous biology or dermatology alone. Indeed, the recent and dramatic upturn in interest in hair follicle biology has focused principally on the pursuit of two of biology's holy grails; post-embryonic morphogenesis and control of cyclical tissue activity. The hair follicle organ culture model, pioneered by Philpott and colleagues, ushered in an exceptionally accessible way to assess how cells of epithelial (e.g., keratinocytes), mesenchymal (e.g., fibroblasts), and neuroectodermal (e.g., melanocytes) origin interact in a three-dimensional manner. Moreover, this assay system allows us to assess how various natural and pharmacologic agents affect complex tissues for growth modulation. In this article, I focus on the culture of the human hair follicle mini-organ, discussing both the practical issues involved and some possible research applications of this assay.

  16. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano, E-mail: caiazzo@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Istituto di diagnosi e cura ' Hermitage Capodimonte,' 80131 Naples (Italy); Colucci-D' Amato, Luca, E-mail: luca.colucci@unina2.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, Maria T., E-mail: maria_teresa.esposito@kcl.ac.uk [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Parisi, Silvia, E-mail: parisi@ceinge.unina.it [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Stifani, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.stifani@mcgill.ca [Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 (Canada); Ramirez, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ramirez@mssm.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Porzio, Umberto di, E-mail: diporzio@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  17. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of kidney: A rare case report with diagnostic challenge

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    Sunita Kakkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs of the kidney are quite rare and can be mistaken for a wide variety of other small round blue cell tumors which includes rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilm′s tumor, carcinoid, neuroblastoma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, lymphoma etc. Renal Ewings/PNET can occur in the age group from 4 to 61 years. Approximately, 90% of Ewing sarcoma (ES/PNET have a specific t(11;22 which results in a chimeric EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein. Immunohistochemical for the carboxy-terminus of FLI-1 is sensitive and highly specific for the diagnosis of ES/PNET. Herein, we have an interesting presentation in a 23-year-old male who came with neck pain and progressive quadriparesis and was diagnosed as a case of poorly differentiated malignant tumor with a differential of lymphoma versus metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The patient′s condition deteriorated fast and he had a rapid downhill course. The final diagnosis of Ewings/PNET was confirmed at autopsy.

  18. Advances in managing medulloblastoma and intracranial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Jenny; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma and central nervous system (CNS)-primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNETs) are a diverse group of entities which encompasses different pathological and clinical pictures. Initially divided based on histology and location, molecular insight is leading to new definitions and a change in the borders delineating these diseases, such that they become more divergent. Current treatment approaches consist of surgical resection, radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy, dependent on age. Stratification is one risk factor shown to be prognostic and is divided into high- and average-risks. Outcomes with modern treatment regimens are good, particularly in average-risk medulloblastoma patients, but the cost of cure is high, with high rates of neurocognitive, endocrine and social dysfunction. The changing biological landscape, however, may allow for clearer prediction of tumor behavior, to better identify "good" and "bad" players within these groups. Discovery of subgroups with changes in dependent molecular pathways will also lead to the development of new specific targeted therapies. Presenting exciting opportunities, these advances may transform the treatment for some patients, revolutionizing therapy in the future. Several challenges, however, are yet to be faced and caution is needed not to abandon previously defined prognostic factors on the strength of thus far retrospective evidence. We are witnessing a new era of trials with biological stratification involving multiple subgroups and treatment arms, based on specific tumor-related targets. This review discusses the changing face of medulloblastoma and CNS-PNETs and how we move molecular advances into clinical trials that benefit patients. PMID:25184046

  19. MRI Features of Intracranial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in Adults:Comparing with Histopathological Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩军; 孔祥泉; 徐海波; 徐丽莹; 刘定西

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The MRI appearances of 7 adult patients with pathologically proven intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) were retrospectively analyzed. The MRI features were compared with findings in pathology and surgery. In this group, the tumor masses were most commonly found in the semisphere of cerebrum and in the vermis of cerebellum. They were relatively large and 4 were in lobulated shape. All of them had well-defined margins. MR images showed the tumors to be mildly or obviously hypointense on Ti-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Most masses had heterogeneous appearances with some cystic and necrotic areas. Intratumoral haemorrhage and focal calcification were occasionally seen. Mostly, there was no or only mild surrounding edema. Marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in 6 cases except one. Two patients with multiple intracranial metastases were revealed on MR images. In this series, there was good correlation between MRI features and findings in pathology and surgery.These results showed that certain MRI features might suggest the diagnosis of intracranial PNET in adults. MRI is an effective technique to detect these tumors and is helpful to treatment planning and follow-up.

  20. The synapsin gene family in basal chordates: evolutionary perspectives in metazoans

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    De Bernardi Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins involved in several functions correlated with both neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. The comprehension of the basal role of the synapsin family is hampered in vertebrates by the existence of multiple synapsin genes. Therefore, studying homologous genes in basal chordates, devoid of genome duplication, could help to achieve a better understanding of the complex functions of these proteins. Results In this study we report the cloning and characterization of the Ciona intestinalis and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae synapsin transcripts and the definition of their gene structure using available C. intestinalis and B. floridae genomic sequences. We demonstrate the occurrence, in both model organisms, of a single member of the synapsin gene family. Full-length synapsin genes were identified in the recently sequenced genomes of phylogenetically diverse metazoans. Comparative genome analysis reveals extensive conservation of the SYN locus in several metazoans. Moreover, developmental expression studies underline that synapsin is a neuronal-specific marker in basal chordates and is expressed in several cell types of PNS and in many, if not all, CNS neurons. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that synapsin genes are metazoan genes present in a single copy per genome, except for vertebrates. Moreover, we hypothesize that, during the evolution of synapsin proteins, new domains are added at different stages probably to cope up with the increased complexity in the nervous system organization. Finally, we demonstrate that protochordate synapsin is restricted to the post-mitotic phase of CNS development and thereby is a good marker of postmitotic neurons.

  1. Conservation and diversification of an ancestral chordate gene regulatory network for dorsoventral patterning.

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    Iryna Kozmikova

    Full Text Available Formation of a dorsoventral axis is a key event in the early development of most animal embryos. It is well established that bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps and Wnts are key mediators of dorsoventral patterning in vertebrates. In the cephalochordate amphioxus, genes encoding Bmps and transcription factors downstream of Bmp signaling such as Vent are expressed in patterns reminiscent of those of their vertebrate orthologues. However, the key question is whether the conservation of expression patterns of network constituents implies conservation of functional network interactions, and if so, how an increased functional complexity can evolve. Using heterologous systems, namely by reporter gene assays in mammalian cell lines and by transgenesis in medaka fish, we have compared the gene regulatory network implicated in dorsoventral patterning of the basal chordate amphioxus and vertebrates. We found that Bmp but not canonical Wnt signaling regulates promoters of genes encoding homeodomain proteins AmphiVent1 and AmphiVent2. Furthermore, AmphiVent1 and AmphiVent2 promoters appear to be correctly regulated in the context of a vertebrate embryo. Finally, we show that AmphiVent1 is able to directly repress promoters of AmphiGoosecoid and AmphiChordin genes. Repression of genes encoding dorsal-specific signaling molecule Chordin and transcription factor Goosecoid by Xenopus and zebrafish Vent genes represents a key regulatory interaction during vertebrate axis formation. Our data indicate high evolutionary conservation of a core Bmp-triggered gene regulatory network for dorsoventral patterning in chordates and suggest that co-option of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway for dorsoventral patterning in vertebrates represents one of the innovations through which an increased morphological complexity of vertebrate embryo is achieved.

  2. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate

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    Okamura Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhythmic motor patterns for locomotion in vertebrates are generated in spinal cord neural networks known as spinal Central Pattern Generators (CPGs. A key element in pattern generation is the role of glycinergic synaptic transmission by interneurons that cross the cord midline and inhibit contralaterally-located excitatory neurons. The glycinergic inhibitory drive permits alternating and precisely timed motor output during locomotion such as walking or swimming. To understand better the evolution of this system we examined the physiology of the neural network controlling swimming in an invertebrate chordate relative of vertebrates, the ascidian larva Ciona intestinalis. Results A reduced preparation of the larva consisting of nerve cord and motor ganglion generates alternating swimming movements. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of glycine receptors shows that they are implicated in the control of these locomotory movements. Morphological molecular techniques and heterologous expression experiments revealed that glycine receptors are inhibitory and are present on both motoneurones and locomotory muscle while putative glycinergic interneurons were identified in the nerve cord by labeling with an anti-glycine antibody. Conclusions In Ciona intestinalis, glycine receptors, glycinergic transmission and putative glycinergic interneurons, have a key role in coordinating swimming movements through a simple CPG that is present in the motor ganglion and nerve cord. Thus, the strong association between glycine receptors and vertebrate locomotory networks may now be extended to include the phylum chordata. The results suggest that the basic network for 'spinal-like' locomotion is likely to have existed in the common ancestor of extant chordates some 650 M years ago.

  3. Cell signaling and transcription factor genes expressed during whole body regeneration in a colonial chordate

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    Rinkevich Baruch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The restoration of adults from fragments of blood vessels in botryllid ascidians (termed whole body regeneration [WBR] represents an inimitable event in the chordates, which is poorly understood on the mechanistic level. Results To elucidate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a subtracted EST library for early WBR stages was previously assembled, revealing 76 putative genes belonging to major signaling pathways, including Notch/Delta, JAK/STAT, protein kinases, nuclear receptors, Ras oncogene family members, G-Protein coupled receptor (GPCR and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling. RT-PCR on selected transcripts documented specific up-regulation in only regenerating fragments, pointing to a broad activation of these signaling pathways at onset of WBR. The followed-up expression pattern of seven representative transcripts from JAK/STAT signaling (Bl-STAT, the Ras oncogene family (Bl-Rap1A, Bl-Rab-33, the protein kinase family (Bl-Mnk, Bl-Cnot, Bl-Slit and Bl-Bax inhibitor, revealed systemic and site specific activations during WBR in a sub-population of circulatory cells. Conclusion WBR in the non-vertebrate chordate Botrylloides leachi is a multifaceted phenomenon, presided by a complex array of cell signaling and transcription factors. Above results, provide a first insight into the whole genome molecular machinery of this unique regeneration process, and reveal the broad participation of cell signaling and transcription factors in the process. While regeneration involves the participation of specific cell populations, WBR signals are systemically expressed at the organism level.

  4. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urogenital tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-cheng; SUN Ning; ZHANG Wei-ping; HUANG Cheng-ru

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of urogenital tract is a rare condition with non-specific clinical presentations,which can make it difficult to diagnose.In this study,we summarize the clinical presentation,pathological features,therapeutic strategies,and prognosis of ES/PNET.Methods Clinical information on two cases of ES/PNET in the penis and ureter was analyzed,and relevant literature was reviewed.Results ES/PNET was confirmed pathologically,immunohistochemically and via molecular biology techniques in the penis (n=1) and ureter (n=1).In one case,a tumor was found at the base of penis,which had invaded the corpus cavernosum,and resulted in a massive enlargement of the penis.This tumor was initially diagnosed as an endocrine disorder.However,a confirmed diagnosis was made 11 months later when massive metastases in both lungs were noted.A tumor biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis,and chemotherapy with a CAV (cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin+vincristine) + IE (ifosfamide+ etoposide) regimen for 9 months was prescribed.In the second case,a child was admitted due to abdominal pain and a hydroureter in the right kidney,as determined by ultrasonography.A tumor was found in the right ureter at the level of iiiac vessels.Removal of the tumor and ureteral anastomosis were performed,and chemotherapy with CAV+IE for 8 months were prescribed.Both patients are currently being followed-up closely.Conclusions ES/PNET is a highly malignant tumor and has poor prognosis.Pre-operative diagnosis of ES/PNET of urogenital tract is difficult and largely depends on pathology,immunohistochemistry,and,if applicable,molecular biology.Comprehensive therapy may include surgery,chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  5. Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the proximal humeral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Parisa; Dickman, Paul S; Seidel, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of bone is a rare childhood tumor most commonly located in the metadiaphysis. In skeletally immature patients, lesions of the epiphysis are rarely malignant, with the most common diagnosis being chondroblastoma. This article presents a case of ES/PNET of the proximal humeral epiphysis in a 12-year-old boy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of epiphyseal ES/PNET confirmed with molecular testing. Radiographs of the patient's painful shoulder showed a well-defined lytic lesion within the humeral epiphysis. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested a chondroid tumor with surrounding edema. Based on the imaging characteristics, the patient's age, and the lesion's location, a preliminary diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A trochar biopsy of the lesion demonstrated a small, round, blue cell tumor on frozen section. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining was uniformly positive in a membrane pattern for CD99, and molecular diagnostic testing demonstrated a EWSR1/FLI1 fusion transcript, confirming the pathologic diagnosis of ES/PNET. Although metadiaphyseal locations for ES/PNET are most common, this case adds to previously reported cases of epiphyseal ES/PNET, suggesting that the diagnosis be considered for pediatric epiphyseal tumors. This case also demonstrates why following rigorous oncologic treatment algorithms by obtaining a limited trochar biopsy, even in the case of a confident radiographic diagnosis, is critically important; the biopsy results can lead to a major change in treatment and avoid contamination of a larger area of soft tissue and bone. PMID:23276342

  6. A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Hasle, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET). A novel splice site mutation of the TP53-gene, likely to be associated with a nonfunctional protein, was found in the proband, his father...... and younger sister, but only the proband has so far developed malignancy. The clinical phenotype in the boy is suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, but the family does not strictly conform to the canonical definition. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the central nervous system with glial differentiation: a FISH study of an adult case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda, F; Lloreta, J; Ariza, A; Salido, M; Espinet, B; Baro, T; Garcia-Fructoso, G; Galito, E; Munne, A; Cruz Sanchez, F F; Sole, F; Serrano, S

    2007-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the central nervous system (CNS), a rare occurrence in adults, may show glial differentiation and can be misinterpreted as pure astrocytic neoplasms. Few fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have been carried out on these tumors; isochromosome 17q was found to be the major chromosomal abnormality. We present the case of an adult in which we performed a FISH study of both the glial and neuronal components. A complex array of FISH changes, not including an isochromosome 17q were identified.

  8. A new vetulicolian from Australia and its bearing on the chordate affinities of an enigmatic Cambrian group

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bellido, Diego C.; Lee, Michael S. Y.; Gregory D. Edgecombe; Jago, James B; Gehling, James G; Paterson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Background Vetulicolians are one of the most problematic and controversial Cambrian fossil groups, having been considered as arthropods, chordates, kinorhynchs, or their own phylum. Mounting evidence suggests that vetulicolians are deuterostomes, but affinities to crown-group phyla are unresolved. Results A new vetulicolian from the Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte, South Australia, Nesonektris aldridgei gen. et sp. nov., preserves an axial, rod-like structure in the posterior body region ...

  9. DoOP: Databases of Orthologous Promoters, collections of clusters of orthologous upstream sequences from chordates and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Barta, Endre; Sebestyén, Endre; Pálfy, Tamás B.; Tóth, Gábor; Ortutay, Csaba P.; Patthy, László

    2004-01-01

    DoOP (http://doop.abc.hu/) is a database of eukaryotic promoter sequences (upstream regions) aiming to facilitate the recognition of regulatory sites conserved between species. The annotated first exons of human and Arabidopsis thaliana genes were used as queries in BLAST searches to collect the most closely related orthologous first exon sequences from Chordata and Viridiplantae species. Up to 3000 bp DNA segments upstream from these first exons constitute the clusters in the chordate and pl...

  10. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

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    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  11. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  12. Molecular signatures that are distinctive characteristics of the vertebrates and chordates and supporting a grouping of vertebrates with the tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the phylum Chordata and the subphylum Vertebrata are presently distinguished solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. The relationship of the vertebrates to the two non-vertebrate chordate subphyla is also a subject of debate. Analyses of protein sequences have identified multiple conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are specific for Chordata or for Vertebrata. Five CSIs in 4 important proteins are specific for the Vertebrata, whereas two other CSIs are uniquely found in all sequenced chordate species including Ciona intestinalis and Oikapleura dioica (Tunicates) as well as Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordates). The shared presence of these molecular signatures by all vertebrates/chordate species, but in no other animal taxa, strongly indicates that the genetic changes represented by the identified CSIs diagnose monophyletic groups. Two other discovered CSIs are uniquely shared by different vertebrate species and by either one (Ciona intestinalis) or both tunicate (Ciona and Oikapleura) species, but they are not found in Branchiostoma or other animal species. Specific presence of these CSIs in different vertebrates and either one or both tunicate species provides strong independent evidence that the vertebrate species are more closely related to the urochordates (tunicates) than to the cephalochordates. PMID:26419477

  13. Ion channel clustering at the axon initial segment and node of Ranvier evolved sequentially in early chordates.

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    Alexis S Hill

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many mammalian neurons, dense clusters of ion channels at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier underlie action potential generation and rapid conduction. Axonal clustering of mammalian voltage-gated sodium and KCNQ (Kv7 potassium channels is based on linkage to the actin-spectrin cytoskeleton, which is mediated by the adaptor protein ankyrin-G. We identified key steps in the evolution of this axonal channel clustering. The anchor motif for sodium channel clustering evolved early in the chordate lineage before the divergence of the wormlike cephalochordate, amphioxus. Axons of the lamprey, a very primitive vertebrate, exhibited some invertebrate features (lack of myelin, use of giant diameter to hasten conduction, but possessed narrow initial segments bearing sodium channel clusters like in more recently evolved vertebrates. The KCNQ potassium channel anchor motif evolved after the divergence of lampreys from other vertebrates, in a common ancestor of shark and humans. Thus, clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels was a pivotal early innovation of the chordates. Sodium channel clusters at the axon initial segment serving the generation of action potentials evolved long before the node of Ranvier. KCNQ channels acquired anchors allowing their integration into pre-existing sodium channel complexes at about the same time that ancient vertebrates acquired myelin, saltatory conduction, and hinged jaws. The early chordate refinements in action potential mechanisms we have elucidated appear essential to the complex neural signaling, active behavior, and evolutionary success of vertebrates.

  14. Expression of anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Veronica F; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Richards, Gemma S; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    We report the spatial expression patterns of five anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod mollusc Haliotis asinina, an unsegmented spiralian lophotrochozoan. Molecular alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes are homologues of Drosophila HOM-C genes labial, proboscipedia, zen, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced; the abalone genes are named Has-Hox1, -Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and -Hox5. Has-Hox transcripts are first detected in the free-swimming trochophore larval stage and restricted to the posttrochal ectoderm. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, and -Hox4 are expressed in bilaterally symmetrical and overlapping patterns in presumptive neuroectodermal cells on the ventral side of the trochophore. Has-Hox1 expression is restricted to a ring of cells on the dorsoposterior surface, corresponding to the outer mantle edge where new larval shell is being synthesized. There appears to be little change in the expression domains of these Has-Hox genes in pre- and posttorsional veliger larvae, with expression maintained in ectodermal and neuroectodermal tissues. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and-Hox5 appear to be expressed in a colinear manner in the ganglia and connectives in the twisted nervous system. This pattern is not evident in older larvae. Has-Hox1 and-Hox4 are expressed in the margin of the mantle in the posttorsional veliger, suggesting that Hox genes play a role in gastropod shell formation.

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of lungs in adults: a rare series of three cases treated with upfront chemo-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam; Viswanath, Sundaram; Dutta, Vibha

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are highly malignant small round blue cell tumors of neuroectodermal origin belonging to either central nervous system, autonomic nervous system or peripheral Askin’s or Ewing’s group of neoplasms. The latter generally arise in soft tissues of trunk or axial skeleton in children and early adolescents. However in adults this entity is very uncommon. Of all peripheral entities, primary PNET of lungs without chest wall or pleural involvement in adults are extremely rare and have been scarcely reported in world literature as single case reports. We hereby report a series of three interesting cases of adult PNET of lung diagnosed and treated in our institute. The chief presenting complaints of these patients were of chest pain, cough and dyspnea. The cases were diagnosed on the basis of imaging and biopsy which confirmed these lesions to be of PNET histology, confirmed by immunopositivity for neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD 99 and vimentin on immunohistochemistry (IHC). All three were deemed unresectable in view of infiltration of nearby vital organs and high chances of morbidity. They were treated with upfront chemotherapy followed by conformal radiotherapy (RT) to the residual disease to which they showed significant response both clinically and radiologically. Presently these patients are on regular follow-up for over 6 months without any evidence of progression of disease or distant metastasis.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory receptor genes in chordates: interaction between environments and genomic contents

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    Niimura Yoshihito

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Olfaction is essential for the survival of animals. Versatile odour molecules in the environment are received by olfactory receptors (ORs, which form the largest multigene family in vertebrates. Identification of the entire repertories of OR genes using bioinformatics methods from the whole-genome sequences of diverse organisms revealed that the numbers of OR genes vary enormously, ranging from ~1,200 in rats and ~400 in humans to ~150 in zebrafish and ~15 in pufferfish. Most species have a considerable fraction of pseudogenes. Extensive phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the numbers of gene gains and losses are extremely large in the OR gene family, which is a striking example of the birth-and-death evolution. It appears that OR gene repertoires change dynamically, depending on each organism's living environment. For example, higher primates equipped with a well-developed vision system have lost a large number of OR genes. Moreover, two groups of OR genes for detecting airborne odorants greatly expanded after the time of terrestrial adaption in the tetrapod lineage, whereas fishes retain diverse repertoires of genes that were present in aquatic ancestral species. The origin of vertebrate OR genes can be traced back to the common ancestor of all chordate species, but insects, nematodes and echinoderms utilise distinctive families of chemoreceptors, suggesting that chemoreceptor genes have evolved many times independently in animal evolution.

  17. Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc…, Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs, and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates. Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimously accepted. Nonetheless, the position of urochordates in regard with vertebrates is still the subject of debate, and has even been suggested by some authors to be a separate phylum from cephalochordates and vertebrates. It was also the case for agnathans species –myxines and hagfish– for which phylogenetic evidence was recently given for a controversial monophyly. This raises the following question: which one of the cephalochordata or urochordata is the sister group of vertebrates and what are their relationships? In the present work, we analyzed 82 protein families presenting homologs between urochordata and other deuterostomes and focused on two points: 1 testing accurately the position of urochordata and cephalochordata phyla in regard with vertebrates as well as chordates monophyly, 2 performing an estimation of the rate of gene loss in the Ciona intestinalis genome. We showed that the urochordate phyla is the vertebrate sister group and that gene loss played a major role in structuring the urochordate genome.

  18. Revaluation of deuterostome phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among chordate subphyla using mitogenome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Zhang, Juyong; Mukwaya, Emmanuel; Wang, Yiquan

    2009-03-01

    The traditional knowledge in textbooks indicated that cephalochordates were the closest relatives to vertebrates among all extant organisms. However, this opinion was challenged by several recent phylogenetic studies using hundreds of nuclear genes. The researchers suggested that urochordates, but not cephalochordates, should be the closest living relatives to vertebrates. In the present study, by using data generated from hundreds of mtDNA sequences, we revalue the deuterostome phylogeny in terms of whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes). Our results firmly demonstrate that each of extant deuterostome phyla and chordate subphyla is monophyletic. But the results present several alternative phylogenetic trees depending on different sequence datasets used in the analysis. Although no clear phylogenetic relationships are obtained, those trees indicate that the ancient common ancestor diversified rapidly soon after their appearance in the early Cambrian and generated all major deuterostome lineages during a short historical period, which is consistent with "Cambrian explosion" revealed by paleontologists. It was the 520-million-year's evolution that obscured the phylogenetic relationships of extant deuterostomes. Thus, we conclude that an integrative analysis approach rather than simply using more DNA sequences should be employed to address the distant evolutionary relationship. PMID:19302971

  19. The usefulness of I-131 MIBG scintigraphy in assessing the staging of neuroectodermal tumors in children - Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Neuroendodermal tumors include pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, medullary thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma. These malignant tumors derive from the primitive neural crest, which develops to sympathic nervous system. The tumors consist of cells that are capable of incorporating the amine precursors such as I-131 MIBG. The most common malignant tumor in childhood is neuroblastoma. The tested group included patients with neuroblastoma and one with pheochromocytoma treated in the Department of Oncology at the Paediatric University Hospital in Bialystok. There were 8 patients between the ages of 2 and 13. They have all undergone standard whole body scanning with a tomographic Nucline X-Ring camera made by Mediso, fitted with high-energy all purpose parallel hole collimator, a scan speed 5cm/ min and static images of 250,000 counts or 10 min per image. The study was performed 24-48 h after I-131 MIBG injection of 35 MBq activity. The results were obtained by antero-posterior and posterio-anterior projections (a whole body scan) and, if necessary, additional static images of chest and abdomen, skull, pelvis, and lower limbs. Clinical Characteristics of the Group: M.E. 12-year-old child with a right suprarenal tumor with morrow metastases. HP-neuroblastoma. The child was treated with a preoperative chemotherapy, operated and given postoperative chemotherapy (palliative therapy). The MIBG scintigraphy showed hypermetabolic focus in the pelvis and in the left vertex bone. Clinical test pointed to the progress of the disease. M.J. 6-year-old child with infiltrative retroperitoneal on both sides of celiac trunk with a metastases to mediastinum and bone marrow. HP-neuroblastoma. The first MIBG scintigraphy performed after Tsishidy operative procedure was negative. The second MIBG scintigraphy, one year later showed metastases to thigh bone, spine, and sacroiliac joint. Clinically proven progress of the disease. G.G. 2-year-old child with facial skeleton tumor and

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  1. The Simple Chordate Ciona intestinalis Has a Reduced Complement of Genes Associated with Fanconi Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Edward C.; Azzinaro, Paul A.; Vierra, David A.; Howlett, Niall G.; Irvine, Steven Q.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human genetic disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and increased cancer risk. FA is associated with mutation in one of 24 genes. The protein products of these genes function cooperatively in the FA pathway to orchestrate the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links. Few model organisms exist for the study of FA. Seeking a model organism with a simpler version of the FA pathway, we searched the genome of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis for homologs of the human FA-associated proteins. BLAST searches, sequence alignments, hydropathy comparisons, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, and structural modeling were used to infer the likelihood of homology between C. intestinalis and human FA proteins. Our analysis indicates that C. intestinalis indeed has a simpler and potentially functional FA pathway. The C. intestinalis genome was searched for candidates for homology to 24 human FA and FA-associated proteins. Support was found for the existence of homologs for 13 of these 24 human genes in C. intestinalis. Members of each of the three commonly recognized FA gene functional groups were found. In group I, we identified homologs of FANCE, FANCL, FANCM, and UBE2T/FANCT. Both members of group II, FANCD2 and FANCI, have homologs in C. intestinalis. In group III, we found evidence for homologs of FANCJ, FANCO, FANCQ/ERCC4, FANCR/RAD51, and FANCS/BRCA1, as well as the FA-associated proteins ERCC1 and FAN1. Evidence was very weak for the existence of homologs in C. intestinalis for any other recognized FA genes. This work supports the notion that C. intestinalis, as a close relative of vertebrates, but having a much reduced complement of FA genes, offers a means of studying the function of certain FA proteins in a simpler pathway than that of vertebrate cells. PMID:27279728

  2. Lifespan extension in a semelparous chordate occurs via developmental growth arrest just prior to meiotic entry.

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    Gunasekaran Subramaniam

    Full Text Available It is proposed that the ageing process is linked to signaling from the germline such that the rate of ageing can be adjusted to the state of the reproductive system, allowing these two processes to co-evolve. Mechanistic insight into this link has been primarily derived from iteroparous reproductive models, the nematode C. elegans, and the arthropod Drosophila. Here, we examined to what extent these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in a semelparous chordate, Oikopleura dioica, where we identify a developmental growth arrest (GA in response to crowded, diet-restricted conditions, which can extend its lifespan at least three-fold. Under nutritional stress, the iteroparative models sacrifice germ cells that have entered meiosis, while maintaining a reduced pool of active germline stem cells (GSCs. In contrast, O. dioica only entered GA prior to meiotic entry. Stress conditions encountered after this point led to maturation in a normal time frame but with reduced reproductive output. During GA, TOR signaling was inhibited, whereas MAPK, ERK1/2 and p38 pathways were activated, and under such conditions, activation of these pathways was shown to be critical for survival. Direct inhibition of TOR signaling alone was sufficient to prevent meiotic entry and germline differentiation. This inhibition activated the p38 pathway, but did not activate the ERK1/2 pathway. Thus, the link between reproductive status and lifespan extension in response to nutrient-limited conditions is interpreted in a significantly different manner in these iteroparative versus semelparous models. In the latter case, meiotic entry is a definitive signal that lifespan extension can no longer occur, whereas in the former, meiotic entry is not a unique chronological event, and can be largely erased during lifespan extension in response to nutrient stress, and reactivated from a pool of maintained GSCs when conditions improve.

  3. The candidate histocompatibility locus of a Basal chordate encodes two highly polymorphic proteins.

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    Marie L Nydam

    Full Text Available The basal chordate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes a natural transplantation reaction governed by a single, highly polymorphic locus called the fuhc. Our initial characterization of this locus suggested it encoded a single gene alternatively spliced into two transcripts: a 555 amino acid-secreted form containing the first half of the gene, and a full-length, 1008 amino acid transmembrane form, with polymorphisms throughout the ectodomain determining outcome. We have now found that the locus encodes two highly polymorphic genes which are separated by a 227 bp intergenic region: first, the secreted form as previously described, and a second gene encoding a 531 amino acid membrane-bound gene containing three extracellular immunoglobulin domains. While northern blotting revealed only these two mRNAs, both PCR and mRNA-seq detect a single capped and polyadenylated transcript that encodes processed forms of both genes linked by the intergenic region, as well as other transcripts in which exons of the two genes are spliced together. These results might suggest that the two genes are expressed as an operon, during which both genes are co-transcribed and then trans-spliced into two separate messages. This type of transcriptional regulation has been described in tunicates previously; however, the membrane-bound gene does not encode a typical Splice Leader (SL sequence at the 5' terminus that usually accompanies trans-splicing. Thus, the presence of stable transcripts encoding both genes may suggest a novel mechanism of regulation, or conversely may be rare but stable transcripts in which the two mRNAs are linked due to a small amount of read-through by RNA polymerase. Both genes are highly polymorphic and co-expressed on tissues involved in histocompatibility. In addition, polymorphisms on both genes correlate with outcome, although we have found a case in which it appears that the secreted form may be major allorecognition determinant.

  4. Evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF in chordates: insights from novel amphioxus RFamide peptides.

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    Tomohiro Osugi

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a newly identified hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits pituitary hormone secretion in vertebrates. GnIH has an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminal in representative species of gnathostomes. On the other hand, neuropeptide FF (NPFF, a neuropeptide characterized as a pain-modulatory neuropeptide, in vertebrates has a PQRFamide motif similar to the C-terminal of GnIH, suggesting that GnIH and NPFF have diverged from a common ancestor. Because GnIH and NPFF belong to the RFamide peptide family in vertebrates, protochordate RFamide peptides may provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of GnIH and NPFF. In this study, we identified a novel gene encoding RFamide peptides and two genes of their putative receptors in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis indicated that these genes are closely related to the genes of GnIH and NPFF and their receptors of vertebrates. We further identified mature RFamide peptides and their receptors in protochordates. The identified amphioxus RFamide peptides inhibited forskolin induced cAMP signaling in the COS-7 cells with one of the identified amphioxus RFamide peptide receptors expressed. These results indicate that the identified protochordate RFamide peptide gene is a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes, suggesting that the origin of GnIH and NPFF may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH gene and NPFF gene may have diverged by whole-genome duplication in the course of vertebrate evolution.

  5. Pax258 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

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    Peter eFabian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7 and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity. In the current study, a thorough analysis of Pax2/5/8 splicing events from cephalochordate and vertebrates was performed. We focused more on Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 splicing events in which the paired domain is involved. Three new splicing events were identified in Oryzias latipes, one of which seems to be conserved in Acanthomorphata. Using representatives from deuterostome and protostome phyla, a comparative analysis of the Pax6 exon-intron structure of the paired domain was performed, during an attempt to estimate the time of appearance of the Pax6(5a mRNA isoform. As shown in our analysis, this splicing event is absent in basal chordates and is characteristic of Gnathostomata. Moreover, expression pattern of alternative spliced variants was compared between basal chordates and fish species. In summary, our data indicate expansion of alternative mRNA variants in paired box region of Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes during the course of vertebrate evolution.

  6. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

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    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  7. Testing putative hemichordate homologues of the chordate dorsal nervous system and endostyle: expression of NK2.1 (TTF-1) in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata, Ptychoderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Carter M.; Moy, Vanessa N.; Peterson, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic investigations have confirmed that hemichordates and echinoderms are sister taxa. However, hemichordates share several cardinal characterstics with chordates and are thus an important taxon for testing hypotheses of homology between key chordate characters and their putative hemichordate antecedents. The chordate dorsal nervous system (DNS) and endostyle are intriguing characters because both hemichordate larval and adult structures have been hypothesized as homologues. This study attempts to test these purported homologies through examination of the expression pattem of a Ptychodera flava NK2 gene, PfNK2.1, because this gene is expressed both in the DNS and endostyle/thyroid in a wide range of chordate taxa. We found that PfNK2.1 is expressed in both neuronal and pharyngeal structures, but its expression pattem is broken up into distinct embryonic and juvenile phases. During embryogenesis, PfNK2.1 is expressed in the apical ectoderm, with transcripts later detected in presumable neuronal structures, including the apical organ and ciliated feeding band. In the developing juvenile we detected PfNK2.1 signal throughout the pharynx, including the stomochord, and later in the hindgut. We conclude that the similar utilization of NK2.1 in apical organ development and chordate DNS is probably due to a more general role for NK2.1 in neurogenesis and that hemichordates do not possess a homologue of the chordate DNS. In addition, we conclude that P. flava most likely does not possess a true endostyle; rather during the evolution of the endostyle NK2.1 was recruited from its more general role in pharynx development.

  8. A rare case of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor developing in maxillary sinus of an old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Barpande, Chitrangi

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) family of tumors is an uncommon group of malignant neoplasms that may present in both skeletal and extraskeletal sites. PNET outside the central nervous system is called peripheral PNET (pPNET) developing from migrating embryonal cells of the neural crest. Very few cases of pPNET of the maxilla are reported in English literature. These tumors may be difficult to diagnose due to their primitive morphology. These tumors occur predominantly in infancy or early childhood. The occurrence of extraskeletal ES/PNET in the maxillary sinus in an old age is very rare. We report a case of extraskeletal ES/PNET developing in maxillary sinus in a 60-year-old woman. The ES/PNET should be included in the differential diagnosis of a small round cell tumor and immunohistochemical analysis with a panel of immunomarkers should be done for correct diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:27601837

  9. Huge peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the small bowel mesentery at nonage: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Ge, Chun-Lin; Long, Jin; Du, Rui-Xia; Guo, Ke-Jian

    2016-09-16

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (E-EWS/pPNET) is a rare aggressive malignant small round cell tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who suffered from acute abdominal pain accompanied by hematemesis and melena, and was eventually diagnosed with E-EWS/pPNET. To date, there have been only five reported cases of E-EWS/pPNET of the small bowel including the patient in this report. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a pPNET of the small bowel mesentery at nonage. All these have made this report rare and significant. PMID:27672649

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the maxillary sinus in an elderly male: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Saiquat [Dept. of Dental Public Health, Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which belongs to the Ewing's sarcoma (ES) family of tumors, is mainly seen in children and young adults. PNETs are extremely rare in the maxilla. Here, we report a case of PNET of the left maxillary sinus in an elderly male. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a slightly enhanced solid mass occupying the left maxillary sinus and infiltrating into the retroantral space. A partial maxillectomy was performed. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up computed tomography (CT) and MRI revealed a nodal metastasis in the submandibular space. Neck dissection was performed. However, the patient died 10 months after the second surgery because of distant metastasis to the liver. MRI and CT were particularly useful in detecting the extent of the tumor, recurrence, and metastasis. Further, a literature review of the previously reported PNET cases of the maxilla was carried out. In this paper, we also discuss the current approach for the diagnosis and management of these tumors.

  11. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Suppression for Protection Against Hypothyroidism Due to Craniospinal Irradiation for Childhood Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect of TSH suppression during CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patients and Methods: From Jan 1998 to Feb 2001, a total of 37 euthyroid children scheduled for CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor underwent thyroid ultrasound and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH evaluation at the beginning and end of CSI. From 14 days before and up to the end of CSI, patients were administered L-thyroxine at suppressive doses; every 3 days, TSH suppression was checked to ensure a value <0.3 μM/ml. During follow-up, blood tests and ultrasound were repeated after 1 year; primary hypothyroidism was considered an increased TSH level greater than normal range. CSI was done using a hyperfractionated accelerated technique with total doses ranging from 20.8-39 Gy; models were used to evaluate doses received by the thyroid bed. Results: Of 37 patients, 25 were alive a median 7 years after CSI. They were well matched for all clinical features, except that eight children underwent adequate TSH suppression during CSI, whereas 17 did not. Hypothyroidism-free survival rates were 70% for the 'adequately TSH-suppressed' group and 20% for the 'inadequately TSH-suppressed' group (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression with L-thyroxine had a protective effect on thyroid function at long-term follow-up. This is the first demonstration that transient endocrine suppression of thyroid activity may protect against radiation-induced functional damage

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the tenascin gene family: evidence of origin early in the chordate lineage

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    Tucker RP

    2006-08-01

    suggests that tenascins may be specific to chordates. Later genomic duplication events led to the appearance of four family members in vertebrates: tenascin-C, tenascin-R, tenascin-W and tenascin-X.

  13. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  14. Wnt-1-inducing factor-1: a novel G/C box-binding transcription factor regulating the expression of Wnt-1 during neuroectodermal differentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    St-Arnaud, R.; Moir, J M

    1993-01-01

    The Wnt-1 proto-oncogene is essential for proper development of the midbrain and is expressed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner during central nervous system development in mice. In vitro, the gene is specifically transcribed during the retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuroectodermal differentiation of the P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells. The P19 cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and fibroblast-like cells when treated with RA. Treatment of the cells with dimethyl su...

  15. Detection of N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Neuroectodermal Tumors by Immunohistochemistry: An Attractive Vaccine Target for Aggressive Pediatric Cancer

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    Alejandra M. Scursoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-glycolylated ganglioside NeuGc-GM3 has been described in solid tumors such as breast carcinoma, nonsmall cell lung cancer, and melanoma, but is usually not detected in normal human cells. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of NeuGc-GM3 in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-seven archival cases of neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT were analyzed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were cut into 5 μm sections. The monoclonal antibody 14F7, a mouse IgG1 that specifically recognizes NeuGc-GM3, and a peroxidase-labeled polymer conjugated to secondary antibodies were used. Presence of NeuGc-GM3 was evident in 23 of 27 cases (85%, with an average of about 70% of positive tumors cells. Immunoreactivity was moderate to intense in most tumors, showing a diffuse cytoplasmic and membranous staining, although cases of ESFT demonstrated a fine granular cytoplasmic pattern. No significant differences were observed between neuroblastoma with and without NMYC oncogene amplification, suggesting that expression of NeuGc-GM3 is preserved in more aggressive cancers. Until now, the expression of N-glycolylated gangliosides in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors has not been investigated. The present study evidenced the expression of NeuGc-GM3 in a high proportion of neuroectodermal tumors, suggesting its potential utility as a specific target of immunotherapy.

  16. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53−/− NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53−/− NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53−/− NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53−/− NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53−/− NE4C cells. • Finding JMJD2

  17. Suv4-20h histone methyltransferases promote neuroectodermal differentiation by silencing the pluripotency-associated Oct-25 gene.

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    Dario Nicetto

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs of histones exert fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. During development, groups of PTMs are constrained by unknown mechanisms into combinatorial patterns, which facilitate transitions from uncommitted embryonic cells into differentiated somatic cell lineages. Repressive histone modifications such as H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 have been investigated in detail, but the role of H4K20me3 in development is currently unknown. Here we show that Xenopus laevis Suv4-20h1 and h2 histone methyltransferases (HMTases are essential for induction and differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the two HMTases leads to a selective and specific downregulation of genes controlling neural induction, thereby effectively blocking differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Global transcriptome analysis supports the notion that these effects arise from the transcriptional deregulation of specific genes rather than widespread, pleiotropic effects. Interestingly, morphant embryos fail to repress the Oct4-related Xenopus gene Oct-25. We validate Oct-25 as a direct target of xSu4-20h enzyme mediated gene repression, showing by chromatin immunoprecipitaton that it is decorated with the H4K20me3 mark downstream of the promoter in normal, but not in double-morphant, embryos. Since knockdown of Oct-25 protein significantly rescues the neural differentiation defect in xSuv4-20h double-morphant embryos, we conclude that the epistatic relationship between Suv4-20h enzymes and Oct-25 controls the transit from pluripotent to differentiation-competent neural cells. Consistent with these results in Xenopus, murine Suv4-20h1/h2 double-knockout embryonic stem (DKO ES cells exhibit increased Oct4 protein levels before and during EB formation, and reveal a compromised and biased capacity for in vitro differentiation, when compared to normal ES cells. Together, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism, conserved

  18. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitabh, E-mail: amitabhdas.kn@gmail.com [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jin Choul, E-mail: jincchai@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyoung Hwa, E-mail: khjung2@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Das, Nando Dulal, E-mail: nando.hu@gmail.com [Clinical Research Centre, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Chul, E-mail: gujiju11@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seek, E-mail: yslee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyemyung, E-mail: hseo@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygchai@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing′s sarcoma in adult uro-oncology: A case series from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Mohsin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing′s sarcoma (PNET/EWS is primarily a tumor of soft tissues and bones. Primary localization of PNET/EWS in genitourinary organs is rare. No data on this localization of PNET/EWS are available in literature from Pakistan. We searched our adult uro-oncology records from 1994 till date and identified all cases of adult genitourinary and adrenal PNET/EWS diagnosed on histology and immunohistochemistry. Their case records were reviewed to obtain data on demographics, presentation, pathologic features, management and outcome. Six cases were found; all were young and had aggressive disease at presentation. Four had renal PNET/EWS. One case each of prostate and adrenal PNET/EWS was seen. Surgery and chemotherapy formed the mainstay of management. Three patients (50% died during treatment, two were lost to follow-up and one case with renal PNET/EWS showed good initial response to chemotherapy but was later on lost to follow-up. In conclusion, PNET/EWS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of genitourinary malignant tumors in young patients. These tumors are aggressive with poor outcome.

  20. Compartmentalization of the precheliceral neuroectoderm in the spider Cupiennius salei: development of the arcuate body, optic ganglia, and mushroom body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeffinger, Carola; Hartenstein, Volker; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2010-07-01

    Similarly to vertebrates, arthropod brains are compartmentalized into centers with specific neurological functions such as cognition, behavior, and memory. The centers can be further subdivided into smaller functional units. This raises the question of how these compartments are formed during development and how they are integrated into brain centers. We show here for the first time how the precheliceral neuroectoderm of the spider Cupiennius salei is compartmentalized to form the distinct brain centers of the visual system: the optic ganglia, the mushroom bodies, and the arcuate body. The areas of the visual brain centers are defined by the formation of grooves and vesicles and express the proneural gene CsASH1, followed by expression of the neural differentiation marker Prospero. Furthermore, the transcription factor dachshund, which is strongly enriched in the mushroom bodies and the outer optic ganglion of Drosophila, is expressed in the optic anlagen and the mushroom bodies of the spider. The developing brain centers are further subdivided into single neural precursor groups, which become incorporated into the grooves and vesicles but remain distinguishable throughout development, suggesting that they encode spatial information for neural subtype identity. Several molecular and morphological aspects of the development of the optic ganglia and the mushroom bodies are similar in the spider and in insects. Furthermore, we show that the primary engrailed head spot contributes neurons to the optic ganglia of the median eyes, whereas the secondary head spot, which has been associated with the optic ganglia in insects and crustaceans, is absent. PMID:20503430

  1. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) in children: A prospective experience with adjuvant intensive chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) are rare and have a grim prognosis, frequently taking an aggressive course with local relapse and metastatic spread. We report the results of a mono-institutional therapeutic trial. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 15 consecutive patients to preradiation chemotherapy (CT) consisting of high-dose methotrexate, high-dose etoposide, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and high-dose carboplatin, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) plus focal boost, maintenance with vincristine/lomustine or consolidation with high-dose thiotepa followed by autologous stem-cell rescue. Results: Median age was 9 years; 7 were male, 8 female. Site of disease was pineal in 3, elsewhere in 12. Six patients were had no evidence of disease after surgery (NED). Of those with evidence of disease after surgery (ED), 2 had central nervous system spread. Of the 9 ED patients, 2 had complete response (CR) and 2 partial response (PR) after CT, 4 stable disease, and 1 progressive disease. Of the 7 ED patients before radiotherapy, 1 had CR, 4 PR, and 2 minor response, thus obtaining a 44% CR + PR after CT and 71% after HART. Because of rapid progression in 2 of the first 5 patients, high-dose thiotepa was systematically adopted after HART in the subsequent 10 patients. Six of 15 patients relapsed (4 locally, 1 locally with dissemination, 1 with dissemination) a mean of 6 months after starting CT, 2 developed second tumors; 5 of 6 relapsers died at a median of 13 months. Three-year progression-free survival, event-free survival, and overall survival were 54%, 34%, and 61%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated accelerated RT was the main tool in obtaining responses in S-PNET; introducing the myeloablative phase improved the prognosis (3/10 vs. 3/5 relapses), though the outcome remained unsatisfactory despite the adoption of this intensive treatment

  3. Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma and Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: Outcomes for Very Young Children Treated With Upfront Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Rachel B., E-mail: rbjimenez@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fullerton, Barbara C.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To report the early outcomes for very young children with medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (SPNET) treated with upfront chemotherapy followed by 3-dimensional proton radiation therapy (3D-CPT). Methods and Materials: All patients aged <60 months with medulloblastoma or SPNET treated with chemotherapy before 3D-CPT from 2002 to 2010 at our institution were included. All patients underwent maximal surgical resection, chemotherapy, and adjuvant 3D-CPT with either craniospinal irradiation followed by involved-field radiation therapy or involved-field radiation therapy alone. Results: Fifteen patients (median age at diagnosis, 35 months) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and 3D-CPT. Twelve of 15 patients had medulloblastoma; 3 of 15 patients had SPNET. Median time from surgery to initiation of radiation was 219 days. Median craniospinal irradiation dose was 21.6 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness); median boost dose was 54.0 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness). At a median of 39 months from completion of radiation, 1 of 15 was deceased after a local failure, 1 of 15 had died from a non-disease-related cause, and the remaining 13 of 15 patients were alive without evidence of disease recurrence. Ototoxicity and endocrinopathies were the most common long-term toxicities, with 2 of 15 children requiring hearing aids and 3 of 15 requiring exogenous hormones. Conclusions: Proton radiation after chemotherapy resulted in good disease outcomes for a small cohort of very young patients with medulloblastoma and SPNET. Longer follow-up and larger numbers of patients are needed to assess long-term outcomes and late toxicity.

  4. Neuro image in neuroectodermal disorders. Part III: angiomatous and melanotic syndromes. Neuroimagen en los transtornos neuroectodermicos. Parte III: sindromes angiomatosos y melanoticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Menor, F.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, M.J.; Vilar, J. (Hospital La Fe Valencia. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive patients affected by these rare angiomatous melanotic neuroectodermal disorders are assessed. The diagnostics value and clinical correlation of neuroimaging methods, both CT and MR, are established. Patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome (15 cases), Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (1 case), Rendu-Osler disease (3 cases), multiple hemangiomatosis (4 cases), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (3 cases), neuro cutaneous melanosis (1 case) and hypo melanosis of Ito (1 case) are included. In vascular phacomatosis, neuroimaging methods usually contribute to the positive diagnosis. In melanotic disorders, the neuroradiological findings most often are unspecific and do not contribute to the diagnosis of the disease.

  5. Derrame pleural incomum: metástase pleuropulmonar de tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo Uncommon pleural effusion: pleuropulmonary metastasis from primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Antonangelo; Adriana Gonçalves Rosa; Aline Pivetta Corá; Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio; Luís César Moreira; Francisco Vargas Suso

    2009-01-01

    O tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo é uma neoplasia com diferenciação neural de comportamento invasivo que origina metástases para diversos órgãos. Relatamos um caso de tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo primário em axila com metástases para pulmão, pleura, osso, músculo ilíaco e medula óssea. Enfatizamos o achado incomum da análise citológica do líquido pleural.Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is an invasive neoplasm with neuronal differentiation, which frequently results in metastasis in variou...

  6. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  7. CiMT-1, an unusual chordate metallothionein gene in Ciona intestinalis genome: structure and expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Nicola; Boldrin, Francesco; Ballarin, Loriano; Piccinni, Ester

    2011-02-01

    The present article reports on the characterization of the urochordate metallothionein (MT) gene, CiMT-1, from the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The predicted protein is shorter than other known deuterostome MTs, having only 39 amino acids. The gene has the same tripartite structure as vertebrate MTs, with some features resembling those of echinoderm MTs. The promoter region shows the canonical cis-acting elements recognized by transcription factors that respond to metal, ROS, and cytokines. Unusual sequences, described in fish and echinoderms, are also present. In situ hybridization suggests that only a population of hemocytes involved in immune responses, i.e. granular amebocytes, express CiMT-1 mRNA. These observations support the idea that urochordates perform detoxification through hemocytes, and that MTs may play important roles in inflammatory humoral responses in tunicates. The reported data offer new clues for better understanding the evolution of these multivalent proteins from non-vertebrate to vertebrate chordates and reinforce their functions in detoxification and immunity. PMID:21328559

  8. Molecular detection of EWS-Ets fusion transcripts and their clinicopathologic significance in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; ZHENG Jie; WANG Yu-ping; YANG Yu; YOU Jiang-feng

    2005-01-01

    Background Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) is often difficult to distinguish from other small round cell tumors. The EWS-Ets gene fusions that result from chromosomal translocations in this tumor provide potential molecular diagnostic markers. To apply these molecular markers to commonly available archival materials, we evaluated the feasibility of detecting EWS-Ets including EWS-Fli1 and EWS-ERG fusion transcripts in paraffin-embedded tissues and its diagnostic value for detecting ES/pPNET.Methods Thirteen paraffin-embedded samples of ES/pPNETs were retrieved from archives. Thirteen cases of other tumors with small round cell features (including rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, small cell carcinoma, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor) were used as negative controls. Β-actin and β2-microglobulin were used as internal controls. A nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay was performed to detect the EWS-Fli1 and EWS-ERG fusion transcripts.Results β-actin and β2-microglobulin were detected in 10/13 and 13/13 ES/pPNETs, respectively. EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts were detected in 11 of 13 (85%) ES/pPNETs. Three chimeric transcripts, all EWS-Fli1, were detected in ES/pPNET samples. Among 11 EWS-Fli1-positive cases, 7 cases had a typeⅠfusion transcript involving fusion of EWS exon 7 with Fli1 exon 6, 2 cases had a typeⅡfusion transcript involving EWS exon 7 with Fli1 exon 5, and 2 cases expressed fusion transcripts involving EWS exon 7 and Fli1 exon 8. Type Ⅰ EWS-Fli1 fusion predominated over other types. Fusion types could not be distinguished in the remaining 2 cases. Thirteen negative controls did not show detectable chimeric messages. There was a significant relationship between EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts and CD99 expression. Conclusions Molecular detection of EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material by nested RT-PCR is feasible and is

  9. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;

    2007-01-01

    the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  10. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  11. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  12. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it to have any real negative or deleterious effect by removing the anterior capsule. Now I would ... is what happens with one of the competitive designs. Like I told you, I just take a ...

  13. Update on anterior ankle impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato

    2012-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...

  14. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  15. Photoresponse and Learning Behavior of Ascidian Larvae, a Primitive Chordate, to Repeated Stimuli of Step-Up and Step-Down of Light

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, I.; Shiraishi, S; Tsuda, M

    2002-01-01

    Ascidians are lower chordates and their simple tadpole-like larvae share a basic body plan with vertebrates. Newly hatched larvae show no response to a stimulus of light. 4 h after hatching, the larvae were induced to swim upon a step-down of light and stop swimming upon a step-up of light. At weaker intensity of light, the larvae show the same response to a stimulus after presentation of repeated stimuli. When intensity of actinic light was increased, the larvae show sensitization and habitu...

  16. Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Peter; Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.

    2015-01-01

    Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest ...

  17. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 51-year-old female following breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jinjing; Chen, Ni; Chen, Xueqin; Gong, Jing; Nie, Ling; Xu, Miao; Zhou, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) is an aggressive type of sarcoma that is rarely observed in the kidney. pPNET of the kidney principally occurs in young patients (friend leukemia integration 1, and negative staining for Wilms' tumor 1 and other markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the EWS breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) demonstrated the characteristic EWSR1 translocation. The patient declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy but accepted traditional Chinese medicine. No evidence of recurrence was observed eight months after diagnosis. Only two cases of renal pPNET with a history of an earlier or synchronous primary cancer were reported in the literature from the USA and Germany, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first FISH-confirmed renal pPNET in an older patient following breast adenocarcinoma. PMID:25435942

  18. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManyiYang; ShaochunYuan; Shengfeng Huang; Jun Li; Liqun Xu; Huiqing Huang; Xin Tao; Jian peng; Anlong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway,one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes,Is thought to be a vertebrate innovation.However,a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor,designated bbtTICAM,which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus,links this pathway to invertebrates.The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1,also known as TRIF),while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAMI and TICAM2(TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2,also known as TRAM).Similar to human TICAM1,bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif.Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes,and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile a and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2.However,bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon.Thus,our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM I and TICAM2,but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates,which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  1. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  2. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (progonoma): a case report emphasizing the computed tomography findings and literature review; Tumor neuroectodermico melanocitico da infancia (progonoma): relato de caso enfatizando os aspectos tomograficos e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: radiologia@brturbo.com

    2004-12-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)

  3. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  4. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  5. Anterior impingement syndrome in dancers

    OpenAIRE

    O’Kane, John William; Kadel, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Anterior impingement is a common problem in dancers occurring primarily secondary to the repetitive forced ankle dorsiflexion inherent in ballet. Symptoms generally occur progressively and may respond to conservative treatment including addressing biomechanical faults that contribute to the problem. As impingement progresses, movements essential to ballet may become impossible and arthroscopic ankle surgery is often effective for both diagnosis and treatment, allowing athletes to return to da...

  6. TCF/Lef regulates the Gsx ParaHox gene in central nervous system development in chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Garstang, Myles Grant; Osborne, Peter; Ferrier, David Ellard Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background The ParaHox genes play an integral role in the anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the nervous system and gut of most animals. The ParaHox cluster is an ideal system in which to study the evolution and regulation of developmental genes and gene clusters, as it displays similar regulatory phenomena to its sister cluster, the Hox cluster, but offers a much simpler system with only three genes. Results Using Ciona intestinalis transgenics, we isolated a regulatory element upstream ...

  7. The role of H1 linker histone subtypes in preserving the fidelity of elaboration of mesendodermal and neuroectodermal lineages during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang D; Gokhan, Solen; Molero, Aldrin E; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Byung-Ju; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Mehler, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    H1 linker histone proteins are essential for the structural and functional integrity of chromatin and for the fidelity of additional epigenetic modifications. Deletion of H1c, H1d and H1e in mice leads to embryonic lethality by mid-gestation with a broad spectrum of developmental alterations. To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying H1 linker histone developmental functions, we analyzed embryonic stem cells (ESCs) depleted of H1c, H1d and H1e subtypes (H1-KO ESCs) by utilizing established ESC differentiation paradigms. Our study revealed that although H1-KO ESCs continued to express core pluripotency genes and the embryonic stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase and SSEA1, they exhibited enhanced cell death during embryoid body formation and during specification of mesendoderm and neuroectoderm. In addition, we demonstrated deregulation in the developmental programs of cardiomyocyte, hepatic and pancreatic lineage elaboration. Moreover, ectopic neurogenesis and cardiomyogenesis occurred during endoderm-derived pancreatic but not hepatic differentiation. Furthermore, neural differentiation paradigms revealed selective impairments in the specification and maturation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons with accelerated maturation of glial lineages. These impairments were associated with deregulation in the expression profiles of pro-neural genes in dorsal and ventral forebrain-derived neural stem cell species. Taken together, these experimental observations suggest that H1 linker histone proteins are critical for the specification, maturation and fidelity of organ-specific cellular lineages derived from the three cardinal germ layers.

  8. The role of H1 linker histone subtypes in preserving the fidelity of elaboration of mesendodermal and neuroectodermal lineages during embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang D Nguyen

    Full Text Available H1 linker histone proteins are essential for the structural and functional integrity of chromatin and for the fidelity of additional epigenetic modifications. Deletion of H1c, H1d and H1e in mice leads to embryonic lethality by mid-gestation with a broad spectrum of developmental alterations. To elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying H1 linker histone developmental functions, we analyzed embryonic stem cells (ESCs depleted of H1c, H1d and H1e subtypes (H1-KO ESCs by utilizing established ESC differentiation paradigms. Our study revealed that although H1-KO ESCs continued to express core pluripotency genes and the embryonic stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase and SSEA1, they exhibited enhanced cell death during embryoid body formation and during specification of mesendoderm and neuroectoderm. In addition, we demonstrated deregulation in the developmental programs of cardiomyocyte, hepatic and pancreatic lineage elaboration. Moreover, ectopic neurogenesis and cardiomyogenesis occurred during endoderm-derived pancreatic but not hepatic differentiation. Furthermore, neural differentiation paradigms revealed selective impairments in the specification and maturation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons with accelerated maturation of glial lineages. These impairments were associated with deregulation in the expression profiles of pro-neural genes in dorsal and ventral forebrain-derived neural stem cell species. Taken together, these experimental observations suggest that H1 linker histone proteins are critical for the specification, maturation and fidelity of organ-specific cellular lineages derived from the three cardinal germ layers.

  9. Type 1 (11; 22)(q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumour in south Indian patients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Parija; S Shirley; S Uma; K R Rajalekshmy; S Ayyappan; T Rajkumar

    2005-06-01

    The Ewing’s sarcoma family can present diagnostic difficulties. In the past the basis of diagnosis has been a exclusion. Identification of a specific translocation especially t(11; 22) (EWS-FLI 1 fusion gene), which is seen in nearly 85% of Ewing’s sarcoma cases can help in precise diagnosis. We have carried out a study on twenty patient samples diagnosed to have Ewing’s sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)/small round cell malignant tumour. The study involved RT-PCR analysis for the fusion transcript, followed by sequencing to identify the specific type of fusion. Ninety percent (18/20) of the samples tested were found to be t(11; 22) translocations involving EWS-FLI 1 genes. Sixty-one percent (11/18) were found to be type 1 fusion and seven were type 2 (39%). This is the first study in India with quantitative information about the types of EWS-FLI 1 translocations present in Ewing’s family of tumours in south Indian patients.

  10. Detection of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts in paraffin embedded tissues of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixing Gong; Qinhe Fan; Zhihong Zhang; Weiming Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and significance of detecting EWS-FLIlfusion transcripts in paraffin embedded tissues of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Methods: Twelve formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of PNET were retrieved from archive and consultation materials,together with eight cases of controlled tumor. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts were detected by nested RT-PCR. Home-keeping gene β-actin was used to detect the quality of mRNA. Results: β-actin mRNA was detected in 9 of the 12 tumor cases. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts were detected in 6 cases, among which 4 had a "type 1" fusion transcript and 2 had a "type 2" fusion transcript. None of the controlled tumor was detected the fusion gene. Conclusion: RT-PCR is a feasible method for the detection of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts in FFPE tissues in PNET and the result is meaningful in differential diagnosis and prognostic evaluation.

  11. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster. PMID:19103191

  12. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  13. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

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    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  14. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closu...

  15. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  16. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  17. Perawatan Gigitan Terbalik Anterior Dengan Menggunakan Inclined Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Wilda A.

    2008-01-01

    Gigitan terbalik anterior adalah suatu anomali posisi gigi anterior atas yang lebih ke lingual dibandingkan gigi anterior bawah. Anomali gigitan terbalik anterior dapat ditemui pada periode gigi sulung, gigi bercampur, dan gigi permanen. Faktor etiologi gigitan terbalik anterior dibedakan atas dental, fungsional atau skeletal. Untuk menentukan etiologi dari anomali gigitan terbalik anterior perlu dilakukan diagnosa yang tepat. Perawatan gigitan terbalik anterior ini dapat dilakukan de...

  18. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. RESULTS: We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning.

  19. Tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo da bexiga urinária: uma rara neoplasia Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder: a rare neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cury Ogata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 52 anos, com queixas de hematúria macroscópica e dor pélvica. Foi realizado exame ultrassonográfico, que mostrou massa expansiva em assoalho vesical. A cistoscopia confirmou a presença dessa lesão, sendo realizada biópsia. O exame histológico revelou neoplasia de pequenas células. A análise imuno-histoquímica foi necessária para elucidação diagnóstica. O referido exame demonstrou positividade para os marcadores EWS-FLI1, CD99 e S-100. O diagnóstico foi de tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo. A paciente foi tratada com quimioterapia adjuvante. Depois de sete meses de seguimento, a paciente encontra-se livre de doença.The authors report the case of a 52 year-old woman that presented macroscopic hematuria and pelvic pain. Ultrasound examination was performed, which showed an expansive mass in the bladder floor. A cystoscopy confirmed the presence of this lesion and a biopsy was carried out. Histological analysis showed a small cell neoplasm. The immunohistochemical analysis was required to establish diagnosis. This analysis revealed positivity for EWS-FLI1, CD99 and S-100. The conclusive diagnosis was primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The patient was treated with chemotherapy. After a seven month follow-up period, the patient is disease-free.

  20. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

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    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  1. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  2. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor as a second malignancy after chemotherapy and radiation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma--treatment-related or just poor old bad luck?: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Jean-Louis; Patil, Hitendra M; Kannan, R; Pradhan, Sultan A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a rare histology to be found in primary tumors of the kidney. There are less than a hundred cases reported in the English literature. Most of these have been diagnosed after surgery for a renal neoplasm diagnosed on imaging. PNET has rarely been reported as a second malignancy, and has never been reported as a second malignancy after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Herein, we present our case of a 38-year-old female who developed a second malignancy in the kidney after the treatment for NHL. PMID:26458616

  3. Anterior segment complications of retinal photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1975-03-01

    Seven patients had anterior segment complications following xenon arc retinal photocoagulation. Irreversible keratopathy was induced in two cases; all patients showed evidence of iris injury. The absorption of radiation by the iris was considered the main factor in producing overheating of the anterior segment.

  4. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    OpenAIRE

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  5. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

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    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  6. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  7. Structural and functional insights into the ligand-binding domain of a nonduplicated retinoid X nuclear receptor from the invertebrate chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchini-Valentini, Giuseppe D; Rochel, Natacha; Escriva, Hector; Germain, Pierre; Peluso-Iltis, Carole; Paris, Mathilde; Sanglier-Cianferani, Sarah; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Moras, Dino; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-01-16

    Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs), as well as their insect orthologue, ultraspiracle protein (USP), play an important role in the transcription regulation mediated by the nuclear receptors as the common partner of many other nuclear receptors. Phylogenetic and structural studies have shown that the several evolutionary shifts have modified the ligand binding ability of RXRs. To understand the vertebrate-specific character of RXRs, we have studied the RXR ligand-binding domain of the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate chordate that predates the genome duplication that produced the three vertebrates RXRs (alpha, beta, and gamma). Here we report the crystal structure of a novel apotetramer conformation of the AmphiRXR ligand-binding domain, which shows some similarity with the structures of the arthropods RXR/USPs. AmphiRXR adopts an apo antagonist conformation with a peculiar conformation of helix H11 filling the binding pocket. In contrast to the arthropods RXR/USPs, which cannot be activated by any RXR ligands, our functional data show that AmphiRXR, like the vertebrates/mollusk RXRs, is able to bind and be activated by RXR ligands but less efficiently than vertebrate RXRs. Our data suggest that amphioxus RXR is, functionally, an intermediate between arthropods RXR/USPs and vertebrate RXRs. PMID:18986992

  8. An amphioxus Gli gene reveals conservation of midline patterning and the evolution of hedgehog signalling diversity in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Shimeld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hedgehog signalling, interpreted in receiving cells by Gli transcription factors, plays a central role in the development of vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. Many aspects of the signalling pathway are conserved between these lineages, however vertebrates have diverged in at least one key aspect: they have evolved multiple Gli genes encoding functionally-distinct proteins, increasing the complexity of the hedgehog-dependent transcriptional response. Amphioxus is one of the closest living relatives of the vertebrates, having split from the vertebrate lineage prior to the widespread gene duplication prominent in early vertebrate evolution. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that amphioxus has a single Gli gene, which is deployed in tissues adjacent to sources of hedgehog signalling derived from the midline and anterior endoderm. This shows the duplication and divergence of the Gli gene family, and hence the origin of vertebrate Gli functional diversity, was specific to the vertebrate lineage. However we also show that the single amphioxus Gli gene produces two distinct transcripts encoding different proteins. We utilise three tests of Gli function to examine the transcription regulatory capacities of these different proteins, demonstrating one has activating activity similar to Gli2, while the other acts as a weak repressor, similar to Gli3. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that vertebrates and amphioxus have evolved functionally-similar repertoires of Gli proteins using parallel molecular routes; vertebrates via gene duplication and divergence, and amphioxus via alternate splicing of a single gene. Our results demonstrate that similar functional complexity of intercellular signalling can be achieved via different evolutionary pathways.

  9. Treatment of Children With Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors/Pinealoblastomas in the Prospective Multicentric Trial HIT 2000 Using Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Nicolas U., E-mail: nicolas.gerber@kispi.uzh.ch [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Children' s Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Hoff, Katja von; Resch, Anika [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ottensmeier, Holger [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kwiecien, Robert; Faldum, Andreas [Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, University of Muenster (Germany); Matuschek, Christiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hornung, Dagmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Institute for Radiation Therapy and Special Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Benesch, Martin [Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Pietsch, Torsten [Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Warmuth-Metz, Monika [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, Joachim [Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rutkowski, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The prognosis for children with central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) or pinealoblastoma is still unsatisfactory. Here we report the results of patients between 4 and 21 years of age with nonmetastatic CNS-PNET or pinealoblastoma diagnosed from January 2001 to December 2005 and treated in the prospective GPOH-trial P-HIT 2000-AB4. Methods and Materials: After surgery, children received hyperfractionated radiation therapy (36 Gy to the craniospinal axis, 68 Gy to the tumor region, and 72 Gy to any residual tumor, fractionated at 2 × 1 Gy per day 5 days per week) accompanied by weekly intravenous administration of vincristine and followed by 8 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy (lomustine, cisplatin, and vincristine). Results: Twenty-six patients (15 with CNS-PNET; 11 with pinealoblastoma) were included. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years old (range, 4.0-20.7 years). Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 6 and partial resection in 16 patients (indistinct, 4 patients). Median follow-up of the 15 surviving patients was 7.0 years (range, 5.2-10.0 years). The combined response rate to postoperative therapy was 17 of 20 (85%). Eleven of 26 patients (42%; 7 of 15 with CNS-PNET; 4 of 11 with pinealoblastoma) showed tumor progression or relapse at a median time of 1.3 years (range, 0.5-1.9 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates (±standard error [SE]) were each 58% (±10%) for the entire cohort: CNS-PNET was 53% (±13); pinealoblastoma was 64% (±15%; P=.524 and P=.627, respectively). Conclusions: Postoperative hyperfractionated radiation therapy with local dose escalation followed by maintenance chemotherapy was feasible without major acute toxicity. Survival rates are comparable to those of a few other recent studies but superior to those of most other series, including the previous trial, HIT 1991.

  10. Treatment of Children With Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors/Pinealoblastomas in the Prospective Multicentric Trial HIT 2000 Using Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The prognosis for children with central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) or pinealoblastoma is still unsatisfactory. Here we report the results of patients between 4 and 21 years of age with nonmetastatic CNS-PNET or pinealoblastoma diagnosed from January 2001 to December 2005 and treated in the prospective GPOH-trial P-HIT 2000-AB4. Methods and Materials: After surgery, children received hyperfractionated radiation therapy (36 Gy to the craniospinal axis, 68 Gy to the tumor region, and 72 Gy to any residual tumor, fractionated at 2 × 1 Gy per day 5 days per week) accompanied by weekly intravenous administration of vincristine and followed by 8 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy (lomustine, cisplatin, and vincristine). Results: Twenty-six patients (15 with CNS-PNET; 11 with pinealoblastoma) were included. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years old (range, 4.0-20.7 years). Gross total tumor resection was achieved in 6 and partial resection in 16 patients (indistinct, 4 patients). Median follow-up of the 15 surviving patients was 7.0 years (range, 5.2-10.0 years). The combined response rate to postoperative therapy was 17 of 20 (85%). Eleven of 26 patients (42%; 7 of 15 with CNS-PNET; 4 of 11 with pinealoblastoma) showed tumor progression or relapse at a median time of 1.3 years (range, 0.5-1.9 years). Five-year progression-free and overall survival rates (±standard error [SE]) were each 58% (±10%) for the entire cohort: CNS-PNET was 53% (±13); pinealoblastoma was 64% (±15%; P=.524 and P=.627, respectively). Conclusions: Postoperative hyperfractionated radiation therapy with local dose escalation followed by maintenance chemotherapy was feasible without major acute toxicity. Survival rates are comparable to those of a few other recent studies but superior to those of most other series, including the previous trial, HIT 1991

  11. Integrative genomic analyses identify LIN28 and OLIG2 as markers of survival and metastatic potential in childhood central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Daniel; Miller, Suzanne; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Bouffet, Eric; Rogers, Hazel A; Chan, Tiffany SY; Kim, Seung-Ki; Ra, Young-Shin; Fangusaro, Jason; Korshunov, Andrey; Toledano, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Hayden, James T; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Hu, Ping X; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Pomeroy, Scott L; Lau, Ching C; Ng, Ho-Keung; Jones, Chris; Meter, Timothy Van; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles; Gajjar, Amar; Pfister, Stefan M; Grundy, Richard G; Huang, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood Central Nervous System Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal brain Tumours (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive brain tumours for which molecular features and best therapeutic strategy remains unknown. We interrogated a large cohort of these rare tumours in order to identify molecular markers that will enhance clinical management of CNS-PNET. Methods Transcriptional and copy number profiles from primary hemispheric CNS-PNETs were examined using clustering, gene and pathways enrichment analyses to discover tumour sub-groups and group-specific molecular markers. Immuno-histochemical and/or gene expression analyses were used to validate and examine the clinical significance of novel sub-group markers in 123 primary CNS-PNETs. Findings Three molecular sub-groups of CNS-PNETs distinguished by primitive neural (Group 1), oligo-neural (Group 2) and mesenchymal lineage (Group 3) gene expression signature were identified. Tumour sub-groups exhibited differential expression of cell lineage markers, LIN28 and OLIG2, and correlated with distinct demographics, survival and metastatic incidence. Group 1 tumours affected primarily younger females; male: female ratios were respectively 0.61 (median age 2.9 years; 95% CI: 2.4–5.2; p≤ 0.005), 1.25 (median age 7.9 years; 95% CI: 6–9.7) and 1.63 (median age 5.9 years; 95% CI: 4.9–7.8) for group 1, 2 and 3 patients. Overall outcome was poorest in group 1 patients which had a median survival of 0.8 years (95% CI: 0.47–1.2; p=0.019) as compared to 1.8 years (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) and 4.3 years; (95% CI: 0.82–7.8) respectively for group 2 and 3 patients. Group 3 tumours had the highest incidence of metastases at diagnosis; M0: M+ ratio were respectively 0.9 and 3.9 for group 3, versus group 1 and 2 tumours combined (p=0.037). Interpretation LIN28 and OLIG2 represent highly promising, novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for CNS PNET that warrants further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:22691720

  12. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Behari S; Banerji D; Trivedi P; Jain V; Chhabra D

    2001-01-01

    The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA) accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing ...

  13. Quadriceps muscle contraction protects the anterior cruciate ligament during anterior tibial translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, A K; Cawley, P W; Ekeland, A

    1997-01-01

    The proposed skiing injury mechanism that suggests a quadriceps muscle contraction can contribute to anterior cruciate ligament rupture was biomechanically investigated. The effect of quadriceps muscle force on a knee specimen loaded to anterior cruciate ligament failure during anterior tibial translation was studied in a human cadaveric model. In both knees from six donors, average age 41 years (range, 31 to 65), the joint capsule and ligaments, except the anterior cruciate ligament, were cut. The quadriceps tendon, patella, patellar tendon, and menisci were left intact. One knee from each pair was randomly selected to undergo destructive testing of the anterior cruciate ligament by anterior tibial translation at a displacement rate of 30 mm/sec with a simultaneously applied 889 N quadriceps muscle force. The knee flexion during testing was 30 degrees. As a control, the contralateral knee was loaded correspondingly, but only 5 N of quadriceps muscle force was applied. The ultimate load for the knee to anterior cruciate ligament failure when tested with 889 N quadriceps muscle force was 22% +/- 18% higher than that of knees tested with 5 N of force. The linear stiffness increased by 43% +/- 30%. These results did not support the speculation that a quadriceps muscle contraction contributes to anterior cruciate ligament failure. In this model, the quadriceps muscle force protected the anterior cruciate ligament from injury during anterior tibial translation.

  14. Care of children with anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1981-09-01

    The clinical features of 290 children with anterior uveitis are presented. The vast majority suffered from chronic uveitis. Specific uveitis entities in children include the syndrome of 'chronic iridocyclitis' in girls, heterochromic cyclitis, and pars planitis. Systemic associations include sarcoidosis, the Vogt-Harada-Koyanagi syndrome, and the seronegative arthritides (juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rarely Reiter's and Beçet's syndromes). Children with a pauciarticular onset of juvenile chronic arthritis, especially when combined with positive findings for antinuclear antibody, are at particular risk of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Most cases of chronic anterior uveitis can be controlled with topical corticosteroids. Those that are resistant to both topical and systemic corticosteroids may have to be treated with chlorambucil. The operation of lensectomy is a great advance in the management of complicated cataract. Secondary glaucoma is the most devastating complication of chronic anterior uveitis in children and responds poorly to therapy.

  15. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); M.T. Poldervaart (Michelle T.); R.L. Diercks (Ron L.); A.W.F.M. Fievez (Alex W.F.M.); T.W. Patt (Thomas W.); C.P. van der Hart (Cor P.); E.R. Hammacher (Eric); F. van der Meer (Fred); E.A. Goedhart (Edwin A.); A.F. Lenssen (Anton F); S.B. Muller-Ploeger (Sabrina B); M.A. Pols (Margreet); D.B.F. Saris (Daniel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulate

  16. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  17. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  18. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  19. Tumores neuroectodérmicos primitivos periféricos de localización en el área orocervical: presentación de dos casos clínicos Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors located in orocervical area: presentation of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez Acedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los tumores neuroectodérmicos primitivos (PNET, de primitive neuroectodermal tumors son una familia de neoplasias malignas de células pequeñas y redondas, que derivan de la cresta neural. Se distinguen tres tipos: PNET del sistema nervioso central, PNET del sistema nervioso autónomo y PNET periféricos. Los más frecuentes dentro del grupo de PNET periféricos son el neuroepitelioma periférico y el sarcoma de Ewing, que se consideran la misma neoplasia pero con diferente grado de diferenciación. Casos clínicos: Presentamos dos casos de PNET periféricos, uno de aparición en la región cervical y otro originado en el cóndilo mandibular. Discusión: Los PNET son neoplasias muy raras y altamente agresivas. En todos ellos aparecen células redondas pequeñas poco diferenciadas y una traslocación cromosómica característica del gen EWS. En general se considera que tienen un pronóstico desfavorable. Además, la baja frecuencia de estos tumores, así como la escasez de casos publicados hacen difícil valorar el tratamiento más adecuado.Introduction: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET are a family of smallround cell tumors of presumed neuroectodermal origin. This broad family can be subdivided into three major groups: PNET from the central nervous system, PNET from the autonomic nervous system or peripheral PNET. Ewing´s sarcoma and peripheral neuroepitelioma, the two most frequently encountered members of the peripheral PNET family, are considered to represent a spectrum according to the extent of neuroectodermal differentiation, ranging from the least differentiated (Ewing´s sarcoma to the most differentiated (peripheral neuroepithelioma. Case report: We present a patient with a peripheral neuroectodermal tumor located in the neck and another one with a peripheral neuroectodermal tumor of the mandibular condyle. Discussion: Peripheral neuroectodermal tumors are a very rare and aggressive tumors. They

  20. 宫颈原始神经外胚叶肿瘤临床分析并文献复习%Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the cervix: report of three cases and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 雷呈志; 李青; 张洵

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics,treatment, and prognosis of Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the cervix. Methods:3 cases of primary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of cervix were included in Cancer Institute & Hospital from 2009 to 2011. We carried out a retrospective analysis on clinical character, clini-copathological features, treatment and prognosis in those patients and a review of relative clinical data. Results;3 patients aged 22~39 years old. The final diagnosis was established by the pathological diagnosis. Positive expression of the CD99 was observed in all cases. 3 patients received multimodality therapy including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, one patient survival of 13 months. The other two patients are free of disease until now after surgery. Conclusions : Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor( PNET) of cervix is a very rare disease. Most occur in young women. Fewer had distant metastasis at diagnosis. CD99 is a specific marker for PNET. Multimodality therapy including surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy and other treatment may prolong survival.%目的:探讨宫颈原始神经外胚叶肿瘤的临床表现、病理特点、治疗方法及预后.方法:回顾性分析中国医学科学院肿瘤医院2009年至2011年收治的3例宫颈原始神经外胚叶肿瘤患者病例资料并复习文献.结果:3例患者年龄22~ 39岁,均经病理诊断确诊,其中CD99均为强阳性表达.3例患者就诊时肿瘤均无远处转移.均接受了手术治疗和化疗,1例接受了盆腔局部放疗.3例患者中1例术后存活13个月,2例术后无瘤存活至今.结论:宫颈原始神经外胚叶肿瘤临床罕见,多发生于年轻妇女,病理及免疫组化有助于明确诊断,初诊时较少有远处转移,采用手术为主、结合化疗和放疗的综合治疗有望提高预后.

  1. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  2. Esthetic crown lengthening for maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonick, M

    1997-08-01

    In the maxillary anterior region, the gingival labial margin position is an important parameter in the achievement of an ideal smile. The relationship between the periodontium and the restoration is critical if gingival health and esthetics are to be achieved. Periodontal therapy is a necessary and useful adjunct when any anterior restoration is undertaken. Anterior surgical crown lengthening may be undertaken to avoid restorative margin impingement on the biologic width. Crown lengthening is also used to alter the gingival labial profiles. This article discusses the esthetic parameters of ideal gingival labial positions and presents a classification of crown-lengthening procedures and the procedure for a two-stage crown-lengthening technique. The two-stage crown-lengthening technique is surgically precise because healing is predictable.

  3. THYMOLIPOMA: A RARE, LARGE ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymolipoma is a rare benign tumor of anterior mediastinum, described by Lange in 1916. 1 Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. 2 It accounts for 2% to 9% of thymic tumours. 3 We report a case of thymolipoma in a 37 year s old male patient, who pre sented with cough, dys p nea, chest pain for 2 months. CT THORAX revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass extending in to right hemithorax arising from thymus gland, with multiple areas of fat density, no significant mediastinal adenopathy, complete collap se of right middle and lower lobe suggestive of thymolipoma. CT guided biopsy suggestive of thymic neoplasm. The tumour was removed enbloc through surgery. Histopathological examination of large mass lesion confirmed thymolipoma. We report this case to emp hasize the importance of considering thymolipoma as a differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal mass, although rare.

  4. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  5. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  6. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  7. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  8. ANTERIOR COLUMN FRACTURES OF THE ACETABULUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEEG, M; OTTER, N; KLASEN, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients at three to 19 years after displaced anterior fracture-dislocations of the hip. Eighteen of them were treated by traction, after ensuring that the femoral head was adequately reduced beneath the undisrupted part of the weight-bearing dome. Two required operati

  9. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari S

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing for a simultaneous arthrodesis and instrumentation during the primary surgical procedure. Experience of five patients with high cervical extradural compression, who underwent surgery using this approach between 1994 and 1999, is presented. The surgical procedures included excision of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (n=2; excision of prolapsed disc and osteophytes (n=2; and excision of a vertebral body neoplasm (n=1. Following the procedure, vertebral arthrodesis was achieved using an iliac graft in all the patients. Only one patient with vertebral body neoplasm required an additional anterior cervical plating procedure for stabilisation the construct. The complications included transient respiratory insufficiency and neurological deterioration in two patients; and, pharyngeal fistula and donor site infection in one patient.

  10. Anterior process fractures of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfrew, D.L.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Fractures of the anterior process of the calcaneus are often missed. This error follows from the tendency to focus exclusively on the mortise and malleoli when a history of ankle trauma is supplied. Seven patients with this fracture are presented. The anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and the radiographic features of this injury are discussed.

  11. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  12. Causes of anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries it is necessary to define risk factors and to analyze the most frequent causes of injuries - that being the aim of this study. The study sample consisted of 451 surgically treated patients, including 400 sportsmen (65% of them being active and 35% recreational sportsmen, 29% female and 71% male; of whom 90% were younger than 35. Sports injuries, as the most frequent cause of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, were recorded in 88% of patients (non-contact ones in 78% and contact ones in 22%, injuries occurring in everyday activities in 11% and in traffic in 1%. Among sportsmen, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was most frequently performed in football players (48%, then in handball players (22%, basketball players (13%, volleyball players (8%, martial arts fighters (4%. However, the injury incidence was the highest among the active basketball players (1 injured among 91 active players. Type of footwear, warming up before the activity, genetic predisposition and everyday therapy did not have a significant influence on getting injured. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened three times more often during matches, in the middle and at the end of a match and training session (79%, at landing after the jump or when changing direction of movement (75% without a contact with other competitors, on dry surfaces (79%, among not so well prepared sportsmen.

  13. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  14. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  15. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M;

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  16. Tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clatworthy, M G; Annear, P; Bulow, J U;

    1999-01-01

    We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000...

  17. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, Duncan E; Poldervaart, Michelle T; Diercks, Ronald; Fievez, Alex W F M; Patt, Thomas W; Hart, Cor P van der; Hammacher, Eric R; Meer, Fred van der; Goedhart, Edwin A; Lenssen, Anton F; Muller-Ploeger, Sabrina B; Pols, Margreet A; Saris, Daniel B F

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steer

  18. Novel Insights into Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction has become, standard orthopaedic practice worldwide with an estimated 175,000 reconstructions per year in the United States.6 The ACL remains the most frequently studied liga

  19. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, do patient reported or radiographic outcomes after five years differ between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  20. Anterior ethmoidal artery emerging anterior to bulla ethmoidalis: An abnormal anatomical variation in Waardenburg's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Danny K. C.; Shao, Angus; Campbell, Raewyn; Douglas, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In endoscopic sinus surgery, the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is usually identified as it traverses obliquely across the fovea ethmoidalis, posterior to the bulla ethmoidalis and anterior to or within the ground lamella's attachment to the skull base. Injury to the AEA may result in hemorrhage, retraction of the AEA into the orbit, and a retrobulbar hematoma. The resulting increase in intraorbital pressure may threaten vision. Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital, autosomal dom...

  1. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  2. Surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Sukeik, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mazin; Haddad, Fares S

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is among the most common soft tissue injuries of the knee joint and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is the gold standard treatment for young active symptomatic patients. This review summarizes the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  3. Uveítes anteriores associadas a doenças sistêmicas Anterior uveitis associated to systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pavão Dimantas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As uveítes anteriores são caracterizadas pela inflamação preponderante do segmento anterior do olho. Hiperemia conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior com células e "flare", precipitados ceráticos e sinéquias posteriores são sinais que compõem o quadro inflamatório. Aspectos clínicos de algumas doenças sistêmicas envolvidas na etiologia das uveítes anteriores serão abordados neste artigo.Anterior uveitis describes a disease predominantly limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cell and flare, keratic precipitates, and iris abnormalities including posterior synechiae characterize the inflammation. This article discusses clinical aspects of the systemic diseases that cause anterior uveitis with review of the literature.

  4. Diagnoses of CT and MRI on peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors%外周原始神经外胚层肿瘤CT和MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾梦; 徐文坚; 庞婧; 吴增杰; 冯卫华; 刘吉华

    2013-01-01

    小、形态、结构、与邻近组织的关系、骨结构等变化,具有一定特征性,结合临床表现对本病定量、定性诊断具有重要价值.%Objective To investigate the findings and its diagnostic value of CT and MRI on peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNETs) . Methods There were 29 patients with peripheral PNETs pathologically proved were performed CT and MRI retrospectively. The patients were 21 males and 8 females (M: F = 2. 63:1), with median age of 39. 00 years (2 month — 69 years). 27 cases with solitary lesion, 2 cases with multiple leions. Sites of lesions involvement were 9 cases in head and neck region (5 in mouth floor, tongue root, subcutaneous and 4 in paranasal sinus), 9 cases in the abdomen and pelvis (5 in retroperitoneum, 2 in pelvis, 1 in gastric antrum and 1 in inguinal region), 5 cases in chest (2 in lung, 3 in chest wall), 3 cases in extremities (1 in ilium, 1 in femoral head and neck and 1 were multiple lesions in vertebral body accessories and bilateral ilium), and 3 cases in intraspinal (2 in thoracic spinal canal, 1 in cervical epi-dural). Results 27 in 29 cases showed soft tissue mass, 26 of 27 cases with solitary and another 1 with multiple lesions. Tumor size ranged from 0. 7~20. 5 cm average (5. 64 ± 4. 45) cm . Of the 29 cases, 27 cases with solitary lesion, 2 cases with multiple lesions. The lesions were irregular or roundness, 14 cases with poorly circumscribed and 15 cases with well-circumscribed. 15 cases showed homogeneous density with average CT value (34. 34 ± 13. 27) HU, 14 cases inhomoge-neous with cystic low density areas within lesions. No calcification or osteoid tissue were found within the lesions. The tumors were usually intermediate or hypointense signal on T1 WI and heterogeneous hyperintense signal on T2WI and STIR. All of the lesions were heterogeneous enhancement on CT and MRI. There were 6 cases demonstrated irregular os- teolytic lesion and cortical discontinuous in adjacent

  5. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  6. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  7. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterio...

  8. Multimodal emotion perception after anterior temporal lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Milesi; Chiara Cristinzio; Margitta Seeck

    2014-01-01

    In the context of emotion information processing, several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the amygdala in emotion perception, for unimodal and multimodal stimuli. However, it seems that not only the amygdala, but several regions around it, may also play a major role in multimodal emotional integration. In order to investigate the contribution of these regions to multimodal emotion perception, five patients who had undergone unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection were exposed...

  9. Anterior Tibial Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aneurysmsatic changes of the infrapopliteal arteries are rarely seen. They are pseudoaneurysms rather than true aneursyms. The most important cause of them is trauma. There is not a standart treatment for infrapopliteal aneursyms. In this study, we have evaluated a case operated for anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm developed after penetrant trauma and diagnosed two weeks later. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(3.000: 172-175

  10. Psychological Aspects of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ardern, Clare; Kvist, Joanna; Webster, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Impairment-based evaluation has, until recently, been the mainstay of orthopaedic research in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, participation-based outcomes, in particular returning to sport, have lately garnered increased research attention. This is important because returning to sport is typically a main concern of injured athletes. Recent metaanalyses have demonstrated that the return to sport rate after ACL reconstruction is disappointingly low, and that a range of...

  11. Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lik Thai; Blum, Robert Alexander; Cheng, Chee Peng; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib phone: +44-784-3617788 (Lim, Lik Thai) (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Blum, Robert Alexander) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - G...

  12. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J.; Clayton, P.; Price, D.; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
...

  13. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  14. A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD, which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

  15. MRI appearances of the anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle: a rare anterior compartment muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Bhavin [Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Imaging Department, Essex (United Kingdom); Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Health Care NHS Trust, Imaging Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    MRI of a 62-year-old female presenting with ankle pain demonstrated an accessory muscle within the anterior compartment of the lower leg. The muscle originated from the fibula and anterior crural septum. The tendon passed anterior to the lateral malleolus and inserted at the critical angle of Gissane on the calcaneus. This muscle was initially described in the anatomic literature by Lambert and Atsas in 2010. To our knowledge, this is the first time the MRI appearances of this muscle has been described in the radiological literature. Awareness of the fibulocalcaneal muscle is important as it may represent a cause of ankle pain. In addition, the tendon could potentially be harvested for use in reconstructive procedures. (orig.)

  16. Anterior Decompression and Anterior Instrumentation of Tuberculosis of Cervicothoracic Spine by Cervicomanubrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Kumar Garg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of result of anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior instrumentation in tuberculosis of cervicothoracic spine in terms of the neurological recovery, reconstruction of spine and prevention of deformity along with relief of pain. Materials and Methods: All five patients with cervicothoracic caries spine had surgery through anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy in our hospital and underwent excision of the involved vertebrae and intervertebral discs followed by anterior spinal reconstruction with titanium spacer cage filled with cancellous iliac crest bone graft and Orion plate with locking screw. Antitubercular drugs were administered for 12 months. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months. Results: Analysis of result was done on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria. Clinical assessment based on Frankel grade and modified JOA score showed significant improvement from preoperative findings. Radiological assessment showed osteointegration, no spinal instability and no progression of the deformity. The pain control, based on visual analog scale changed from a pre-operative average of 7.5 to 2 at the last follow-up thereby indicating significant improvement and all patients returned to preoperative functional status. One patient had transient hoarseness of voice. No other complication had been encountered in the immediate post operative and during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Our study showed that anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior insertion of titanium cage, filled with autogenous bone graft, secured with locking plate instrumentation has a successful role in the eradication of infection, neurological recovery, segmental spinal reconstruction and it also reduces surgical time, blood loss, and surgical complications and approach related comorbidity in follow up period. Level of Evidence- Level 4, Case series

  17. Tireoide ectópica no mediastino anterior Ectopic thyroid in the anterior mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José Araújo da Cunha Guimarães; Carla Manuela Silva Valente; Lèlita Santos; Manuel Fontes Baganha

    2009-01-01

    A ectopia de tireoide é rara, e a sua localização no mediastino anterior é excepcional, estando descritos apenas 5 casos nos últimos 30 anos. Os autores apresentam 2 casos clínicos, além de uma revisão da literatura abordando a etiologia, a embriologia e manifestações clínicas de ectopia de tireoide.Ectopic thyroid is a rare condition, and its location in the anterior mediastinum is even rarer, there having been only 5 reported cases in the past 30 years. Here, we describe 2 clinical cases an...

  18. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  19. Infections after reconstructions of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are rare, but, on the other hand, they are difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to analyze causes of infections, risk factors, diagnostics, and possibilities of their prevention. Material and Methods. Seventeen deep infections (1.2% were found in 1425 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Fifteen patients were males and two were females. Out of 475 professional athletes nine (1.9% had this postoperative complication. Eleven patients with septic arthritis were allergic to penicillin. Three of them had immunosuppressive diseases. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in eleven cases (65%, other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus groups were found in four and three patients, respectively; while one patient had infection although the punctate was negative. Out of 965 patients with the patellar tendon grafts, ten (1.03% had this complication, while the incidence was 1.52% (7/460 in those with the hamstring grafts. Fifteen infections were acute with obvious symptoms within 14 days after surgery. Severe pain, limited range of motion, swelling of the knee joint and fever were the most common symptoms, while rubor and pus developed rarely. The infection was three times more frequent in the patients who had undergone surgery lasting more than 1.5 hour. Discussion and Conclusion. The following population groups are at risk of developing septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: professional athletes, those who are allergic to penicillin, and those with immunosuppressive diseases. Staphyllococus aureus is the most common cause of infection. The patients with the hamstring autografts have a higher risk than those with the patellar tendon grafts. Preventive measures that should be performed include aseptic conditions in operative rooms, irrigation of the graft before its placement into the bone tunnels

  20. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Pain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Neil Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to higher order pain processing in rodents.

  1. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  2. [LAPAROSCOPIC ANTERIOR UTERINE LIGAMENTOPEXY--OUR EXPERIENCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A great number operative techniques for correction of retroverted uterus are reported in the last years. The aim of these different methods is correction of the retroversion of the uterus, which is connected with pelvic congestion and symptomatic relief. We present a clinical case of 26 years old patient with one Caesarean section. The lady complains of chronic pelvic pain, dispareunia and dismenorrhea. The US exam shows an uterus in strong retroversion position. We restored the anatomic position of the uterus using laparoscopic anterior ligementopexy.

  3. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment.

  4. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Makhmalbaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspected to ACL rapture were entered the study. Statistical analysis was performed by the usage of SPSS 19.0. Multiple comparison procedure was performed for comparing data between clinical examination and arthroscopic findings and their relation with age and sex. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.3±7.58 years (range from 16 to 68 years. From 428 patients, 41.2% (175 patients were between 26 and 35, 38.8% (165 ones between 15 and 25 and 20% (85 patients over 36 years. 414 patients were male (97.2% and 12 were female (2.8%. Sensitivity of anterior drawer test was 94.4% and sensitivity of Lachman test was 93.5%. Conclusion: The diagnosis and decision to reconstruct ACL injury can be reliably made regard to the anterior drawer and Lachman tests result. The tests did not have privilege to each other. These test accuracy increased considerably under anesthesia especially in women.

  5. The normal anterior cruciate ligament as a model for tensioning strategies in anterior cruciate ligament grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP; Verdonschot, N; van Kampen, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is some confusion about the relationship between the tension placed on the graft and the joint position used in the fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. This is because of deficiency in accurate basic science about this important interaction in the normal and reconstructe

  6. The normal anterior cruciate ligament as a model for tensioning strategies in anterior cruciate ligament grafts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.P.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is some confusion about the relationship between the tension placed on the graft and the joint position used in the fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. This is because of deficiency in accurate basic science about this important interaction in the normal and reconstructe

  7. Penghentian Karies Gigi Sulung Anterior (Laporan Penelitian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Pratiwi Indra Yoga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara menanggulangi karies pada gigi sulung anterior adalah dengan mengasah gigi menjadi bentuk self cleansing atau tapered dan kemudian mengolesnya dengan larutan SnF2 10%. Cara ini relatif mudah mengerjakannya serta murah biayanya. Keburukannya hanya pada masalah estetis, yaitu bentuk gigi menjadi lebih kecil, serta adanya staining kecoklatan karena pengendapan Sn. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah cara ini dapat menghentikan karies pada gigi sulung anterior, serta sampai berapa lama pengaruh SnF2 10% dapat menghentikan karies. Sampel diambil dari murid TK yang berusia 2,5 sampai 5 tahun, gigi sulung anteriornya terkena karies email pada bagian proksimal satu atau dua sisi. Mengingat usia sampel yang masih muda, maka sampai akhir penelitian hanya didapat 20 orang anak yang memenuhi kriteria, dan hasil penelitian dihitung secara statistik dengan X2 – test. Hasil penelitian ternyata prosedur perawatan ini berhasil secara bermakna setelah 3-6 bulan (X2 = 0.056, df = 1, dan p < 0.05.

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  9. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament autografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogi, Shigeyuki; Ariizumi, Mitsuko; Yamagishi, Tsuneo [The Aoyama Tokyo Metropolitan office' s Hospital (Japan); Agata, Toshihiko; Tada, Shinpei; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of autografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects were 110 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts who underwent clinical examination, MRI, and arthroscopy of the knee. T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in sagittal plane. Clinical findings were categorized into three groups: normal, borderline, and abnormal. The MRI appearances of the autografts were categorized into three types: straight continuous band (type I), interrupted band (type II) and generalized increased intensity band (type III). The clinical findings and MRI findings were compared with arthroscopic findings. Ninety-six percent of the type I showed no autograft tear on arthroscopy. In comparison with the clinical findings, MRI was found to be well correlated with arthroscopic findings. In conclusion, if the clinical findings are normal, patients are to be followed-up without MRI and arthroscopy. However, if clinical findings are either borderline or abnormal, MRI should be performed prior to arthroscopy. (author)

  10. Review of 31 cases of anterior thoracolumbar fixation with the anterior thoracolumbar locking plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Bowen, S; Branch, C L; Meredith, J W

    1999-07-15

    Anterior fixation devices for the thoracolumbar spine have gained wide acceptance as viable alternatives to long-segment posterior fixation in cases of thoracolumbar spine trauma. This review was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Synthes anterior thoracolumbar locking plate (ATLP) system. Over a 3-year period, 31 patients with unstable traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine underwent corpectomy, placement of a structural bone graft, and anterior fixation in which the Synthes ATLP system was used. Long-term follow-up data were obtained in 29 patients. Two patients were lost to follow up, one at 4 months and the other at 1 year. In the remaining patients, the average length of follow up was 20 months. In all patients radiographic evidence of solid bone fusion was demonstrated on follow-up plain x-ray films, and there were no signs or symptoms of pseudarthrosis. No patient suffered neurological deterioration as a result of surgery, and there was relatively little morbidity associated with this plating system. To date, none of the patients in this study has developed any delayed complications related to the fixation device. In one patient, who had sustained a severe flexion injury, loosening of the anterior fixation device occurred, and the patient developed progressive kyphosis, which required a posterior stabilization procedure. These results appear slightly better than those obtained in published studies in which other anterior plating systems were used, indicating that this system is safe and effective in the treatment of unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. PMID:16918232

  11. Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

    2004-01-01

    Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, surgeonsface the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy orlaminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompressionsor corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered bysome clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexityof multilevel anterior cervical surgery.Methods: In this retrospective study, 14 patients with multilevel cervical sp...

  12. Complications of the anterior approach to the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Lemos Vieira da Cunha; Francisco Alves de Araújo Júnior; Cássio Czottis Grapiglia; Denildo César Amaral Veríssimo; Roberta Rehder; Samir Ale Bark; Luis Alencar Biurrum Borba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the complications of anterior approach to the cervical spine in patients who underwent cervical arthrodesis with instrumentation. METHODS: Prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January 2009 to April 2010. All patients who underwent arthrodesis of the cervical spine by anterior approach were included, regardless the diagnosis. Access was made by the anterior approach on the right side. We evaluated the number of operated levels (1, 2 or 3 levels) and,...

  13. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Rupesh; Murthy Somasheila; Sangwan Virender; Biswas Jyotirmay

    2010-01-01

    Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated...

  14. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  15. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varun Kumar Singh; Gauresh Shantaram Vargaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle.Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare.We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male.Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test.Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result.

  16. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS AND METH....... On this basis it was decided to discontinue the study prematurely for ethical reasons. CONCLUSION: Decompression of the anastomosis with a transanal stent does not reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection....

  17. Rehablitation of mandibular fracture with anterior teeth loss

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Ajay; Rajpal, Jaisika; K. K. Gupta; Singh, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    We report here on rehabilitating a case with mandibular fracture and lower anterior teeth loss. Three double-staged implants were placed in the lower anterior region; in an attempt to rehabilitate the condition of five missing lower teeth, two natural teeth were prepared to act as natural abutments. Teeth implant-supported prosthesis was fabricated. Patient with a right mandibular fracture and loss of lower anterior missing teeth was successfully rehabilitated with teeth implant-supported pro...

  18. Audit on necessity of radiographs in anterior shoulder dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ahmadi, M.D; M. Mofidi, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    AbstractBackground and Purpose: Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common major joint dislocation. In most cases, this dislocation is being relocated in emergency departments. Routinely, pre and post reduction radiographs are performed. This study was done to determine the necessity of radiographs in the emergency department for management of patients with suspected anterior shoulder dislocation.Materials and Methods: In this case series study, 116 patients suspected of anterior should...

  19. No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of psychopathy have demonstrated reduced activity in the anterior cingulate, yet it is unclear whether this region is structurally impaired. In this study, we used structural MRI to examine whether volumetric differences exist in the anterior cingulate between psychopathic (n=24) and control (n=24) male participants. We found no group differences in the volume of the anterior cingulate or its dorsal and ventral subregions. Our findings call into question whether the...

  20. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  1. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior Toxic anterior segment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em conclusão notou-se que o foco principal deve ser a prevenção, pois o tratamento busca apenas suprimir a resposta inflamatória secundária. O tratamento nos casos de STSA consiste em intensa instilação de esteróides tópicos com seguimento rigoroso e controle de complicações tardias como o glaucoma.Toxic anterior segment syndrome is acute inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in extracellular damage with necrosis and apoptosis during an immune response. We have the report of a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS, in which the authors seek to emphasize the most common causes of the appearance of these syndrome. They point out the care that must be taken in the process of sterilization of surgical material, in addition to reviewing the best conduct when faced with these cases. In conclusion, it was noted that the main focus should be on prevention, as treatment only seeks to suppress the secondary inflammatory response. Treatment in cases of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS consists of intense instillation of topical steroids with strict follow-up and control of late complications such as glaucoma.

  2. Combined operative technique with anterior surgical approach and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy for anterior superior sulcus tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours.

  3. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  4. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Anterior Knee Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Cottino, Umberto; Governale, Giorgio; Cherubini, Valeria; Dettoni, Federico; Bruzzone, Matteo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term radiological and clinical outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy in patients affected by anterior knee pain. In addition, prognostic factors correlated with the outcomes were evaluated. Methods: The patients treated with tibial tubercle osteotomy (anteromedialization) for anterior knee pain between 2002 and 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria: 1) previous knee surgeries; 2) different procedures to treat anterior knee pain; 3) history of patellar dislocation, 4) Rheumatic conditions. Different variables were collected, as shown in. The patients were prospectively evaluated using the WOMAC short form and Kujala scores. An objective evaluation was performed looking for different potential risk factors and using part of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radiological evaluation was performed, including the congruence angle, the grade of osteoarthritis (Kellegren-Lawrence) and the patellar tilt angle. Three main outcomes were identified. The multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the variables and a worse outcome. Results: 72 cases were included in the study (9 bilateral). 72.2% of the cases were female, and the average age was 42,2 years (SD15,9). The average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 (SD5,2). In 70.8% of patients a lateral release was associated to the tibial tubercle osteotomy. 77.8% of patients were evaluated clinically, the remaining, who were unable to come for the visits, were interviewed and the subjective scores were administered by phone. The average follow-up was 68.4 months (SD35.5).In 62.5% of cases a valgus lower limb alignment was detected, with 25% and 39.3% of patients having respectively an increased femoral antiversion and foot pronation. Post-operatively there was a statistical significant improvement in all the scores. No differences in the pre-operative and post-operative congruence angle or patellar tilt were detected (p>0.05). All

  5. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  6. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  7. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Kazuhiro; Tomari, Kazuhide; Asao, Tsunenori [Shinbeppu Hospital, Oita (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, the authors retrospectively reviewed 39 MR imaging examinations in 39 patients. We classified the MR imaging patterns of the torn ACL into four types. Torn ACL appears as a homogeneous iso-intensity mass on Type I images; as a continuous thin and waving low-intensity band with or without high-signal-intensity spots on the Type II images; as a disrupted band with a high-signal-intensity area on Type III images and as an absence of the ACL on Type IV images. We also report secondary lesions on MR imaging findings associated with tears of the ACL, posterior cruciate ligament index and bone bruising, in our patients. (author).

  8. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, the authors retrospectively reviewed 39 MR imaging examinations in 39 patients. We classified the MR imaging patterns of the torn ACL into four types. Torn ACL appears as a homogeneous iso-intensity mass on Type I images; as a continuous thin and waving low-intensity band with or without high-signal-intensity spots on the Type II images; as a disrupted band with a high-signal-intensity area on Type III images and as an absence of the ACL on Type IV images. We also report secondary lesions on MR imaging findings associated with tears of the ACL, posterior cruciate ligament index and bone bruising, in our patients. (author)

  9. MR imaging evaluation of anterior cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 546 knees, the authors have obtained MR images (0.5 T or 1.5 T). The protocol included 5-mm-thick contiguous sagittal and oblique coronal images (in the plane of the anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]) and T1-, proton-density-, and T2-weighted sequences. In 174 patients, correlations with arthroscopic or surgical findings were available. In these cases, sagittal and oblique coronal images were retrospectively and separately read by two radiologists, who were blinded to other results. The mean accuracy of sagittal MR images alone was 88% for the depiction of partial and complete ACL tears, intraligamental bleeding, and scarring; the accuracy of oblique coronal images alone was 96%. Use of sagittal and oblique coronal images together achieved 98% accuracy

  10. Patellotibial contusions in anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Robert D; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Nepute, Joshua; Von Fischer, Nathaniel; Apgar, Josh; Javadi, Ariyan

    2014-02-01

    Bone contusions are an important ancillary finding of many knee injuries. Not only are they a source of pain, they may suggest a mechanism of injury or a specific derangement of the knee joint. We have encountered a small number of patients being evaluated for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears with unexplained patellar and tibial edema at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present three individuals with contusions of the inferior patella with a corresponding contusion of the anteromedial tibial plateau. Internal derangements in these patients were similar to other individuals with acute ACL tears, however osseous contusions were more widespread. In conclusion, patellotibial contusions are rare and may indicate an injury with forces greater than usually encountered in most ACL tears. A careful search for uncommon associated injuries is prudent in these high-energy knee injuries. PMID:24037484

  11. Concrescent triplets involving primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenesis is a complex process wherein more than 200 genes are known to play a significant role in tooth development. An imbalance can lead to an abnormality in the number, size, shape or structure of the developing tooth/teeth. The presence of an extra dental lamina forms a supernumerary tooth. The supernumerary teeth are of two types: A rudimentary tooth where the supernumerary tooth does not resemble any tooth in the normal series or a supplemental tooth in which this anomalous tooth resembles one in the normal series. It is also very rare to encounter triple teeth in primary dentition. The union of these teeth may be through fusion, gemination, concrescence or a combination of fusion and gemination. Presented is a rare case of concrescence involving maxillary deciduous incisors and a supplemental tooth in a 7-year-old boy. The differential diagnosis, etiology, and complications of primary anterior triple teeth are discussed.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized. PMID:20160623

  13. Endoscopic anterior decompression in cervical disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although microscopic anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion are common surgical procedures for treatment of cervical herniated discs, loss of disc height, pseudarthrosis, and adjacent disc degeneration are some of the problems associated with it. This study is aimed to evaluate results of endoscopic microforaminotomy in cervical disc diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 50 patients of mono segmental soft or hard disc causing myeloradiculopathy was undertaken. A visual analogue scale (VAS for neck and arm pain and functional outcomes using the Nurick grading system were assessed. There were 28, 12, 8, and 2 patients at C5-6, C6-7, C4-5, and C3-4 levels disc diseases, respectively. Patients with two or more level disc, instabilities, disc extending more than half vertebral body height, and previous operation at the same segment were excluded. Results: Age ranged from 21 to 67 years. Average postoperative reduction in disc height, operating time, and blood loss was 1.1 mm, 110 minutes, and 30 ml, respectively. Average pre-operative VAS score for arm pain and Nurick grading was 7.6 and 2.7, which improved to 1.9 and 0.82, respectively. All patients improved; 1, 2, 3 grade improvement was seen in 10, 27, and 10 patients, respectively. There was no significant complication or any mortality. Conclusion: Although longer follow up of large number of patients is required, endoscopic microforaminotomy is a safe and an effective alternative to microscopic anterior discectomy with or without fusion.

  14. Etiological aspects of anterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open bite is a multifactorial phenomenon and no single factor can account for open-bite. Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite. Digit sucking. Depending on where the thumb is placed, a number of different types of dental problems can develop. Malocclusions of the late mixed or permanent dentitions, caused by thumb sucking are not self corrected and orthodontic treatment is necessary for their correction. Lymphatic tissue. In order to produce oral respiration, the mandible is postured inferiorly with the tongue protruded and resting against the oral floor. This postural alteration induces dental and skeletal modifications similar to those caused by thumb sucking. This may cause excessive eruption of the posterior teeth, leading to an increase in the vertical dimension of the face and result in development of anterior open bite. Tongue thrust. Tongue habits cause an anterior open bite or they develop secondarily to thumb sucking. In skeletal open bite the tongue habit acts as a secondary factor which helps to maintain or exacerbate the condition. Many orthodontists have had a discouraging experience of completing dental treatment, with what appeared to be good results, only to discover that the case had relapsed because the patient had a tongue thrust swallowing pattern. Conclusion. Dentoalveolar or habitual open bite is caused by habits, which influence the growth and development of dentoalveolar processes and contribute to occlusal disharmonies. Prior to eruption of adult dentition, open bite related to oral habits is usually not a concern as when the habits stop, because the erupting dentition tends to improve spontaneously. Treatment is usually not necessary until permanent teeth erupt (~6 years old. .

  15. Clinical Outcomes Following Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet. Conclusion: Both arthroscopic revision stabilization and Latarjet coracoid transfer result in satisfactory outcomes in patients who have failed previous arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. Recurrent instability rates were higher in the all-arthroscopic group (19% versus 7%). Longer-term studies are required to determine whether similar results are maintained over time, and to provide guidance on focused clinical indications for this challenging patient population.

  16. Tireoide ectópica no mediastino anterior Ectopic thyroid in the anterior mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Araújo da Cunha Guimarães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A ectopia de tireoide é rara, e a sua localização no mediastino anterior é excepcional, estando descritos apenas 5 casos nos últimos 30 anos. Os autores apresentam 2 casos clínicos, além de uma revisão da literatura abordando a etiologia, a embriologia e manifestações clínicas de ectopia de tireoide.Ectopic thyroid is a rare condition, and its location in the anterior mediastinum is even rarer, there having been only 5 reported cases in the past 30 years. Here, we describe 2 clinical cases and present a review of the literature regarding the etiology, embryology and clinical manifestations of ectopic thyroid.

  17. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  18. [Key points in anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Qian, Dongdong; Yuan, Yu; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduced the key points in fabricating anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic materials, including pre-operative smile design, standard tooth preparation, provisional restoration fabrication, all ceramic materials selection, all ceramic restoration bonding, ceramic crack and fracture prevention. And then, the authors summarized and reviewed the clinical common problems in anterior esthetic restorations.

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Frank W; Frobell, Richard; Lohmander, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a whole joint scoring system, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and follow-up of structural sequelae, and to assess its reliability. DESIGN...

  20. Dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Miguel Santos Silva Marquez Correia; João Paulo de Sousa Goucha Jorge; Ana Sofia Teixeira Neves; Gabriel Filipe Gonçalves Xavier; Marco Miguel Barroso de Oliveira; José Eduardo Paiva Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to highlight the possibility of dysphagia induced by anterior cervical osteophytes. When not diagnosed early this condition may be responsible for complications such as severe dysphagia and potential lung aspiration, especially in elderly patients. Analysis of a case report of a 72-year old woman who presented cervical pain and progressive dysphagia. Imaging studies have shown anterior ce...

  1. [Bilateral anterior uveiopapillitis, suspicious of Lyme disease--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Rusu, Ioana; Popescu, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a patient which associated bilateral anterior uveitis manifestations with those of bilateral anterior inflammatory optic neuropathy. We followed the evolution of the case under treatment and we discussed the differential diagnosis and the association of the two ocular pathologies.

  2. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue engineeri

  3. Anterior chamber cholesterolosis in a patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bryan K; Say, Emil Anthony T; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Thomas C; Kim, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Anterior chamber cholesterolosis is a rare phenomenon typically associated with non-neoplastic conditions such as hyphema or Coats disease; it has never been reported to be associated with intraocular malignancy. We report a case of anterior chamber cholesterolosis presenting in the setting of retinoblastoma and discuss clinical features relevant for its differentiation from Coats disease. PMID:27330481

  4. Return to Play Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ryan C; Hulstyn, Michael J; Fleming, Braden C; Owens, Brett D; Fadale, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are commonly performed in an attempt to return an athlete to sports activities. Accelerated rehabilitation has made recovery for surgery more predictable and shortened the timeline for return to play. Despite success with and advancements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, some athletes still fail to return to play. PMID:27543405

  5. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eijk, F. van

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue engineering.

  6. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  7. [Large distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with azygos anterior cerebral artery: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Kawamata, T; Matsumoto, H; Kunii, N; Matsumoto, K

    1998-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm (DACAA) manifesting as severe headache and monoparesis of the left lower limb. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure, bilateral sylvian fissures, and basal cistern, and a hematoma in the supracallosal region. Angiography showed a large aneurysm (23 x 18 mm) located on the distal end of the azygos anterior cerebral artery (azygos ACA) at the supracallosal portion. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the hematoma as a mixed intensity mass, compressing the corpus callosum downward, and the aneurysm as a flow void anterior to the hematoma. Unilateral frontoparietal parasagittal craniotomy was performed with a horse-shoe shaped incision. The aneurysm was clipped via the interhemispheric approach, and the hematoma was aspirated. Postoperative angiography showed disappearance of the aneurysm and intact azygos ACA. The patient was discharged with mild monoparesis, paresthesia of the left lower limb and diagnostic dyspraxia. DACAA almost always arises at or near the genu of the corpus callosum and is often associated with vascular anomaly. In the literature, 22 of 26 cases of large and giant DACAA were located at or near the genu, but only 3 cases, including ours, in the supracallosal area. 11 cases were associated with azygos ACA. Therefore, hemodynamic stress caused by vascular anomaly may be involved in the formation of large or giant DACAA in contrast with cases of normal DACAA. PMID:9789300

  8. Temporal and spatial requirements for Nodal-induced anterior mesendoderm and mesoderm in anterior neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsar, Ngawang; Coughlin, Alicia; Clay-Wright, Jessica A; Borg, Bethanie R; Kindt, Lexy M; Liang, Jennifer O

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish with defective Nodal signaling have a phenotype analogous to the fatal human birth defect anencephaly, which is caused by an open anterior neural tube. Previous work in our laboratory found that anterior open neural tube phenotypes in Nodal signaling mutants were caused by lack of mesendodermal/mesodermal tissues. Defects in these mutants are already apparent at neural plate stage, before the neuroepithelium starts to fold into a tube. Consistent with this, we found that the requirement for Nodal signaling maps to mid-late blastula stages. This timing correlates with the timing of prechordal plate mesendoderm and anterior mesoderm induction, suggesting these tissues act to promote neurulation. To further identify tissues important for neurulation, we took advantage of the variable phenotypes in Nodal signaling-deficient sqt mutant and Lefty1-overexpressing embryos. Statistical analysis indicated a strong, positive correlation between a closed neural tube and presence of several mesendoderm/mesoderm-derived tissues (hatching glands, cephalic paraxial mesoderm, notochord, and head muscles). However, the neural tube was closed in a subset of embryos that lacked any one of these tissues. This suggests that several types of Nodal-induced mesendodermal/mesodermal precursors are competent to promote neurulation.

  9. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  10. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli

    2007-12-01

    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  11. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  12. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  13. The relationship between the morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the predictability of surgical clipping and guide the steam shaping of microcatheters in endovascular embolization by analyzing the association of morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery(ACA) with formation and classification of anterior

  14. Anterior tension band plating for anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance female athletes - A report of 4 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Borens; M.K. Sen; R.C. Huang; J. Richmond; P. Kloen; J.B. Jupiter; D.L. Helfet

    2006-01-01

    Stress fracture of the anterior tibial cortex is an extremely challenging fracture to treat, especially in the high-performance female athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Previous reports have not addressed treating these fractures in the world-class athlete with anterior plating. We h

  15. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  16. Restoring primary anterior teeth: updated for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current literature associated with the techniques and materials for the restoration of primary anterior teeth and make clinical recommendations based upon the available literature. A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available to utilize for restoring primary incisors. Awareness of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material can enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are either some type of stainless steel or zirconia crown. There is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, the amount of tooth structure remaining, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables that affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative solution is chosen. PMID:25905657

  17. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hidetoshi; Miwa, Megumi; Deya, Keizo; Torisu, Kenji [Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate using MRI the natural healing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) when treated conservatively by early protective motion. Consecutive acute complete intraligamentous ruptures of the ACL in 50 cases that were allowed to heal without surgery were evaluated before and after 3 month treatment by MRI, arthroscopy, and stress radiographs. Twenty-nine of the 50 patients were also reevaluated 11 months from the initial injury, of which 7 were reevaluated again 24 months from the initial injury by MRI. The MR appearance of the treated ACL was categorized into four grades depending on homogeneity, straight band, and size. MR assessment of the ACL after 3 month treatment demonstrated a well defined normal-sized straight band in 37 cases (74%). There was a significant relationship between the 3 and 11 month MR evaluations (r. = 0.801, p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between the MR and arthroscopic evaluations (r, = 0.455, p < 0.005) and between the MR and stress radiographic evaluations (r, = 0.348, p < 0.025) after the 3 month treatment. MRI can demonstrate ACL healing when treated conservatively with early protective mobilization. 40 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Principles of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Tolga

    2014-09-18

    It is known that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction needs to be combined with detailed postoperative rehabilitation in order for patients to return to their pre-injury activity levels, and that the rehabilitation process is as important as the reconstruction surgery. Literature studies focus on how early in the postoperative ACL rehabilitation period rehabilitation modalities can be initiated. Despite the sheer number of studies on this topic, postoperative ACL rehabilitation protocols have not been standardized yet. Could common, "ossified" knowledge or modalities really prove themselves in the literature? Could questions such as "is postoperative brace use really necessary?", "what are the benefits of early restoration of the range of motion (ROM)?", "to what extent is neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) effective in the protection from muscular atrophy?", "how early can proprioception training and open chain exercises begin?", "should strengthening training start in the immediate postoperative period?" be answered for sure? My aim is to review postoperative brace use, early ROM restoration, NMES, proprioception, open/closed chain exercises and early strengthening, which are common modalities in the very comprehensive theme of postoperative ACL rehabilitation, on the basis of several studies (Level of Evidence 1 and 2) and to present the commonly accepted ways they are presently used. Moreover, I have presented the objectives of postoperative ACL rehabilitation in tables and recent miscellaneous studies in the last chapter of the paper. PMID:25232521

  19. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK is intended for the surgical treatment of corneal pathology without the involvement of the endothelium. Sparing of the healthy host endothelium for lifetime is of utmost importance in young patients. Therefore, keratoconus is among the main indications for DALK. Outline of Cases. Two men, 22 and 28 years of age, underwent DALK for the treatment of progressive keratoconus, with low visual acuity, impossible to be corrected with gas-permeable contact lenses, due to the extreme conical protrusion of the cornea. Baring of Descemet’s membrane was achieved with lamellar dissection and peeling off the stroma. An 8.5 mm graft without the endothelium was sutured into an 8.0 mm bed. Both grafts remained clear and attached, without either ocular surface pathology or problems arising from sutures. The best corrected visual acuity was 20/25 and 20/40, with the astigmatism of 2.5 and 3.0 diopters, respectively. The follow-up was one year. Conclusion. This is the first presentation of DALK in our literature. The restoration of corneal transparency and stability, with sparing of the host endothelium, has put DALK among successful corneal tranplantation procedures. Together with Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty, which already accounts for almost a half of all our keratoplasties, it offers an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty.

  20. [Rehabilitation after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smékal, D; Kalina, R; Urban, J

    2006-12-01

    Rehabilitation is an important part of therapy in patients who have had arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A well-designed rehabilitation program avoids potential graft damage and speeds up patients' return to their full function level. The course of rehabilitation depends on the type of surgery, mode of fixation and possible co-existing injury to the knee's soft tissues. The rehabilitation program presented here is based on the present-day knowledge of neurophysiological and biomechanical principles and is divided into five phases. In the pre-operative phase (I), the main objective is to prepare patients for surgery in terms of maximum muscle strength and range of motion. It also includes providing full information on the procedure. In the early post-operative phase (II) we are concerned with pain alleviation and reduction of knee edema. After suture removal we begin with soft techniques for the patella and post-operative physical therapy to reduce scarring. In the next post-operative phase (III) patients are able to walk with their full weight on the extremity operated on, and we continue doing exercises that improve flexor/extensor co-contraction. In this phase we also begin with exercises improving the patient's proprioceptive and sensorimotor functions. In the late post-operative phase (IV) we go on with exercises promoting proprioception of both lower extremities with the aim of increasing muscle control of the knee joints. In the convalescent phase (V) patients gradually return to their sports activities.

  1. Anterior dental microwear texture analysis of the Krapina Neandertals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kristin; Ungar, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Some Neandertal anterior teeth show unusual and excessive gross wear, commonly explained by non-dietary anterior tooth use, or using the anterior dentition as a tool, clamp, or third hand. This alternate use is inferred from aboriginal arctic populations, who used their front teeth in this manner. Here we examine anterior dental microwear textures of the Krapina Neandertals to test this hypothesis and further analyze tooth use in these hominins. Microwear textures from 17 Krapina Dental People were collected by white-light confocal profilometry using a 100x objective lens. Four adjacent scans were generated, totaling an area of 204x276 μm, and were analyzed using Toothfrax and SFrax SSFA software packages. The Neandertals were compared to six bioarchaeological/ethnographic samples with reported variation in diet, abrasive load, and non-dietary anterior tooth use. Results indicate that Krapina anterior teeth lack extreme microwear textures expected of hominins exposed to heavy abrasives or those that regularly generated high stresses associated with intense use of the front teeth as tools. Krapina hominins have microwear attributes in common with Coast Tsimshian, Aleut, and Puye Pueblo samples. Collectively, this suggests that the Krapina Neandertals faced moderate abrasive loads and only periodically used their anterior teeth as tools for non-diet related behaviors.

  2. Anterior segment parameters and eyelids in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Atik, Sevinc; Koc, Feray; Akin Sari, Sirin; Sefi Yurdakul, Nazife; Ozmen, Mustafa; Akar, Servet

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate main numerical parameters of anterior segment and the effects of eyelid skin changes on these parameters in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Thirty-four patients with SSc and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled. Besides full eye examination, anterior segment measurements including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber angle width, central corneal thickness, pupil size, corneal volume and keratometry were obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system. Eyelid thickness was evaluated using the scala of the modified Rodnan skin score and the patients were subgrouped with respect to these scores to evaluate the effect of eyelid thickening on the anterior segment parameters. Age and sex distributions of the groups were similar (p > 0.05). SSc patients had steeper and thinner corneas, smaller corneal volumes, narrower, shallower and smaller anterior segments but only the mean ACD value of right eyes was found significantly less than those of the controls (p = 0.047). The mean ACD values of SSc subgroup patients with moderate to severe eyelid thickening (50 %) had lower ACD measurements compared to those of control group. (p = 0.043 for the right eyes, p = 0.070 for the left eyes). However, SSc subgroup patients with none to mild eyelid thickening (50 %) had similar anterior segment parameters with control subjects (p > 0.05). Anterior chamber parameters of the SSc patients could show significant differences. These differences occur parallel to the eyelid changes but not secondary to it. PMID:26694912

  3. Measurement of anterior chamber volume with rotating scheimpflug camera and anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shu-ning; WANG Xiao-zhen; WU Ge-wei; MU Da-peng; WANG Jian; WANG Ning-li

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of anterior segment parameters plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements with rotating scheimpflug camera (RSC) and to examine agreement with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods Thirty nine healthy normal subjects were recruited from the Eye Center of Tongren Hospital. ACV was measured using RSC and AS-OCT in a randomly selected eye for each subject. For RSC measurements, both automatic and manual ACV measurements and 2 independent operators' ACV measurements were obtained. All subjects were invited for 3 visits within a week to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of ACV measurement by RSC. Agreement was evaluated between RSC and AS-OCT. Results Good repeatability and reproducibility were found for both automatic and manual ACV measurements obtained by RSC. For intrasession repeatability, coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for automatic were 3.52% and 0.98; the values for manual were 3.44% and 0.97, respectively. For intersession reproducibility, the respective CVw and ICC values were 3.96% and 0.96. Good agreement was also found in 2 operators for both automatic and manual ACV measurements; nevertheless, poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT (95% confidence interval (CI) for agreement of automatic RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were -96.3 to 72.8 μl and 95% CI for agreement of manual RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were between -41.7 to 10.1 μl). Conclusions Both RSC automatic and manual ACV measurements showed good repeatability and reproducibility, and showed comparable agreement between 2 independent operators, but poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT.

  4. Orbicularis oris musculomucosal flap for anterior palatal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior palatal fistulae or residual anterior clefts are a frequent problem following palatoplasty. Various techniques have been used to repair such fistulae, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. We have successfully used orbicularis oris musculomucosal flap to close anterior fistula and residual clefts in 25 patients. This study shows the superiority of this flap over other techniques because of its reliable blood supply, easy elevation and transfer to fistula site and finally because it is a single-stage procedure.

  5. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis presenting as anterior mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth Chandane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mediastinal lymphatic glands is a common presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB in children. However, usually, the mediastinal TB nodes enlarge to 2.8 ± 1.0 cm. In this report, we describe a case of anterior mediastinal lymphnode TB seen as huge mass (7 cm on computed tomography (CT thorax without respiratory or food pipe compromise despite anterior mediastinum being an enclosed space. CT guided biopsy of the mass cultured Mycobacterium TB complex which was resistant to isoniazide, rifampicin, streptomycin ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide. Hence, we report primary multi drug resistant TB presenting as anterior mediastinal mass as a rare case report.

  6. Fibrinous anterior uveitis following laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Pragya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopic astigmatism in both eyes presented with severe pain, photophobia and decreased visual acuity in the left eye eight days after surgery. Examination revealed severe anterior uveitis with fibrinous exudates in the anterior chamber, flap edema and epithelial bullae. Laboratory investigations for uveitis were negative and the patient required systemic and intensive topical steroids with cycloplegics to control the inflammation. This case demonstrates that severe anterior uveitis may develop after LASIK and needs prompt and vigorous management for resolution.

  7. Multimodal emotion perception after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie eMilesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of emotion information processing, several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the amygdala in emotion perception, for unimodal and multimodal stimuli. However, it seems that not only the amygdala, but several regions around it, may also play a major role in multimodal emotional integration. In order to investigate the contribution of these regions to multimodal emotion perception, five patients who had undergone unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection were exposed to both unimodal (vocal or visual and audiovisual emotional and neutral stimuli. In a classic paradigm, participants were asked to rate the emotional intensity of angry, fearful, joyful, and neutral stimuli on visual analog scales. Compared with matched controls, patients exhibited impaired categorization of joyful expressions, whether the stimuli were auditory, visual, or audiovisual. Patients confused joyful faces with neutral faces, and joyful prosody with surprise. In the case of fear, unlike matched controls, patients provided lower intensity ratings for visual stimuli than for vocal and audiovisual ones. Fearful faces were frequently confused with surprised ones. When we controlled for lesion size, we no longer observed any overall difference between patients and controls in their ratings of emotional intensity on the target scales. Lesion size had the greatest effect on intensity perceptions and accuracy in the visual modality, irrespective of the type of emotion. These new findings suggest that a damaged amygdala, or a disrupted bundle between the amygdala and the ventral part of the occipital lobe, has a greater impact on emotion perception in the visual modality than it does in either the vocal or audiovisual one. We can surmise that patients are able to use the auditory information contained in multimodal stimuli to compensate for difficulty processing visually conveyed emotion.

  8. Dirofilaria in the anterior chamber: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariasis is a parasitic infection of the carvivores that may present as a zoonotic infestation in humans. Systemic involvement in man is subcutaneous, pulmonary, or ocular. We report a rare occurrence of ocular dirofilariasis in a 25-year-old male patient who presented with pain and redness in the eye. A live, white, coiled, and highly motile worm was present in the anterior chamber. The worm, however, could not be detected in the anterior chamber, posterior segment, or the angle of the anterior chamber when the patient was taken to the operating room for surgical removal of the worm. The patient was made to lie prone till the worm reappeared in the anterior chamber and was removed by paracentesis. The worm was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic and histopathological examination.

  9. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a second wick down distally to prevent transitional cell carcinoma spillage. In this case it's probably not ... pulled the bladder off of the anterior abdominal wall and off of the pubic bone, the pubic ...

  10. Esthetic Challenges in Rehabilitating the Anterior Maxilla: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M E; Olivieri, K A; Rigolin, F J F; de Vasconcellos, A A

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of an unesthetic smile in the anterior maxilla is always a clinical challenge, especially when an improper shape and size, old restorations, and unesthetic shading are present. In addition, an irregular gingival zenith contour in the anterior maxilla can affect the smile's harmony. Thus, detailed treatment planning is needed to define a functional and esthetic prosthetic rehabilitation. This study describes a clinical case in which a 55-year-old woman was rehabilitated using Digital Smile Design planning and full ceramic crowns (metal free) in the anterior zone of the maxilla and mandible. To normalize the gingival zenith, a dynamic compression technique was performed using provisional restorations to condition the gingival tissues and harmonize the proportional length of the anterior upper teeth.

  11. Dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Miguel Santos Silva Marquez Correia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to highlight the possibility of dysphagia induced by anterior cervical osteophytes. When not diagnosed early this condition may be responsible for complications such as severe dysphagia and potential lung aspiration, especially in elderly patients. Analysis of a case report of a 72-year old woman who presented cervical pain and progressive dysphagia. Imaging studies have shown anterior cervical osteophytosis and multilevel degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The patient underwent surgical excision of the cervical anterior osteophytes (C4, C5 and C6 and C5/C6 arthrodesis through anterior approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and symptoms resolved within 2 weeks. Early diagnosis and treatment led to complete resolution, avoiding late and serious complications associated with this pathology in the geriatric population, especially severe and progressive dysphagia and risk of pulmonary aspiration, and the consequent morbidity and mortality associated. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for the correct assessment of this condition

  12. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anterior Pelvic Exenteration January 22, 2009 From Pennsylvania Hospital Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation brought ... And I'm a gynecologic oncologist at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. My colleague, Dr. Daniel Eun and ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus as a cause of anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, Lonneke A. A.; van der Lelij, Allegonda; van der Meer, Johannes; Los, Leonoor I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe 7 cases of unilateral, chronic and/or recurrent anterior uveitis caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) in immunocompetent patients; to identify specific ophthalmologic characteristics; and to evaluate the clinical effect of valganciclovir treatment. Design: Retrospective observational

  14. QUADROS CONCEITUAIS DO CETICISMO ANTERIOR A SEXTO EMPÍRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto de Brito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Artigo em que demonstramos, através de tabelas que servem como ferramentas depesquisa, os principais ganhos conceituais do ceticismo anterior a Sexto Empírico, em suasdiferentes fases.

  15. Elevator Muscle Anterior Resection: A New Technique for Blepharoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigiotti, Gian Luigi; Delia, Gabriele; Grenga, Pierluigi; Pichi, Francesco; Rechichi, Miguel; Jaroudi, Mahmoud O; d'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Lupo, Flavia; Meduri, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Blepharoptosis is a condition of inadequate upper eyelid position, with a downward displacement of the upper eyelid margin resulting in obstruction of the superior visual field. Levator resection is an effective technique that is routinely used to correct aponeurotic ptosis. The anterior levator resection is the procedure of choice in moderate blepharoptosis when there is moderate to good levator muscle function, furthermore, with an anterior approach, a greater resection can be achieved than by a conjunctival approach. The authors describe a modification in the Putterman technique with a resection done over a plicated elevator, plication that was suggested by Mustardè. The technique has been named as elevator muscle anterior resection. The elevator muscle anterior resection inspires from the Fasanella-Servat operation by the use of a clamp, making the operation simple and predictable. PMID:26703054

  16. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  17. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this plane right in front of the pubic bone. That’s where it's avascular and you can do ... anterior abdominal wall and off of the pubic bone, the pubic symphysis. And now we have approached ...

  18. Minimally invasive surgery of the anterior skull base: transorbital approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Holger G.; Schwan, Franziska; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature. The transorbital approaches allow excellent exposure of areas that are difficult to reach like the anterior and posterior wall of the frontal sinus; working angles may be more favorable and the paranasal sinus system can be preserved while exposing the skull base. Because of their minimal morbidity and the cosmetically excellent results, the transorbital approaches represent an important addition to established endonasal endoscopic and open approaches to the anterior skull base. Their execution requires an interdisciplinary team approach. PMID:27453759

  19. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and uterine arteries and opened the recto-vaginal space posteriorly, taken down much of those pelvic side ... anterior extent, coming down in the pre-vesicle space and doing the cystectomy and connecting that cystectomy ...

  20. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  1. Case study: limitations of panoramic radiography in the anterior mandible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walker, Cameron

    2009-12-01

    Dental Panoramic Tomography (DPT) is a widely used and valuable examination in dentistry. One area prone to artefacts and therefore misinterpretation is the anterior region of the mandible. This case study discusses a periapical radiolucency related to lower anterior teeth that is discovered to be a radiographic artefact. Possible causes of the artefact include a pronounced depression in the mental region of the mandible or superimposition of intervertebral spaces. Additional limitations of the DPT image include superimposition of radio-opaque structures, reduced image detail compared to intra-oral views and uneven magnification. These problems often make the DPT inappropriate for imaging the anterior mandible. Clinical Relevance: Panoramic radiography is often unsuitable for radiographic examination of the anterior mandible.

  2. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no transfusion of blood or blood products. Therefore, we had to be absolutely meticulous and be able ... this case, since the rectum is not involved, we would surgically remove the bladder, the anterior part ...

  3. Surgical technique for repair of complex anterior skull base defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Reinard

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The layered reconstruction of large anterior cranial fossa defects resulted in postoperative CSF leak in only 5% of the patients and represents a simple and effective closure option for skull base surgeons.

  4. Simple self-reduction method for anterior shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Wirbel

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The presented Boss-Holzach-Matter method for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation is a simple method without the need of anaesthesia, but cooperation from patients is crucial. The successful rate is comparable with other established methods.

  5. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anterior pelvic exenteration performed with the robotic surgical system on a woman with recurrent cervical cancer developing ... proceed with a pelvic exenteration using the robotic system both to minimize the risk of complications due ...

  6. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S.; Putkonen, M.; Puranen, J.; Raatikainen, T.

    1988-11-01

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis.

  7. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to you by Intuitive Surgical. During the program, it’s easy for you to learn about the procedure. ... of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters ...

  8. CARTILAGE-LIKE PHENOMENON IN THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To detect histological characteristic of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL). Methods. In each of 20 skeletally mature male mongrels and 4 men, the ACL and MCL were examined by standard hematoxylin-eosin procedure and toluidine blue staining for histologic observation. Results. The fibroblasts in medial collateral are elongated to spindle shape and aligned in a row between the bundles of collagenous fibers. Toluidine blue staining is negative. The anterior cruciate ligament demonstrated more heterogenous cell types and arrangement. It had three major cell forms:spindle, round and ovoid type, which were shorter but greater than the cells in medial collateral ligament. Toluidine blue staining was positive in anterior cruciate ligament. Most cells in anterior cruciate ligament were enclosed within lacunae. Conclusion. This study suggests that the ACL has different histological characteristics from MCL, and is more cartilage-like in nature.

  9. CARTILAGE-LIKE PHENOMENON IN THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青; 林共周; 典绵域; 崔国庆; 滕华建

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To detect histological characteristic of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL). Methods. In each of 20 skeletally mature male mongrels and 4 men, the ACL and MCL were examined by standard hematoxylin-eosin procedure and toluidine blue staining for histologic observation. Results. The fibroblasts in medial collateral are elongated to spindle shape and aligned in a row between the bundles of collagenous fibers. Toluidine blue staining is negative. The anterior cruciate ligament demonstrated more heterogenous cell types and arrangement. It had three major cell forms: spindle, round and ovoid type,which were shorter but greater than the cells in medial collateral ligament. Toluidine blue staining was positive in anterior cruciate ligament. Most cells in anterior cruciate ligament were enclosed within lacunae. Conclusion. This study suggests that the ACL has different histological characteristics from MCL, and is more cartilage-like in nature.

  10. Anticoagulation after anterior myocardial infarction and the risk of stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Udell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survivors of anterior MI are at increased risk for stroke with predilection to form ventricular thrombus. Commonly patients are discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy. Given the frequency of early coronary reperfusion and risk of bleeding, it remains uncertain whether anticoagulation offers additional utility. We examined the effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy for the prevention of stroke after anterior MI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based cohort analysis of 10,383 patients who survived hospitalization for an acute MI in Ontario, Canada from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2001. The primary outcome was four-year ischemic stroke rates compared between anterior and non-anterior MI patients. Risk factors for stroke were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analysis. Warfarin use was determined at discharge and followed for 90 days among a subset of patients aged 66 and older (n = 1483. Among the 10,383 patients studied, 2,942 patients survived hospitalization for an anterior MI and 20% were discharged on anticoagulation therapy. Within 4 years, 169 patients (5.7% were admitted with an ischemic stroke, half of which occurred within 1-year post-MI. There was no significant difference in stroke rate between anterior and non-anterior MI patients. The use of warfarin up to 90 days was not associated with stroke protection after anterior MI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.26. The use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.95 and beta-blockers (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41-0.87 were associated with a significant decrease in stroke risk. There was no significant difference in bleeding-related hospitalizations in patients who used warfarin for up to 90 days post-MI. CONCLUSION: Many practitioners still consider a large anterior-wall MI as high risk for potential LV thrombus formation and stroke. Among a cohort of elderly patients who survived an anterior

  11. Anterior chamber flare after trabeculectomy and after phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardena, D; Kotecha, A; Minassian, D; Dart, J.; KHAW, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate and compare prospectively the anterior chamber inflammatory response after phacoemulsification cataract surgery and after trabeculectomy with peripheral iridectomy.
METHODS—Anterior chamber inflammation was measured using the Kowa FM-500 laser flare meter in 131 patients undergoing trabeculectomy and 148 patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Flare was measured before surgery and on each postoperative visit up to 12 mon...

  12. An overlay partial denture to restore worn mandibular anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Asha; DeSciscio, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Restoring worn anterior mandibular teeth is a challenge, especially when teeth are small, esthetics are a concern, the long-term prognosis is questionable, and/or patient finances are an issue. This article describes an alternate treatment for a patient with a collapsed bite, missing posterior mandibular teeth, an ill-fitting complete maxillary denture with poor esthetics, and irregular, worn mandibular anterior teeth.

  13. Is dysphonia permanent or temporary after anterior cervical approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Serdar; Sirin, Sait; Erdogan, Ersin; Atabey, Cem; Daneyemez, Mehmet; Gonul, Engin

    2007-01-01

    The rate, causes and prognosis of dysphonia after anterior cervical approach (ACA) were investigated in our clinical series. During a 10-year interval, 235 consecutive patients with cervical disc disease underwent surgical treatment using anterior approach. Retrospective chart reviews showed recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in 3 (1.27%) patients. All three patients were men and only one patient had multilevel surgery. These patients had RLN injury after virgin surgery. Laryngoscopic exa...

  14. Missing Screw as a Rare Complication of Anterior Cervical Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Kurtuluş Duransoy; Mesut Mete; Baha Zengel; Mehmet Selçukı

    2013-01-01

    Although anterior cervical arthrodesis is an effective procedure for the treatment of cervical disorders, the method has some complications. Here, we describe this rare complication of cervical instrumentation with a literature review. A 23-year-old male patient was operated for a C6-C7 dislocation. At postoperative month 10, he presented with hemoptysis and dysphagia. Cervical roentgenograms showed anterior migrations of one broken screw and a plate-locking screw at the C6 corpus. One screw ...

  15. Anterior uveitis secondary to type II essential cryoglobulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Laura; Sobrin, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this report is to describe the association of severe anterior uveitis with type II essential cryoglobulinemia. Findings: A 40-year-old male with a history of psoriatic arthritis presented with severe anterior uveitis associated with type II essential cryoglobulinemia. His uveitis, refractory to steroid treatments, was well controlled following treatments for cryoglobulinemia. The temporal association between his cryoglobulinemia and uveitis, combined with his improv...

  16. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  17. Intrusion of anterior teeth to improve smile esthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Balaji, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    A gummy smile is probably one of the most common causes of an unaesthetic smile. Causes include overeruption of maxillary anterior teeth and maxillary vertical excess. Intrusion of maxillary anterior teeth with Orthodontics and Le forte I superior repositioning may form a part of the solution. Of late the use of micro implants have improved the smile esthetics of borderline surgical cases by allowing the Orthodontist to intrude teeth more than what was possible with conventional Orthodontics.

  18. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Yashavantha Kumar C; Nalini K B; Lalit Maini; Prashanth Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislo...

  19. Neglected Traumatic Locked Anterior Shoulder Fracture-Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Mehmet Serhan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Erten, Recep Abdullah; Metineren, Hasan; Altinel, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments and fractures of proximal humerus can accompany with dislocations. Although the treatment of acute isolated traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation is generally simple, the treatment of neglected fracture-dislocations becomes more complicated. In this report, a 22-year-old male patient who had posttraumatic locked, shoulder fracture-dislocation is presented. Open reduction and ...

  20. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Mallanagouda N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand). He complained of...

  1. Anterior process calcaneal fractures: a systematic evaluation of associated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrover, David [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Laredo, J.D. [Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France)

    2007-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the association, by MRI, of anterior calcaneal process fractures with tarsal coalitions, ankle sprains, and bifurcate ligament abnormalities. A retrospective review of 1,479 foot and ankle MR images was performed, over a period of 5 years, for isolated anterior process fractures of the calcaneus. Fifteen 1.5-T MR examinations were systematically evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Marrow edema patterns, presence of a calcaneonavicular coalition, as well as bifurcate and anterior talofibular ligaments, were evaluated. There were 15 fractures of the anterior calcaneal process with an incidence of 1%. The average patient age was 51 years (range 25-82). Twelve patients were women and 3 were men. The majority of the fractures (14 out of 15) presented as an edema pattern on T2-weighted images, either diffuse (9 out of 15), or vertical (5 out of 15). One case did not show marrow edema, but rather a hypointense line. Nine patients (60%) demonstrated calcaneonavicular coalition and anterior calcaneal process fracture. In 6 patients (50%) the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was thickened. Three patients did not have axial images, and were classified as non-conclusive for the ATFL evaluation. The bifurcate ligament was thickened with hyperintense signal demonstrating a sprain in 9 out of 13 (69%). Only 2 patients (16.5%) had an anterior calcaneal process fracture without any associated abnormality. We believe that there is a probable association of anterior process fractures and calcaneonavicular coalitions. We also feel, based on our results and the prior literature that there is likely also an association with both ATFL injuries and bifurcate ligament injuries. (orig.)

  2. Anterior process calcaneal fractures: a systematic evaluation of associated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to evaluate the association, by MRI, of anterior calcaneal process fractures with tarsal coalitions, ankle sprains, and bifurcate ligament abnormalities. A retrospective review of 1,479 foot and ankle MR images was performed, over a period of 5 years, for isolated anterior process fractures of the calcaneus. Fifteen 1.5-T MR examinations were systematically evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Marrow edema patterns, presence of a calcaneonavicular coalition, as well as bifurcate and anterior talofibular ligaments, were evaluated. There were 15 fractures of the anterior calcaneal process with an incidence of 1%. The average patient age was 51 years (range 25-82). Twelve patients were women and 3 were men. The majority of the fractures (14 out of 15) presented as an edema pattern on T2-weighted images, either diffuse (9 out of 15), or vertical (5 out of 15). One case did not show marrow edema, but rather a hypointense line. Nine patients (60%) demonstrated calcaneonavicular coalition and anterior calcaneal process fracture. In 6 patients (50%) the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was thickened. Three patients did not have axial images, and were classified as non-conclusive for the ATFL evaluation. The bifurcate ligament was thickened with hyperintense signal demonstrating a sprain in 9 out of 13 (69%). Only 2 patients (16.5%) had an anterior calcaneal process fracture without any associated abnormality. We believe that there is a probable association of anterior process fractures and calcaneonavicular coalitions. We also feel, based on our results and the prior literature that there is likely also an association with both ATFL injuries and bifurcate ligament injuries. (orig.)

  3. [Chondroblastoma in the anterior cruciate ligament origo: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hafız; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur; Karataş, Metin; Onay, Atilgan; Yildiz, Kadriye

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rarely seen cartilage originated tumor. It is mostly localized in the epiphysis of long bones. In this article, we present an 18-year-old male case in whom the tumor was located in the right distal femoral lateral condyle and destroyed anterior cruciate ligament origo. The tumor was curetted and the cavity was filled with cement. Anterior cruciate ligament resection was mandatory for this treatment. The patient had no complaint in the postoperative period.

  4. [Chondroblastoma in the anterior cruciate ligament origo: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hafız; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur; Karataş, Metin; Onay, Atilgan; Yildiz, Kadriye

    2012-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rarely seen cartilage originated tumor. It is mostly localized in the epiphysis of long bones. In this article, we present an 18-year-old male case in whom the tumor was located in the right distal femoral lateral condyle and destroyed anterior cruciate ligament origo. The tumor was curetted and the cavity was filled with cement. Anterior cruciate ligament resection was mandatory for this treatment. The patient had no complaint in the postoperative period. PMID:22765492

  5. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  6. Four year experience with the AO Anterior Thoracolumbar Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalgott, J S; Kabins, M B; Timlin, M; Fritts, K; Giuffre, J M

    1997-05-01

    For decades spinal surgeons have attempted to design simple, single stage anterior internal fixation systems for the thoracic and lumbar spine. Early devices presented both biomechanical and technical problems. The AO Anterior Thoracolumbar Locking Plate (ATLP) was designed to solve some of the problems encountered with early anterior instrumentation. The ATLP system is constructed in Commercially Pure titanium. It is a low profile device indicated for use for unstable burst fractures in the anterior column; metastatic tumor management; and degenerative diseases of the thoracolumbar spine between levels T10 and L5. Implantation of the device involves direct anterior decompression with sagittal reduction and corpectomy. This is followed by grafting reconstruction, and plate fixation. This device has been implanted in 25 patients with an average follow-up of 38 months. There were five (5) broken screws in three (3) patients, and no broken plates. Implant related postoperative complications included two misplaced screws. Preliminary results indicate that the ATLP system seems to be a safe, low profile, MRI/CT compatible device that provides definitive single stage fixation of the anterior spinal column. PMID:9160452

  7. Relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in mandibular prognathism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pankaj; Singh, Virender; Anand, S. C.; Bansal, Sumidha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We tried to find out the relevance of anterior mandibular body ostectomy in deformities of the mandible specially prognathism, which is primarily limited to anterior part only. Patients and Methods: Ten patients with skeletal deformity along with malocclusion, which was limited to anterior body of mandible were selected. Selected patients had proper molar interdigitation (even if class 3) and in general had anterior crossbite (except one). All patients had crossed their growth spurts and had no hormonal influence on facial deformity. Specific protocol, including cephelometric analysis cephalometry for orthognathic surgery, prediction tracing and model surgeries were devised. Pre and post-surgical orthodontics and body ostectomy were performed in all patients along with 18-month post-op follow-up. Results: There was significant reduction in prognathism and horizontal dysplasia in all ten patients. Anterior crossbite as well as axis of incisiors over mandibular plane was corrected in all patients due to decrease in length of mandibular body. All patients showed decreased facial height and better lip competence with intact posterior occlusion and no (negligible or transient) sensory loss. Conclusions: Our study could confirm that people whose deformity is limited to the anterior part of mandible with reasonable occlusion posteriorly can get satisfactory cosmetic and functional results through body ostectomy alone rather than going for surgical procedure in the ramal area, which is liable to cause sensory and occlusal disturbances. PMID:24163554

  8. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of trachea: a case report and review of literatures%气管外周原始神经外胚层瘤一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冠英; 谢宝松; 岳文香; 李瑞慧; 陈小岩; 何毅辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 提高对气管外周原始神经外胚层瘤(PNET)的认识.方法 报道1例2010年7月确诊的气管外周PNET患者的临床资料、诊治经过及随访情况,并进行相关文献复习.以“原始神经外胚层瘤,外周”为检索词通过万方医学数据库对中文文献进行检索,以“primitive neuroeetodermal tumor,peripheral”为检索词通过PubMed数据库进行检索,检索时间截至2011年9月.结果 患者女,63岁,因“咳嗽、咳痰50 d,气促1个月”入院.入院前曾误诊为“慢性咽炎、慢性支气管炎、支气管哮喘”.入院后胸部CT示气管中段占位性病变.支气管镜检查示声门下4 cm处可见带蒂肿物,肿物包膜完整,表面光滑,血管丰富,行支气管镜下气管肿物高频圈套电切电凝术.术后病理报告支气管黏膜下可见片状小圆形恶性肿瘤细胞浸润,免疫组织化学染色CD56及CD99呈弥漫强阳性,突触素及S-100蛋白阳性;白血病融合转录因子-1(FLI-1)融合基因表达阳性;确诊为气管外周PNET.患者术后咳嗽、气促症状消失,随访至今14个月,未见肿瘤局部复发及远处转移.在万方医学数据库上检索到40篇文献共187例PNET,24篇为回顾性分析,16篇为个案报道;在PubMed检索系统检索到111篇文献,1篇为前瞻性研究,1篇为综述,22篇为回顾性分析,87篇为个案报道,但均未见外周气管PNET的报道.结论 气管外周PNET可发生于气管,易误诊,诊断主要依靠组织病理学及免疫组织化学染色,EWS-FLI-1融合基因阳性可作为确诊气管外周PNET的可靠指标;气管外周PNET可能与发生于其他部位的PNET不同,其侵袭性低,远处转移较少.%Objective To improve the understanding of tracheal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET).Methods A case of tracheal PNET diagnosed in July 2010 was reported and the related literatures were reviewed.The literature review was carried out respectively with

  9. Anterior, posterior, left anterior oblique, and geometric mean views in gastric emptying studies using a glucose solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has shown that the single anterior view of the stomach overestimates the gastric half-emptying time of a solid meal compared to the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior views. Little research has been performed comparing the various views of gastric emptying of a glucose solution. After an overnight fast, 49 nondiabetic subjects were given a 450 ml solution containing 50 g of glucose and 200 μCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Sequential 1-min anterior, posterior, and left anterior oblique views were obtained every 15 min. The mean percent solution remaining in the stomach for all three views differed from the geometric mean by 1.9% or less at all time points. Average gastric half-emptying times were: geometric mean, 62.7±3.3 min; anterior, 61.9±3.2 min; posterior, 63.5±3.5 min; and left anterior oblique, 61.6±3.3 min. These half-emptying times were not statistically different. For individual patients, differences between all three views and the geometric mean were not clinically important. Approximately 95% of all patients are expected to have gastric half-emptying times measured by any of the three single views within 17 min of the gastric half-emptying time obtained using the geometric mean. The imaging of gastric emptying using glucose solutions can be performed using a convenient single view which allows continuous dynamic imaging. (orig.)

  10. Silicone Oil Tamponade Combined with Lensectomy Preserving Anterior Lens Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuL; YangJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the therapeutic effect and indicatio n of silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule.Methods:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule was performed in 33 cases (33 eyes)of high myopia ,proliferative vitroretinopathy(PVR)D grade and giant retinal tear(GRT).10 cases were onlyeye and 11 cases had harder nucleus of lens.The surgical methods included:1.smashing lens nucleus and lensectomy preserving complete anterior capsule;2,vitrectomy and membrane peeling;3,usage of liquid perfluorocarbin or retinotomy or drainage;4.silicone oil tamponade;5.postoperative Nd;YAG laser for anterior capsulectomy. Results:Follow-up time was 6 months or more in 29 cases.Total retinal reattachment was achieved in 22 cases,macular retinal reattachment in 5 cases.The visual acuity was 20/800 to 20/200 in 13 cases,20/100 to 20/50 in 12 cases.Visual acuity was significantly improved in GRT group(P<0.05).Complications included unexpected anterior capsule break intraoperatively,anterior capsule opacity,silicone oil emulsification and liquid perfluorocarbin remainig postoperatively.Conclusions:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior capsule was safe and can reduce the operative complications.The indications included:1.GRT complicated with high myopia;2,advanced PVR cases complicated with high myopia in which silicone oil must be used;3.severe lens opacity cases in which silicone oil must be used;4.complex retinal detachment of only ye.

  11. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  12. Pentacam could be a useful tool for evaluating and qualifying the anterior chamber morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zheng; Cao, Qun; Hu, Lei; Tian, Fang; Dai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the changes of anterior chamber morphology after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle-closure (PAC) patients using Pentacam. Methods: 35 normal persons and 35 patients of PAC before and 1 week after neodymium: yttrium: aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) LPI were evaluated with Pentacam. We measured the anterior chamber angle (ACA), central anterior chamber depth (CACD), peripheral anterior chamber depth (PACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and pu...

  13. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la arteria cerebral anterior se origina de la bifurcación de la arteria carótida interna lateral al quiasma óptico, posteriormente se une con su homóloga contralateral mediante la arteria comunicante anterior. El complejo precomunicante(A1)-arteria comunicante anterior es el lugar más frecuente de variantes anatómicas y el sitio con mayor cantidad de aneurismas (30 a 37%). Objetivo: conocer la anatomía microquirúrgica, las variantes anatómicas y la importancia del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior en cirugía neurológica de la patología vascular, principalmente aneurismas, en población mexicana. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo y descriptivo efectuado en el Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina (UNAM) en 30 encéfalos inyectados. Se estudió la anatomía microquirúrgica (longitud y calibre) del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior de la arteria cerebral anterior y sus variantes. Resultados: se encontraron 60 segmentos precomunicantes. La longitud promedio del lado izquierdo fue de 11.35 mm y del derecho de 11.84 mm. El calibre medio en el lado izquierdo fue de 1.67 mm y en el derecho de 1.64 mm. El número promedio de perforantes en el lado izquierdo fue de 7.9 y en el derecho de 7.5. La arteria comunicante anterior se encontró en 29 encéfalos sobre el quiasma óptico, su trayecto dependió de la longitud del segmento A1. La longitud media del segmento fue de 2.84 mm, el calibre fue de 1.41 mm y el número promedio de perforantes de 3.27. En 18 encéfalos (60%) se encontraron variantes del complejo A1-arteria comunicante anterior y dos aneurismas tipo blíster. Conclusión: es necesario entender la anatomía microquirúrgica del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior y conocer las variantes para tener una visión en tercera dimensión durante la cirugía de aneurismas.

  14. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  15. Myringoplasty for anterior and subtotal perforations using KTP-532 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Imre; Ráth, Gábor; Szanyi, István; Pytel, József

    2006-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed on patients who underwent myringoplasty for either anterior or subtotal perforations over an 8-year period (from 1994 till 2004). We used the KTP-laser assisted anterior anchoring technique combining with anterior "pull-back" method. Patients' ages ranged from 6-62 years (median 36.5). The mean follow-up period was 2.8 years (minimum 6 months). The audiological results were analysed with the "Pytel software", which was developed in our department. As for the procedure, the drum remnant was freed from the malleus handle with the use of the laser and elevated out of it's sulcus anterior-superiorly. Large fascia graft was fashioned with a split of 4-5 mm in the middle of one edge. The graft was placed using the underlay technique medial to the handle of the malleus. A pull-back tunnel was created at the border of the anterior quadrants to further facilitate the survival of the graft. In this series the graft taking rate was 100%. Reperforation due to an undersized fascia was observed in one case. Post-operative audiological results indicated no bone conduction threshold elevation in any frequencies. Using the laser, cochlear trauma can be prevented, double fixation of the drum prevents lateralisation and blunting. Wide canalplasty makes both the approach and the follow-up very easy. Thorough soft tissue and bone work is advantageous from the fascia taking rate point of view.

  16. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Spierer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  17. Association of Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia in Bilateral Anterior Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two female patients with histories of cancer who showed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP complications and bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon were examined. Both patients had suffered from COP and received intermitted systemic corticosteroid administration (SCA. The first patient, a 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, showed bilateral uveitis with hypopyon. The topical corticosteroid treatment was ineffective. After SCA for the treatment of COP was started, the hypopyon gradually dissipated. Upon termination of SCA, uveitis relapses were controlled by renewed SCA. The other patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer, showed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon. Her intraocular outcome did not improve by the topical corticosteroid administration, but SCA that was applied to treat COP led to remission of uveitis. Imaging examinations, biochemical analysis, symptoms or HLA-B27 antigen screenings in either patient did not explain the development of uveitis. Bilateral anterior uveitis is commonly related to autoimmune disease or systemic syndrome. We report two cases with COP that developed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon resistant to topical administration but responsive to systemic administration of corticosteroid. These findings suggest that COP can be associated with the etiology of anterior uveitis.

  18. HLA-B27 Anterior Uveitis: Immunology and Immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Denis; Yates, William; Amjadi, Shahriar; McCluskey, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is the commonest type of uveitis and HLA-B27 AAU is the most frequently recognized type of acute anterior uveitis and anterior uveitis overall. Recent evidence indicates that acute anterior uveitis is a heterogenous disease, is polygenic and is frequently associated with the spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Studies of patients with AAU and animal models of disease indicate a role for innate immunity, the IL-23 cytokine pathway and exogenous factors, in the pathogenesis of both SpA and acute anterior uveitis. Recently described genetic associations cluster around immunologic pathways, including the IL-17 and IL-23 pathways, antigen processing and presentation, and lymphocyte development and activation. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and AAU share other genetic markers, such as ERAP-1, which show strong evidence of gene-gene interaction and point to new mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. These observations have major implications for understanding the pathogenesis of HLA-B27 diseases, such as AAU, and may lead to the development of more specific therapy for AAU. Received 6 January 2016; revised 6 February 2016; accepted 18 February 2016; published online 31 May 2016. PMID:27245590

  19. Ophthalmohelioses and peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneo, Minas T.

    1994-07-01

    A coincidence of the locations of foci of scattered light in the anterior eye with the usual locations of common sun-related eye conditions has been observed. These phenomena may explain the pathogenesis of pterygium and the initial location of certain cortical lens opacities and eyelid malignancies. Human and bovine eyes were used to demonstrate that the anterior eye acts as a side-on lens system. Light incident at the temporal limbus can be concentrated at the nasal limbus or beyond or at the nasal crystalline lens equator. The main pathways of light are transcameral and this is demonstrated by the use of baffles. Although this phenomenon is obvious with visible light, focusing of light at 308nm can be demonstrated. Computer-assisted optical ray tracing in a standard human anterior segment model showed that the peak intensity at the distal limbus is approximately twenty times that of the incident light intensity. The degree of limbal focusing is determined by corneal shape and anterior chamber depth. Such light focusing may be particularly injurious to corneal and lenticular epithelial stem cells. These observations provide circumstantial evidence that peripheral refraction phenomena are involved in the pathogenesis of the anterior ophthalmohelioses. Adequate lateral protection of the eye from increasing ultraviolet insolation may be prudent.

  20. Psychological Aspects of Recovery Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A; Fantry, Amanda J; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-08-01

    Recovery following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an arduous process that requires a significant mental and physical commitment to rehabilitation. Orthopaedic research in recent years has focused on optimizing anterior cruciate ligament surgical techniques; however, despite stable anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, many athletes still never achieve their preinjury ability or even return to sport. Psychological factors associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are important to acknowledge and understand. Issues related to emotional disturbance, motivation, self-esteem, locus of control, and self-efficacy can have profound effects on patients' compliance, athletic identity, and readiness to return to sport. The psychological aspects of recovery play a critical role in functional outcomes, and a better understanding of these concepts is essential to optimize the treatment of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, particularly those who plan to return to sport. Identifying at-risk patients, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, and providing early referral to a sports psychologist may improve patient outcomes and increase return-to-play rates among athletes.

  1. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful. PMID:27462251

  2. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  3. Evaluation of Anterior Segment's Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Ercan; Demirel, Ersin Ersan; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (p = 0.625, p = 0.830, p = 0.234, and p = 0.850). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (p = 0.130, p = 0.910, and p = 0.057). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. PMID:27648303

  4. Features extraction in anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, P

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research is finding the feature vectors of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL). These feature vectors have to clearly define the ligaments structure and make it easier to diagnose them. Extraction of feature vectors is obtained by analysis of both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. This procedure is performed after the extraction process of both ligaments. In the first stage in order to reduce the area of analysis a region of interest including cruciate ligaments (CL) is outlined in order to reduce the area of analysis. In this case, the fuzzy C-means algorithm with median modification helping to reduce blurred edges has been implemented. After finding the region of interest (ROI), the fuzzy connectedness procedure is performed. This procedure permits to extract the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures. In the last stage, on the basis of the extracted anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures, 3-dimensional models of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are built and the feature vectors created. This methodology has been implemented in MATLAB and tested on clinical T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of the knee joint. The 3D display is based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK).

  5. 幕上原始神经外胚层肿瘤的 MRI表现与病理分析%Comparative analyze MRI and pathological feature of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 李德龙; 王兴东; 季学满; 张宗军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze MRI feature and pathological findings of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) ,and improve the diagnosis .Methods The MRI findings and histopathological features of 22 cases with sPNET proved by pathology were analyzed retrospectively and combined with literature .Results Twenty cases showed single intracranial mass ,one case with diffuse lesion ,and one with multiple lesions .On MRI ,Most tumors were localized in cerebral subcortex ,presented as round or lobulated masses with well‐demarcated margins ,and with mild or no peritu‐moral edema .Large cystic and necrotic portions in tumors were seen in 15 cases ,and focal intratumoral hemorrhage were seen in 11 cases .The solid portion of tumors showed slightly hypointense to isointense on T1‐weighted images ,and isoin‐tense to slightly hyperintense on T2‐weighted images .The solid portion of tumors showed low ADC value in 13/19 cases . On post‐contrast imaging ,77 .3 percent tumors showed marked inhomogeneous enhancement .On microscopic examina‐tion ,necrosis were seen in 17 cases ,the tumors composed of small round to oval small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and spread invasively ,some of the tumor cells appeared as rosettes .Most cases showed multiple neurogenous maker ex‐pression on immunohistochemistry assay .Conclusion The MRI appearance of sPNET could reflect its histopathology fea‐tures ,and helpful to the diagnosis and differentiation from other brain tumors .%目的:探讨幕上原始神经外胚层肿瘤(sPNET)的MRI及病理特点,提高对本病的认识。方法回顾性分析经手术病理证实的22例sPNET的MRI和组织病理学特点,并结合文献进行分析。结果22例sPNET中20例为单发病灶,弥漫浸润和多灶性病变各1例。肿瘤多位于大脑半球皮层下,呈类圆形和分叶状、边界较清晰,瘤周水肿轻或无水肿为主。M RI上15例可见明显囊变、11例可见

  6. Tendinopatia do compartimento anterior do tornozelo Tendinopathy of the anterior compartment of the ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Egydio de Carvalho Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Análise retrospectiva da etiopatogenia, diagnóstico e opções de tratamento nos casos de tendinopatias do compartimento anterior do tornozelo (TCAT. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 1998 a fevereiro de 2009, 13 pacientes foram operados por tendinopatia do compartimento anterior do tornozelo. A casuística constou de 10 pacientes do sexo masculino e três do feminino. O lado direito foi acometido em 12 pés e um do esquerdo. A média de idade foi de 35 anos (15-67. A etiologia foi traumática em oito pacientes e em cinco, degenerativa (atraumática. O tempo médio do diagnóstico ao tratamento foi de 19 meses (1-60 e o seguimento foi de 34 meses (4-127. O diagnóstico foi feito através da história e exame clínico. A ressonância magnética foi realizada em nove pacientes para estadiamento e planejamento. O tratamento cirúrgico foi personalizado para cada caso (sinovectomia, ressecção de ventre muscular, solidarização com o tendão adjacente e enxerto livre de tendão semitendíneo. Para a avaliação dos resultados foram utilizadas as escalas: 1 graduação subjetiva de satisfação, 2 AOFAS e 3 Maryland. RESULTADO: Em relação à escala de graduação subjetiva de satisfação, 12 pacientes satisfeitos e um paciente insatisfeito. A média da escala AOFAS foi de 80 pontos, a média da escala Maryland foi de 86 pontos. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico é eficaz para recuperação funcional. As técnicas cirúrgicas devem ser personalizadas. A opção do enxerto livre de tendão semitendíneo é eficiente nas falhas maiores que cinco centímetros.OBJECTIVE: To carry out a retrospective analysis of the etiopathogeny, diagnosis and therapeutic options in cases of tendinopathies of the anterior compartment of the ankle. METHOD: 13 patients underwent surgery between September 1998 and February 2009; ten men and three women. The right side was involved in twelve patients and the left in one. The averaging age was 35 years of

  7. Osgood Schlatter lesion: histologic features of slipped anterior tibial tubercle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, F; Giordano, M; Aulisa, A G; Poggiaroni, A; Guzzanti, V

    2011-01-01

    No study reports the histological features of the various zone of the anterior tubercle of the tibia in the different stages of the Osgood-Schlatter (O-S) lesion. For this reason we carried on an histological study. Specimens were taken from 13 patients with O-S lesion prior to surgery. In 4 cases in the apophyseal stage lesions were present in an altered fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. In 9 cases in the epiphyseal stage varying degrees of reparative tissues were observed in the bed of the fragment of the secondary ossification centre. In 3 of them a zone of lesion was observed within the fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. These results suggest that the slippage of the patellar tendon insertion may be progressive and caused by pathological fibrocartilage. PMID:21669134

  8. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  9. Misdiagnosis induced intraocular lens dislocation in anterior megalophthalmos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-wei; XU Wen; ZHU Ya-nan; LI Jin-yu; ZHANG Li; YAO Ke

    2012-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos (AM) is an uncommon developmental anomaly of the anterior segment of the eye with a constellation of findings that includes enlarged cornea,deep anterior chamber,posterior positioning of the iris and lens,iris stroma atrophy,hypoplasia of iris dilator,pupil displacement,large capsular bag,lens subluxation,prematurely cataract and the tendency to retinal detachment.AM,especially when symptoms are mild,is not an easy disease to diagnose.We present 3 AM cases that were misdiagnosed as congenital cataract with weak zonule and megalocornea.Intraocular lenses (IOLs) dislocated after standard cataract surgeries and subsequent surgery (replacing the dislocated IOLs with iris-claw intraocular lenses) achieved satisfactory outcome.Although rare,AM should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarged cornea and we recommend implanting Artisan lens in AM patients.

  10. Compartment syndrome with mononeuropathies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Brett J; Murthy, Naveen; Stolp, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Compartment syndrome rarely follows anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, when it does, it may result in mononeuropathies that are amenable to neurolysis. The authors of this study present an 18-yr-old woman who sustained a right anterior cruciate ligament tear and underwent uneventful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using femoral and popliteal nerve blocks. Postoperatively, she developed compartment syndrome requiring emergent fasciotomies. At 11 wks after fasciotomy, results of electrophysiologic tests showed evidence of severe fibular and tibial neuropathies. Magnetic resonance images showed extensive tricompartmental myonecrosis. Fibular and tibial neurolysis as well as decompression were performed, followed by intensive outpatient rehabilitation. At the 6-mo follow-up, she reported resolution of pain as well as significant improvement in sensation, strength, and function. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent serious neurologic damage. Excessive tourniquet pressure and anesthetic nerve blocks may have been responsible.

  11. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  12. ATP economy of force maintenance in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Mizuno, Masao;

    2005-01-01

    -MRS). The total volume of ankle dorsiflexor muscles was assessed by H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (H-MRI), and the fiber type composition of the tibialis anterior muscle was evaluated using histochemical analysis of muscle biopsies. RESULTS: The tibialis anterior muscle occupied 59.7 +/- 0.6% (mean +/- SEM......) of the total ankle dorsiflexor muscle volume, which was 267 +/- 10 cm. Relative cross-sectional areas occupied by Type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in the tibialis anterior were 69.3 +/- 2.2, 27.4 +/- 2.76, and 3.2 +/- 1.0%, respectively. ATP economy of force maintenance did not change significantly during the 60-s...

  13. Anterior mediastinal synovial sarcoma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xiang YUE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical manifestations, pathologic features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of primary synovial sarcoma in the anterior mediastinum. Methods A case of primary synovial sarcoma in the anterior mediastinum was reported. Clinical features, imaging manifestations, pathology features and therapeutic effect were analysed and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results A 48-year-male patient was admitted with complaint of right chest pain for 4 days. Chest computerized tomography revealed a large mass located at the right anterior mediastinum, and it was primarily diagnosed as invasive thymoma. Pathological examination by CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy manifested that, under microscope, the tumor cells were short and spindle in shape forming a nest structure, suggested it was a thymoma. The patient then underwent resection of thymoma with removal of fat and connective tissue in the anterior mediastinum. During the operation the size of the tumor was 15cm×15cm×10cm, being located at the anterior mediastinum, and it tended to bleed. The diagnosis of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma in the mediastinum was confirmed by postoperative/pathology examination. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the tumor cells were positive for the markers Bcl-2 and EMA, but negative for the markers CK (pan and S100. The patient suffered from local recurrence with metastases to lung 4 months after surgery. The patient received 2 chemotherapeutic courses with ifosfamide, epirubicin and cisplatin. He died 6 months after surgery. Conclusion Primary synovial sarcoma in the anterior mediastinum is an extremely rare and highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis. The diagnosis depends on the pathological features, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Radical resection combined with comprehensive treatment may improve the survival rate. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.12

  14. Sandwich-like Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-min; Wang De-hui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of new modality of anterior skull base repair,namely sandwich-like reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent transcranial or transcranial-facial resections of malignant or benign aggressive tumors involving the anterior skull base was conducted in our department. We used the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pedicled pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose tissue between them, to separate of cranial cavity and aerodigest tract and keep the frontal lobes in place following resections of anterior skull base tumors. Results: From October, 1984 to October, 1998, 116 patients underwent transcranial or transcranialfacial approach for the resection of malignant or aggressive benign tumor, and sandwich-like repairs were performed for the anterior skull base defect. 54 (46.6 % ) patients had previous operation, with a maximum of 5 surgeries. The average age of patients was 35.9 years old, ranging form 6 to 73 years old. Forty-eight (41.4%)patients had malignant neoplasmas, and sixty-eight (58.6%) patients had benign aggressive tumors. In our series, with the maximal follow-ups for as long as 14 years, NO one had early failure of the one-stage reconstruction. CSF fluid leakage was not encountered, nor was ascending bacterial meningitis observed. No immediate or delayed prolapse of dura or frontal lobes was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose between them, is an extremely safe and effective procedure for the repair of skull base defect, even when tumor extensively involves anterior skull base.

  15. Sandwich-like Reconstruction of Anterior Skull Base Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZheng-min,MD; WangDe-hui,MD

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of new modality of anterior skull base repair,namely sandwich-like reconstruction of anterior skull base defects. Methods : A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent wanscranial or wanscranial-facial resections of malignant or benign aggressive tumors involving the anterior skull base was conducted in our department. We used the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pedicled pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose tissue between them, to separate of cranial cavity and aerodigest tract and keep the frontal lobes in place following resections of anterior skull base tumors. Results: From October, 1984 to October, 1998, 116 patients underwent tmnscranial or tmnscranial-facial approach for the resection of malignant or aggressive benign tumor, and sandwich-like repairs were performed for the anterior skull base defect.54 (46.6%) patients had previous operation, with a maximum of 5 surgeries. The average age of patients was 35.9 years old, ranging form 6 to 73 years old. Forty-eight (41.4%) patients had malignant neoplasmas, and sixty-eight (58.6%) patients had benign aggressive tumors. In our series, with the maximal follow-ups for as long as 14 years, NO one had early failure of the one-stage reconstruction. CSF fluid leakage was not encountered, nor was ascending bacterial meningitis observed. No immediate or delayed prolapse of dura or frontal lobes was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that the sandwich-like reconstruction, using pericranial flap, frontal muscle flap and free abdominal adipose between them, is an extremely safe and effective procedure for the repair of skull base defect, even when tumor extensively involves anterior skull base.

  16. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  17. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  18. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  19. A chondrosarcoma in the anterior mediastinum mimicking a thymoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mia L.; Petersen, Rene H; Kalhauge, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A chondrosarcoma in the anterior mediastinum is a rare finding with a relatively good prognosis. We describe a case of a 75-year-old man with a 2-year history of neck discomfort and weight loss. Imaging showed a homogenous tumor with a minor compression on the anterior part of the heart. It had...... close relation to the ribs, no surrounding fat, and a thymoma was suspected. Biopsy prior to surgery was impossible due to the location of the tumor. Unfortunately, final pathology from the surgical specimen revealed a chondrosarcoma....

  20. Right upper lobe lung cancer: Resection through left anterior mediastinotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Marco; Abu Arab, Walid; Turcotte, Eric; Poulin, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    There is sparse information concerning approaches to metachronous lung cancer in patients who had a previous pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who underwent a left pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. Four years later, a radiological examination revealed a hypermetabolic nodule in the right upper lobe, which was located in the left hemithorax because of right lung hyperinflation and a mediastinal shift to the left. Wedge resection was carried out through a left anterior mediastinotomy. We believe that an anterior mediastinotomy represents a valuable option for the management of recurrent lung cancer after previous surgery. PMID:26124429

  1. Perikymata spacing and distribution on hominid anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M C; Reid, D J

    2001-11-01

    We documented the spacing and distribution of perikymata on the buccal enamel surface of fossil hominin anterior teeth with reference to a sample of modern human and modern great ape teeth. A sample of 27 anterior teeth attributed to Australopithecus (5 to A. afarensis, 22 to A. africanus) and of 33 attributed to Paranthropus (6 to P. boisei, and 27 to P. robustus) were replicated and sputter-coated with gold to enable reflected light microscopy of their surface topography. Anterior teeth were then divided into 10 equal divisions of buccal crown height. The total perikymata count in each division of crown height was recorded using a binocular microscope fitted with a vernier micrometer eyepiece. Then the mean number of perikymata per millimeter was calculated for each division. Similar comparative data for a modern sample of 115 unworn human anterior teeth and 30 African great ape anterior teeth were collected from ground sections. Perikymata counts in each taxon (together with either known or presumed periodicities of perikymata) were then used to estimate enamel formation times in each division of crown height, for all anterior tooth types combined. The distributions of these estimates of time taken to form each division of crown height follow the same trends as the actual perikymata counts and differ between taxa in the same basic way. The distinction between modern African great apes and fossil hominins is particularly clear. Finally, we calculated crown formation times for each anterior tooth type by summing cuspal and lateral enamel formation times. Estimates of average crown formation times in australopiths are shorter than those calculated for both modern human and African great ape anterior teeth. The data presented here provide a better basis for exploring differences in perikymata spacing and distribution among fossil hominins, and provide the first opportunity to describe four specimens attributed to Homo in this context. Preliminary data indicate that

  2. A chondrosarcoma in the anterior mediastinum mimicking a thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chondrosarcoma in the anterior mediastinum is a rare finding with a relatively good prognosis. We describe a case of a 75-year-old man with a 2-year history of neck discomfort and weight loss. Imaging showed a homogenous tumor with a minor compression on the anterior part of the heart. It had close relation to the ribs, no surrounding fat, and a thymoma was suspected. Biopsy prior to surgery was impossible due to the location of the tumor. Unfortunately, final pathology from the surgical specimen revealed a chondrosarcoma

  3. Patella fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Milankov Miroslav; Kecojević Vaso; Ninković Srđan; Gajdobranski Đorđe R.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The most frequent procedure in treatment of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the so called bone-tendon-bone reconstruction. A transverse dislocated patella fracture is a rare complication of this procedure with an incidence of 0.23%-2.3%. In a five year period, (1998-2002), 407 arthroscopic reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligaments were done at our Clinic, and there was only one case of patella fracture. Case report An 18-year-old female patie...

  4. Endovascular treatment of axillary artery dissection following anterior shoulder dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, G; Barchiche, M Reda; Lemaitre, J; De Quin, I; Goffin, C; Bricart, R; Bellens, B

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the axillary artery is a rare complication of anterior shoulder dislocation. Open surgical repair is technically demanding because of the anatomical position of the vessel and the propensity for concomitant injuries. Standard surgical exposure techniques involve extensive dissection, including a combination of supraclavicular or infraclavicular incision, median sternotomy, and thoracotomy causing significant morbidity and mortality rates. Endovascular techniques may offer an alternative to these surgically demanding procedures. We present a patient with a traumatic dissection of the axillary artery following anterior shoulder dislocation who was successfully managed with an endovascular stent. PMID:18411587

  5. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  6. Proprioception in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees and its relevance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL not only causes mechanical instability but also leads to a functional deficit in the form of diminished proprioception of the knee joint. "Functional" recovery is often incomplete even after "anatomic" arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, as some patients with a clinically satisfactory repair and good ligament tension continue to complain of a feeling of instability and giving way, although the knee does not sublux on clinical testing. Factors that may play a role could be proprioceptive elements, as the intact ACL has been shown to have significant receptors. Significant data have come to light demonstrating proprioceptive differences between normal and injured knees, and often between injured and reconstructed knees. ACL remnants have been shown to have proprioceptive fibers that could enhance functional recovery if they adhere to or grow into the reconstructed ligament. Conventionally the torn remnants are shaved off from the knee before graft insertion; modern surgical techniques, with remnant sparing methods have shown better outcomes and functional recovery, and this could be an avenue for future research and development. This article analyzes and reviews our understanding of the sensory element of ACL deficiency, with specific reference to proprioception as an important component of functional knee stability. The types of mechanoreceptors, their distribution and presence in ACL remnants is reviewed, and suggestions are made to minimize soft tissue shaving during ACL reconstruction to ensure a better functional outcome in the reconstructed knee.

  7. The evolutionary differentiation of two histone H2A.Z variants in chordates (H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 is mediated by a stepwise mutation process that affects three amino acid residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausió Juan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone H2A family encompasses the greatest number of core histone variants of which the replacement variant H2A.Z is currently one of the most heavily studied. No clear mechanism for the functional variability that H2A.Z imparts to chromatin has yet been proposed. While most of the past studies have referred to H2A.Z generically as a single protein, in vertebrates it is a mixture of two protein forms H2A.Z-1 (previously H2A.Z and H2A.Z-2 (previously H2A.F/Z or H2A.V that differ by three amino acids. Results We have performed an extensive study on the long-term evolution of H2A.Z across metazoans with special emphasis on the possible selective mechanisms responsible for the differentiation between H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. Our results reveal a common origin of both forms early in chordate evolution. The evolutionary process responsible for the differentiation involves refined stepwise mutation change within the codons of the three differential residues. This eventually led to differences in the intensity of the selective constraints acting upon the different H2A.Z forms in vertebrates. Conclusion The results presented in this work definitively reveal that the existence of H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 is not a whim of random genetic drift. Our analyses demonstrate that H2A.Z-2 is not only subject to a strong purifying selection but it is significantly more evolutionarily constrained than H2A.Z-1. Whether or not the evolutionary drift between H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 has resulted in a functional diversification of these proteins awaits further research. Nevertheless, the present work suggests that in the process of their differently constrained evolutionary pathways, these two forms may have acquired new or complementary functions.

  8. Clinical commissioning of an in vivo range verification system for prostate cancer treatment with anterior and anterior oblique proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesl, M; Deepak, S; Moteabbed, M; Jassens, G; Orban, J; Park, Y K; Parodi, K; Bentefour, E H; Lu, H M

    2016-04-21

    The purpose of this work is the clinical commissioning of a recently developed in vivo range verification system (IRVS) for treatment of prostate cancer by anterior and anterior oblique proton beams. The IRVS is designed to perform a complete workflow for pre-treatment range verification and adjustment. It contains specifically designed dosimetry and electronic hardware and a specific software for workflow control with database connection to the treatment and imaging systems. An essential part of the IRVS system is an array of Si-diode detectors, designed to be mounted to the endorectal water balloon routinely used for prostate immobilization. The diodes can measure dose rate as function of time from which the water equivalent path length (WEPL) and the dose received are extracted. The former is used for pre-treatment beam range verification and correction, if necessary, while the latter is to monitor the dose delivered to patient rectum during the treatment and serves as an additional verification. The entire IRVS workflow was tested for anterior and 30 degree inclined proton beam in both solid water and anthropomorphic pelvic phantoms, with the measured WEPL and rectal doses compared to the treatment plan. Gafchromic films were also used for measurement of the rectal dose and compared to IRVS results. The WEPL measurement accuracy was in the order of 1 mm and after beam range correction, the dose received by the rectal wall were 1.6% and 0.4% from treatment planning, respectively, for the anterior and anterior oblique field. We believe the implementation of IRVS would make the treatment of prostate with anterior proton beams more accurate and reliable. PMID:27002470

  9. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  10. Genetic studies in congenital anterior midline cervical cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L P; Pfeiffer, P; Andersen, M;

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anterior midline cervical cleft (CAMCC) is a rare anomaly, with less than 100 cases reported. The cause of CAMCC is unknown, but genetic factors must be considered as part of the etiology. Three cases of CAMCC are presented. This is the first genetic study of isolated CAMCC. Conventional...

  11. Complications of the anterior approach to the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lemos Vieira da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the complications of anterior approach to the cervical spine in patients who underwent cervical arthrodesis with instrumentation. METHODS: Prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January 2009 to April 2010. All patients who underwent arthrodesis of the cervical spine by anterior approach were included, regardless the diagnosis. Access was made by the anterior approach on the right side. We evaluated the number of operated levels (1, 2 or 3 levels and, the type of procedure performed: discectomy and placement of cage and plate (D+C+P, discectomy with placement of a cage (D+C or corpectomy with placement of cage and plate (C+C+P. All complications related to surgical approach were reported. RESULTS: We studied 34 patients, 70% male. The average age was 50 years and mean follow-up was 8 months. Eighteen percent of patients had complications, distributed as follows: dysphasia (33% and dysphonic (67%. Among patients who developed complications, most underwent to D+C+P (83% and no complications were found in patients where no cervical plate was used. Regarding levels, both complications were identified in patients operated to one or two levels. However, in patients operated on three levels, only dysphonia was identified. CONCLUSION: The most frequent complication was dysphonia. Patients who presented more complications were those undergoing discectomy and fusion with cage and anterior cervical plate. All cases of dysphonia were in this group. The number of accessible levels does not seem to have affected the incidence of complications.

  12. Holistic approach to understanding anterior knee pain. Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation within knee conditions. The aetiology is not well known, which explains the sometimes unpredictable results of its treatment. Normally, when we see a patient in the office with anterior knee pain, we only study and focus on the knee. If we do this, we are making a big mistake. We must not forget to evaluate the pelvis and proximal femur, as well as the psychological factors that modulate the course of the illness. Both the pelvifemoral dysfunction as well as the psychological factors (anxiety, depression, catastrophization and kinesiophobia) must be included in our therapeutic targets of the multidisciplinary treatment of anterior knee pain. We must not only focus on the knee, we must remember to "look up" to fully understand what is happening and be able to solve this difficult problem. The aetiology of anterior knee pain is multifactorial. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of patellofemoral disorders must be individualized. Our findings stress the importance of tailoring physiotherapy, surgery and psycho-educational interventions to each patient.

  13. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Elaine X L; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Boutlis, Craig S; Chen, Darren B; Liu, Eunice Y-T; McKew, Genevieve L

    2015-08-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis.

  14. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer: risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, C A; Andreasen, A H; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection for rectal cancer in a consecutive national cohort. METHOD: All patients with an initial first diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma were prospectively registered in a national...

  15. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  16. Computed tomography of the human developing anterior skull base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Loosen (J.); A.I.J. Klooswijk (A. I J); D. van Velzen (D.); C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The ossification of the anterior skull base, especially the lamina cribrosa, has been studied by computed tomography and histopathology. Sixteen human fetuses, (referred to our laboratory for pathological examination after spontaneous abortion between 18 and 32 weeks of ge

  17. Spindle neurons of the human anterior cingulate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Vogt, B. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding their precise distribution along both ventrodorsal and anteroposterior axes of the cingulate gyrus are still lacking. In the present study, morphological features and the anatomic distribution of this cell type were studied using computer-assisted mapping and immunocytochemical techniques. Spindle neurons are restricted to the subfields of the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 24), exhibiting a greater density in anterior portions of this area than in posterior portions, and tapering off in the transition zone between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, a majority of the spindle cells at any level is located in subarea 24b on the gyral surface. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the neurofilament protein triple was present in a large percentage of these neurons and that they did not contain calcium-binding proteins. Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons. Finally, spindle cells were consistently affected in Alzheimer's disease cases, with an overall loss of about 60%. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spindle cells of the human cingulate cortex represent a morphological subpopulation of pyramidal neurons whose restricted distribution may be associated with functionally distinct areas.

  18. Anterior Myocardial Infarction And Developing Ventricular Aneurysm After Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yalcin

    2014-01-01

        Incidence of drug abuse and cannabis have increased in young adults, recently. Cannabis induced myocardial infarction has rarely been reported in these people. Herein, we reported 20 years old male who had acute anterior myocardial infarction and developing apical ventricular aneurysm after heavy cannabis use.

  19. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  20. Anterior Colporrhaphy Technique and Approach Choices: Turkey Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the diversity in techniques and approaches for anterior colporrhaphy among operators in Turkey. Methods: A survey evaluating the preoperative examination, technique of anterior colporrhaphy, operation choice and postoperative care was presented to surgeons. We contacted via directly, mail or telephone. We used 28 item questionnaire. Results: Majority (87.9% was composed of young gynecologists. Urologists composed of the 9.5% of the study population. The rate of paravaginal defect evaluation was 75.9% and mostly by inspection the presence of vaginal rugae. The use of transperineal 3D pelvic floor ultrasonography was low (5.7%. The evaluation of levator ani muscle defect was 46.6%. The usage of the transperineal 3D ultrasonography for levator ani muscle defect was 19 percent of operators. There were diversity in use of hydrodissection, fascial plication, excision of vaginal mucosa and suture choice. Usage of mesh for anterior colporrhaphy was limited (17.8% and mostly in recurrent cases (12.2%. Paravaginal defect repair rate was 31.9%. The urinary catheter was generally removed one or two day after operation. Vaginal pack usually removed 24 hours after. Conclusion: Several techniques and approaches for anterior vaginal wall repair among operators in Turkey. The variety of techniques suggested that there is no consensus on best surgical technique.

  1. Predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictive factors related to anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery in a large series of patients. Methods: The data of 185 eyes of 185 patients submitted to vitreoretinal surgery was reviewed. The following variables were evaluated: the postoperatively presence of fibrin, age, diabetes mellitus, the vitrectomy system gauge (20, 23 or 25 gauge, the type of vitreous substitute, the influence of prior surgical procedures and the combination with cataract extraction. To evaluate predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation, univariate analysis was performed. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was adjusted to investigate factors associated with fibrin formation (p<0.05. Results: Fibrinoid anterior chamber reaction was found in 12 (6.4% patients. For multivariate logistic regression analysis, balanced salt solution (BSS, the chance of fibrin occurrence was 5 times greater (odds ratio 4.83, CI 95% 1.302 - 17.892; p=0.019, while combination with phacoemulsification increased the chance of fibrin formation by 20 times (odds ratio 20, CI 95% 2.480 - 161.347; p=0.005. No significant difference was found regarding other variables. Conclusion: Anterior chamber fibrin formation is an unwanted complication after vitreoretinal surgery. Factors such as combined performance of phacoemulsification and the use of balanced salt solution as a vitreous substitute may predispose the occurrence of this complication.

  2. Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentini-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, F. R.; Qingsong, Y.; Junjie, L.; Saconato, H.; Machado, M. A. C.; Prado, L. B. F.; Prado, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this m

  3. The anterior process of the malleus in Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Wolfgang; Ruf, Irina

    2016-02-01

    The anterior fixation of the anterior process of the malleus has been studied in a number of Cetartiodactyla. This anterior process, also known as processus gracilis, is provided by the prearticular (gonial), a dermal bone, whereas the cartilage of Meckel becomes resorbed in perinatal ontogenetic stages. Posteriorly, the prearticular fuses with the cartilaginous caput of the malleus; rostrally, the prearticular (= processus gracilis) is always fixed to the anterior crus of the ectotympanic by an extremely thin splint (thickness fused to the adjacent bones already in juveniles. However, in ruminants, the tegmen tympani tends to disappear and the processus internus praearticularis appears as relatively small bony knob at the floor of the medial cranial cavity, and it seems not to be fused to the surrounding bones; in later age stages, it may become secondarily overgrown by the petrosal. This dorsally exposed processus internus praearticularis seems to be a synapomorphy of the Ruminantia. The functional meaning of this internal process of the prearticular, which is also developed to a minor degree in Carnivora, remains unclear at the moment - but we present some speculations about this. PMID:26510377

  4. Editorial Commentary: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Auto or Allo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding appropriate graft choice for patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Allografts pretreated with high-dose irradiation should be avoided. Otherwise, multiple factors should be considered to individualize patient decision making, including patient age and activity level, graft type, and fixation type.

  5. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... viewer, Samir Sharma writes in, “What was the estimated blood loss with the robotic procedure and what ... for an open case for anterior exenteration?” Our estimated blood loss for this procedure was 100 cc’s. ...

  6. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DoorenbosBot, ACC; Geerlings, W; Houtman, IA

    1996-01-01

    Four patients are discussed who underwent hemodialysis and developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). Three patients had been treated by hemodialysis for several years. One patient developed bilateral optic neuropathy after the first hemodialysis session, So far, only four hemodialysis pat

  7. Clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior bilateral mandibular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Boffano; C. Gallesio; F. Roccia; B. van den Bergh; T. Forouzanfar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with anterior bifocal mandibular fractures and to discuss the management of this peculiar type of trauma. Methods: From the systematic computer-assisted database that has continuously recorded patients hospitalized with

  8. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Elaine X. L.; Cheong, Elaine Y. L.; Boutlis, Craig S.; Chen, Darren B.; Liu, Eunice Y.-T.; McKew, Genevieve L.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis.

  9. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Elaine X L; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Boutlis, Craig S; Chen, Darren B; Liu, Eunice Y-T; McKew, Genevieve L

    2015-08-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis. PMID:26041900

  10. Editorial Commentary: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Auto or Allo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding appropriate graft choice for patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Allografts pretreated with high-dose irradiation should be avoided. Otherwise, multiple factors should be considered to individualize patient decision making, including patient age and activity level, graft type, and fixation type. PMID:26743418

  11. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on bone curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, D J; Lohmander, Stefan; Makovey, J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the 5-year longitudinal changes in bone curvature after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and identify predictors of such changes. METHODS: In the KANON-trial (ISRCTN 84752559), 111/121 young active adults with an acute ACL tear to a previously un-injured knee...

  12. Removal of a giant intrathoracic cyst from the anterior mediastinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Van De Wauwer, Caroline; Timens, Wim; Mariani, Massimo A.

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old caucasian man with progressive dyspnea appeared to have a giant intrathoracic cyst in the anterior mediastinum encasing the heart and compressing both lungs. He underwent succesful removal of the cyst through a median sternotomy. Recovery was uneventful. Gross examination revealed a th

  13. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors investigated the associated findings and their value in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in MR image. The knee MR images of 47 patients with ACL injury (complete;24, partial;23) and 61 patients with normal ACL confirmed by the knee arthroscopy or operation were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of anterior translocation of tibia and the degree of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) buckling were evaluated. The prevalence and pattern of associated adjacent bone, ligament and meniscus injuries were studied. The means(± 2 standard errors) of anterior translocation were different significantly in statistical analysis (ρ < 0.001, student t-test) between injury group (7.51 ± 1.16 mm) and normal group (-0.56 ± 0.92mm). In the level of 5mm of anterior translocation for the criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 78.7%, 89.5%, 84.3% for each. The means of PCL buckling ratio were also different statistically between injury group(0.23 ± 0.02) and normal group(0.17 ± 0.01)(ρ < 0.001). In the level of 0.20 for diagnostic criteria of ACL injury, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy were 71.4%, 83.6%, 78.4% for each. Thirty one medial meniscus tear (66%), thirteen lateral meniscus tear (28%), ten medial collateral ligament injury (28%), one PCL injury(2%) were associated with ACL injury. The twenty nine bone marrow changes were found in twenty patients (43%) which included acutely injured seven patients. In acute cases, the bone marrow changes were depicted as diffuse or focal high signal intensity lesions in lateral femoral or tibial condyles in contrast to the changes in chronic cases depicted as focal low signal intensity lesions in variable location. Lateral femoral condylar notch depression were found in nine patients (19%) and avulsion fractures of anterior tibial spine in four patients(9%). The associated findings with ACL injury (anterior translocation, buckling of PCL, associated bone, ligament and

  14. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  15. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashavantha Kumar C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder without associated fracture in a 45 old women without any predisposing pathoanatomy.Case Report: A 45-year-old women presented to casualty with sudden onset of pain and restriction of movement in both shoulders fallowing trauma. Immediately post trauma she had severe pain and restriction of both shoulders. On examination arms were abducted and externally rotated. Bilateral shoulder movements were painful and restricted . There was loss of round contour of shoulder with increased vertical diameter of axilla anteriorly. Radiological examination revealed bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders without any associated fractures. Closed reduction done by Milch technique after intraraticular lignocaine injection. MRI of bilateral shoulder showed no pathological lesion. Both shoulders were immobilized with a shoulder immobilizer for three weeks.Conclusion: Most of the bilateral shoulder dislocations are posterior type seen in seizure disorders. Bilateral traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations are rare and are seen as a result of unique mechanism of injury. In our case patient had a fall on her elbows causing forced extension. If diagnosed and treated promptly completely normal function of the shoulders can be restored.

  16. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ARTHROSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

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    Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL tear is the most common serious ligamentous injury to the knee joint. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL injury is quite common among young active population, athletes and contact sports. The exact incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears is not known as the cases are being under reported. The ACL is the primary stabilizer against anterior translation of the tibia on the femur and is important in counteracting rotation and valgus stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between November 2012 to October 2014, 34 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstructions in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam were the material in our study. Age groups between 18 to 45 years considered. We utilised both BPTB and Quadrupled hamstring graft depending on the patient’s age, outcome testing in all cases was performed at the latest follow-up (at least 6 months. Post-operative physiotherapy rehabilitation protocol followed for 06 months. RESULTS Standard protocol of Lysholm and IKDC knee scoring system were used for evaluation of the results of the surgery during followup. Patients were evaluated periodically at preop, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months. CONCLUSION Patients with isolated ACL injury had better outcome compared to patients who underwent associated meniscectomy. Most common mechanism of injury was activity of sports in 20 patients. Postoperatively at 3 months, anterior drawer’s was 1+ in 6, 29 (85.2% patients had normal range of motion; 29 (85.29% patients had 5/5 quadriceps power (MRC grading 94% of them had 5/5 power at latest followup. No significant difference between outcomes of BPTB and Hamstrings graft. Functional outcome of our study were similar to the previously published studies.

  17. Simple self-reduction method for anterior shoulder dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reiner Wirbel; Martin Ruppert; Elmar Schwarz; Bernhard Zapp

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate and evaluate a modified simple method about self-reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation for significance in the emergency room. Methods:TheBoss-Holzach-Matter method for self-reduction of anterior shoulder disloaction is described.Patients with an anterior shoulder dislocation were retrospectively analysed concerning age, gender, type of anterior shoulder dislocation, occurrence of associated fractures, time between injury and reduction, reduction time, and method of reduction with its respective success rate. Results:Eighty-six patients(52 men,34 women, mean age49 years) were treated fromJanuary 2010 toJune2014.The reduction time ranged between20 seconds and6 min(mean1.5 min). Subcoracoid type of shoulder dislocation was seen in72 cases(84%), subglenoid type in14 cases(16%).Associated factures were seen in20 cases, proportionally more often in subgleboid dislocations,12 at the greater tuberosity,6 at the inferior rim of the glenoid fossa and2 at both localizations.TheBoss-Holzach-Matter method was used in35 cases with a success rate of 71.5%; dieKocher method and traction/countertraction method with premedication were used in 14 cases and17 cases with success rates of64% and70%, respectively.All other cases and the failed primary attempts required hyponotic medication.All patients older than70(n=16) were not able to perform the self reducing procedure. Conclusion:The presentedBoss-Holzach-Matter method for reduction of anterior shoulder dislocation is a simple method without the need of anaesthesia, but cooperation from patients is crucial.The successful rate is comparable with other established methods.

  18. Miniplacas permitem tratamento eficiente e eficaz da mordida aberta anterior Miniplates allow efficient and effective treatment of anterior open bites

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    Jorge Faber

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento das deformidades e más oclusões que incluem mordidas abertas anteriores foi uma das primeiras aplicações de miniplacas como forma de ancoragem ortodôntica. A implementação desse sistema de tratamento reduz o número de pacientes indicados para a cirurgia ortognática e simplifica muitos problemas. Nessa abordagem, os dentes posteriores são intruídos e a mandíbula sofre um giro no sentido anti-horário, diminuindo a altura facial inferior e projetando os pogônios de tecidos duro e mole. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo apresenta os fundamentos da mecânica ortodôntica para correção da mordida aberta anterior e os ilustra com uma série de casos clínicos.INTRODUCTION: The treatment of facial deformities and malocclusions, such as anterior open bite, was one of the first applications of miniplates for orthodontic anchorage. The use of this treatment system reduces the number of patients referred to orthognathic surgery and simplifies many problems. This approach applies intrusive forces to posterior teeth, and the mandible undergoes counterclockwise rotation, which decreases lower facial height and advances the projection of hard and soft tissue pogonions. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the principles of orthodontic mechanics in the correction of anterior open bite and illustrates these principles with a series of cases.

  19. Effect of primary iris and ciliary body cyst on anterior chamber angle in patients with shallow anterior chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-hong WANG; Yu-feng YAO

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of primary iris and/or ciliary body cysts in eyes with shallow anterior chamber and their effect on the narrowing of the anterior chamber angle.Methods:Among the general physical check-up population,subjects with shallow anterior chambers,as judged by van Herick technique,were recruited for further investigation.Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was used to detect and measure the cysts located in the iris and/or ciliary body,the anterior chamber depth (ACD),the angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA).A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the ocular biometry,including lens thickness,axial length,lens/axial length factor (LAF),and relative lens position (RLP).The effect of the cyst on narrowing the corresponding anterior chamber angle and the entire angle was evaluated by the UBM images,ocular biometry,and gonioscopic grading.The eye with unilateral cyst was compared with the eye without the cyst for further analysis.Results:Among the 727 subjects with shallow anterior chamber,primary iris and ciliary body cysts were detected in 250 (34.4%) patients; among them 96 (38.4%) patients showed unilateral single cyst,21 (8.4%) patients had unilateral double cysts,and 42 (16.8%) patients manifested unilateral multiple and multi-quadrants cysts.Plateau iris configuration was found in 140 of 361 (38.8%) eyes with cysts.The mean size of total cysts was (0.6547±0.2319) mm.In evaluation of the effect of the cyst size and location on narrowing the corresponding angle to their position,the proportion of the cysts causing corresponding angle narrowing or closure among the cysts larger than 0.8 mm (113/121,93.4%) was found to be significantly higher than that of the cysts smaller than 0.8 mm (373/801,46.6%),and a significant higher proportion was also found in the cysts located at iridociliary sulcus (354/437,81.0%) than in that at the pars plicata (131/484,27.1%).In evaluating the effect

  20. The advantages of submandibular gland resection in anterior retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Skaf, Ghassan S.; Sabbagh, Amira S.; Hadi, Usamah

    2006-01-01

    Anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine, although rare, several successful approaches were described in the literature. To avoid the risks and limitations of transoral approach, the anterior retropharyngeal approach was developed. In this study, we describe our experience with anterior retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine and discuss the significance of resecting the submandibular gland. From July 2001 to July 2004, we performed six anterior prevascular retropharyngeal ap...

  1. Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Accelerates Degenerative Disease at Adjacent Vertebral Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Gwynedd E.; Duggal, Neil; Theodore, Nicholas; Sonntag, Volker K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical corpectomy provides the most direct and thorough surgical approach for anterior decompression when spinal cord compression is found directly behind the vertebral body. However, anterior cervical fusion has been shown to be associated with the development of new degenerative changes at levels immediately adjacent to the fused segments. Th e incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following anterior cervical corpectomy has not been widely reported. We set out to...

  2. The Anterior Ratio: The Missing Link between Orthodontics and Aesthetic Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Aulakh

    2013-01-01

    There is an increase in the number of dentists using orthodontic treatment for anterior tooth alignment. This is either combined with additive bonding or interproximal reduction; knowing “when to” and “how much” requires an understanding of the anterior ratio. This case report explains how to use the anterior ratio to help provide optimal aesthetics and function for the ortho-restorative patient. The anterior ratio is an important diagnostic tool required for both disciplines of orthodontics ...

  3. Pupillary block glaucoma following implantation of a posterior chamber pseudophakos in the anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Anil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary block glaucoma is a common complication of cataract surgery, especially following anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. We report a case of pupillary block glaucoma with a posterior chamber IOL that was implanted in the anterior chamber following a complicated extracapsular cataract extraction. The case was successfully managed by explantation of the posterior chamber lens, anterior vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy and secondary anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The intraocular pressure was controlled with a single topical antiglaucoma medication.

  4. The Relationship between Lower Extremity Alignment Characteristics and Anterior Knee Joint Laxity

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Sandra J.; Anh-Dung, Nguyen; Levine, Beverly J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity alignment may influence the load distribution at the knee, potentially predisposing the anterior cruciate ligament to greater stress. We examined whether lower extremity alignment predicted the magnitude of anterior knee laxity in men and women. Hypothesis: Greater anterior pelvic angle, hip anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, and navicular drop will predict greater anterior knee laxity. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Women (n = ...

  5. Detached Anterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus Mimicking a Parameniscal Cyst

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    Shoji Fukuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a detached anterior horn of the medial meniscus with anterior knee pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance images of the knee were initially interpreted as a parameniscal cyst. Arthroscopic examination revealed subluxation of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus due to detachment from its anterior tibial insertion. Arthroscopic fixation with a suture anchor was successful and the cystic lesion was no longer visible on postoperative images.

  6. Anterior approach v. posterior approach - ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    OpenAIRE

    Merle Neethling-du Toit; Richard de villiers

    2008-01-01

    Anterior approach ultrasound guided arthrogram injections are a quick reliable way of injecting contrast prior to MRI scan. We did a retrospective study on patients, previously injected and scanned at our clinic, to compare the more manifested posterior approach with the anterior approach. The success rate for successful intra-articular injections for the anterior approach far outweighs the posterior approach. Also the anterior approach is more tolerable for patients as the injections are muc...

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in female genital tract: a clinicopathologic study%女性生殖道原发原始神经外胚层肿瘤临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐霄; 王平; 何英; 杨帆; 李雷; 王洪; 王琪琳; 姚先莹; 杨开选

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathologic features of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in female genital tract.Methods Six cases of PNET arising in female genital tract were retrospectively reviewed.The clinicopathologic features,immunohistochemical findings and EWS gene translocation study results were analyzed.Results The age of patients ranged from 10 to 27 years (mean =20 years).The sites of involvement included ovary (1 case),uterus (1 case),vulva (2 cases) and vagina (2 cases).The greatest diameter of the tumor ranged from 2 to 10 cm (mean =5.4 cm).The tumor had nodular appearance and showed grayish-pink fleshy cut surface,accompanied by foci of hemorrhage and necrosis.Histologically,the tumor was composed of malignant small round cells with indistinct cell borders,hyperchromatic nuclei,dense chromatin,tiny nucleoli and scanty cytoplasm.The tumor cells were arranged in sheets or lobules.Homer-Wright rosettes were identified in 1 case.Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD99,FLI-1 and CD56 (6/6).Focal expression of vimentin (5/6),NSE (5/6),nestin (4/6),synaptophysin (4/6),S-100 protein (2/6) and chromogranin A (1/6) was also demonstrated.EWS gene translocation was detected in 5 cases studied.Follow-up information was available in 2 patients (7 and 17 months of follow up,respectively).One of them died of tumor metastasis 17 months after diagnosis.The other patient was still alive.Conclusions PNET arising in female genital tract is rare.It mainly involves ovary,uterus,vulva and vagina.Immunohistochemical study using a panel of antibodies and fluorescence in-situ hybridization play an important role in definitive diagnosis of this rare malignancy.%目的 探讨女性生殖道原发原始神经外胚层肿瘤(PNET)的临床病理特点.方法 收集6例原发于女性生殖道PNET患者的资料,分析其临床病理特点,采用免疫组织化学EnVision法检测相关免疫标志物,并通过荧光原位杂

  8. Patella fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milankov Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most frequent procedure in treatment of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture is the so called bone-tendon-bone reconstruction. A transverse dislocated patella fracture is a rare complication of this procedure with an incidence of 0.23%-2.3%. In a five year period, (1998-2002, 407 arthroscopic reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligaments were done at our Clinic, and there was only one case of patella fracture. Case report An 18-year-old female patient, a handball player, suffered an acute rupture of anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee, so arthroscopic bone-tendon-bone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was performed. After adequate skin incision, a bone graft was taken from the patella and upper part of trapezoid tibia, which was 25 mm long, 10 mm wide and 5 mm thick, together with a part of patellar ligament. After the remains of the anterior cruciate ligament had been arthroscopically removed, tunnels were made in tibia and femur and a graft was inserted and fixed with two metal interference screws. Knee stability was tested, and drainage was put in the knee joint. The wound was closed by layers. The quadriceps exercises and passive knee movements started immediately. Full range of movements was accomplished six weeks later when the patient started to walk with full weight-bearing on her operated leg. Three weeks later, (nine weeks after the operation, the patient has accidentally lost her balance and fell. A transverse, dislocated fracture of the left patella was diagnosed and osteosynthesis of the fractured patella with two Kirschner wires and a metallic loop was performed. Postoperatively, full range of movement was allowed. Six months later, the patient felt no pain, there was no swelling, full range of knee movement was achieved, while the Lachman Test was identical in both knees and the pivot shift test was negative. Discussion Fracture of patella after ACL reconstruction is

  9. Germ cell tumor located in the midline of the anterior neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdopska, Tatyana; Terziev, Ivan; Hristova, Sv; Mladenovsky, W; Petkov, R

    2011-01-01

    Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  10. Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2013-01-01

    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

  11. Treatment of lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis by one-stage anterior debridement and fusion combined with dual screw-rod anterior instrumentation underneath the iliac vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Xu, Siyue

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus regarding what is the optimal means of treating lumbosacral segment tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of our newly developed one-stage anterior debridement and fusion combined with dual screw-rod construct anterior instrument underneath the iliac vessels for lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis who underwent one-stage anterior debridem...

  12. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  13. Unilateral ophthalmoplegia secondary to anterior clinoid process mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Boaz; Hui, Ng Yuk; Sethi, Dharmbir Singh

    2010-12-01

    A 50-year-old Chinese man presented with rapidly progressive unilateral ophthalmoplegia and then an ipsilateral afferent pupil defect. CT and MRI revealed a mass centered in the anterior clinoid process causing bone destruction and showing high T1 and T2 signal intensity indicative of mucosal protein secretion. These imaging features suggested a mucocele, which may have resulted from sequestration of a clinoidal extension of the sphenoid sinus. The sphenoid sinus was opened via an image-guided endoscopic approach, and the lesion incised. There were no complications. The ophthalmoplegia and afferent pupil defect had completely resolved within 1 week of surgery. This is the eighth reported case of anterior clinoidal mucocele, a rare cause of ophthalmoplegia or optic neuropathy. Advances in endoscopic instrumentation, navigation systems, and intraoperative imaging have reduced the operative risk and made the endoscopic approach a feasible and safer alternative to open surgery for this condition. PMID:20881616

  14. Missing Screw as a Rare Complication of Anterior Cervical Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kurtuluş Duransoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical arthrodesis is an effective procedure for the treatment of cervical disorders, the method has some complications. Here, we describe this rare complication of cervical instrumentation with a literature review. A 23-year-old male patient was operated for a C6-C7 dislocation. At postoperative month 10, he presented with hemoptysis and dysphagia. Cervical roentgenograms showed anterior migrations of one broken screw and a plate-locking screw at the C6 corpus. One screw was missing. We concluded that the missing screw had perforated the esophagus and had been eliminated spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract. No screw should migrate. Even loose screws should be noted in follow-up X-ray studies. If such findings are detected, a second operation for revision should be considered as soon as possible to prevent potentially fatal complications.

  15. Hubungan Rasio Anterior dengan Overjet dan Overbite pada Perawatan Orthodontik

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    J. A. Budiman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The important role of the tooth size information is in making diagnosis and treatment plan of the cases with malocclusion. A lot of studies have been done in this aspect such as about tooth size with its variation, and also the ratio of maxillary to mandibular tooth size. The most famous tooth size analysis is Bolton analysis with his anterior ratio and overall ratio. Because the accordance of those ratio is not found in all orthodontic cases, some studies (Korbitz, Neff, Moyers and Steadman tried to relate the anterior ratio with the amount of overjet and overbite in orthodontic treatment. Those relationship was found strong, but there are also other analysis that should be considered in treating orthodontic cases.

  16. Surgical Management of Significant Maxillary Anterior Vertical Ridge Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Istvan A; Monje, Alberto; Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Lozada, Jamie L; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    Severe vertical ridge deficiency in the anterior maxilla represents one of the most challenging scenarios in bone regeneration. Under ideal circumstances, guided bone regeneration in combination with soft tissue management has shown predictable esthetic and functional outcomes. Success largely relies on primary wound closure during and after the surgical procedure. Surgical sites present different challenges that need to be considered when designing the flap. The goal of this article is to propose a classification of flap designs that considers vestibular depth and scar formation around the periosteum when performing vertical ridge augmentation in the atrophic anterior maxilla. The four clinical conditions proposed under this classification are (1) shallow vestibule with healthy periosteum, (2) deep vestibule with healthy periosteum, (3) shallow vestibule with scarred periosteum, and (4) deep vestibule with scarred periosteum. The classification will allow clinicians to achieve tension-free closure and more predictable vertical bone gain.

  17. Traumatic rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The autors report a case of a traumatic rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon (TTA that was early diagnosed and treated in the emergency service. This is a rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: A 66-year old female presented at the emergency service complaining about pain at the anterior aspect of her ankle and inability to walk normally, after a fall. Physical examination revealed clinical signs for TTA rupture, which was later confirmed by ultrasound. Surgical treatment was performed immediately â€" the tendon was anchored into the medial cuneiform with a soft tissue-to-bone anchor. The follow-up revealed good functional result. CONCLUSION: Physical examination and a high index of suspicion are important when facing a patient who had sustained an ankle trauma. The TTA rupture is a diagnosis to consider because unrecognized ruptures led to important functional deficits and poor functional results.

  18. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  19. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  20. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS...... completion of the operation the patients were randomized in two groups with and without a transanal stent. RESULTS: A clinically significant leakage was diagnosed in 25 patients (13%). No significant difference was found 17 of 98 patients with a stent and 8 of 96 without (P = 0.09), or in 9 of 44 ileostomy...... patients with a stent and in 3 of 45 without (P = 0.07). Several leaks over a short time led to an interim analysis after inclusion of 194 of 448 planned patients. The analysis showed no significant protective effect of the stent, and more leakages in the stent group, although not statistically significant...

  1. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant. PMID:24555406

  2. [Modern surgery of meningiomas affecting anterior visual pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F; Ebner, F H; Honegger, J

    2013-05-01

    Meningiomas are the most common form of primary intracranial tumors. If the anterior visual pathways are affected clinical visual compromise, visual field defects, oculomotor nerve disturbances or propotosis are predominant. Meningiomas of the anterior visual pathway remain therapeutically challenging due to the direct anatomical relationship to the circulus arteriosus cerebri, the cavernous sinus and cranial nerves. The therapy of choice is microsurgical resection. In many cases a curative approach can be achieved with modern surgical techniques and simultaneously maintaining patient quality of life. Problematic are cases in which resection would be associated with the risk of clinical impairment and in these cases radiotherapy is an important therapeutic option. In cases involving complex invasiveness an interdisciplinary treatment to control local clinical symptoms is favored. PMID:23604251

  3. Organic mood disorder following left anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanth J Haridas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One third of patients with antiepileptic-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE will have to undergo surgery for a better seizure control. Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL is done for mesial temporal sclerosis that is the most common histopathological lesion associated with TLE. Psychiatric manifestations following ATL are not uncommon with depressive symptoms more common with left ATL and manic symptoms following right ATL. Mr. A is a 42-year-old left cerebral dominant (Confirmed by WADA test male with no past history of psychiatric illness who had undergone anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy. He started having manic episodes post operatively which subsided with antipsychotics. He had multiple such episodes over the next 13 years with minimal inter episodic symptoms. This is a rare instance of manic symptoms following left-sided ATL that emphasizes the need for better understanding of the cerebral laterality of affective symptoms.

  4. Esthetic Rehabilitation of Anterior Teeth with Laminates Composite Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No- or minimal-preparation veneers associated with enamel preservation offer predictable results in esthetic dentistry; indirect additive anterior composite restorations represent a quick, minimally invasive, inexpensive, and repairable option for a smile enhancement treatment plan. Current laboratory techniques associated with a strict clinical protocol satisfy patients’ restorative and esthetic needs. The case report presented describes minimal invasive treatment of four upper incisors with laminate nanohybrid resin composite veneers. A step-by-step protocol is proposed for diagnostic evaluation, mock-up fabrication and trial, teeth preparation and impression, and adhesive cementation. The resolution of initial esthetic issues, patient satisfaction, and nice integration of indirect restorations confirmed the success of this anterior dentition rehabilitation.

  5. Effect of bone loss in anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984

  6. MR for assessing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions by tendon grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    150 patients were examined via magnetic resonance (MR) after anterior cruciate (ACL) ligament reconstruction (76 patellar tendon grafts, 53 semitendinosous tendon grafts and 21 sutures). The results of MR were compared with clinical tests (Lachman, pivot-shift and anterior drawer test), in 2 cases with the operative findings, and in one case with arthroscopy findings. In 91% of patients with a clinically stable knee we found a continuous low-intensity ligamental structure. 10 patients were examined twice or more between 8 days and 6 months after surgery. Ligamental structures of low signal intensity did not significantly change their MR characteristics. MR is a valuable noninvasive method for evaluating ligament reconstructions. (orig./GDG)

  7. Anterior spinal artery syndrome of the cervical hemicord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, R W; Waespe, W

    1992-01-01

    Three patients developed signs of a unilateral cervical cord lesion 6 to 36 h after the acute onset of severe cervico-brachial pain. The neurological deficit progressed over 6 to 18 h. On the painful side a central Horner's syndrome, a hemiparesis with plegia of the hand, and a slight pallhypaesthesia were found. On the opposite side thermhypaesthesia and hypalgesia were noted with a level at the dermatome C5 or C6. T2-weighted MR images revealed in one patient a small area of increased signal intensity restricted to one half of the cervical cord, and electromyography in another patient showed after 6 months evidence of segmental chronic denervation. Both abnormalities were found at the clinically expected level. The findings are consistent with a small infarction of the cervical cord in the perfusion territory of a central (sulco-commissural) artery, a duplicated anterior spinal artery or an anterior spinal branch of the vertebral artery. PMID:1315578

  8. Right Ventricular Involvement in either Anterior or Inferior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Abtahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike left ventricular function, less attention has been paid to Right Ventricular (RV function after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare RV function in patients with inferior and anterior MI. Patients and Methods: During the study period, 60 patients consecutively presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain were divided into two groups based on their electrocardiographic findings. Accordingly, 25 patients had inferior MI (IMI group and 35 ones had anterior MI (AMI group. Echocardiography was performed 48 hours after starting the standard therapy. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI measurements were acquired from the standard views. Student t-test and the chi-square test were respectively used for comparisons of the normally distributed continuous and categorical variables in the two groups. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

  9. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves; Marcelo Jarczun Kac; Tiago Bisol; Bruno Franco Fernandes; Demian Temponi Eskenazi

    2013-01-01

    A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA) é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em...

  10. Luxação glenoumeral anterior bilateral: caso clínico Bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation: clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Pires Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A luxação glenoumeral anterior bilateral é uma ocorrência rara. Apresentamos um caso de luxação glenoumeral anterior bilateral com origem após uma queda da própria altura. O interesse desta publicação reside no fato de se tratar de uma raridade clínica com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Paciente do sexo feminino com 89 anos recorre ao serviço de urgência (SU após queda referindo dor intensa e incapacidade de mobilização de ambos os ombros. Ao exame objetivo apresentava sinais clínicos suspeitos de luxação glenoumeral anterior bilateral confirmados por radiografia. Ambas as luxações foram reduzidas no SU pela técnica de Milch modificada, com sucesso. Quando existe uma força simétrica e síncrona sobre os ombros e estes se apresentarem dolorosos e com limite funcional significativo, a suspeita de luxação glenoumeral bilateral, embora rara, é um diagnóstico diferencial a ter em conta.Bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation is a rare occurrence. We present a case of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation caused by a fall. The interest in publishing this case is that this is a clinical rarity with few cases reported in the literature. An 89-year-old female patient was brought to the emergency department after a fall, complaining of intense pain in both shoulders and inability to move them. Objective examination showed clinical signs giving the suspicion of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation, which was confirmed by x-ray imaging. Both dislocations were successfully reduced in the emergency department using the modified Milch technique. When a synchronous and symmetrical force has acted on both shoulders and these are painful with significant functional limitation, the suspicion of bilateral glenohumeral dislocation is a differential diagnosis to be considered, even though it is rare.

  11. Anterior chamber gas bubbles in open globe injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, E B G; Baxter, D; Blanch, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old soldier who was in close proximity to the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED). Bubbles of gas were visible within the anterior chamber of his left eye. The authors propose that intraocular gas, present acutely after trauma, is diagnostic of open globe injury and is of particular importance in remote military environments. PMID:24079202

  12. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  13. Anterior-posterior asymmetry in iris mechanics measured by indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Julie E; Amini, Rouzbeh; Simha, Narendra K; Barocas, Victor H

    2011-10-01

    Indentation and histological analysis of the porcine iris were done to assess the relative stiffness of the anterior (stroma) and posterior (dilator and sphincter) layers. The dimensions of the constituent structures were documented histologically by staining with a monoclonal anti-human α-smooth muscle actin antibody to determine the location of the stroma, sphincter, and dilator. Intact porcine irides (4-8 h post-mortem) were bisected into two equal C-shaped halves to indent both surfaces. Indentation experiments were performed using a 1 mm cylindrical indenter tip. The load-displacement curve for each experiment was used to estimate effective instantaneous and equilibrium moduli for the anterior and posterior surfaces of the tissue. A total of 18 irides (9 pairs) with 3-5 indentations per iris surface was performed. The average thickness of the samples was 550 μm; the indentation depth was limited to 60-100 μm depending on the thickness of the sample at each point. Posterior surface indentation gave larger forces than anterior, with the resulting instantaneous modulus of 6.0 ± 0.6 kPa versus 4.0 ± 0.5 kPa (mean ± 95% CI, n = 45, p poroelasticity, we conclude that the posterior components of the iris - dilator, pigment epithelium, and sphincter - are on average stiffer than the stroma and anterior border layer. PMID:21787771

  14. Bone graft substitutes in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Anthony M.T.; Mobbs, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is a common surgical procedure for patients suffering pain and/or neurological deficits and unresponsive to conservative management. For decades, autologous bone grafted from the iliac crest has been used as a substrate for cervical arthrodesis. However patient dissatisfaction with donor site morbidity has led to the search for alternative techniques. We present a literature review examining the progress of available grafting options as assessed in hum...

  15. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Flexible Reamer System

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Judd; Saluan, Paul; Richter, Dustin L.; Huff, Nathan; Schenck, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to improve stability of the knee, particularly rotational stability, potentially leading to superior clinical outcomes and a shorter return to sport. Nonanatomic ACL reconstruction has been linked to graft failure and abnormal cartilage loading thought to contribute to progression of degenerative joint disease. Use of the far anteromedial portal (FAMP) to uncouple the tibial and femoral tunnels has led to improved ...

  17. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab but not subsequent ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulos C; Stem M; Comer GM

    2011-01-01

    Christina Antonopoulos1, Maxwell Stem2, Grant M Comer21Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 2WK Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Previous reports have identified noninfectious uveitis as a potential sequela following both intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. We present two unique cases of acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab that did not occur with subsequent ran...

  18. Audit on necessity of radiographs in anterior shoulder dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmadi, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common major joint dislocation. In most cases, this dislocation is being relocated in emergency departments. Routinely, pre and post reduction radiographs are performed. This study was done to determine the necessity of radiographs in the emergency department for management of patients with suspected anterior shoulder dislocation.Materials and Methods: In this case series study, 116 patients suspected of anterior shoulder dislocation were referred to Hazrat Rasoul Akram and Haftome Tir Hospitals emergency departments in Tehran, and were investigated for a one year period. The emergency physicians evaluated and documented the possibility of dislocation or relocation, before obtaining radiographs. Outcome measures were the assessment of joint positions on the x-rays by an orthopedic surgeon.Results: 84 cases (72% were male and 32 cases (28% were female. Mean age of the patients was 31.5±8.5 yrs. Thirty (30 patients had recurrent dislocations without traumatic mechanism (group 1 and eighty six (86 patients had no prior dislocation or a blunt mechanism of injury (group 2. The accuracy of the emergency physician’s assessment in dislocations was 100% in group 1 and 98% in group 2. False assessments occurred only in patients with fractures. There is no significant difference between emergency physicians and orthopedic surgeons in the assessment of dislocations and relocations, when the emergency physicians did accuralty diagnose them.Conclusion: Our study showed that the physicians are highly accurate in clinical determination of anterior shoulder dislocation and relocation. Pre-reduction films should be obtained when the mechanism of injury is trauma. Post-reduction films should be obtained in fracture-dislocations or when the physicians are uncertain of correct relocation.

  19. Ultrasonographic test for complete anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Grzelak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although ultrasound (US has a wide range of applications in orthopedic diagnostics, sonographic evaluation of traumatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL insufficiency is still inadequate. There is a growing need for diagnostic tests that allow for simple and reliable assessment of ACL instability. This investigation aims to evaluate feasibility of sonographic technique for diagnosing complete ACL insufficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty three consecutive patients suspected of ACL injury were examined with sonographic, dynamic test of anterior instability. The translation of the intercondylar eminence against the patellar tendon was measured in the injured and opposite (injured knee. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients. Forty-seven of them underwent a further arthroscopy. Five patients have been examined for the 2 nd time to evaluate interclass and intraclass agreement and bias. Results: Complete ACL insufficiency has been confirmed in 37 patients. In those individuals, the total anterior knee translation and the difference between two joints (side-to-side difference were significantly increased (8.67 mm standard deviation [SD] 2.65 mm in the affected knee versus 2.88 mm SD 1.26 mm in uninjured joint; P < 0.001. Based on a threshold of 2.0 mm for the side-to-side difference and 5.0 mm for the absolute translation, the sonographic test was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 91.9% and 95.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The present technique supports the clinician with additional fast and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can facilitate the evaluation of anterior knee instability.

  20. Multimodal emotion perception after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL)

    OpenAIRE

    Milesi, Valérie; Cekic, Sezen; Péron, Julie; Frühholz, Sascha; Cristinzio, Chiara; Seeck, Margitta; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the context of emotion information processing, several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the amygdala in emotion perception, for unimodal and multimodal stimuli. However, it seems that not only the amygdala, but several regions around it, may also play a major role in multimodal emotional integration. In order to investigate the contribution of these regions to multimodal emotion perception, five patients who had undergone unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection were exposed...

  1. [Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral

    2002-12-01

    The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  2. Access related complications during anterior exposure of the lumbar spine

    OpenAIRE

    Fantini, Gary A; Pawar, Abhijit Y.

    2013-01-01

    The new millennium has witnessed the emergence of minimally invasive, non-posterior based surgery of the lumbar spine, in particular via lateral based methodologies to discectomy and fusion. In contrast, and perhaps for a variety of reasons, anterior motion preservation (non-fusion) technologies are playing a comparatively lesser, though incompletely defined, role at present. Lateral based motion preservation technologies await definition of their eventual role in the armamentarium of minimal...

  3. Complications of Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spine surgery performed for the correct indications yields good results. However, surgeons need to be mindful of the many possible pitfalls. Complications may occur starting from the anaesthestic procedure and patient positioning to dura exposure and instrumentation. This review examines specific complications related to anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery, discusses their causes and considers methods to prevent or treat them. In general, avoiding complications is best achi...

  4. A case report on desmoplastic ameloblastoma of anterior mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Lamichhane, Narayan; Liu, Qilin; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a rare variant that accounts for approximately 4–13 % of ameloblastoma, displaying significant differences in anatomical site, imaging, and histologic appearance. It has been included in WHO classification of head and neck tumor (WHO-2005) as a variant of ameloblastoma. The tumor resembles benign fibro-osseous lesion for being frequently occurring in the anterior region of jaws as a mixed radiopaque-radiolucent lesion. Case presentation We present...

  5. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  6. Mini-Open Latarjet Procedure for Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numa Mercier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior shoulder instability is a common problem. The Latarjet procedure has been advocated as an option for the treatment of anteroinferior shoulder instability. The purpose of this paper is to explain our surgical procedure titled “Mini-open Latarjet Procedure.” We detailed patient positioning, skin incision, subscapularis approach, and coracoid fixation. Then, we reviewed the literature to evaluate the clinical outcomes of this procedure.

  7. Septic arthritis of the knee following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Sajovic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis of the knee is a rare complication after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and the most appropriate treatment is unclear. All case series reported so far have been retrospective, and case numbers of septic arthritis have ranged from 4 to 11. From a consecutive case series of 1,283 patients who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between January 1997 and May 2008, we report on 3 patients (0.23% with post-operative septic arthritis. All patients had acute infection (≤ 2 weeks, bacterial cultures showed Staphylococcus species in 2 patients, while the bacterial culture was negative in the third. All of them underwent immediate arthroscopic debridement and lavage with continuous irrigation, as well as antibiotic treatment. The results were evaluated with physical and radiographic examination, functional testing, KT-2000, Lysholm and Tegner scales. The infection was successfully eradicated without further surgical treatment and the ligament graft was retained in all patients. Follow-up, at an average of 33 months, revealed that the patients had full symmetric knee range of motion and no effusion. The average Lysholm score was 91 points. In the patient with a lower subjective score, radiographs demonstrated patellofemoral joint-space narrowing, which is most probably in correlation with his anterior knee pain problems and lower activity level. The 134 N KT-2000 arthrometer side-to-side differences averaged 13 mm. Their performance in the single-legged hop test gave excellent results. The goals of treatment for septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are, primarily, to protect the articular cartilage and, secondly, to protect the graft. Through early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the infection can be successfully eradicated, with stability of the knee and full range of motion achieved.

  8. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  9. Class I malocclusion with anterior crossbite and severe crowding

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Daltro Enéas

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning carried out with a 14-year and 5-month-old female patient with esthetic and functional complaints. She presented an Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbite and severe crowding in both maxillary and mandibular arches, in addition to a lightly concave straight facial profile. Orthodontic treatment did not require extraction. Crossbite was corrected by protrusion of upper teeth, which contributed to alignment and leveli...

  10. Fracture of the patella after the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Milović Milan; Bojat Veselin; Kovačev Nemanja; Rašović Predrag; Milankov Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Fracture of the patella, after harvesting the central third of the patellar tendon for a bone-tendon-bone autograft, is a rare complication. Material and Methods. We made 1714 reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee using bone-patellar tendon-bone technique, and 7 patients had fracture of the patella (0.42%). The fracture was immediately recognized in the patients with vertical non-displaced patellar fracture and the broken screw osteosynthesis was ca...

  11. Graft selection in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Romanini, Emilio; D’Angelo, Franca; De Masi, Salvatore; Adriani, Ezio; Magaletti, Massimiliano; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Sagliocca, Luciano; Morciano, Cristina; Mele, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgical reconstruction is performed with the use of an autogenic, allogenic or synthetic graft. The document issued by the Italian National Guidelines System (SNLG, Sistema Nazionale Linee Guida) at the National Institute of Health aims to guide orthopaedic surgeons in selecting the optimal graft for ACL reconstruction using an evidence-based approach. Materials and methods A monodisciplinary panel was formed to define a restricted number of clinic...

  12. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  13. Interesting clinical presentation of anterior knee pain causing diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Samer S; Balasubramanian, S; Teanby, D

    2009-09-01

    A diverse variety of lesions may occasionally occur in the patella. In this case report, we are presenting an interesting case of anterior knee pain in middle aged gentleman. Initial investigations including Magnetic Resonance Imaging not showed any abnormality. Due to prolonged continued pain he had bone scan and MRI, which confirmed the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess. We are presenting this case of Brodie's abscess of the patella causing diagnostic dilemma because of its rarity.

  14. Relationship between static anterior laxity using the KT-1000 and dynamic tibial rotation during motion in patients with anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

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    Sato, Koji; Maeda, Akira; Takano, Yoshio; Matsuse, Hiroo; Ida, Hirofumi; Shiba, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays an important role in controlling knee joint stability, not only by limiting tibial anterior translation but also by controlling knee axial rotation. The aim of ACL reconstruction is to reduce excessive anterior joint laxity, hoping to restore normal tibiofemoral kinematics including knee axial rotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between static anterior instability and tibial rotation during several activities in an anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee. Seven patients with unilateral ACL injury performed plain walking, running, landing and side step cutting tasks after ACL reconstruction with a mean follow-up of 14 months. The kinematic data for the 4 motions was measured using a motion analysis system and the point cluster technique. The evaluation period was defined to be from the first contact to removal of the tested leg from the ground. Maximum tibial internal rotation during tasks was calculated using the point cluster technique (PCT). Passive anterior tibial translation was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the maximum internal rotation with the side-to-side difference of static anterior tibial translation measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. During side step cutting maneuvers, maximum tibial internal rotation significantly showed negative correlation with static anterior tibial translation (pknee rotation kinematics. The normal anterior tibial translation obtained by ACL reconstruction is thought to be the key factor in successful restoration of normal knee kinematics. PMID:23925154

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis: optometric management

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    Harthan JS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Harthan,1 Dominick L Opitz,2 Stephanie R Fromstein,1 Christina E Morettin3 1Cornea Center for Clinical Experience, 2Ophthalmology Services and Practice Development, 3Urgent Eye Care Service, Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Anterior uveitis encompasses inflammation of the iris and/or ciliary body and is one of the most common types of ocular inflammation that primary eye care practitioners will encounter. Anterior uveitis may be caused by a variety of etiologies, including infectious, noninfectious, and masquerade diseases. The short-term and long-term treatment of uveitis should include the evaluation of location, duration, pathology, and laterality, in addition to presenting signs and symptoms of the disease. A complete review of systems, thorough examination, and laboratory testing, may assist the practitioner in narrowing the list of possible causes for the uveitis. This is imperative as once a list of diagnoses has been made, a targeted approach to treatment can be pursued. Keywords: anterior uveitis, iritis, inflammation

  16. Is biologic width of anterior and posterior teeth similar?

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    Amir Alireza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The biologic width (BW includes attached epithelial cells and connective tissue attachment complex being very important in the periodontal health during prosthetic treatments as invading this zone can cause bone resorption and gingival recession. The present study investigated biologic width values in the normal periodontium in anterior and posterior teeth. 30 patients that referred from restorative department to periodontics department of Tehran University of medical sciences who need crown lengthening procedure on their teeth with no history of orthodontic, prosthodontic and periodontal treatment were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional trial. Sulcus depths (SD as well as the distance between free gingival margin and the bone crest (FB of anterior and posterior teeth were measured by UNC-15 probe and compared. periodontium thickness was also assessed. The data were subjected to Student t test. Mean BW in the 43 anterior and 47 posterior teeth was measured and not significantly different (1.4651±0.39 mm vs. 1.6312±0.49 mm was observed; however, BW was significantly more in the teeth with thick periodontium compared to those with thin periodontium (1.703±0.5 vs. 1.408±0.35; P=0.002. BW not only is different in individuals but also could be dissimilar in different teeth and should be calculated independently prior to restorative treatments.

  17. Imaging of traumatic injury and impingement of anterior knee fat.

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    Lapègue, F; Sans, N; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Brucher, N; Cambon, Z; Chiavassa, H; Larbi, A; Faruch, M

    2016-01-01

    Fat is not just used by the body as bulk tissue. In addition to its role in storing energy and regulating hormone action, fat is used in some parts of the body for its mechanical properties. The anatomy of anterior knee fat is more complex than it appears at first sight and is capable of withstanding considerable compressive and shear stress. Specific lesions occur when such mechanical stress exceeds the physiological limits and are yet little known. Superficial fat can be the site of either acute injury by closed degloving called the Morel-Lavallée lesion or chronic injury, when subject to repeat excessive shear forces, due to more complex and less well-defined disruptions that result in pseudo-bursitis. There are three main anterior, intracapsular and extrasynovial fat pads in the knee joint, which are the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) or Hoffa's fat pad, the quadriceps fat pad and the prefemoral fat pad. The IFP plays an important role as a mechanical shock absorber and guides the patella tendon and even the patella itself during flexion-extension movements. In response to repeated excessive stress, an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the IFP is first observed, followed by a fibrotic reaction with metaplastic transformation into fibrous, cartilaginous or bone tissue. More rarely, the two other deep fat pads (quadriceps and prefemoral) can, if subject to repeated stress, undergo similar restructuring inflammatory reactions with metaplasia resulting in tissue hardening, anterior pain and partial loss of function. PMID:27118690

  18. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

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    Mallanagouda N Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand. He complained of pain and difficulty in moving both the shoulders. On clinical examination, patient’s both upper limbs were abducted and externally rotated. Bilaterally shoulder contour was lost with flattening. Other classical signs of shoulder dislocation viz, Bryants test, Callway sign, Hamilton’s ruler test were positive. Diagnosis was confirmed on X rays. Both shoulders were reduced in emergency operation theater under general anaesthesia by Kocher’s method and were immobilised in sling. Conclusion: Though bilateral shoulder dislocations are commonly posterior, usually either secondary to convulsions or electric shock, anterior dislocation has to be kept in mind , especially in post traumatic injuries. This bilateral dislocation also presents with practical problems immobilization and day to day care of patients. Keywords: Simultaneous, bilateral, shoulder dislocation, traumatic.

  19. Automatic segmentation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography images

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    Williams, Dominic; Zheng, Yalin; Bao, Fangjun; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can provide quantitative measurements of the eye's entire anterior segment. A new technique founded on a newly proposed level set-based shape prior segmentation model has been developed for automatic segmentation of the cornea's anterior and posterior boundaries. This technique comprises three major steps: removal of regions containing irrelevant structures and artifacts, estimation of the cornea's location using a thresholding technique, and application of the new level set-based shape prior segmentation model to improve segmentation. The performance of our technique is compared to previously developed methods for analysis of the cornea in 33 OCT images of normal eyes, whereby manual annotations are used as a reference standard. The new technique achieves much improved concordance than previous methods, with a mean Dice's similarity coefficient of >0.92. This demonstrates the technique's potential to provide accurate and reliable measurements of the anterior segment geometry, which is important for many applications, including the construction of representative numerical simulations of the eye's mechanical behavior.

  20. Activation of anterior insula during self-reflection.

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    Gemma Modinos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested activation of midline frontoparietal brain regions to be at the core of self-related processes. However, although some studies reported involvement of the insula, little attention has been paid to this region as forming part of the "self"-network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we aimed at replicating and extending previous studies by scanning subjects whilst reflecting upon their own personal qualities as compared to those of an acquaintance. A third condition with statements about general knowledge was used to control for attention, semantic processing and decision making processes. The results showed a significant effect of task in brain activity, consistent with previous findings, by which both person conditions recruited a common set of medial prefrontal and posterior regions, yet significant differences between self and other were found in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Notably, significant neural activation in the left anterior insula was observed as uniquely associated with self-reflection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide further evidence for the specific recruitment of anterior MPFC and ACC regions for self-related processing, and highlight a role for the insula in self-reflection. As the insula is closely connected with ascending internal body signals, this may indicate that the accumulation of changes in affective states that might be implied in self-processing may contribute to our sense of self.