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Sample records for choosing vehicle capacity

  1. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  2. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  3. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  4. METHOD OF CHOOSING THE TECHNOLOGY OF VEHICLE OPERATION ON DELIVERY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Nagornyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for determining the technology of vehicles operation on delivery (team routes, which allows to determine the optimal sequence of cargo delivery to customers by vehicles of certain capacity in order to meet the requirements of cargo owners regarding the conditions of service is offered. Recommendations for creation of an automated system of forming the technology of vehicles operation on delivery routes are developed.

  5. The capacity to choose: reformulating the concept of choice in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Peacock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite being conceived as a ‘theory of rational choice’, orthodox economics fails to ascribe to human beings the ability to choose in a meaningful sense, something philosophical approaches to economics have long noted and tried to remedy. Tony Lawson’s critical realism is one attempt at a remedy. If, following Lawson, one conceives of choice as a ‘capacity’ of human beings, critical realist analysis suggests a distinction between humans’ possession and their exercise of this capacity. If one can sustain this distinction, one should be able to distinguish cases in which agents actually exercise their capacity to choose from those in which they do not. Investigation of this distinction does not, however, lead to the desired distinction between such cases. Consequently, a reformulation of the notion of choice is required. An implication for economic theory – namely, the possibility of conceptualizing ‘exploitation’ – is discussed.

  6. Assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motor vehicle mechanics trainers' are affected by the developments in the modern automobile technology (MAT) that brought about the use of auto scan tools for diagnosis and repair of modern vehicles in Nigeria. This study examined the capacity building needs among motor vehicle mechanics trainers in the use of ...

  7. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices, large......The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...

  8. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...... by combining different strands of this literature....

  9. Choosing not to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2014-10-01

    Choice can be an extraordinary benefit or an immense burden. In some contexts, people choose not to choose, or would do so if they were asked. In part because of limitations of "bandwidth," and in part because of awareness of their own lack of information and potential biases, people sometimes want other people to choose for them. For example, many people prefer not to make choices about their health or retirement plans; they want to delegate those choices to a private or public institution that they trust (and may well be willing to pay a considerable amount to those who are willing to accept such delegations). This point suggests that however well accepted, the line between active choosing and paternalism is often illusory. When private or public institutions override people's desire not to choose and insist on active choosing, they may well be behaving paternalistically, through a form of choice-requiring paternalism. Active choosing can be seen as a form of libertarian paternalism, and a frequently attractive one, if people are permitted to opt out of choosing in favor of a default (and in that sense permitted not to choose); it is a form of nonlibertarian paternalism insofar as people are required to choose. For both ordinary people and private or public institutions, the ultimate judgment in favor of active choosing, or in favor of choosing not to choose, depends largely on the costs of decisions and the costs of errors.

  10. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm. PMID:29543875

  11. Congestion patterns of electric vehicles with limited battery capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wentao; Ramezani, Mohsen; An, Kun; Kim, Inhi

    2018-01-01

    The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect. A mathematical programming model is proposed for the path-based SUE traffic assignment where the path cost is the sum of the corresponding link costs and a path specific out-of-energy penalty. We then apply the convergent Lagrangian dual method to transform the original problem into a concave maximization problem and develop a customized gradient projection algorithm to solve it. A column generation procedure is incorporated to generate the path set. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.

  12. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  13. Increasing Road Infrastructure Capacity Through the Use of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    considerably in recent years. In many urban areas, individuals have foregone purchasing vehicles and have instead joined car - sharing programs like...lots throughout the metropolitan area.107 Car sharing has expanded to include bike-sharing programs like Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC.108...vehicles could also enhance ride-sharing and car - sharing services, in which a user could request a vehicle via a mobile device to drive directly to the

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A mathematical model is used to help determine the manufacturing capacity needed to support post-vehicle-application remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of lithium-ion batteries over time.  Simulation is used in solving the model to estimate capacity in kWh.  Lithium-ion batteries that are commonly used in the electrification of vehicles cannot be simply discarded post-vehicle-application due to the materials of which they are composed.  Eventually, each will fail to hold a charge and will need to be recycled.  Remanufacturing, allowing a battery to return to a vehicle application, and repurposing, transforming a battery for use in a non-vehicle application, postpone recycling and increase value. The mathematical model and its solution using simulation test the hypothesis that the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production is a function of a single parameter:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured. Design/methodology/approach: Equations in the mathematical model represent the capacity needed for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling as well as new battery production as dependent variables.  Independent variables are exogenous quantities as such as the demand for electrified vehicles of all types, physical properties of batteries such as their application life distribution including the time to recycling, and a single decision variable:  the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  Values of the dependent variables over time are estimated by simulation for values of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries ranging from 0% to 85% in steps of 5%. Findings and Originality/value: The simulation results support important insights for investment in capacity for remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application batteries as well as new batteries.  The capacity needed for

  16. Assessment of capacity support and scattering in experimental high speed vehicle to vehicle MIMO links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Brown, Tim; Olesen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results on the use of the vehicle to vehicle MIMO channel in a rural highway environment are presented. This is looked at both in terms of the available spatial multiplexing through singular value decomposition and also angular distribution within the channel. Results indicate a strong...... predominant line of sight link in general while instances of scattering from other vehicles will cause changes in the Doppler spectrum as well as beamforming jitter....

  17. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  18. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  19. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  20. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  1. A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1 a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2 an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3 the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries.

  2. Choosing Beauty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning that takes into account self-locating evidence in apparently plausible ways sometimes yields the startling conclusion that rational credences are such as if agents had bizarre causal powers. The present paper introduces a novel version of the Sleeping Beauty problem-Choosing Beauty-for

  3. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  4. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  5. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  6. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  7. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP, is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1 a market-based approach; (2 a pro-rata approach; and (3 a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones.

  8. Analysis of pavement structure sensitivity to passage of oversized heavy duty vehicle in terms of bearing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Rys; Piotr, Jaskula

    2018-05-01

    Oversized heavy duty vehicles occur in traffic very rarely but they reach extremely high weights, even up to 800 tonne. The detrimental impact of these vehicles on pavement structure is much higher than in case of commercial vehicles that comprise typical traffic, thus it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of pavement structure to passage of oversized vehicles. The paper presents results of sample calculations of load equivalency factor of a heavy duty oversized vehicle with usage of mechanistic-empirical approach. The effects of pavement thickness, type of distress (cracking or rutting) and pavement condition (new or old with structural damage) were considered in the paper. Analysis revealed that a single pass of an 800 tonne oversized vehicle is equivalent to pass of up to 377 standard 100 kN axles. Load equivalency factor calculated for thin structures is almost 3 times lower than for thick structures, however, the damage effect caused by one pass of an oversized vehicle is higher in the case of thin structure. Bearing capacity of a pavement structure may be qualified as sufficient for passage of an oversized heavy duty vehicle when the measured deflection, for example in an FWD test, does not exceed the maximum deflections derived from mechanistic-empirical analysis. The paper presents sample calculation of maximum deflections which allow to consider passage of an oversized vehicle as safe over different pavement structures. The paper provides road administration with a practical tool which helps to decide whether to issue a permit of passage for a given oversized vehicle.

  9. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  10. Capacity management of nursing staff as a vehicle for organizational improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Bor, Gert; Smeenk, Marjolein; Klazinga, Niek S.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Capacity management systems create insight into required resources like staff and equipment. For inpatient hospital care, capacity management requires information on beds and nursing staff capacity, on a daily as well as annual basis. This paper presents a comprehensive capacity model

  11. Metamodel for Efficient Estimation of Capacity-Fade Uncertainty in Li-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient method for estimating capacity-fade uncertainty in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in order to integrate them into the battery-management system (BMS of electric vehicles, which requires simple and inexpensive computation for successful application. The study uses the pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D electrochemical model, which simulates the battery state by solving a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs. The model parameters that are responsible for electrode degradation are identified and estimated, based on battery data obtained from the charge cycles. The Bayesian approach, with parameters estimated by probability distributions, is employed to account for uncertainties arising in the model and battery data. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique is used to draw samples from the distributions. The complex computations that solve a PDE system for each sample are avoided by employing a polynomial-based metamodel. As a result, the computational cost is reduced from 5.5 h to a few seconds, enabling the integration of the method into the vehicle BMS. Using this approach, the conservative bound of capacity fade can be determined for the vehicle in service, which represents the safety margin reflecting the uncertainty.

  12. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  13. Determinants of the energy storage capacity of electric vehicles; Determinanten des Energiespeicherpotentials von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S.; Westermann, D. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). FG EEV; Agsten, M. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST)

    2012-07-01

    Future power systems have to meet the challenge of uncontrollable, decentralized generation through increasing renewable. Utilize energy storage to harmonize the load with fluctuating generation is an option. On the other hand in today's markets large scale energy storage systems are hard to find. The reason is assumed in the high costs. Electric vehicle utilization with smart charging could be an alternative solution, due to the secondary use of the electric vehicles battery when not used for driving. This paper will describe the electric vehicle storage capability which determinants influence the storage potential Therefore a model based approach will be provided, which is based on the experiences of a field test (''MINI-E-Berlin powered by Vattenfall''). (orig.)

  14. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that ''blended'' power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing. (author)

  15. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Akbarzadeh, Hamed; Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models

  16. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taherkhani, Farid, E-mail: faridtaherkhani@gmail.com, E-mail: f.taherkhani@razi.ac.ir [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarzadeh, Hamed [Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models.

  17. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    -VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1) a market-based approach; (2) a pro-rata approach; and (3) a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented...

  18. Increasing the Endurance and Payload Capacity of Unmanned Vehicles with Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be significantly extended using thin film photovoltaic cells. The different power requirements of the RQ-11B...43  Figure 33.  A load test of the MPPT /boost controller to confirm the functionality of the power circuit equipment...36  Table 7.  The resistance of the surface mounted resistors used for voltage partitioning in the MPPT /boost controller

  19. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Xiuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  20. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  1. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  2. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  3. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  4. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  5. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and preventive effects of a topical emulsion and its vehicle control on the skin response to UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Behnam, S; Villarama, C D; Arens-Corell, M; Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-01-01

    Supplying topical exogenous antioxidants to the skin may prevent or minimize free radical-induced damaging. This study determines antioxidative capacity of a topical skin care emulsion (an oil-in-water vitamin E-containing formulation) versus its vehicle on human skin that was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by utilizing a photochemiluminescence device and biophysical methods. Ten healthy Caucasians (3 male and 7 female; mean age 47 +/- 10 years) were enrolled. In a randomized and double-blind manner, a pH-balanced vitamin E emulsion or its vehicle control was applied onto predesignated forearm prior to UVR exposure. Thirty minutes after application, these test sites were exposed to a UV light to induce the minimal erythema dose. One untreated site served as a blank control. Visual scoring and instrumental measurements were recorded at baseline and at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. At day 3, after completing instrumental measurements, each test site was stripped three times in a consecutive manner with a proprietary adhesive tape disc. These tapes were quantified for antioxidant capacity using a photochemiluminescence device. Vitamin E emulsion and vehicle control significantly (p emulsion showed significantly (p emulsion and its vehicle control significantly (p emulsion significantly (p emulsion and its vehicle control showed significant (p emulsion and its vehicle control proved effective in preventing induction of erythema and reducing inflammatory damage caused by UV exposure. The effect of vitamin E emulsion exceeded that of an 'active control'. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper......-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students’ perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used...

  8. Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.

  9. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  10. The Customer Cannot Choose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPeople can choose and they make many choices each and every day. However, most people are unaware of how strong their environment influences the choices they make. In his inaugural address, Bas Donkers highlights the impact of what people see (and what they don’t see), what people

  11. A new battery capacity indicator for nickel-metal hydride battery powered electric vehicles using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, K.T.; Wu, K.C.; Chan, C.C.; Shen, W.X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to estimate accurately the battery residual capacity (BRC) of the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery for modern electric vehicles (EVs). The key to this approach is to model the Ni-MH battery in EVs by using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with newly defined inputs and output. The inputs are the temperature and the discharged capacity distribution describing the discharge current profile, while the output is the state of available capacity (SOAC) representing the BRC. The estimated SOAC from ANFIS model and the measured SOAC from experiments are compared, and the results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate estimation of the SOAC under variable discharge currents

  12. A Capacity Fading Model of Lithium-Ion Battery Cycle Life Based on the Kinetics of Side Reactions for Electric Vehicle Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Weijun; Sun, Zechang; Wei, Xuezhe; Dai, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Describe the aging mechanism of lithium-ion battery with electrochemical kinetics. • Establish the fading rate equation based on Eyring Equation. • The established equation is applicable to any reaction order. • Integrate the internal kinetics with external degradation characteristics. - Abstract: Battery life prediction is one of the critical issues that restrict the development of electric vehicles. Among the typical battery life models, the mechanism model focusing on the internal physical or electrochemical processes has a stronger theoretical foundation and greater accuracy. The empirical formula, which relies on the simplified mechanism, has a concise model structure and more flexibility in vehicle applications. However, the internal aging mechanism rarely correlates with the external operating characteristics. Based on the summary of the capacity fading mechanism and the reasoning of the internal kinetics of side reactions during the aging process, a lifetime model of the lithium-ion battery is established in this paper. The solutions to the vital parameters based on the external accelerated life testing results are also presented. The testing sample is a manganese oxide lithium-ion battery of 8 Ah. The validation results indicated that the life model established in this paper can describe the capacity fading law of the lithium-ion battery and the operability and accuracy for vehicle applications

  13. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  14. Choosing children: intergenerational justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila

    2005-03-01

    In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.

  15. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  16. Exact method for the vehicle routing problem with mixed linehaul and backhaul customers, heterogeneous fleet, time window and manufacturing capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Oesterle, Jonathan; Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Due to concerns over food safety, quality, and transparency, the food industry has been challenged to deal with an increased complexity in its logistics and production planning. This complexity is mostly associated to the task of optimally exploring a highly constrained solution space. This paper addresses the problem of designing a set of vehicle routes satisfying the delivery and the collection requirements of a set of geographically scattered linehaul and backhaul customers. Each customer ...

  17. How couples choose vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehl, M

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted by AVSC International between 1992 and 1995 found that couples around the world go through a highly similar decision-making process when they choose vasectomy as their family planning methods. Study findings are based upon in-depth, qualitative interviews with couples using vasectomy in Bangladesh, Mexico, Kenya, and Rwanda, where the prevalence of vasectomy is relatively low, and Sri Lanka and the US, where it is relatively high. 218 separate interviews were conducted with male and female partners. Concerns about the woman's health were cited by respondents in each country as reasons to cease childbearing and to opt for vasectomy as the means to achieving that end. Also, almost all respondents mentioned varying degrees of financial hardship as contributing to their decision to end childbearing. These findings highlight the concept of partnership in relationships and family planning decision-making, and demonstrate the importance of going beyond traditional stereotypes about gender roles in decision-making. Social influences and the potential risks of using other forms of contraception also contributed to the choice of using vasectomy. The decision-making process and lessons learned are discussed.

  18. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  19. Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices--the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to…

  20. Quantifying the environmental impact of a Li-rich high-capacity cathode material in electric vehicles via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Yu, Yajuan; Huang, Kai; Chen, Bo; Deng, Wensheng; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A promising Li-rich high-capacity cathode material (xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1-x)LiMn 0.5 Ni 0.5 O 2 ) has received much attention with regard to improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. This study presents an environmental impact evaluation of a lithium-ion battery with Li-rich materials used in an electric vehicle throughout the life cycle of the battery. A comparison between this cathode material and a Li-ion cathode material containing cobalt was compiled in this study. The battery use stage was found to play a large role in the total environmental impact and high greenhouse gas emissions. During battery production, cathode material manufacturing has the highest environmental impact due to its complex processing and variety of raw materials. Compared to the cathode with cobalt, the Li-rich material generates fewer impacts in terms of human health and ecosystem quality. Through the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and sensitivity analysis, we found that the electricity mix and energy efficiency significantly influence the environmental impacts of both battery production and battery use. This paper also provides a detailed life cycle inventory, including firsthand data on lithium-ion batteries with Li-rich cathode materials.

  1. Choose your doctorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The development of education options for nurses has been inexorable and it is increasingly the case that senior nurses are considering a doctorate as the logical next step in their educational career. Such individuals need to make important decisions as to whether they should embark on a taught doctorate, professional doctorate or a traditional PhD. Each of these options will necessitate a considerable investment in time and money as well as the sacrifice of quality time and spare time over a significant number of years. A doctorate is not for everyone. Those still reading this text may be asking 'could this possibly be for me'? This paper will try to help the reader decide which if any option to take. It is suggested that nurses will now turn to the doctoral degree as their next adventure in academic study. It is argued that this development is not being controlled by management forces and indeed cannot be controlled by them. This last is chiefly because the move towards doctoral education is led by individuals who choose to study for a doctorate simply because they can. The paper considers what choices are available to nurses who wish to pursue a doctoral programme of study. In particular, this paper considers what new developments in doctoral courses are becoming available and what advantage there may be in studying for one of the newer professional doctorates rather than a traditional PhD. The material here is the result of a review of the literature on recent developments in doctoral education for nurses. The existing provision by UK and other universities was also reviewed, the data being collected by an informal review of universities' advertising material. It is inevitable that some nurses who are already qualified to degree and masters degree will take advantage of the doctoral degree opportunities which now newly present themselves. For nurses in practice, the advantages of the professional doctorate is that it is more structured, enables more peer and

  2. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  3. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  4. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  5. Choosing the Right Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péči Matúš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines systems integration and its main levels at higher levels of control. At present, the systems integration is one of the main aspects participating in the consolidation processes and financial flows of a company. Systems Integration is a complicated emotionconsuming process and it is often a problem to choose the right approach and level of integration. The research focused on four levels of integration, while each of them is characterized by specific conditions. At each level, there is a summary of recommendations and practical experience. The paper also discusses systems integration between the information and MES levels. The main part includes user-level integration where we describe an example of such integration. Finally, we list recommendations and also possible predictions of the systems integration as one of the important factors in the future.

  6. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  7. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  8. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  9. Optimization for routing vehicles of seafood product transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenandi, I. A.; Juan, Y.; Budi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, increasing usage of marine products is creating new challenges for businesses of marine products in terms of transportation that used to carry the marine products like seafood to the main warehouse. This can be a problem if the carrier fleet is limited, and there are time constraints in terms of the freshness of the marine product. There are many ways to solve this problem, including the optimization of routing vehicles. In this study, this strategy is to implement in the marine product business in Indonesia with such an expected arrangement of the company to optimize routing problem in transportation with time and capacity windows. Until now, the company has not used the scientific method to manage the routing of their vehicle from warehouse to the location of marine products source. This study will solve a stochastic Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) with time and capacity windows by using the comparison of six methods and looking the best results for the optimization, in this situation the company could choose the best method, in accordance with the existing condition. In this research, we compared the optimization with another method such as branch and bound, dynamic programming and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Finally, we get the best result after running ACO algorithm with existing travel time data. With ACO algorithm was able to reduce vehicle travel time by 3189.65 minutes, which is about 23% less than existing and based on consideration of the constraints of time within 2 days (including rest time for the driver) using 28 tons capacity of truck and the companies need two units of vehicles for transportation.

  10. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stroke Association’s Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services Rehabilitation, often referred to as rehab, is an important part of stroke recovery. Through rehab, you:  Re-learn basic skills such ...

  11. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Choosing a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility To use the sharing features ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. How to choose a health plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000861.htm How to choose a health plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... paperwork for tax purposes. How to Compare Health Plans Employers and government sites, such as the Marketplace , ...

  13. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  14. WHY WOULD YOUNG STUDENTS CHOOSE ENTREPRENEURSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Andreea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship is widely considered as a solution for economic problems. The number of young people who start a new business is in increasing. The students’ motivation for choosing entrepreneurship is the research purpose of this paper. A survey developed in Alba Iulia, on a number of 100 students’ points out the relevant motivation why young people choose entrepreneurial alternative. The results showed that most of the actual students would choose to be entrepreneurs because they want to improve their life standards, to explore new business opportunities and to have a social status. In conclusion, the teachers, the governmental authorities and all the others interested in stimulating the entrepreneurial motivation should their words and actions affect potential entrepreneurs’ perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and net desirability.

  15. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  16. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  17. Choosing High School Courses with Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Steve; Sevier, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In choosing high school courses, students often seem to focus on everything except preparation for an intended major or career. They consider graduation requirements, weighted classes, easy classes...but rarely are these types of choices preparing students for postsecondary education. This article describes the "Career Companion Guide"…

  18. Wood preservatives : choosing the right one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Humphries; Stan Lebow; David Moses

    2009-01-01

    If you are having trouble choosing the right wood preservative system for your application, you are not alone. Dozens of products are available, some older types have gone out of use, others may be completely inappropriate for your application. As designers, specifiers and builders, you need to understand key information to be able to navigate through all of these...

  19. Stochastic User Equilibrium Assignment in Schedule-Based Transit Networks with Capacity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangtu Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a stochastic user equilibrium (SUE assignment model for a schedule-based transit network with capacity constraint. We consider a situation in which passengers do not have the full knowledge about the condition of the network and select paths that minimize a generalized cost function encompassing five components: (1 ride time, which is composed of in-vehicle and waiting times, (2 overload delay, (3 fare, (4 transfer constraints, and (5 departure time difference. We split passenger demands among connections which are the space-time paths between OD pairs of the network. All transit vehicles have a fixed capacity and operate according to some preset timetables. When the capacity constraint of the transit line segment is reached, we show that the Lagrange multipliers of the mathematical programming problem are equivalent to the equilibrium passenger overload delay in the congested transit network. The proposed model can simultaneously predict how passengers choose their transit vehicles to minimize their travel costs and estimate the associated costs in a schedule-based congested transit network. A numerical example is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed model.

  20. Choosing the right system to manage electricity derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasey, G.

    1998-01-01

    The alternatives available and the considerations entering into the choice of the right system to manage electricity derivatives are reviewed. The choice of system will be influenced by a variety of factors, among them : (1) business issues, (2) business processes, (3) functionality, (4) technology, (5) integration into the enterprise, and (6) internal and external competition. The system chosen will need to be integrated into the enterprise. Beyond that,it will need executive commitment, dedicated internal resources, qualified assistance from the vendor, willingness to revisit the business processes and make changes when needed, and training and more training. Some factors to take into account when choosing a system vendor are also discussed. Among these good fit to business, system performance, flexibility, reliability, and customization capacity are the most important

  1. Choosing wisely-where is the choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A little over a year ago an editorial was posted in the Southwest Journal about the Choosing Wisely campaign from the American Board of Internal Medicine and Consumer Reports (1. You may remember that Choosing Wisely announced a list of procedures or treatments that patients should question (2. In the editorial we wondered why pulmonary organizations such as the American Thoracic Society (ATS and the American College of Chest Physicians authored none of the recommendations and offered 10 suggestions. We also openly questioned if the recommendations were intended to improve patient care or reduce costs, and thus improve the profits of third party carriers. We can now report that recommendations were announced at the recent ATS meeting in Philadelphia. Seven recommendations were made for critical care and seven for pulmonary disease. Five from the critical care list and five from the pulmonary list will eventually be chosen for inclusion in …

  2. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Participation in Physical Activities and Motives for Choosing Teaching Physical Education as a Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawahi, Nasser; Al-Yarabi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the relationship between physical education teachers' attitudes toward participation in physical activity and their motives toward choosing physical education as a teaching profession. Two questionnaires with a sample of 98 participants were employed as a data collection vehicle. The results showed that…

  3. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid...... method where distribution system operator (DSO) optimizes the cost of EV charging while taking substation transformer capacity into account....

  4. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; James, William; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...

  5. A technique for choosing an option for SDH network upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bulanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing data transmission technologies result in making the network equipment modernization inevitable. There are various options to upgrade the SDH networks, for example, by increasing the capacity of network overloaded sites, the entire network capacity by replacement of the equipment or by creation of a parallel network, by changing the network structure with the organization of multilevel hierarchy of a network, etc. All options vary in a diversity of parameters starting with the solution cost and ending with the labor intensiveness of their realization. Thus, there are no certain standard approaches to the rules to choose an option for the network development. The article offers the technique for choosing the SHD network upgrade based on method of expert evaluations using as a tool the software complex that allows us to have quickly the quantitative characteristics of proposed network option. The technique is as follows:1. Forming a perspective matrix of services inclination to the SDH networks.2. Developing the several possible options for a network modernization.3. Formation of the list of criteria and a definition of indicators to characterize them by two groups, namely costs of the option implementation and arising losses; positive effect from the option introduction.4. Criteria weight coefficients purpose.5. Indicators value assessment within each criterion for each option by each expert. Rationing of the obtained values of indicators in relation to the maximum value of an indicator among all options.6. Calculating the integrated indicators of for each option by criteria groups.7. Creating a set of Pareto by drawing two criteria groups of points, which correspond to all options in the system of coordinates on the plane. Option choice.In implementation of point 2 the indicators derivation owing to software complex plays a key role. This complex should produce a structure of the network equipment, types of multiplexer sections

  6. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  7. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  8. Homo Ignorans: Deliberately Choosing Not to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Engel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Western history of thought abounds with claims that knowledge is valued and sought. Yet people often choose not to know. We call the conscious choice not to seek or use knowledge (or information) deliberate ignorance. Using examples from a wide range of domains, we demonstrate that deliberate ignorance has important functions. We systematize types of deliberate ignorance, describe their functions, discuss their normative desirability, and consider how they can be modeled. To date, psychologists have paid relatively little attention to the study of ignorance, let alone the deliberate kind. Yet the desire not to know is no anomaly. It is a choice to seek rather than reduce uncertainty whose reasons require nuanced cognitive and economic theories and whose consequences-for the individual and for society-require analyses of both actor and environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...... is one thing, recruiting men to ECE work is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECE hold very strong gender-associated expectations....... men still encounter incomprehension when stating their choice of career. The study is actualised by five new projects supported by the Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (MBLIS). These five projects are engaged to seek new ways within attraction and recruitment...

  10. Choosing a public-spirited leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates⿿ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  11. A thermodynamic approach to choosing pervaporatives membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes separating a mixture of several components obtained as a product of methyl polymethyl metha- crylate (PMMA thermo-degradation. It was aimed at purifying methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA obtained by 95% mass thermal degradation to reach 99.5% maximum pervaporation concentration. This work studied the theory of pervaporation and applying the main thermodynamic criteria for choosing suitable polymer membranes for separating the MMA/PRP/ISB mixture. Such thermodynamic criteria were based on monomer interaction with and solubility on the membrane. The advantage of using this separation technique lies mainly in the fact that this method has low energy consumption compared to other processes, such as distillation or crystallisation.

  12. The Identity of Students Choosing Marketing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto, Idaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to look deeply into the identity of young students interested in training professional in marketing programs in Bogotá, Colombia. This descriptive study was conducted with the application of multidimensional surveys to 262 young people from five universities that offer training in marketing. The results show that there are differences and similarities in the lifestyles of young people who choose to study Marketing. The first, relating mainly to the identities assumed by students of daytime and nighttime that differ in their activities and more income. The second, by the increasing use and development of academic and social activities through the Internet of interest to young people today. It is hoped that these results provide the administrative and academic management of marketing programs that result in better communication and care of students as consumers.

  13. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  14. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  15. 49 CFR 575.105 - Vehicle rollover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The message area must be white with black text. (C) The pictograms must be black with a white..., either: (A) The rollover warning label must be affixed to the right (as viewed from the driver's seat) of... thereafter select a different option for that vehicle. If a manufacturer chooses to certify compliance with...

  16. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  17. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  18. Choosing Health and the inner citadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    2006-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that the latest UK government white paper on public health, Choosing Health, is vulnerable to a charge of paternalism. For some years libertarians have levelled this charge at public health policies. The white paper tries to avoid it by constant reference to informed choice and choice related terms. The implication is that the government aims only to inform the public of health issues; how they respond is up to them. It is argued here, however, that underlying the notion of informed choice is a Kantian, "inner citadel" view of autonomy. According to this view, each of us acts autonomously only when we act in accord with reason. On such a view it is possible to justify coercing, cajoling, and conning people on the basis that their current behaviour is not autonomous because it is subject to forces that cause irrational choice, such as addiction. "Informed choice" in this sense is compatible with paternalism. This paternalism can be seen in public health policies such as deceptive advertising and the treatment of "bad habits" as addictions. Libertarians are bound to object to this. In the concluding section, however, it is suggested that public health can, nonetheless, find ethical succour from alternative approaches.

  19. Free to choose. The Buddhist view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanawimala, B

    1993-10-27

    This Buddhist view of family planning is presented by a lecturer at the Buddhist and Pali University in Colombo. Birth control was not mentioned in the earliest Buddhist teachings because there was no urgency for population control. Large families were honored, and the expectation was that as many children as possible should be produced. Buddha did not mention the merits of population increase. Buddha considered family size a personal family choice. Buddhist's disciples are expected to be celibate. Chastity is encouraged among men and women. The Dhammapada, a canonical work of Buddha, mentions not increasing population and teaches ways of keeping the mind free from lust. Reduction of births is recommended. Buddha placed importance on the right of human beings to exist and procreate peacefully. The right to life begins in the womb, and abortion is a violation of the rights of the unborn child. The formation of life is absolutely dependent upon a mother's physical fitness, sexual intercourse, and the arrival of "a being's dislocated transmigratory unit of fivefold energy (gandhabba)." Couples are free to choose a fetus from any energy body. Sterilization and the use of contraceptives, therefore, do not destroy life. Buddha commended abstinence, which is similar to chastity. The principle teachings of Buddha aim to end suffering. If procreation strains the ability of resources to support life, then procreation is against the basic principles of Buddha.

  20. Choosing Health and the inner citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    2006-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that the latest UK government white paper on public health, Choosing Health, is vulnerable to a charge of paternalism. For some years libertarians have levelled this charge at public health policies. The white paper tries to avoid it by constant reference to informed choice and choice related terms. The implication is that the government aims only to inform the public of health issues; how they respond is up to them. It is argued here, however, that underlying the notion of informed choice is a Kantian, “inner citadel” view of autonomy. According to this view, each of us acts autonomously only when we act in accord with reason. On such a view it is possible to justify coercing, cajoling, and conning people on the basis that their current behaviour is not autonomous because it is subject to forces that cause irrational choice, such as addiction. “Informed choice” in this sense is compatible with paternalism. This paternalism can be seen in public health policies such as deceptive advertising and the treatment of “bad habits” as addictions. Libertarians are bound to object to this. In the concluding section, however, it is suggested that public health can, nonetheless, find ethical succour from alternative approaches. PMID:16373514

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  2. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  3. Transportation and Production Lot-size for Sugarcane under Uncertainty of Machine Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudtachat Kanchala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated transportation and production lot size problems is important effect to total cost of operation system for sugar factories. In this research, we formulate a mathematic model that combines these two problems as two stage stochastic programming model. In the first stage, we determine the lot size of transportation problem and allocate a fixed number of vehicles to transport sugarcane to the mill factory. Moreover, we consider an uncertainty of machine (mill capacities. After machine (mill capacities realized, in the second stage we determine the production lot size and make decision to hold units of sugarcane in front of mills based on discrete random variables of machine (mill capacities. We investigate the model using a small size problem. The results show that the optimal solutions try to choose closest fields and lower holding cost per unit (at fields to transport sugarcane to mill factory. We show the results of comparison of our model and the worst case model (full capacity. The results show that our model provides better efficiency than the results of the worst case model.

  4. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  5. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  6. How to choose a delegation for a peace conference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, Burak; Csóka, Péter; Ergin, Emre

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes how to choose a delegation, a committee to represent a society such as in a peace conference. We propose normative conditions and seek optimal, consistent, neutral and non-manipulable ways to choose a delegation. We show that a novel class of threshold rules are characterized by

  7. Hearing Aids: How to Choose the Right One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing aids: How to choose the right one Many types of hearing aids exist. So which is best for you? Find out what to consider when choosing a hearing ... used to the device and decide if it's right for you. Have the dispenser put in writing ...

  8. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  9. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  10. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  11. Choosing to Win: How Sof Can Better Select Partners for Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AFRICOM 0.29 38 Comoros COM CN AFRICOM 0.29 121 Myanmar (Burma) MMR BM PACOM 0.29 94 Lao People’s Democratic Republic LAO LA PACOM 0.28 72 Haiti HTI...2013), 87–88. 125 Department of State. “ Aviation : Programs and Services.” http://bogota.usembassy.gov/nas-aviation.html. 54 ability for building

  12. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  13. Vehicle Test Facilities at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-06

    warehouse and rough terrain forklifts. Two 5-ton-capacity manual chain hoists at the rear of the table regulate its slope from 0 to 40 percent. The overall...Capacity at 24-Inch Load Center. 5. TOP/ HTP 2-2-608, Braking, Wheeled Vehicles, 15 Jav.&ry 1971. 6. TOP 2-2-603, Vehicle Fuel Consumption, 1 November 1977. A-1 r -. ’,’

  14. Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv

  15. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  16. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  17. Choosing in Freedom or Forced to Choose? Introspective Blindness to Psychological Forcing in Stage-Magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Diego E.; de Sousa Serro, Maximiliano G.; Giaconia, Maximiliano; Martinez, Luis M.; Rieznik, Andres; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated an individual ability to identify whether choices were made freely or forced by external parameters. We capitalized on magical setups where the notion of psychological forcing constitutes a well trodden path. In live stage magic, a magician guessed cards from spectators while inquiring how freely they thought they had made the choice. Our data showed a marked blindness in the introspection of free choice. Spectators assigned comparable ratings when choosing the card that the magician deliberately forced them compared to any other card, even in classical forcing, where the magician literally handles a card to the participant This observation was paralleled by a laboratory experiment where we observed modest changes in subjective reports by factors with drastic effect in choice. Pupil dilatation, which is known to tag slow cognitive events related to memory and attention, constitutes an efficient fingerprint to index subjective and objective aspects of choice. PMID:23516455

  18. Choosing in freedom or forced to choose? Introspective blindness to psychological forcing in stage-magic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E Shalom

    Full Text Available We investigated an individual ability to identify whether choices were made freely or forced by external parameters. We capitalized on magical setups where the notion of psychological forcing constitutes a well trodden path. In live stage magic, a magician guessed cards from spectators while inquiring how freely they thought they had made the choice. Our data showed a marked blindness in the introspection of free choice. Spectators assigned comparable ratings when choosing the card that the magician deliberately forced them compared to any other card, even in classical forcing, where the magician literally handles a card to the participant This observation was paralleled by a laboratory experiment where we observed modest changes in subjective reports by factors with drastic effect in choice. Pupil dilatation, which is known to tag slow cognitive events related to memory and attention, constitutes an efficient fingerprint to index subjective and objective aspects of choice.

  19. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  20. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  1. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  2. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available MEASURED WITH THREE DIFFERENT VEHICLE WEIGHING DEVICES Z Q P MKHIZE and M DE BEER CSIR Transportek, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT This study introduces a new scale for weighing individual tyres of slow moving vehicles. The new technology... that vehicles exert on pavements plays a vital part in the deterioration of the structural and functional capacity of the road. It also influences the safety of the vehicles, especially when vehicles are operated under overloaded and/or inappropriately loaded...

  3. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  4. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.

    2010-01-01

    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  5. An optimization algorithm for a capacitated vehicle routing problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, vehicle routing problem (VRP) with time windows and real world constraints are considered as a real-world application on google maps. Also, tabu search is used and Hopfield neural networks is utilized. Basic constraints consist of customer demands, time windows, vehicle speed, vehicle capacity andworking ...

  6. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  7. Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000596.htm Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ...

  8. Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. When you seek cancer treatment, you want to find the best care possible. ...

  9. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Care Products How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Looking for a quick fix to erase wrinkles, ... available, the beauty aisle can be overwhelming. Some skin care products are overpriced and make claims they can’t ...

  10. Choosing the Right Fireplace or Fireplace Retrofit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page is about choosing a fireplace or fireplace retrofit device, including information on hang tags and a list of fireplaces and retrofits that have qualified under the voluntary fireplace program

  11. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Lightweight Robotic Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christopher Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on conducting a benchmarking analysis for light wheeled and tracked robotic vehicles. Vehicle mobility has long been a key aspect of research for many organizations. According to the Department of Defense vehicle mobility is defined as, "the overall capacity to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission"[1]. Until recently this definition has been applied exclusively to large scale wheeled and tracked vehicles. With new development l...

  13. Value of freedom to choose encoded by the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Juri; Usui, Nobuo; Park, Soyoung Q.; Williams, Tony; Iijima, Toshio; Taira, Masato; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals value the opportunity to choose by preferring alternatives that offer more rather than fewer choices. This preference for choice may arise not only from an increased probability of obtaining preferred outcomes but also from the freedom it provides. We used human neuroimaging to investigate the neural basis of the preference for choice as well as for the items that could be chosen. In each trial, participants chose between two options, a monetary amount option and a “choice option.” The latter consisted of a number that corresponded to the number of everyday items participants would subsequently be able to choose from. We found that the opportunity to choose from a larger number of items was equivalent to greater amounts of money, indicating that participants valued having more choice; moreover, participants varied in the degree to which they valued having the opportunity to choose, with some valuing it more than the increased probability of obtaining preferred items. Neural activations in the mid striatum increased with the value of the opportunity to choose. The same region also coded the value of the items. Conversely, activation in the dorsolateral striatum was not related to the value of the items but was elevated when participants were offered more choices, particularly in those participants who overvalued the opportunity to choose. These data suggest a functional dissociation of value representations within the striatum, with general representations in mid striatum and specific representations of the value of freedom provided by the opportunity to choose in dorsolateral striatum. PMID:23864380

  14. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  15. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  16. Consumer preference not to choose: Methodological and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets

  17. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses.

  18. Sport, how people choose it: A network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Luca; Ivaldi, Marco; Daolio, Fabio; Giacobini, Mario; Rainoldi, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of athletes in choosing sports, we analyse data from part of the We-Sport database, a vertical social network that links athletes through sports. In particular, we explore connections between people sharing common sports and the role of age and gender by applying "network science" approaches and methods. The results show a disassortative tendency of athletes in choosing sports, a negative correlation between age and number of chosen sports and a positive correlation between age of connected athletes. Some interesting patterns of connection between age classes are depicted. In addition, we propose a method to classify sports, based on the analyses of the behaviour of people practising them. Thanks to this brand new classifications, we highlight the links of class of sports and their unexpected features. We emphasise some gender dependency affinity in choosing sport classes.

  19. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  20. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  1. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  2. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, Lejla; Bosankic, Ivan; Kasapovic, Suad; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Bin

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean), Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean), Agent Front sensors active (boolean), Agent Rear sensors active (boolean), RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer), Elapsed time (in seconds), Distance between Agent and Intruder (m), Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °), Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m)) influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m) and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles °) is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  3. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Determination of the Effect of Experimental Parameters on Vehicle Agent Speed Relative to Vehicle Intruder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahaboddin Shamshirband

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems rely on understanding, predicting and affecting the interactions between vehicles. The goal of this paper is to choose a small subset from the larger set so that the resulting regression model is simple, yet have good predictive ability for Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder. The method of ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system was applied to the data resulting from these measurements. The ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented in order to detect the predominant variables affecting the prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. This process includes several ways to discover a subset of the total set of recorded parameters, showing good predictive capability. The ANFIS network was used to perform a variable search. Then, it was used to determine how 9 parameters (Intruder Front sensors active (boolean, Intruder Rear sensors active (boolean, Agent Front sensors active (boolean, Agent Rear sensors active (boolean, RSSI signal intensity/strength (integer, Elapsed time (in seconds, Distance between Agent and Intruder (m, Angle of Agent relative to Intruder (angle between vehicles °, Altitude difference between Agent and Intruder (m influence prediction of agent speed relative to intruder. The results indicated that distance between Vehicle agent and Vehicle intruder (m and angle of Vehicle agent relative to Vehicle Intruder (angle between vehicles ° is the most influential parameters to Vehicle agent speed relative to Vehicle intruder.

  4. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images

  5. Choosing the Future You Prefer. A Goal Setting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Edward B.; Lippitt, Ronald O.

    The guide, intended for group and organization leaders, presents activities and exercises to aid in personal and group goal-setting and planning for the future. The objective is to help groups choose goals which are sensitive to and oriented toward the evolving future with its rapid rate of change. The guide is presented in eight chapters.…

  6. Choosing of optimal start approximation for laplace equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate Dirichlet problem for a case of two-dimensional area with lime border, numerical scheme for solving this equation is widely knowns it finite difference method. One of the major stages in the algorithm for that numerical solution is choosing of start approximation, usually as the initial values of the unknown ...

  7. Choosing the Right Assessment for the Right Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Assessments used for both clinical practice and research should show evidence of validity and reliability for the target group of people. It is easy to agree with this statement, but it is not always easy to choose the right assessment for the right purpose. Recently there have been increasing numbers of studies which investigate further the…

  8. The Dilemma of Individual Autonomy versus Choosing Rightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkely, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Many important goals or values of education are tokens of either one of these two meta-goals-values: raising our children to be autonomous, or raising them to choose rightly. Thus, the conflicts between many educational goals-values are tokens of the meta-conflict between these two, and the questions of priority that such conflicts invite are…

  9. Why Do Patients Choose to Consult Homeopaths? | McIntosh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients are using homeopathy in increasing numbers and not telling their doctors about it. It is important as family physicians that we understand the reasons why patients choose to consult homeopaths. It is important to know what our patients are looking for that they do not find in Western medicine.

  10. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Kwizera, Amata; Usta, Momade; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration

  11. Women Physicians: Choosing a Career in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Navarro, Anita M.; Grover, Amelia C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite recent efforts to understand the complex process of physician career development, the medical education community has a poor understanding of why, how, and when women physicians embark on a career in academic medicine. Method In 2010, the authors phone-interviewed women physicians in academic medicine regarding why, how, and when they chose an academic medicine career. Project investigators first individually and then collectively analyzed transcripts to identify themes in the data. Results Through analyzing the transcripts of the 53 interviews, the investigators identified five themes related to why women choose careers in academic medicine: fit, aspects of the academic health center environment, people, exposure, and clincial medicine. They identified five themes related to how women make the decision to enter academic medicine: change in specialty, dissatisfaction with former career, emotionality, parental influence, and decision-making styles. The authors also identified four themes regarding when women decide to enter academic medicine: as a practicing phyisican, fellow, resident, or medical student. Conclusions Choosing a career in academic medicine is greatly influenced by the environment in which one trains and by people—be they faculty, mentors, role models, or family. An interest in teaching is a primary reason women choose a career in academic medicine. Many women physicians entering acadmic medicine chose this after or during fellowship, which is when they became more aware of academic medicine as a possible career. For many women, choosing academic medicine was not necessarily an active, planned decision; rather it was serendipitous or circumstantial. PMID:22104052

  12. Choosing the right career: What approach? Implications for career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presentation made here accepts the thesis that the choice of career is not a simple matter. In fact, it asserts that more than ever before, the choice of a career on a training programme now requires a lot of thinking as well as taking into consideration several factors before choosing, planning and entering into a particular ...

  13. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  14. Choosing the Best Enzyme Complex Structure Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine

    2018-04-03

    In this issue of Structure, Tyzack et al. (2018) present a study of enzyme-ligand complexes in the PDB and show that the molecular similarity of bound and cognate ligands can be used to choose the most biologically appropriate complex structure for analysis when multiple structures are available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. More Young Black Men Choosing Not to Go to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1987-01-01

    More and more young Black males are choosing to enlist in the military, attend vocational and technical schools, or take jobs instead of going to college. Many yield to peer pressure and stop studying; further, role models do not exist for young Black men. (MLW)

  16. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  17. Choosing Teaching Profession as a Career: Students' Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyer, Aydin; Özcan, Kenan

    2014-01-01

    The success of educational change inevitably depends on the quality and performance of teachers. Therefore, the importance of employing high quality teachers is crucial for educational systems. Choosing talented and committed brains to teaching career depends on making it an attractive profession. It is considered that there are some reasons why…

  18. Choosing a Wiki Platform for Student Projects--Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Ross A.

    2010-01-01

    Wikis offer many benefits, such as two-way flows of information, early and consistent feedback, and greater student group collaboration, in an educational setting. Some researchers have already reported on the use of Wikis in their classes. However, instructors must choose an appropriate Wiki platform in order to receive all of the benefits of…

  19. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  20. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  1. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerling, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  2. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  3. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  4. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  5. Canadians' perceptions of electric vehicle technology : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    While Canadians seem to appreciate some of the possible benefits of electric vehicle technology (EVT), they generally lack knowledge or understanding of EVTs, in terms of how they operate and what types of EVT vehicles are currently available. This paper described the challenges associated with the adoption of EVT in Canada. In particular, it described a research program that was designed to assess Canadians' attitudes towards electric vehicle technology, in order to provide input into the development of a technology roadmap and its implementation plan, to provide input into communications plans and strategies to promote greater awareness and acceptance of the technology, and to establish baseline attitudinal indicators that could be tracked over time. Specifically, the objectives of the paper were to measure the Canadian public's levels of awareness, knowledge and comfort with EVTs; determine the motivators to adoption of EVT; determine the barriers to broader acceptance and market diffusion of EVT; and identify key group differences. Topics that were discussed included public awareness and knowledge of electric vehicle technology; and interest in plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery-electric vehicles, including perceived advantages and barriers. A profile of drivers consisted of a review of vehicle type; vehicle use profile; size of vehicle; considerations when choosing a vehicle; personal orientation to vehicle ownership; attitudes about vehicle choice; and attitudes about vehicles and air quality. Descriptions of the quantitative and qualitative methods employed in conducting the research, as well as the survey questionnaire and discussion guide were included as appendices. It was concluded that the small proportion of Canadian drivers who see vehicles as a form of personal expression are more likely to be interested in a future plug-in hybrid electric vehicles purchase or rental. tabs., figs., appendices.

  6. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  7. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  8. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  9. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  10. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  11. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  12. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  13. An Improved Car-Following Model in Vehicle Networking Based on Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle networking is a system to realize information interoperability between vehicles and people, vehicles and roads, vehicles and vehicles, and cars and transport facilities, through the network information exchange, in order to achieve the effective monitoring of the vehicle and traffic flow. Realizing information interoperability between vehicles and vehicles, which can affect the traffic flow, is an important application of network control system (NCS. In this paper, a car-following model using vehicle networking theory is established, based on network control principle. The car-following model, which is an improvement of the traditional traffic model, describes the traffic in vehicle networking condition. The impact that vehicle networking has on the traffic flow is quantitatively assessed in a particular scene of one-way, no lane changing highway. The examples show that the capacity of the road is effectively enhanced by using vehicle networking.

  14. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  15. Choosing The Right Technology - Optimized Design Of Renewable Supply Systems For Residential Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. The aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  16. Choosing the Path of Leadership in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to establish trustworthiness. Results identify that a desire to influence the profession or care delivery, a need for personal or career development, and a need for change motivate those occupational therapists who might choose the path of leadership. Recommendations for supporting new or developing leaders include a focus on linking occupational therapy practice and leadership theory at the curriculum and professional levels. Moreover, application of novel approaches to mentorship for new and developing leaders, such as supportive communities of practice, are also considered.

  17. Choosing how to feel: emotion regulation choice in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Aleena C; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion regulation difficulties, even during remission, but are able to effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We hypothesized that this puzzling discrepancy might be due to their maladaptive emotion regulation choices. To test this hypothesis, we used a previously validated paradigm (Sheppes, Scheibe, Suri, & Gross, 2011; Sheppes et al., 2014), and asked remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 26) to view standardized positive and negative images of high and low intensity, and choose reappraisal or distraction to decrease their emotion intensity. Replicating and extending prior results, participants across both groups showed a pattern of choosing distraction more for high versus low intensity positive and negative images, but no between-groups differences were evident. These results suggest that emotion regulation choice patterns may be robust across samples, and add to growing evidence that several basic emotion regulation elements may remain intact in bipolar disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  19. CHOOSING THE RIGHT CLOUD COMPUTING SOLUTION FOR YOU

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Smedescu

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to cloud computing and choosing a vendor. The first part includes definitions and service models while the body of the article lists pros and cons for specific service models and discusses the cost efficiency of implementing a cloud computing solution. In the last part, a general overview of cloud computing advantages and disadvantages further helps to inform the reader of opportunities and pitfalls.

  20. ALGORITHM TO CHOOSE ENERGY GENERATION MULTIPLE ROLE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STĂNESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm that is based on a complex analysis method that is used for choosing the configuration of a power station. The station generates electric energy and hydrogen, and serves a "green" highway. The elements that need to be considered are: energy efficiency, location, availability of primary energy sources in the area, investment cost, workforce, environmental impact, compatibility with existing systems, meantime between failure.

  1. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, M

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier LtdHuman performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions...

  2. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  3. I choose health (Elijo Salud: impacting youth through parish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Janet; Hoebeke, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) found that 34% of adolescents are overweight and 18% obese. The chance of an overweight/obese adolescent becoming an overweight/obese adult by age 35 is 60%. Hispanic youth are at risk for becoming obese related to eating habits. This paper describes an intervention, I Choose Health (Elijo Salud), with Hispanic church youth.

  4. Why are junior doctors deterred from choosing a surgical career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E; Creed, Peter A; Searle, Judy

    2012-05-01

    To identify the reasons why interns would not choose a surgical career. This qualitative study used semi-structured telephone interviews to explore the future career choices of 41 junior doctors (14 men, 27 women). Doctors were asked to identify specialties they would not take up, and state why this was the case. Thirty (73.2%) of the 41 interns nominated surgery as a specialty they would not choose. Themes relating to reasons for not wanting to pursue a surgical career included the lifestyle associated with surgery (66.7%), the culture within the surgical work environment (53.3%), the lack of interest in performing surgical work (36.7%), and the training requirements associated with surgery (33.3%). Both sexes had similar reasons for not wanting to choose a surgical career; but additionally, women referred to the male domination of surgery, and the difficulty and inflexibility of the training program as deterrents. Efforts are needed to promote interest in surgery as a career especially for women, to improve the surgical work environment so that medical students and junior doctors have exposure to positive role models and surgical placements, and to provide a more flexible approach to surgical training.

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  7. Monitoring operational conditions of vehicle tyre pressure levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance with vehicle tyre inflation pressure and tread depth standard specifications and legal requirements were monitored by survey study in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. The survey covered 400 vehicles, comprising cars (28 %), medium buses (25 %), large capacity buses (15 %) and trucks (32 %). There were wide ...

  8. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  9. Capacity Development for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Senbil, Metin; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2008-01-01

    To make urban transport sustainable, effective and efficient, first and foremost, there is a need for capacity development-capacity is defined as the ability to deal with problems in efficient and effective ways-in developing countries. Apart from many important capacity related problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure, older vehicle population, etc., policy makers in developing countries have to consider changing individual behavior to realize sustainable urban transportation policie...

  10. Capacity and Entry Deterrence under Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poddar, Sougata

    I consider a two period model with an incumbent firm and a potential entrant each of whom produces a homogeneous good. There is a demand uncertainty: it can be high or low and it realizes in the second period. The question I ask: How by choosing capacity at an earlier period of actual production...... of output and, more importently, not knowing which state of demand is going to realize, and knowing that there is a potential entrant, the incumbent firm can influence the outcome of the game by changing its initial condition. To that end, I study how the impact of the distribution of uncertainty deeply...

  11. Which IP Strategies Do Young Highly Innovative Firms Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veugelers, Reinhilde; Schneider, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the strategies of young highly innovative companies to appropriate the returns from their innovations. Upon controlling for other firm and industry characteristics, we show that firms combining a young age and small scale with a high R&D intensive profile are mor...... likely to use intellectual property (IP), specifically combining formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. They are especially more likely to choose secrecy in combination with formal IP. This holds primarily when they introduce more radical innovations new to the market....

  12. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    increases the employability of graduates, they do not sufficiently consider that study strategies differ substantially across social milieus and between the sexes. Failing to account for social distance to the educational system in choosing EMI can foster social inequality, and contribute...... by the Bourdieusian perspective, this relationship is not directly observable but rather operates through hidden mechanisms, such as cultural capital (relative English proficiency) and a better sense of gaming and positioning (career orientation). Business students from the lowest stratum self-select against EMI due...

  13. Choosing the Right Journal for a Scientific Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Save, Sushma

    2015-06-01

    Authors need to take the crucial decision of choosing the journal for their prospective manuscript before even starting to write it. Although, this choice is influenced by many factors, matching the intended recipients of the main message of the manuscript with a journal's readership should override all other consideration in journal selection. That done, availability of time-bound review process,journal's visibility, indexation in databases, regularity of publication, acceptance rate and expenses involved are some other factors that will help decide the choice.

  14. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices. Thus both motor heuristics and embodied choices explain complex behavior such as studied in sport and exercise psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Choosing the right M and A deal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The legal aspects of going into a merger and acquisition deal within the petroleum industry were reviewed for the benefit of non-lawyers. The types of acquisitions included are asset purchases and sale, a private share purchase and sale, a takeover bid, an amalgamation or a plan of arrangement. How to make the structure choice that is right in the circumstances was discussed. It was emphasized that choosing the right merger and acquisition deal structure depends on the objectives of the parties, the volume and quality of the information about the particular transaction, and proper analysis of alternative acquisition structures in the context of the objectives and information

  16. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  17. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  18. assessment of capacity building needs among motor vehicle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    importance and expressed performance) to elicit information on the use of auto scan tool for diagnosing some ... facilitate MVM teaching and learning procedure in this ... privilege, educated, poor and school drop-out has ... informal sector;.

  19. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  20. Choosing nuclear engineering: A survey of nuclear engineering undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shillenn, J.K.; Klevans, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining a reliable pool of qualified nuclear engineering graduates depends on the ability of nuclear engineering undergraduate programs to recruit students. With the prospect of declining enrollments in nuclear engineering it is important for nuclear engineering programs to know what factors influence students to choose nuclear engineering as an undergraduate major and why they choose a particular undergraduate program. This type of information can be very important to nuclear engineering programs that develop recruiting strategies. To provide some insight into this area, a questionnaire was designed and given to undergraduate nuclear engineering students at Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of the survey was to provide information on the reasons that students picked nuclear engineering as a career and chose to attend Penn State. The questionnaire was given to 27 students in their junior year during the spring semester of 1987 and again to 35 junior students during the spring semester of 1988. There was little difference except as noted between the two groups on their responses to the questionnaire. A partial listing of the survey results is provided

  1. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  2. Applying multicriteria analysis for choosing the best marination for pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto VMOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to choose a best marination solution using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Materials and methods. Pork meat samples were collected in a commercial slaughterhouse, and they were randomly distributed in four treatments with three different salt contents blend. Color, pH, retention of the solution, exudate and cooking loss, shear force and sensory attributes were assessed and evaluated. Multicriteria analysis using AHP was applied to the results in order to choose the best overall marination solution. Criteria used for selection were the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, and based on these criteria were classified solutions marination. Results. Results showed that the combination of the salts was the best alternative (Na2CO3+NaCl+Na5P3O10, followed by the solutions of (Na2CO3 + NaCl, and (Na5P3O10 + NaCl. Conclusions. All tested solutions with the salts used alone or in combination led to better physical and sensory attributes than the meat not marinated.

  3. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  4. The influence of the placement method of fuel dispenserson the refueling cycle of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Ruslan Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics of production processes at a gas station is a critical point in the system of petroleum products, on the operation of which the effectiveness and sustainability of the transport sector depends. The provision and supply of road transportation of petroleum products is one of the most urgent tasks.Technological processes of reception, storage of fuel and refuelling of motor vehicles on petrol stations needs a scientific study of their structure and organization. At the design stage of a gas station, it is necessary to consider quite a lot of different factors: the configuration of the area under the gas station, the scheme of arrangement and the number of fuel dispensers, the trajectory of motion and the design of vehicles, calls to the station, distance between cars on duty, between the elements of buildings and equipment, as well as the requirements for fire, building, public, sanitary-epidemiological and state regulations. Therefore, the designer has a great opportunity for varying the parameters of the elements of the station, especially when considering the characteristics of the fueled vehicles.Typical projects at a same power station include various sizes, the seizure of land to build a station changes from planning decisions and the locations of all its technological elements. For increase of functioning efficiency of transportation systems of petroleum products in modern conditions on the basis of the design and technical innovations it is necessary to conduct special studies.Research planning decisions for a refueling station led to the conclusion that the placement of technological equipment in the refueling area has a certain impact on the length of vehicles service. Improving the layout of the refueling zone several times reduces the loss of the components of the refueling cycle time and increase the capacity of the station.Information base describing the stages of a gas station includes parts of refueling cycle time and

  5. The U.S. Combat and Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleets: Issues and Suggestions for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    capac- ity and higher thermal operating temperatures, and improvements in ultracapacitors, which will enable improved regenerative braking ...associated with particular categories of combat vehi- cles and armored tactical wheeled vehicles, and with particular missions of such vehicles. (D...and an assessment of emerging threats • identify critical technology elements or integration risks asso- ciated with particular categories of vehicles

  6. Vehicle transmission gear 2009; Getriebe in Fahrzeugen 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    : functionality, design and development methodology (A. Giacometti); (18) DCT system approach: Choose drive away and shift feeling (O. Einfinger); (19) An example for the use of adaptive methods in powertrain control of heavy duty vehicles (C. Joachim); (20) The effect of lubricating oils on bearing fatigue-life using the Evonik RohMax pitting test procedure (T. Bartels); (21) Influence of lubricant on the pitting capacity of gears - Comparison and discussion of main pitting test methods (B.-R. Hoehn); (22) Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by means of innovative, tailor-made gear oils (P. Kraneburg); (23) Development of a force element for the emulation of the dynamic behaviour of bevel gears (C. Brecher); (24) A simulation software for the optimisation of the gearing of conical toothed gears (H. Alxneit); (25) Fatigue life optimization for hypoid gears (Ch. Haberer); (26) BorgWarner DualTronic {sup registered} transmission concepts for efficiency, cost and robustness (A. Moser); (27) Hy Tronic - The hybrid system for distributor commercial vehicles on the bases of a modular NKW gear family (S. Wallner); (28) New drive axles for hybrid applications in low-floor city busses (U. Solka); (29) Design, construction and integration of hybrid drive components in commercial vehicles (S. Kerschl); (30) Cold trip to chassis roller dyno (J. Lewis); (31) Model-based development of a dual-clutch transmission using rapid prototyping and SiL (H. Brueckmann); (31) New synchroniser system for modern transmissions (O. Back); (32) Improving shift dynamics and efficiency of MTs, AMTs and DCTs using full servo synchronizers (T. Hackl); (33) N{sup T} {sup registered} LightDiff: Innovative, lightweight concept for bevel-gear differentials (M. Derse); (34) Hybrid concepts of the co-operation GETRAG-BOSCH and their realisation in a demonstrator car (B. Blankenbach); (35) The conservation potential of consumption of the ZF hybrid gear system (R. Kubalczyk); (36) FEV's new parallel hybrid transmission

  7. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  8. Choosing between rocks, hard places and a lot more. The economic interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorsen, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The most central aspects of the oil and gas business are exploration (is there oil or gas?), production (market?, infrastructure?, how fast can we produce, and how much can we recover?), licence and tax regulations (acceptable and stable?, incentive systems?), safety, health and environmental concerns, and the future oil price (will the oil business remain an attractive business-segment to invest in, will we obtain a satisfactory return on the capital employed?). Exploration is in many ways retrospective; a real understanding of how geological formations and fluids within basins were formed and modified is a prerequisite for success. Production and oil price forecasting are intensely quantitative and prospective (forward-looking). The main application of economic analysis in the oil business is to arrive at economic indicators for proposed future activities (given a set of assumptions and estimates) and to determine the effect a certain investment will have on the company's financial position. As a future oil business venture is never deterministic (in terms of geological and/or financial outcomes) and since several courses of action are possible given the information at hand, project economics may be computed for a range of assumptions (input data) and for several alternative scenarios, where each scenario and/or assumption may additionally be assigned a probability. In this manner, the expected economic outcome may be computed along with downside and upside estimates. Also, project economics play a decisive role when a number of alternatives are competing for implementation; bases on technical-economic optimization studies, we select the optimum development concept, the optimum number of wells, the optimum fluid handling capacities, etc. with due consideration of subsurface and other relevant uncertainties. The economic optimum is chosen based on comparative analyses. This paper will demonstrate that the 'economic interface' is essential for most oil business

  9. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  10. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  11. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  12. [Strategies to choose scaffold materials for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which

  13. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  14. Lignin nanotubes as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Elena; Ling, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Srivastava, Arun; Dempere, Luisa Amelia; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2014-01-13

    Lignin nanotubes (LNTs) synthesized from the aromatic plant cell wall polymer lignin in a sacrificial alumina membrane template have as useful features their flexibility, ease of functionalization due to the availability of many functional groups, label-free detection by autofluorescence, and customizable optical properties. In this report we show that the physicochemical properties of LNTs can be varied over a wide range to match requirements for specific applications by using lignin with different subunit composition, a function of plant species and genotype, and by choosing the lignin isolation method (thioglycolic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid (Klason), sodium hydroxide lignin), which influences the size and reactivity of the lignin fragments. Cytotoxicity studies with human HeLa cells showed that concentrations of up to 90 mg/mL are tolerated, which is a 10-fold higher concentration than observed for single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that all LNT formulations enter HeLa cells without auxiliary agents and that LNTs made from NaOH-lignin penetrate the cell nucleus. We further show that DNA can adsorb to LNTs. Consequently, exposure of HeLa cells to LNTs coated with DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) leads to transfection and expression of GFP. The highest transfection efficiency was obtained with LNTs made from NaOH-lignin due to a combination of high DNA binding capacity and DNA delivery directly into the nucleus. These combined features of LNTs make LNTs attractive as smart delivery vehicles of DNA without the cytotoxicity associated with CNTs or the immunogenicity of viral vectors.

  15. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  16. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  17. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  18. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  19. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  20. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  1. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerback, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. This paper summarizes a study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) Legal Considerations, (2) Liability, (3) Staffing and Operations, (4) Costs, (5) Relationship to Off-site Forces, (6) Management and Control, (7) Transportation

  2. Conscience and responsability in choosing the teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Căprioară

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the conditions of a society oriented towards material satisfaction, where the didactic profession is sometimes pushed to the limit of social respect, where the lack of motivation and interest for school and learning, in general, is increasingly invoked, there are young people who choose to dedicate their whole energy for training and educating the new generations. The basis of this choice is the consciousness of the role of the teacher in the life of a child and, at the same time, the responsability for the assumed mission: opening the way to knowledge. Vocation and talent are necessary conditions of a successful pedagogical model, but only complemented by the love for children, the desire to contribute to the formation of people, the joy of giving knowledge and love.

  3. On Choosing a Rational Flight Trajectory to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E. S.; Khudorozhkov, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The algorithm for choosing a trajectory of spacecraft flight to the Moon is discussed. The characteristic velocity values needed for correcting the flight trajectory and a braking maneuver are estimated using the Monte Carlo method. The profile of insertion and flight to a near-circular polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km of an artificial lunar satellite (ALS) is given. The case of two corrections applied during the flight and braking phases is considered. The flight to an ALS orbit is modeled in the geocentric geoequatorial nonrotating coordinate system with the influence of perturbations from the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon factored in. The characteristic correction costs corresponding to corrections performed at different time points are examined. Insertion phase errors, the errors of performing the needed corrections, and the errors of determining the flight trajectory parameters are taken into account.

  4. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  5. Choosing a suitable sample size in descriptive sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Choi, Dong Hoon; Cha, Kyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive sampling (DS) is an alternative to crude Monte Carlo sampling (CMCS) in finding solutions to structural reliability problems. It is known to be an effective sampling method in approximating the distribution of a random variable because it uses the deterministic selection of sample values and their random permutation,. However, because this method is difficult to apply to complex simulations, the sample size is occasionally determined without thorough consideration. Input sample variability may cause the sample size to change between runs, leading to poor simulation results. This paper proposes a numerical method for choosing a suitable sample size for use in DS. Using this method, one can estimate a more accurate probability of failure in a reliability problem while running a minimal number of simulations. The method is then applied to several examples and compared with CMCS and conventional DS to validate its usefulness and efficiency

  6. Choosing to coose: reasons and expectations regarding marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Alves Macedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the partner in adult life is considered one of the only choices that is made with freedom, however, loaded with social, personal, family expectations and also motivated by subjective aspects (ANTON, 2002. This paper seeks to describe how in the process of choosing the spouse, family aspects are directly or indirectly involved. A semi-structured interview was conducted to seven women in their first year of marriage. Data were analyzed according to Content Analysis. Three categories were chosen: Family of Origin; Marriage; and Religion. The participants have a vision of how their choice was made, with free choice, yet they were influenced by the beliefs and values of the families of origin. In their first year of marriage, they demonstrate good experience in marriage, and have built a relationship based on dialogues, despite the "sayings and no sayings" of the family of origin and society.

  7. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  8. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  9. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  10. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct and indirect pathways for choosing objects and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Masaharu; Isoda, Masaki; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2018-02-23

    A prominent target of the basal ganglia is the superior colliculus (SC) which controls gaze orientation (saccadic eye movement in primates) to an important object. This 'object choice' is crucial for choosing an action on the object. SC is innervated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) which is controlled mainly by the caudate nucleus (CD). This CD-SNr-SC circuit is sensitive to the values of individual objects and facilitates saccades to good objects. The object values are processed differently in two parallel circuits: flexibly by the caudate head (CDh) and stably by the caudate tail (CDt). To choose good objects, we need to reject bad objects. In fact, these contrasting functions are accomplished by the circuit originating from CDt: The direct pathway focuses on good objects and facilitates saccades to them; the indirect pathway focuses on bad objects and suppresses saccades to them. Inactivation of CDt deteriorated the object choice, because saccades to bad objects were no longer suppressed. This suggests that the indirect pathway is important for object choice. However, the direct and indirect pathways for 'object choice', which aim at the same action (i.e., saccade), may not work for 'action choice'. One possibility is that circuits controlling different actions are connected through the indirect pathway. Additional connections of the indirect pathway with brain areas outside the basal ganglia may also provide a wider range of behavioral choice. In conclusion, basal ganglia circuits are composed of the basic direct/indirect pathways and additional connections and thus have acquired multiple functions. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The dynamic model of choosing an external funding instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena HONKOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision about using a specific funding source is one of the most important tasks of financial management. The utilization of external sources features numerous advantages yet staying aware of diverse funding options is not easy for financial managers. Today it is crucial to quickly identify an optimum possibility and to make sure that all relevant criteria have been considered and no variant has been omitted. Over the long term it is also necessary to consider the category of time as changes made today do not affect only the current variables but they also have a significant impact on the future. This article aims to identify the most suitable model of choosing external funding sources that would describe the dynamics involved. The first part of the paper considers the theoretical background of external funding instrument and of decision criteria. The making of financial decisions is a process consisted of weighing the most suitable variants, selecting the best variant, and controlling the implementation of accepted proposals. The second part analyses results of the research - decisive weights of the criteria. Then it is created the model of the principal criteria Weighted Average Cost of Capital (Dynamic model WACC. Finally it is created the Dynamic Model of Choosing an External Funding Instrument. The created decision-making model facilitates the modeling of changes in time because it is crucial to know what future consequences lies in decisions made the contemporary turbulent world. Each variant features possible negative and positive changes of varying extent. The possibility to simulate these changes can illustrate an optimal variant to a decision-maker.

  13. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, Ktl

    2007-03-09

    In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed.

  14. Choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of important methodological considerations that nurse researchers need to adhere to when choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy and research method. Phenomenology is a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts disciplines with a central goal of describing people's experiences. However, many nurse researchers continue to grapple with methodological issues related to their choice of phenomenological method. The author conducted online and manual searches of relevant research books and electronic databases. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2011 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used. Although phenomenology is widely used today to broaden understanding of human phenomena relevant to nursing practice, nurse researchers often fail to adhere to acceptable scientific and phenomenological standards. Cognisant of these challenges, researchers are expected to indicate in their work the focus of their investigations, designs, and approaches to collecting and analysing data. They are also expected to present their findings in an evocative and expressive manner. Choosing phenomenology requires researchers to understand it as a philosophy, including basic assumptions and tenets of phenomenology as a research method. This awareness enables researchers, especially novices, to make important methodological decisions, particularly those necessary to indicate the study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity. This paper adds to the discussion of phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. It aims to guide new researchers on important methodological decisions they need to make to safeguard their study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity.

  15. Choosing the right amount of healthcare information technologies investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2010-04-01

    Choosing and justifying the right amount of investment in healthcare information technologies (HITECH or HIT) in hospitals is an ever increasing challenge. Our objectives are to assess the financial impact of HIT on hospital outcome, and propose decision-helping tools that could be used to rationalize the distribution of hospital finances. We used a production function and microeconomic tools on data of 21 Paris university hospitals recorded from 1998 to 2006 to compute the elasticity coefficients of HIT versus non-HIT capital and labor as regards to hospital financial outcome and optimize the distribution of investments according to the productivity associated with each input. HIT inputs and non-HIT inputs both have a positive and significant impact on hospital production (elasticity coefficients respectively of 0.106 and 0.893; R(2) of 0.92). We forecast 2006 results from the 1998 to 2005 dataset with an accuracy of +0.61%. With the model used, the best proportion of HIT investments was estimated to be 10.6% of total input and this was predicted to lead to a total saving of 388 million Euros for the 2006 dataset. Considering HIT investment from the point of view of a global portfolio and applying econometric and microeconomic tools allow the required confidence level to be attained for choosing the right amount of HIT investments. It could also allow hospitals using these tools to make substantial savings, and help them forecast their choices for the following year for better HITECH governance in the current stimulation context. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of connected vehicle impact on mobility and mode choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Minelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connected vehicle is emerging as a solution to exacerbating congestion problems in urban areas. It is important to understand the impacts of connected vehicle on network and travel behavior of road users. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of connected vehicle on the mode choice and mobility of transportation networks. An iterative methodology was used in this paper where demands for various modes were modified based on the changes in travel time between each origin-destination (OD pair caused by introduction of connected vehicle. Then a traffic assignment was performed in a micro-simulation model, which was able to accurately simulate vehicle-to-vehicle communication. It is assumed that vehicles are equipped with a dynamic route guidance technology to choose their own route using real-time traffic information obtained through communication. The travel times obtained from the micro-simulation model were compared with a base scenario with no connected vehicle. The methodology was tested for a portion of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In order to quantify changes in mode share with changes in travel time associated with each OD pair, mode choice models were developed for auto, transit, cycling and pedestrians using data mainly from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey. The impact of connected vehicle on mode choice was evaluated for different market penetrations of connected vehicle. The results of this study show that average travel times for the whole auto mode will generally increase, with the largest increase from connected vehicles. This causes an overall move away from the auto mode for high market penetrations if a dynamic route guidance algorithm is implemented.

  17. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  18. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    ...., and Armor Holdings, Inc., for armored vehicles. This report addresses armored vehicles, specifically the Buffalo Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle, the Cougar, the Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV...

  19. Amphibious vehicles come of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2007-11-15

    This article highlighted the most popular amphibious vehicles used for oil patch applications. The Argo, designed and built by Ontario Drive and Gear Ltd. of New Hamburg, Ontario, was first introduced into the market in 1967. By 1994, it was commonly used by the oil patch when it was made more robust with a liquid-cooled engine. The all-season and all-terrain vehicle can carry up to 1,150 pounds and pull up to 1,800 pounds. More than 40,000 units have been sold for use in seismic, slashing, carrying in supplies for camps, pipeline and other facility maintenance. Its counterpart, the Centaur, has a bigger load capacity and more powerful liquid-cooled petrol or diesel engine that drives like a truck, with steering wheel and gas and brake pedals. It has certified rollover protection, can carry up to 1,500 pounds or pull 2,000 pounds and can travel at speeds of up to 28 miles per hour. The mammoth ARKTOS Craft was designed, engineered and built in British Columbia and can handle any terrain including thick mud, quicksand, muskeg, ice, water and snow. It is primarily used in the oil patch as an evacuation craft for offshore drilling in shallow waters. It has room for 52 passengers. With a 13-ton load capacity, the vehicle can manoeuvre through ice-water mixtures and can climb onto solid ice. Five units are being used as evacuation crafts on stand-by offshore drilling in shallow waters near Alaska, and 8 are being used for the same purpose for drilling beneath the Caspian Sea. It was also used in the Bohai Delta in China for a seismic survey. A modified craft is being developed for use in Fort McMurray's oil sand tailings ponds. This article also highlighted the prototype AmphibAlaska which has been under development for the past 25 years by an Alaskan entrepreneur. The utilitarian vehicle is being designed with a payload that can accommodate a crew of 5 and the gear needed for emergency response and fieldwork. It is designed to travel safely through hard ground

  20. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. Objective This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Methods Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers’ thought processes, we instructed participants to “think aloud”, namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important

  1. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-06-16

    Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers' thought processes, we instructed participants to "think aloud", namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important than the choice of a hotel, participants

  2. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.

    1980-09-01

    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  3. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  4. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  5. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...... (EVs) are assumed; comprising 2.5%, 15%, 34%, and 53% of the private passenger vehicle fleet in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. Results show that when charged/discharged intelligently, EVs can facilitate significantly increased wind power investments already at low vehicle fleet shares....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...

  6. NET in-vessel vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.

    1991-02-01

    The CFFTP/Spar In-vessel Vehicle System concept for in-vessel remote maintenance of the NET/ITER machine is described. It comprises a curved deployable boom, a vehicle which can travel on the boom and an end effector or work unit mounted on the vehicle. The stowed boom, vehicle, and work unit are inserted via the equatorial access port of the torus. Following insertion the boom is deployed and locked in place. The vehicle may then travel along the boom to transport the work unit to any desired location. A novel feature of the concept is the deployable boom. When fully deployed, it closely resembles a conventional curved truss structure in configuration and characteristics. However, the joints of the truss structure are hinged so that it can fold into a compact package, of less than 20% of deployed volume for storage, transportation and insertion into the torus. A full-scale 2-metre long section of this boom was produced for demonstration purposes. As part of the concept definition the work unit for divertor handling was studied to demonstrate that large payloads could be manipulated within the confines of the torus using the in-vessel vehicle system. Principal advantages of the IVVS are its high load capacity and rigidity, low weight and stowed volume, simplicity of control and operation, and its relatively high speed of transportation

  7. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  8. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  9. African primary care research: Choosing a topic and developing a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a  research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  10. Computations on metric maps in mammals: getting oriented and choosing a multi-destination route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Cramer, A E

    1996-01-01

    The capacity to construct a cognitive map is hypothesized to rest on two foundations: (1) dead reckoning (path integration); (2) the perception of the direction and distance of terrain features relative to the animal. A map may be constructed by combining these two sources of positional information, with the result that the positions of all terrain features are represented in the coordinate framework used for dead reckoning. When animals need to become reoriented in a mapped space, results from rats and human toddlers indicate that they focus exclusively on the shape of the perceived environment, ignoring non-geometric features such as surface colors. As a result, in a rectangular space, they are misoriented half the time even when the two ends of the space differ strikingly in their appearance. In searching for a hidden object after becoming reoriented, both kinds of subjects search on the basis of the object's mapped position in the space rather than on the basis of its relationship to a goal sign (e.g. a distinctive container or nearby marker), even though they have demonstrably noted the relationship between the goal and the goal sign. When choosing a multidestination foraging route, vervet monkeys look at least three destinations ahead, even though they are only capable of keeping a maximum of six destinations in mind at once.

  11. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  12. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  13. Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasser, Arian; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Goal-directed behavior and lifelong well-being often depend on the ability to control appetitive motivations, such as cravings. Cognitive reappraisal is an effective way to modulate emotional states, including cravings, but is often studied under explicit instruction to regulate. Despite the strong prediction from Self-Determination Theory that choice should enhance task engagement and regulation success, little is known empirically about whether and how regulation is different when participants choose (vs are told) to exert control. To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Participants were either instructed to view or reappraise (‘no-choice’) or chose freely to view or reappraise (‘yes-choice’). Choice increased activity in the frontoparietal control network. We expected this activity would be associated with increased task engagement, resulting in better regulation success. However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success. Follow-up multivariate functional neuroimaging analyses indicated that choice likely disrupted allocation of limited cognitive resources during reappraisal. While unexpected, these results highlight the importance of studying upstream processes such as regulation choice, as they may affect the ability to regulate cravings and other emotional states. PMID:29462475

  14. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories. Furthermore, participants preferred social negative images over neutral images. Physical harm images and natural threat images were not preferred over neutral images, but were chosen in about thirty-five percent of the trials. These results were replicated across three different studies, including a study that presented verbal descriptions of images as pre-choice cues. Together, these results show that people deliberately subject themselves to negative images. With this, the present paper demonstrates a dynamic relationship between negative information and behavior and advances new insights into the phenomenon of morbid curiosity. PMID:28683147

  15. Patient choice modelling: how do patients choose their hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Honora; Currie, Christine; Chaiwuttisak, Pornpimol; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    As an aid to predicting future hospital admissions, we compare use of the Multinomial Logit and the Utility Maximising Nested Logit models to describe how patients choose their hospitals. The models are fitted to real data from Derbyshire, United Kingdom, which lists the postcodes of more than 200,000 admissions to six different local hospitals. Both elective and emergency admissions are analysed for this mixed urban/rural area. For characteristics that may affect a patient's choice of hospital, we consider the distance of the patient from the hospital, the number of beds at the hospital and the number of car parking spaces available at the hospital, as well as several statistics publicly available on National Health Service (NHS) websites: an average waiting time, the patient survey score for ward cleanliness, the patient safety score and the inpatient survey score for overall care. The Multinomial Logit model is successfully fitted to the data. Results obtained with the Utility Maximising Nested Logit model show that nesting according to city or town may be invalid for these data; in other words, the choice of hospital does not appear to be preceded by choice of city. In all of the analysis carried out, distance appears to be one of the main influences on a patient's choice of hospital rather than statistics available on the Internet.

  16. Analysis Of Economic Motivation When Individuals Choose An Educational Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the economic motivations when individuals choose an educational path. This line of research is relevant from both, the point of view of science — research of economic behavior of an individual, and the point of view of practice — allows to increase efficiency of investments in a human capital. The authors have developed the economic and mathematical model of choice of optimum educational paths by individuals. The model is realized in the software and approved on real data on more than 5,5 thousand students. For the analysis of the importance of rational economic expectations when an educational path has to be chosen, the paths chosen by students is compared and the educational paths optimum from the point of view of economic rationality are calculated. The analysis of the results has showed that mainly, the choice of educational paths happens according to the economic motivations. On the considered selection, 66 % of prospective students have chosen an optimum path from the point of view of economic preferences. The most significant factor providing development of optimum educational paths is an expectation of higher income upon completion of education — 22 % of all educational paths, and a possibility of cost-cutting of educating or state-subsidized education — 12 %. In our opinion, one of the most important practical results of the research of optimum educational path is the need to consider expectations of students and prospective student when developing a state policy of investment in human capital.

  17. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  18. Choosing the right journal for your systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betini, Marluci; Volpato, Enilze S N; Anastácio, Guilherme D J; de Faria, Renata T B G; El Dib, Regina

    2014-12-01

    The importance of systematic reviews (SRs) as an aid to decision making in health care has led to an increasing interest in the development of this type of study. When selecting a target journal for publication, authors generally seek out higher impact factor journals. This study aimed to determine the percentage of scientific medical journals that publish SRs according to their impact factors (>2.63) and to determine whether those journals require tools that aim to improve SR reporting and meta-analyses. In our cross-sectional study showing how to choose the right journal for a SR, we selected and analysed scientific journals available in a digital library with a minimum Institute for Scientific Information impact factor of 2.63. We analysed 622 scientific journals, 435 (69.94%) of which publish SRs. Of those 435 journals, 135 (21.60%) provide instructions for authors that mention SRs. Three hundred journals (48.34%) do not discuss criteria for article acceptance in the instructions for authors section, but do publish SRs. Only 118 (27.00%) scientific journals require items to be reported in accordance with the specific SR reporting forms. The majority of the journals do not mention the acceptance of SRs in the instructions for authors section. Only a few journals require that SRs meet specific reporting guidelines, making interpretation of their findings across studies challenging. There is no correlation between the impact factor of the journal and its acceptance of SRs for publication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  20. Choosing Wisely: Opportunities for Improving Value in Cancer Care Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Gabrielle B; Williams, Courtney P; Jackson, Bradford E; Wallace, Audrey S; Halilova, Karina I; Kenzik, Kelly M; Partridge, Edward E; Pisu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Patients, providers, and payers are striving to identify where value in cancer care can be increased. As part of the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign, ASCO and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology have recommended against specific, yet commonly performed, treatments and procedures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Medicare claims data to examine concordance with CW recommendations across 12 cancer centers in the southeastern United States. Variability for each measure was evaluated on the basis of patient characteristics and site of care. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine differences in average costs per patient by concordance status. Potential cost savings were estimated on the basis of a potential 95% adherence rate and average cost difference. The analysis included 37,686 patients with cancer with Fee-for-Service Medicare insurance. Concordance varied by CW recommendation from 39% to 94%. Patient characteristics were similar for patients receiving concordant and nonconcordant care. Significant variability was noted across centers for all recommendations, with as much as an 89% difference. Nonconcordance was associated with higher costs for every measure. If concordance were to increase to 95% for all measures, we would estimate a $19 million difference in total cost of care per quarter. These results demonstrate ample room for reduction of low-value care and corresponding costs associated with the CW recommendations. Because variability in concordance was driven primarily by site of care, rather than by patient factors, continued education about these low-value services is needed to improve the value of cancer care.

  1. Rejecting a bad option feels like choosing a good one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Hannah; Galak, Jeff; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2017-11-01

    Across 4,151 participants, the authors demonstrate a novel framing effect, attribute matching, whereby matching a salient attribute of a decision frame with that of a decision's options facilitates decision-making. This attribute matching is shown to increase decision confidence and, ultimately, consensus estimates by increasing feelings of metacognitive ease. In Study 1, participants choosing the more attractive of two faces or rejecting the less attractive face reported greater confidence in and perceived consensus around their decision. Using positive and negative words, Study 2 showed that the attribute's extremity moderates the size of the effect. Study 3 found decision ease mediates these changes in confidence and consensus estimates. Consistent with a misattribution account, when participants were warned about this external source of ease in Study 4, the effect disappeared. Study 5 extended attribute matching beyond valence to objective judgments. The authors conclude by discussing related psychological constructs as well as downstream consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Trends in characteristics of women choosing contraindicated home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafman, Kelly B; Stone, Joanne L; Factor, Stephanie H

    2018-04-12

    To characterize the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) contraindicated home births and the women who are receiving these births in hopes of identifying venues for intervention. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate records from 1990 to 2015 were used. "Planned home births" were defined as those births in which birthplace was coded as "residence" and birth attendant was coded as "certified nurse midwife (CNM)" or "other midwife". Contraindicated home births were defined as "planned home births" from 1990 to 2015 that had one or more of the ACOG risk factors for home births, which include vaginal birth after prior cesarean delivery (VBAC), breech presentation and multiple gestations. A review of trends in contraindicated home births from 1990 to 2015 suggests that they are increasing in number (481-1396) and as a percentage of total births (0.01%-0.04%, P95%), which is most frequently initiated in the first trimester. The majority of home births were paid out-of-pocket (65%-69%). The increasing number of contraindicated home births in the United States requires public health action. Home births are likely a matter of choice rather than a lack of resources. It is unclear if women choose home births while knowing the risk or due to a lack of information. Prenatal education about contraindicated home births is possible, as almost all women receive prenatal care.

  3. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  4. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. When I cut, you choose method implies intransitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2014-12-01

    There is a common belief that humans and many animals follow transitive inference (choosing A over C on the basis of knowing that A is better than B and B is better than C). Transitivity seems to be the essence of rational choice. We present a theoretical model of a repeated game in which the players make a choice between three goods (e.g. food). The rules of the game refer to the simple procedure of fair division among two players, known as the “I cut, you choose” mechanism which has been widely discussed in the literature. In this game one of the players has to make intransitive choices in order to achieve the optimal result (for him/her and his/her co-player). The point is that an intransitive choice can be rational. Previously, an increase in the significance of intransitive strategies was achieved by referring to models of quantum games. We show that relevant intransitive strategies also appear in the classic description of decision algorithms.

  6. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  7. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  8. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  9. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  10. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  11. On Autonomous Articulated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nayl, Thaker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to address the problems of modeling, path planning and path following for an articulated vehicle in a realistic environment and in the presence of multiple obstacles.In greater detail, the problem of the kinematic modeling of an articulated vehicle is revisited through the proposal of a proper model in which the dimensions and properties of the vehicle can be fully described, rather than considering it as a unit point. Based on this approach, nonlinear and line...

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  13. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  14. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  15. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    2015-01-01

    . We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.......This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  16. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  17. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  18. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  19. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  20. Consumer Behavior Modeling: Fuzzy Logic Model for Air Purifiers Choosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Dorokhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning, the article briefly describes the features of the marketing complex household goods. Also provides an overview of some aspects of the market for indoor air purifiers. The specific subject of the study was the process of consumer choice of household appliances for cleaning air in living quarters. The aim of the study was to substantiate and develop a computer model for evaluating by the potential buyers devices for air purification in conditions of vagueness and ambiguity of their consumer preferences. Accordingly, the main consumer criteria are identified, substantiated and described when buyers choose air purifiers. As methods of research, approaches based on fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy modeling were chosen. It was hypothesized that the fuzzy-multiple model allows rather accurately reflect consumer preferences and potential consumer choice in conditions of insufficient and undetermined information. Further, a computer model for estimating the consumer qualities of air cleaners by customers is developed. A proposed approach based on the application of fuzzy logic theory and practical modeling in the specialized computer software MATLAB. In this model, the necessary membership functions and their terms are constructed, as well as a set of rules for fuzzy inference to make decisions on the estimation of a specific air purifier. A numerical example of a comparative evaluation of air cleaners presented on the Ukrainian market is made and is given. Numerical simulation results confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach and the correctness of the hypothesis advanced about the possibility of modeling consumer behavior using fuzzy logic. The analysis of the obtained results is carried out and the prospects of application, development, and improvement of the developed model and the proposed approach are determined.

  1. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  2. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  3. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    payload, 10,300 lb gross vehicle weight. The Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV, 1993-present) has a 6.5 liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required...installed by the maintenance unit. A proposed ECV2 (not currently in production) has an improved 6.5 liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission...frame (3 piece welded), integral “A” armor with attachment points for “B” armor kit, increased cab space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel

  4. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  5. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  6. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  7. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  10. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  11. Quantum Capacity under Adversarial Quantum Noise: Arbitrarily Varying Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelaković, Igor; Boche, Holger; Nötzel, Janis

    2013-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called an arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes a regularized formula for the common randomness-assisted capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC. Quite surprisingly and in contrast to the classical analog of the problem involving the maximal and average error probability, we find that the capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC always equals its strong subspace transmission capacity. These results are accompanied by different notions of symmetrizability (zero-capacity conditions) as well as by conditions for an AVQC to have a capacity described by a single-letter formula. In the final part of the paper the capacity of the erasure-AVQC is computed and some light shed on the connection between AVQCs and zero-error capacities. Additionally, we show by entirely elementary and operational arguments motivated by the theory of AVQCs that the quantum, classical, and entanglement-assisted zero-error capacities of quantum channels are generically zero and are discontinuous at every positivity point.

  12. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  13. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  14. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  15. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  16. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  17. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  18. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  19. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  20. How to choose methods for lake greenhouse gas flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    Lake greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are increasingly recognized as important for lake ecosystems as well as for large scale carbon and GHG budgets. However, many of our flux estimates are uncertain and it can be discussed if the presently available data is representative for the systems studied or not. Data are also very limited for some important flux pathways. Hence, many ongoing efforts try to better constrain fluxes and understand flux regulation. A fundamental challenge towards improved knowledge and when starting new studies is what methods to choose. A variety of approaches to measure aquatic GHG exchange is used and data from different methods and methodological approaches have often been treated as equally valid to create large datasets for extrapolations and syntheses. However, data from different approaches may cover different flux pathways or spatio-temporal domains and are thus not always comparable. Method inter-comparisons and critical method evaluations addressing these issues are rare. Emerging efforts to organize systematic multi-lake monitoring networks for GHG fluxes leads to method choices that may set the foundation for decades of data generation and therefore require fundamental evaluation of different approaches. The method choices do not only regard the equipment but also for example consideration of overall measurement design and field approaches, relevant spatial and temporal resolution for different flux components, and accessory variables to measure. In addition, consideration of how to design monitoring approaches being affordable, suitable for widespread (global) use, and comparable across regions is needed. Inspired by discussions with Prof. Dr. Cristian Blodau during the EGU General Assembly 2016, this presentation aims to (1) illustrate fundamental pros and cons for a number of common methods, (2) show how common methodological approaches originally adapted for other environments can be improved for lake flux measurements, (3) suggest

  1. Practical use of the UIC 406 capacity leaflet by including timetable tools in the investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes how the UIC 406 method is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle capacity...

  2. PREDICTIVE CAPACITY OF ARCH FAMILY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Silveira Amaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, a remarkable number of models, variants from the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic family, have been developed and empirically tested, making extremely complex the process of choosing a particular model. This research aim to compare the predictive capacity, using the Model Confidence Set procedure, than five conditional heteroskedasticity models, considering eight different statistical probability distributions. The financial series which were used refers to the log-return series of the Bovespa index and the Dow Jones Industrial Index in the period between 27 October 2008 and 30 December 2014. The empirical evidences showed that, in general, competing models have a great homogeneity to make predictions, either for a stock market of a developed country or for a stock market of a developing country. An equivalent result can be inferred for the statistical probability distributions that were used.

  3. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-06-24

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    of the increase in the battery weight and capacity on vehicle performance is evaluated. An optimum number of modules in the battery are determined for minimum fuel consumption and maximum power. In the second case study a comparative study of the fuel consumption and fuel economy of the vehicle for various drive cycles (Ex: City and Highway etc.) is performed. The energy losses in each subsystem in the vehicle are also determined and the results are discussed qualitatively. (orig.)

  5. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  6. Optimization of Parking Public Transport Vehicles in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Teichmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical trait of public transport is a spatially scattered demand. A route net that is operated by a carrier (or several carriers has to be adapted to the demand. Public transport vehicles that are not used during a period of a day are usually parked in defined parking lots that have a given capacity. When the vehicle goes from the place where its schedule ends (usually a terminus of the last connection served by the vehicle to the place where the vehicle should be parked, a non-productive journey occurs. The same occurs at the beginning of the vehicle schedule as well. The main goal of the paper is to present a mathematical model that enables minimization of the total length of all the non-productive journeys. Functionality of the proposed mathematical model was tested in the conditions of a real bus public transport network.

  7. Periodic Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem With Driver Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana Panggabean, Ellis; Mawengkang, Herman; Azis, Zainal; Filia Sari, Rina

    2018-01-01

    The paper develops a model for the optimal management of logistic delivery of a given commodity. The company has different type of vehicles with different capacity to deliver the commodity for customers. The problem is then called Periodic Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem (PHVRP). The goal is to schedule the deliveries according to feasible combinations of delivery days and to determine the scheduling of fleet and driver and routing policies of the vehicles. The objective is to minimize the sum of the costs of all routes over the planning horizon. We propose a combined approach of heuristic algorithm and exact method to solve the problem.

  8. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  9. Acting on One's Attitudes: The Role of a History of Choosing Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Three investigations examined the contributions of a history of choosing attitudinally relevant situations to attitude-behavior relations. Results point to an interrelated set of mechanisms, such as behavior, by which situational choice is linked to attitude-behavior relations. By choosing attitudinally relevant situations, individuals increase…

  10. Multi-objective component sizing based on optimal energy management strategy of fuel cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Mueller, Clemens David; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Hu, Zunyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-linear model regarding fuel economy and system durability of FCEV. • A two-step algorithm for a quasi-optimal solution to a multi-objective problem. • Optimal parameters for DP algorithm considering accuracy and calculating time. • Influences of FC power and battery capacity on system performance. - Abstract: A typical topology of a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell electric vehicle contains at least two power sources, a fuel cell system (FCS) and a lithium battery package. The FCS provides stationary power, and the battery delivers dynamic power. In this paper, we report on the multi-objective optimization problem of powertrain parameters for a pre-defined driving cycle regarding fuel economy and system durability. We introduce the dynamic model for the FCEV. We take into consideration equations not only for fuel economy but also for system durability. In addition, we define a multi-objective optimization problem, and find a quasi-optimal solution using a two-loop framework. In the inside loop, for each group of powertrain parameters, a global optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming (DP) is exploited. We optimize coefficients for the DP algorithm to reduce calculating time as well as to maintain accuracy. For the outside loop, we compare the results of all the groups with each other, and choose the Pareto optimal solution based on a compromise of fuel economy and system durability. Simulation results show that for a “China city bus typical cycle,” a battery capacity of 150 Ah and an FCS maximal net output power of 40 kW are optimal for the fuel economy and system durability of a fuel cell city bus.

  11. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  12. System Quality Management in Software Testing Laboratory that Chooses Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Brito R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of software products will reach full maturity when executed by the scheme and provides third party certification. For the validity of the certification, the independent laboratory must be accredited for that function, using internationally recognized standards. This brings with it a challenge for the Industrial Laboratory Testing Software (LIPS, responsible for testing the products developed in Cuban Software Industry, define strategies that will permit it to offer services with a high level of quality. Therefore it is necessary to establish a system of quality management according to NC-ISO/IEC 17025: 2006 to continuously improve the operational capacity and technical competence of the laboratory, with a view to future accreditation of tests performed. This article discusses the process defined in the LIPS for the implementation of a Management System of Quality, from the current standards and trends, as a necessary step to opt for the accreditation of the tests performed.

  13. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  14. Estimation of the cost savings from participation of electric vehicles in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaee, Mahdi; Cruden, Andrew; Sharkh, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity of the batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) could be utilised to store electrical energy and give it back to the grid when needed by participating in vehicle to grid (V2G) schemes. This participation could be a source of revenue for vehicle owners thus reducing the total charging cost of their EVs. A V2G simulator has been developed using MATLAB to find out the potential cost saving from participation of EVs in V2G schemes. A standard IEEE30 network has been modelled in ...

  15. Developments for medium-capacity urban public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calverley, H B

    1979-11-01

    Light guideway transit (LGT), that is, automatically operated urban electric vehicles carrying 12 to 70 passengers via elevated guideways or underground tunnels, with stations 250 to 800 meters apart, and self-contained during off hours as regards propulsion and control, could help relieve future energy demands. Over 30 LGT systems are currently under development, and their various mechanical, electrical, and power-source (three-phase distribution, thyristor phase-angle control and dc rotating motors) aspects are presented. Developments in present-day trolleys, battery buses (lead-acid, alkaline), combustion-engined buses, and hybrid vehicles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on energy, such as its mechanical storage by flywheels during regenerative braking. Specific requirements of future LGT systems, including vehicle support systems (by magnetic levitation using dc magnets, air support by either cushion or suction, pneumatic tires, steel wheels, or above-ground suspension), headway and line capacity, junction switching, and automatic vehicle control are discussed.

  16. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  17. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  18. When Feedback Is Cognitively-Demanding: The Importance of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is generally considered a beneficial learning tool, and providing feedback is a recommended instructional practice. However, there are a variety of feedback types with little guidance on how to choose the most effective one. We examined individual differences in working memory capacity as a potential moderator of feedback type. Second-…

  19. Choosing the Energy Sources Needed for Utilities in the Design and Refurbishment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Atănăsoae

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for choosing the energy sources that are needed for the following building utilities following building: lighting, domestic hot water, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The novelty of this paper consists of applying the concept of the energy hub and considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions when selecting the available energy sources in the building’s location. The criterion for selecting the energy sources is the minimum overall cost of all forms of energy that are consumed in the building over its estimated lifetime. In order to estimate the overall costs, it is necessary to know the power that is installed and provided by the energy production technologies that are inside the building, as well as the capacity of energy that is required from outside energy sources. An office building that was proposed for refurbishment has been investigated as a case study. In the paper, we have analysed four scenarios. The results indicate that more favourable alternative solutions can be obtained compared to the traditional scenario (Scenario 4—heat and electricity by public utility networks. The overall costs are 46.17% (212,671 EUR lower in Scenario 1, 25.35% (116,770 EUR lower in Scenario 2, and 10.89% (50,150 EUR lower in Scenario 3. Additionally, the carbon dioxide emissions are 22.98% (49 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 1 and 8.91% (19 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 2. Thus, renewable energy sources can occupy a growing share of the total energy consumption of the building. The proposed algorithm can be used for both the refurbishment of existing buildings and the design of new buildings.

  20. Energy modelling and capacity building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Planning and Economic Studies Section of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy is focusing on building analytical capacity in MS for energy-environmental-economic assessments and for the elaboration of sustainable energy strategies. It offers a variety of analytical models specifically designed for use in developing countries for (i) evaluating alternative energy strategies; (ii) assessing environmental, economic and financial impacts of energy options; (iii) assessing infrastructure needs; (iv) evaluating regional development possibilities and energy trade; (v) assessing the role of nuclear power in addressing priority issues (climate change, energy security, etc.). These models can be used for analysing energy or electricity systems, and to assess possible implications of different energy, environmental or financial policies that affect the energy sector and energy systems. The models vary in complexity and data requirements, and so can be adapted to the available data, statistics and analytical needs of different countries. These models are constantly updated to reflect changes in the real world and in the concerns that drive energy system choices. They can provide thoughtfully informed choices for policy makers over a broader range of circumstances and interests. For example, they can readily reflect the workings of competitive energy and electricity markets, and cover such topics as external costs. The IAEA further offers training in the use of these models and -just as important- in the interpretation and critical evaluation of results. Training of national teams to develop national competence over the full spectrum of models, is a high priority. The IAEA maintains a broad spectrum of databanks relevant to energy, economic and environmental analysis in MS, and make these data available to analysts in MS for use in their own analytical work. The Reference Technology Data Base (RTDB) and the Reference Data Series (RDS-1) are the major vehicles by which we

  1. Exchange program. Alternative options for purchase of environmentally friendly vehicles in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader Olsson, Amy [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Elam, N. [Atrax Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The city of Stockholm has decided to exchange 300 of its gasoline-driven vehicles for vehicles which emit fewer hazardous pollutants. A vehicle exchange program is being developed based on analyses which describe the driving patterns of Stockholm's vehicles, alternative fuel technology status, and financing alternatives. This report comprises the first two analyses, that of Stockholm's fleet driving patterns and alternative fuel technology options. The report has four major sections: * a technical analysis of the status of certain fuels and vehicles, including prognoses of availability in Sweden and the future development potential of each. (electric, biogas, ethanol, RME), * a driving study, which identifies those vehicles currently in Stockholm's fleet which could be exchanged for alternatively-fueled vehicles, * an analysis of five purchase package alternatives, and * a location analysis, which describes the accessibility of vehicles in each alternative to alternative fuel refueling facilities in Stockholm. Given current prices and availability of the alternative fuels and vehicles studied, we recommend a high share of electric and biogas vehicles for purchases during 1997. The cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types in their reduction of various hazardous pollutants, may however change dramatically as prices and availability of vehicles changes and the market for alternative fuels develops. Accessibility to alternative fuel refueling facilities is adequate in Stockholm, though not always ideal. To improve the accessibility of biogas vehicles further, we suggest a third biogas refueling facility in the city's northeastern area (Ropsten, Vaertahamnen). If MFO chooses to purchase a significant number of diesel passenger vehicles to be driven on RME; we propose that a facility in the northeastern area would improve accessibility more than another facility in southern Stockholm.

  2. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can...... and Raghavachari [FOCS '98] gave a min{O(log N),O(k)}-approximation algorithm for the preemptive version of the problem. In this paper we show that the preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem has no $min{O(log^{1/4-\\epsilon}N),k^{1-\\epsilon}}$-approximation algorithm for any $\\epsilon>0$ unless all problems...

  3. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  4. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  5. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  6. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  8. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  10. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  11. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  12. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  13. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  15. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  16. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  17. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  18. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  19. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  20. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  1. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  2. A lightweight hyperspectral mapping system and photogrammetric processing chain for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suomalainen, J.M.; Anders, N.S.; Iqbal, S.; Roerink, G.J.; Franke, G.J.; Wenting, P.F.M.; Hünniger, D.; Bartholomeus, H.; Becker, R.; Kooistra, L.

    2014-01-01

    During the last years commercial hyperspectral imaging sensors have been miniaturized and their performance has been demonstrated on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). However currently the commercial hyperspectral systems still require minimum payload capacity of approximately 3 kg, forcing usage of

  3. Space robot simulator vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  4. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  5. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  6. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  7. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  8. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  9. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  10. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  11. Detection of vehicle parts based on Faster R-CNN and relative position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingwen; Sang, Nong; Chen, Youbin; Gao, Changxin; Wang, Yongzhong

    2018-03-01

    Detection and recognition of vehicles are two essential tasks in intelligent transportation system (ITS). Currently, a prevalent method is to detect vehicle body, logo or license plate at first, and then recognize them. So the detection task is the most basic, but also the most important work. Besides the logo and license plate, some other parts, such as vehicle face, lamp, windshield and rearview mirror, are also key parts which can reflect the characteristics of vehicle and be used to improve the accuracy of recognition task. In this paper, the detection of vehicle parts is studied, and the work is novel. We choose Faster R-CNN as the basic algorithm, and take the local area of an image where vehicle body locates as input, then can get multiple bounding boxes with their own scores. If the box with maximum score is chosen as final result directly, it is often not the best one, especially for small objects. This paper presents a method which corrects original score with relative position information between two parts. Then we choose the box with maximum comprehensive score as the final result. Compared with original output strategy, the proposed method performs better.

  12. Research and application of genetic algorithm in path planning of logistics distribution vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The core of the logistics distribution system is the vehicle routing planning, research path planning problem, provide a better solution has become an important issue. In order to provide the decision support for logistics and distribution operations, this paper studies the problem of vehicle routing with capacity constraints (CVRP). By establishing a mathematical model, the genetic algorithm is used to plan the path of the logistics vehicle to meet the minimum logistics and transportation costs.

  13. Journey predictive energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaraj Ram Manohar, Ravi Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonisation of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, d...

  14. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  15. Reliable CPS design for mitigating semiconductor and battery aging in electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, W.; Proebstl, A.; Goswami, D.; Zamani, M.; Chakraborty, S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliability and performance of cyber-physical systems (CPS) in electric vehicles (EVs) are influenced by three design aspects: (i) controller design, (ii) battery usage, i.e., Battery rate capacity and aging effects, (iii) processor aging of the in-vehicle embedded platform. In this paper, we

  16. Using Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Using Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles Using Fuel Cells to significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell -Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the Use of Hydrogen Fuel Cells"-presented at the Society of

  17. 75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... that the challenge was to push to a level where the safety benefits are still reasonable in relation to... it is inequitable to those who travel in large vans and large sport utility vehicles (SUVs) for those... pickup trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles that have the capacity to seat three or more occupants...

  18. Formulations and Branch-and-Cut Algorithms for the Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bektas, Tolga; Erdogan, Günes; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Generalized Vehicle Routing Problem (GVRP) consists of nding a set of routes for a number of vehicles with limited capacities on a graph with the vertices partitioned into clusters with given demands such that the total cost of travel is minimized and all demands are met. This paper offers four...

  19. Energy management for the electric powernet in vehicles with a conventional drivetrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Aneke, N.P.I.; Kok, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly. Energy management (EM) turns out to be a viable solution for supplying all electric loads efficiently. The EM strategies developed in this paper focus on vehicles with a conventional drivetrain. By exploiting the storage capacity of the

  20. Energy management for vehicle power net with flexible electric load demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly and to supply all electric loads efficiently, energy management (EM) turns out to be a necessity. In general, EM exploits the storage capacity of a buffer connected to the vehicle's power net, such that energy is stored or retrieved at

  1. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  2. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  3. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  4. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Production AMA Durability Program, the engine families covered by an application for...) Method of carburetor sealing. (iii) Method of air cleaner sealing. (iv) Vapor storage working capacity... and light-duty trucks, but does not apply to the production vehicles selected under paragraph (h) of...

  5. Modelling the Aggregated Dynamic Response of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziras, Charalampos; Hu, Junjie; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of electric vehicles (EVs) for providing fast frequency reserves due to their large installed capacity and their very fast response. Most works focus on scheduling and optimization and usually neglect their aggregated dynamic response, which...

  6. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  8. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  9. Role of the superior colliculus in choosing mixed-strategy saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Mikulić, Areh; Dorris, Michael C

    2009-02-18

    Game theory outlines optimal response strategies during mixed-strategy competitions. The neural processes involved in choosing individual strategic actions, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether the superior colliculus (SC), a brain region critical for generating sensory-guided saccades, is also involved in choosing saccades under strategic conditions. Monkeys were free to choose either of two saccade targets as they competed against a computer opponent during the mixed-strategy game "matching pennies." The accuracy with which presaccadic SC activity predicted upcoming choice gradually increased in the time leading up to the saccade. Probing the SC with suprathreshold stimulation demonstrated that these evolving signals were functionally involved in preparing strategic saccades. Finally, subthreshold stimulation of the SC increased the likelihood that contralateral saccades were selected. Together, our results suggest that motor regions of the brain play an active role in choosing strategic actions rather than passively executing those prespecified by upstream executive regions.

  10. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay can ... should encourage their children to drink from a cup by their first birthday. As you make the ...

  11. Causes and Consequences of Choosing Different Assurance Providers: An International Study of Sustainability Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of companies voluntary disclose information about their social and environment performance in sustainability reports. This study investigates the causes and consequences of choosing different assurance providers for companies seeking independent verification of their

  12. Leadership in nursing: analysis of the process of choosing the heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto; de Magalhaes, Ana Maria Müller; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria; Juchem, Beatriz Cavalcanti; Marona, Daniela dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The process of choosing heads can be strategic to achieve desired results in nursing care. This study presents an exploratory and descriptive research that aims to analyze the process of choosing heads for the ward, in the nursing area of a teaching hospital in Porto Alegre. Data was collected from registered nurses, technicians and nursing auxiliaries through a semi-structured interview technique and free choice of words. Three theme categories emerged from content analysis: process of choosing heads, managerial competences of the head-to-be and team articulation. Leadership was the word most frequently associated with the process of choosing heads. The consultation process for the choice of the leader also contributes to the success of the manager, as it makes the team members feel co-responsible for the results achieved and legitimizes the head-to-be in their group.

  13. A two-phase control algorithm for gear-shifting in a novel multi-speed transmission for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozegar, M.; Angeles, J.

    2018-05-01

    In light of the current low energy-storage capacity of electric batteries, multi-speed transmissions (MSTs) are being considered for applications in electric vehicles (EVs), since MSTs decrease the energy consumption of the EV via gear-shifting. Nonetheless, swiftness and seamlessness are the major concerns in gear-shifting. This study focuses on developing a gear-shifting control scheme for a novel MST designed for EVs. The main advantages of the proposed MST are simplicity and modularity. Firstly, the dynamics model of the transmission is formulated. Then, a two-phase algorithm is proposed for shifting between each two gear ratios, which guarantees a smooth and swift shift. In other words, a separate control set is applied for shifting between each gear pair, which includes two independent PID controllers, tuned using trial-and-error and a genetic algorithm (GA), for the two steps of the algorithm and a switch. A supervisory controller is also employed to choose the proper PID gains, called PID gain-scheduling. Simulation results for various controllers and conditions are reported and compared, indicating that the proposed scheme is highly promising for a desired gear-shifting even in the presence of an unknown external disturbance.

  14. The evaluation of the overall thermal comfort inside a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin; Tabacu, Ion; Ivanescu, Mariana; Vieru, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the modern vehicles that can influence the safety, the fuel consumption and the pollutions regulation. The objective of this paper is to compare the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes for two vehicles with different distribution air systems inside the car cockpit, one using only front air vents, and the other using both front and rear air vents. The methodology of calculus consists in using the 3D model of the interior vehicle, generally in a CAD format. Then, using a meshing software to create the finite element model of the interior surfaces inside the cockpit and the volume of internal air. Using the obtained finite element geometry, there will be conducted a Theseus FE calculus using the given boundary conditions. The results of the numerical simulation are presented in terms of graphs and figures and also PMV, PPD and DTS thermal comfort indexes. With the obtained results, we will then create the graphs that allows us to evaluate the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes. The results of the evaluation show us that the use of the method allow us to evaluate with a greater accuracy the thermal comfort for the whole vehicle, not only for each passenger, like the standard methods. This shows us that in terms of general and absolute thermal comfort, the vehicle that use front and rear systems is better than the version that use only a front system. The thermal comfort is an important aspect to be taken into account from the beginning of the design stage of a vehicle, by choosing the right air conditioning system. In addition, by using the numerical simulation, we are able to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests and be able to provide the vehicle to the market earlier, at a lower development cost.

  15. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  16. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  17. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  18. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  19. Factors influencing Zimbabwean physiotherapy students in choosing physiotherapy as a career

    OpenAIRE

    T. Mkondo; W. Mudzi; N. P. Mbambo

    2007-01-01

    People join professions for different reasons and the same applies to physiotherapists. The aim of the study was to identify the reasons for choosing physiotherapy as a career by Zimbabwean physiotherapy students. The study used a descriptive cross-sectional design where a questionnaire was administered to 60 students. Data were collected on the demographics of the students and also on their rating on the importance of 12 factors for their influence in them choosing physiotherapy as a career....

  20. A Framework Proposal For Choosing A New Business Implementation Model In Henkel

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tsz Wan

    2015-01-01

    Henkel's New Business team is a corporate venturing unit that explores corporate entrepreneurial activities on behalf of Henkel Adhesives Technologies. The new business ideas are implemented through one of these models: incubator, venturing or innovation ecosystem. In current practice, there is no systematic framework in place to choose the implementation model. The goal of the thesis is to propose a framework for choosing the most appropriate model for implementation of a new business idea i...

  1. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  3. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  4. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  5. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  6. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  7. Analysis of an Automated Vehicle Routing Problem in Logistics considering Path Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of automated vehicles in logistics can efficiently reduce the cost of logistics and reduce the potential risks in the last mile. Considering the path restriction in the initial stage of the application of automated vehicles in logistics, the conventional model for a vehicle routing problem (VRP is modified. Thus, the automated vehicle routing problem with time windows (AVRPTW model considering path interruption is established. Additionally, an improved particle swarm optimisation (PSO algorithm is designed to solve this problem. Finally, a case study is undertaken to test the validity of the model and the algorithm. Four automated vehicles are designated to execute all delivery tasks required by 25 stores. Capacities of all of the automated vehicles are almost fully utilised. It is of considerable significance for the promotion of automated vehicles in last-mile situations to develop such research into real problems arising in the initial period.

  8. Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iclodean, C.; Varga, B.; Burnete, N.; Cimerdean, D.; Jurchiş, B.

    2017-10-01

    Battery powered Electric Vehicles are starting to play a significant role in today’s automotive industry. There are many types of batteries found in the construction of today’s Electric Vehicles, being hard to decide which one fulfils best all the most important characteristics, from different viewpoints, such as energy storage efficiency, constructive characteristics, cost price, safety and utilization life. This study presents the autonomy of an Electric Vehicle that utilizes four different types of batteries: Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Molten Salt (Na-NiCl2), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Lithium Sulphur (Li-S), all of them having the same electric energy storage capacity. The novelty of this scientific work is the implementation of four different types of batteries for Electric Vehicles on the same model to evaluate the vehicle’s autonomy and the efficiency of these battery types on a driving cycle, in real time, digitized by computer simulation.

  9. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  10. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  12. Quantum Effects of Mesoscopic Inductance and Capacity Coupling Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianxin; Yan Zhanyuan; Song Yonghua

    2006-01-01

    Using the quantum theory for a mesoscopic circuit based on the discretenes of electric charges, the finite-difference Schroedinger equation of the non-dissipative mesoscopic inductance and capacity coupling circuit is achieved. The Coulomb blockade effect, which is caused by the discreteness of electric charges, is studied. Appropriately choose the components in the circuits, the finite-difference Schroedinger equation can be divided into two Mathieu equations in p-circumflex representation. With the WKBJ method, the currents quantum fluctuations in the ground states of the two circuits are calculated. The results show that the currents quantum zero-point fluctuations of the two circuits are exist and correlated.

  13. Modeling connected and autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lanhang; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a heterogeneous traffic-flow model to study the possible impact of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) on the traffic flow. Based on a recently proposed two-state safe-speed model (TSM), a two-lane cellular automaton (CA) model was developed, wherein both the CAVs and conventional vehicles were incorporated in the heterogeneous traffic flow. In particular, operation rules for CAVs are established considering the new characteristics of this emerging technology, including autonomous driving through the adaptive cruise control and inter-vehicle connection via short-range communication. Simulations were conducted under various CAV-penetration rates in the heterogeneous flow. The impact of CAVs on the road capacity was numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the road capacity increases with an increase in the CAV-penetration rate within the heterogeneous flow. Up to a CAV-penetration rate of 30%, the road capacity increases gradually; the effect of the difference in the CAV capability on the growth rate is insignificant. When the CAV-penetration rate exceeds 30%, the growth rate is largely decided by the capability of the CAV. The greater the capability, the higher the road-capacity growth rate. The relationship between the CAV-penetration rate and the road capacity is numerically analyzed, providing some insights into the possible impact of the CAVs on traffic systems.

  14. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  15. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  16. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  17. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  18. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  19. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  20. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  1. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  2. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  3. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  4. Vehicles' Sample Generation and Realization in Car-Following Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Danilevičius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of the article is the adjustment of car-following mathematical models according to collected traffic data. Here the problem of ineffectively burdened road section is solved by adjusting the speed of vehicles in order to reduce the distance between the cars to a safe distance. The paper analyzes the car-following models to measure the interaction between vehicles in the same lane. Experimental data processed in Matlab and traffic distribution histograms are created using the most appropriate distribution curve. Distribution curve is used to compile congestion scenario of road section. Applicable model uses fundamental diagrams, which are created from the kind of traffic flow measurements. The mathematical model allows to choose the optimal vehicle speed while maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and to make recommendations to improve the traffic as the process.

  5. Sensor Architecture and Task Classification for Agricultural Vehicles and Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The long time wish of endowing agricultural vehicles with an increasing degree of autonomy is becoming a reality thanks to two crucial facts: the broad diffusion of global positioning satellite systems and the inexorable progress of computers and electronics. Agricultural vehicles are currently the only self-propelled ground machines commonly integrating commercial automatic navigation systems. Farm equipment manufacturers and satellite-based navigation system providers, in a joint effort, have pushed this technology to unprecedented heights; yet there are many unresolved issues and an unlimited potential still to uncover. The complexity inherent to intelligent vehicles is rooted in the selection and coordination of the optimum sensors, the computer reasoning techniques to process the acquired data, and the resulting control strategies for automatic actuators. The advantageous design of the network of onboard sensors is necessary for the future deployment of advanced agricultural vehicles. This article analyzes a variety of typical environments and situations encountered in agricultural fields, and proposes a sensor architecture especially adapted to cope with them. The strategy proposed groups sensors into four specific subsystems: global localization, feedback control and vehicle pose, non-visual monitoring, and local perception. The designed architecture responds to vital vehicle tasks classified within three layers devoted to safety, operative information, and automatic actuation. The success of this architecture, implemented and tested in various agricultural vehicles over the last decade, rests on its capacity to integrate redundancy and incorporate new technologies in a practical way.

  6. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... alternate fueled vehicles. For alternate fueled vehicles (e.g., natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas.... On vehicles with fuel tank capacity greater than 25 gallons, the Administrator may, following a...

  7. The consumer : the forgotten party in the race to commercialize hydrogen vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the current research into niche market adoption for hydrogen vehicles with reference to what consumers are willing to pay for the attributes of a hydrogen vehicle. The automotive industry has invested billions of dollars in the past decade into the development of hydrogen vehicles for an imminent market launch date of 2003 and 2004. Energy providers have also begun to address the issue of fuel infrastructure. However, demand pull from the consumer is necessary to fulfill the concept of a hydrogen-based vehicle fleet. Direct hydrogen fuelled vehicles currently include the BMW 750 hl, the NECAR 4 and NECAR 6 from DaimlerChrysler, the Ford Focus FCV and the Honda FCX-V3. These initial market vehicles will undergo significant evolution during and before mass market launch, but they are critical in terms of demand pull for the creation of a market for the hydrogen vehicle. Launching a new product is risky business. Studies have shown that the probability of success of a new product is between 5 to 20 per cent. Consumers have the choice to stick with internal combustion engines but to switch to hydrogen fuel, or they could switch to a different power train (such as a fuel cell), or they can choose to stay with the traditional ICE engine fuelled by gasoline or diesel. Analysing consumer choice and modelling who these consumers are, could be useful in determining the probability of adopting hydrogen vehicle technology. 7 refs., 6 figs

  8. Adoption barriers for electric vehicles: Experiences from early adopters in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, Iana; Campillo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most effective technologies for reducing current greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. Although in many countries, local and national governments have introduced incentives and subsidies to facilitate the electric vehicle market penetration, in Sweden, such benefits have been limited. Results from a survey carried out among private owners of electric vehicles are presented in this paper, including the analysis of the respondents socio-demographic characteristics, reasons for choosing an electric vehicle, charging locations and driving preferences, among others. The main results characterize current electric vehicle drivers as male, well-educated, with medium-high income; electric vehicles are used mainly for private purposes and charged at home during night time. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of the impact of large-scale penetration of electric vehicles on existing power distribution systems. The findings presented in this paper provide important insights for assuring a sustainable large-scale penetration of electric vehicles by learning from the experiences of early adopters of the technology and by analyzing the impact of different EV penetration scenarios on the power distribution grid. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted on EV owners' experience and characteristics. • Impact on the power system of large-scale EV adoption was analyzed. • Feedback from EV owners should be used to engage potential users. • Coordinated smart charging is needed to reduce power grid impact. • Coordinated smart charging is required to minimize disturbances on the power grid.

  9. What procedure to choose while designing a fuzzy control? Towards mathematical foundations of fuzzy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Quintana, Chris; Lea, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Fuzzy control has been successfully applied in industrial systems. However, there is some caution in using it. The reason is that it is based on quite reasonable ideas, but each of these ideas can be implemented in several different ways, and depending on which of the implementations chosen different results are achieved. Some implementations lead to a high quality control, some of them not. And since there are no theoretical methods for choosing the implementation, the basic way to choose it now is experimental. But if one chooses a method that is good for several examples, there is no guarantee that it will work fine in all of them. Hence the caution. A theoretical basis for choosing the fuzzy control procedures is provided. In order to choose a procedure that transforms a fuzzy knowledge into a control, one needs, first, to choose a membership function for each of the fuzzy terms that the experts use, second, to choose operations of uncertainty values that corresponds to 'and' and 'or', and third, when a membership function for control is obtained, one must defuzzy it, that is, somehow generate a value of the control u that will be actually used. A general approach that will help to make all these choices is described: namely, it is proved that under reasonable assumptions membership functions should be linear or fractionally linear, defuzzification must be described by a centroid rule and describe all possible 'and' and 'or' operations. Thus, a theoretical explanation of the existing semi-heuristic choices is given and the basis for the further research on optimal fuzzy control is formulated.

  10. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  11. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  12. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  13. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  14. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  15. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  16. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  17. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  18. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  19. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  20. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  1. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions....... The contributions are organized in topical sections named: road; rail; and air....

  2. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  3. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  4. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    -effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel......This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...

  5. The Time-Dependent Multiple-Vehicle Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Daniel; Eglese, Richard; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    -life traffic situations where the travel times change with the time of day are taken into account. Two metaheuristic algorithms, one based on Variable Neighborhood Search and one based on Tabu Search, are proposed and tested for a set of benchmark problems, generated from real road networks and travel time......In this paper, we introduce a multi vehicle version of the Time-Dependent Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem (TD-MPARP). It is inspired by a situation where a transport manager has to choose between a number of full truck load pick-ups and deliveries to be performed by a fleet of vehicles. Real...

  6. Harmonic Analysis of Electric Vehicle Loadings on Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yijun A [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Xu, Yunshan [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Chen, Zimin [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Peng, Fei [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing number of Electric Vehicles (EV) in this age, the power system is facing huge challenges of the high penetration rates of EVs charging stations. Therefore, a technical study of the impact of EVs charging on the distribution system is required. This paper is applied with PSCAD software and aimed to analyzing the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) brought by Electric Vehicles charging stations in power systems. The paper starts with choosing IEEE34 node test feeder as the distribution system, building electric vehicle level two charging battery model and other four different testing scenarios: overhead transmission line and underground cable, industrial area, transformer and photovoltaic (PV) system. Then the statistic method is used to analyze different characteristics of THD in the plug-in transient, plug-out transient and steady-state charging conditions associated with these four scenarios are taken into the analysis. Finally, the factors influencing the THD in different scenarios are found. The analyzing results lead the conclusion of this paper to have constructive suggestions for both Electric Vehicle charging station construction and customers' charging habits.

  7. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  8. Adsorbed natural gas usage in vehicles; Uso veicular do gas natural adsorvido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Flavio Barboza; Miller, Francisco Mateus; Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the actual state of development of the natural gas storage in activated carbons (ANG - adsorbed natural gas) for vehicles applications. This paper also presents the technological challenges that must be overcome to turn ANG viable for vehicles applications. The main results published in ANG, its theoretical limit and a preliminary comparison between the ANG and the GNC technologies are also presented in this work. The parameters used in that comparison were storage capacity, reservoir's weight and volume. The maximum methane storage capacity in activated carbon monoliths (theoretical limit), determined by molecular simulation, is lower than the CNG ones. Therefore, the ANG contribution to vehicles applications is not related to a higher storage capacity but to its lower working pressure, that represents an advantage by the following aspects: reduction or elimination the loss of useful space inside the vehicle; safety and price reduction of NG at fueling station. (author)

  9. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis; Rodriquez, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves

  10. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Rodriquez, Mitchell A.

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves.

  11. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  12. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  13. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  14. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) connected vehicle research : program is a multimodal initiative to enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless : communications among vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications : dev...

  15. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  16. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  17. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  19. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  20. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  1. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  2. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Side View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A side-view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic

  3. Hyper-X Vehicle Model - Front View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A front view of an early desk-top model of NASA's X-43A 'Hyper-X,' or Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, which has been developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic

  4. X-43A Vehicle During Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The X-43A Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle, or 'Hyper-X' is seen here undergoing ground testing at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in December 1999. The X-43A was developed to research a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only

  5. Tracked vehicles in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Walton, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    A programme of remote inspections has been conducted on the Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd Power Station using climbing vehicles. Tracked remotely operated vehicles supported the inspection programme by assisting with the delivery and recovery of the climbing vehicles and facilitating the use of various accessory packages. This paper presents details of the support project, the tracked vehicles and of the uses made of them during the inspection programme. (author)

  6. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    optimize vehicle operation, and capture vehicle kinetic energy during braking ( regenerative energy). As much as two-thirds of this imported oil comes... categories . Figure 4 provides a visual representation of many of the HEV and BEV options available on the 2010 GSA Schedule. Figure 4 - GSA...gallon • Renewable energy generated 24 • Vehicle miles driven by vehicle category • Implementation costs – Infrastructure modifications required

  7. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  8. Test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Muñoz Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the development and implementation of a test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicle systems. The test bed consists of unmanned aerial vehicles (Parrot AR.Drones versions 1 or 2, Parrot SA, Paris, France, and Bebop Drones 1.0 and 2.0, Parrot SA, Paris, France, ground vehicles (WowWee Rovio, WowWee Group Limited, Hong Kong, China, and the motion capture systems VICON and OptiTrack. Such test bed allows the user to choose between two different options of development environments, to perform aerial and ground vehicles applications. On the one hand, it is possible to select an environment based on the VICON system and LabVIEW (National Instruments or robotics operating system platforms, which make use the Parrot AR.Drone software development kit or the Bebop_autonomy Driver to communicate with the unmanned vehicles. On the other hand, it is possible to employ a platform that uses the OptiTrack system and that allows users to develop their own applications, replacing AR.Drone’s original firmware with original code. We have developed four experimental setups to illustrate the use of the Parrot software development kit, the Bebop Driver (AutonomyLab, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada, and the original firmware replacement for performing a strategy that involves both ground and aerial vehicle tracking. Finally, in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed test bed for the implementation of advanced controllers, we present experimental results of the implementation of three consensus algorithms: static, adaptive, and neural network, in order to accomplish that a team of multiagents systems move together to track a target.

  9. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  10. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  11. A comparative evaluation of energy storage systems for a fuel cell vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Kazerani, M.

    2005-01-01

    The widespread operation of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has today become a great cause for concern due to the uncertainty of fossil fuel reserves, energy security issues, and numerous adverse environmental effects. Alternatives such as fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and biodiesel vehicles provide the possibility to ease some or all of these concerns. The fuel cell vehicle, however, offers an excellent combination of reducing ICE vehicle problems while maintaining the performance, driving range, and convenience that consumers require. This paper documents a comparative evaluation of an extremely important facet of the fuel cell vehicle: the energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors, the two most common choices for an ESS, are compared qualitatively to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each. Also, a quantitative comparison is made to choose the best technology for a small fuel cell-powered SUV having the design objectives of high performance and high efficiency. Practical issues such as availability and cost are also considered. The results of the analysis indicate that a battery ESS provides the best combination of efficiency, performance, and cost for a present-day fuel cell vehicle design. Yet, if the anticipated cost reductions and improvements in the energy storage capabilities of ultracapacitors do occur, ultracapacitors will become a very strong contender for energy storage solutions of future fuel cell vehicles. (author)

  12. A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ σ < 0.5 deg. In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  13. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  14. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  15. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  16. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  17. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  18. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  19. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  20. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  1. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  2. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  4. [The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ruiz, Eric; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.

  5. [Dentistry students' reasons for choosing dentistry as a career in Damascus University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashlah, A M

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.

  6. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  7. The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Flores-Ruiz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.

  8. Making difficult decisions: the role of quality of care in choosing a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesis-Katz, Irena; Phelps, Charles E; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Spector, William D; Veazie, Peter; Mukamel, Dana B

    2013-05-01

    We investigated how quality of care affects choosing a nursing home. We examined nursing home choice in California, Ohio, New York, and Texas in 2001, a period before the federal Nursing Home Compare report card was published. Thus, consumers were less able to observe clinical quality or clinical quality was masked. We modeled nursing home choice by estimating a conditional multinomial logit model. In all states, consumers were more likely to choose nursing homes of high hotel services quality but not clinical care quality. Nursing home choice was also significantly associated with shorter distance from prior residence, not-for-profit status, and larger facility size. In the absence of quality report cards, consumers choose a nursing home on the basis of the quality dimensions that are easy for them to observe, evaluate, and apply to their situation. Future research should focus on identifying the quality information that offers the most value added to consumers.

  9. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.; Fowler, M.; Hajimiragha, A.; Canizares, C.; Elkamel, A.

    2009-01-01

    The economies of the developed world are increasingly including green technologies and processes that consider social, environmental and economic consequences. Hybrid electric vehicles and other fuel-efficient vehicle types can supply consumers with vehicles that decrease their ecological footprint and reduce the cost of fuel. However, one of the societal concerns often overlooked is the impact of alternative-fuel vehicle usage on the air quality in the urban environment. This paper presented a study that assessed the impact on air quality stemming from the operation of alternative fuel vehicles in urban environments. The study specifically focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The paper considered the life-cycle impacts of using alternative fuels for transportation purposes in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicles that were studied were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles was completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. The scope of the study and discussion of health effects was first presented followed by data gathering and usage, methodology, results of supportable penetration and vehicle growth, and pollution abatement results. It was concluded that fuel cell vehicles have an advantage over, or near-equality with, PHEVs in almost every aspect of their emissions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  11. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  12. Multicriteria vehicle routing problem solved by artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles route planning in large transportation companies, where drivers are workers, usually takes place on the basis of experience or intuition of the employees. Because of the cost and environmental protection, it is important to save fuel, thus planning routes in an optimal way. In this article an example of the problem is presented solving delivery vans route planning taking into account the distance and travel time within the constraints of vehicle capacities, restrictions on working time of drivers and having varying degrees of movement. An artificial immune system was used for the calculations.

  13. Routing of Electric Vehicles: City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted

    In this work, a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows considering EV constraints of limited driving range and freight capacity is addressed (EVRPTW). The EVs are allowed to recharge at certain locations, and aspects of intelligent location of these recharging points are considered....... The objective is to find the least cost plan for EV routing and compare this to conventional routing. A heuristic method is developed and tested on data based on real-life collected data on distribution vehicles in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The EVRPTW has so far received little attention in the literature...

  14. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  15. Vehicle State Estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Iersel, van S.S.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the electric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  16. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  17. Vehicle Tracking System, Vehicle Infrastructure Provided with Vehicle Tracking System and Method for Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is described comprising - a plurality of sensor nodes (10) that each provide a message (D) indicative for an occupancy status of a detection area of an vehicle infrastructure monitored by said sensor node, said sensor nodes (10) being arranged in the vehicle infrastructure

  18. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  19. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  20. Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Systems ( JAUGS ). JAUGS is a JRP technology initiative under the cognizance of the Aviation and Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center...AMRDEC). The JAUGS focus is on developing a high-level command and control architecture for UGVs. As defined in the JRP Glossary, “ JAUGS is an upper...vehicle platforms and missions. JAUGS uses the Society of Automotive Engineers Generic Open Architecture framework to classify UGV interfaces and

  1. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  2. Combat Vehicle Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    reducing fuel storage under armor , and using manual instead of automatic transmissions, these decisions involve definite operational trade-offs...turn. 20 The application of ceramic materials has made possible the adiabatic -aiesel concept that reduces under - armor cooling system size requirements...systems will eliminate all conventional torsion bar suspension volume under armor space claim, and will have a very direct effect on reducing vehicle

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  4. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  5. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  6. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  7. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  8. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  9. South Bellmore Veterinary Group Review: How to choose a good local veterinarian for your pets

    OpenAIRE

    Debrah

    2018-01-01

    You need time and patience in looking for the right veterinarian for your pets even if it’s just within your area or city. You also need to consider the current situation of your pets in choosing a good vet. A few types of research have seen many pet owners turn to using a holistic approach. Similar on how South Bellmore Veterinary Group views the process of choosing a vet, you should as well look for a trustworthy vet as if you’re finding the right family doctor for yourself. It would be...

  10. Description of women's personality traits and psychological vulnerability prior to choosing hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loekkegaard, E; Eplov, L F; Køster, A

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data suggest that women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) represent a special subgroup of the general population regarding, for instance, cardiovascular risk factors and education. OBJECTIVE: To analyse if women who choose HRT are characterised a priori by high neuroticism sco...... confounders. The study suggests that selection bias among women choosing HRT may also include personality traits....... included Eysencks personality questionnaire concerning intro/extroversion and neuroticism. At the age of 45, the re-examination of the women included a test for psychological vulnerability. The participants reported whether or not they used HRT at the age of 40, 45, 51 and 60 years. The analyses comprised...

  11. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  12. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  13. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    -depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  14. Measuring the Capacity and Transaction Time of Cash and Electronic Toll Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hermawan Karsaman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A long queue can occur at tollgates due to the amount of transaction time required to perform ticket payment and toll fee collection. This problem can be addressed by the use of an electronic toll collection (ETC system. A case study conducted on the Jakarta Intra Urban, Cikupa-Merak, and Cawang Pluit Toll Roads suggests that the queueing at the tollgates when modelled followed a Poisson distribution. The average cash transaction time was approximately 5 to 6 seconds, while the ETC transaction time was only 4 seconds. Furthermore, the capacity of the cash system gate was 550 to 620 vehicles/hour (which is above the minimum service standard of 450 vehicles/hour,whereas the electronic gate capacity was 770 to 870 vehicles/hour. This study demonstrates that the ETC system is more effective than the cash system in terms of reducing the number of queueing vehicles.

  15. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  16. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  18. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  19. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  20. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).