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Sample records for choosing specific mic

  1. Using ROC curves to choose minimally important change thresholds when sensitivity and specificity are valued equally: the forgotten lesson of pythagoras. theoretical considerations and an example application of change in health status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Froud

    Full Text Available Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC curves are being used to identify Minimally Important Change (MIC thresholds on scales that measure a change in health status. In quasi-continuous patient reported outcome measures, such as those that measure changes in chronic diseases with variable clinical trajectories, sensitivity and specificity are often valued equally. Notwithstanding methodologists agreeing that these should be valued equally, different approaches have been taken to estimating MIC thresholds using ROC curves.We aimed to compare the different approaches used with a new approach, exploring the extent to which the methods choose different thresholds, and considering the effect of differences on conclusions in responder analyses.Using graphical methods, hypothetical data, and data from a large randomised controlled trial of manual therapy for low back pain, we compared two existing approaches with a new approach that is based on the addition of the sums of squares of 1-sensitivity and 1-specificity.There can be divergence in the thresholds chosen by different estimators. The cut-point selected by different estimators is dependent on the relationship between the cut-points in ROC space and the different contours described by the estimators. In particular, asymmetry and the number of possible cut-points affects threshold selection.Choice of MIC estimator is important. Different methods for choosing cut-points can lead to materially different MIC thresholds and thus affect results of responder analyses and trial conclusions. An estimator based on the smallest sum of squares of 1-sensitivity and 1-specificity is preferable when sensitivity and specificity are valued equally. Unlike other methods currently in use, the cut-point chosen by the sum of squares method always and efficiently chooses the cut-point closest to the top-left corner of ROC space, regardless of the shape of the ROC curve.

  2. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  3. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lhermie

    Full Text Available We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting.

  4. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  5. How to choose an appropriate transfer function in designing a simplest ANN to solve specific problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佑寿

    1996-01-01

    How to irmrporate certain constraints known a prion into the transfer function to redure thenumber of hidden units of an MFNN in solving some specific probems is disussed. The N-bit parity andsymmetrical problems are used as examples and the derivation of the transfer function based on the a privriknowledge of the input patterns is given. It is shown that by use of the method proposed, only onc hiddenunit is needed in solving the parity and symmetry test problems.

  6. Speedy Mic's Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using observations from ESO's VLT, astronomers were able for the first time to reconstruct the site of a flare on a solar-like star located 150 light years away. The study of this young star, nicknamed 'Speedy Mic' because of its fast rotation, will help scientists better understand the youth of our Sun. ESO PR Photo 53/07 ESO PR Photo 53/07 Mapping Spots on Speedy Mic The astronomers [1] observed the star BO Microscopii [2] during two consecutive nights in October 2006, simultaneously with the UVES spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray satellite. Using a technique called 'Doppler imaging' [3], the astronomers reconstructed images of the surface of the star, detecting the presence of several spots. A few are near the visible pole, while most spots are asymmetrically distributed at mid-latitudes. "The image we could secure of Speedy Mic is, given its distance, a real achievement, that allows us to localise for the first time ever the source of a flare and its surrounding," says Uwe Wolter, lead author of the paper relating the discovery. The X-ray observations indeed identified several flares, which are sudden and vast releases of energy. For one of them, the astronomers could pinpoint its origin on the surface of the star. The flare, lasting about 4 hours, was a hundred times more energetic than a large solar flare and considerably larger than solar coronal loops. The surprising finding, the team says, was the location of the flare. Contrary to our Sun, the site of the observed flare does not correspond to the detected spots [4]. "Interestingly, the flare occurs on a rather inconspicuous portion of the star's surface, away from the main concentration of activity in terms of dark spots," explains Wolter. Speedy Mic is a very young star: with an age of only about 30 million years, it is roughly 150 times younger than the Sun. "It is very likely that our young Sun was a fast rotator as well," says Wolter. "Studying Speedy Mic is thus

  7. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  8. PROYECTO DE CÓMIC

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, SHI QI LUIS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The following report is about the creation process of the comic project called Daga / Puñal from the birth of the idea to the ending and publishing of the comic, where it goes through the different stages of research and work according to the methodology of the author. [ES] Daga / Puñal es el nombre del proyecto de cómic que recoge esta presente memoria que abarca desde la gestación de una historia, hasta la finalización y edición de la misma, donde se desglosa las dife...

  9. Experiences on MIC monitoring by electrochemical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristiani, P.; Perboni, G.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel;

    2002-01-01

    Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper.......Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper....

  10. MicNeSs: genotyping microsatellite loci from a collection of (NGS) reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suez, Marie; Behdenna, Abdelkader; Brouillet, Sophie; Graça, Paula; Higuet, Dominique; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Microsatellites are widely used in population genetics to uncover recent evolutionary events. They are typically genotyped using capillary sequencer, which capacity is usually limited to 9, at most 12 loci for each run, and which analysis is a tedious task that is performed by hand. With the rise of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: for example, on a single run of a GS Junior, 28 loci from 96 individuals are sequenced with a 30X cover. We have developed an algorithm to automatically and efficiently genotype microsatellites from a collection of reads sorted by individual (e.g. specific PCR amplifications of a locus or a collection of reads that encompass a locus of interest). As the sequencing and the PCR amplification introduce artefactual insertions or deletions, the set of reads from a single microsatellite allele shows several length variants. The algorithm infers, without alignment, the true unknown allele(s) of each individual from the observed distributions of microsatellites length of all individuals. MicNeSs, a python implementation of the algorithm, can be used to genotype any microsatellite locus from any organism and has been tested on 454 pyrosequencing data of several loci from fruit flies (a model species) and red deers (a nonmodel species). Without any parallelization, it automatically genotypes 22 loci from 441 individuals in 11 hours on a standard computer. The comparison of MicNeSs inferences to the standard method shows an excellent agreement, with some differences illustrating the pros and cons of both methods.

  11. Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA provides to help members save money. Residency & Career Planning Find resources for a range of medical career ... Fellowships Back to top Home Life & Career Residency & Career Planning Choosing a Medical Specialty Back to top Choosing ...

  12. Diagnosing, Measuring and Monitoring Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to determine the presence of specific groups of bacteria in the bulk medium ( planktonic cells) or associated with corrosion products (sessile cells...ESEM to study marine biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. They observed a gelatinous layer in which bacteria and microalgae were embedded...monitoring planktonic bacteria was not effective at predicting microbial fouling or MIC. Additionally, general corrosion rates were low throughout

  13. High-performance computing on the Intel Xeon Phi how to fully exploit MIC architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guangyong; Lu, Xiaowei; Wu, Qing; Wang, Yajuan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain to high-performance computing (HPC) developers how to utilize the Intel® Xeon Phi™ series products efficiently. To that end, it introduces some computing grammar, programming technology and optimization methods for using many-integrated-core (MIC) platforms and also offers tips and tricks for actual use, based on the authors' first-hand optimization experience.The material is organized in three sections. The first section, "Basics of MIC", introduces the fundamentals of MIC architecture and programming, including the specific Intel MIC programming environment

  14. Prevention for possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in RHLWE flush water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, T.C.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1995-07-10

    This report is in response to the request to provide a recommendation for the prevention of possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) for the RHLWE (Replacement High-Level Waste Evaporator) flush water (FW) system. The recent occurrences of MIC at DWPF prompted HLWE to evaluate the possibility of MIC occurring in this 304L stainless steel RHLWE flush water system. Concern was heightened by the fact that the well water used and the other conditions at H-Tank Farm are similar to those at DWPF. However, only one known leak has occurred in the existing 304L evaporator flush water systems in either tank farm (in 1H system), and no MIC Corrosion has been confirmed in the tank farm area. The design of the RHLWE flush water system (completed long before the occurrence of MIC at DWPF) was modeled after the existing evaporator flush water systems and did not specifically include MIC prevention considerations. Therefore, MIC prevention was not specifically considered during the design phase of this flush water system. The system is presently being installed. After an extensive evaluation, a task team concluded that the best biocide to prevent the occurrence of MIC would be NaOH at fairly low concentration. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is optimal in this application, because of its effectiveness, low cost, and familiarity to the Operations personnel (see Appendix A). However, it is the opinion of the task group that application should be withheld until MIC corrosion is demonstrated in the system.

  15. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper...

  16. NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC) is designed as a multi-user research facility providing training and instrumentation for high resolution microscopy and...

  17. SUBKLONING DAN ISOLASI GEN PENYANDI MIKRONEMA 3 (MIC-3 Toxoplasma gondii ISOLAT LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC-3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion proccess during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. The aim of this research is to clone mic3 (gene encoding for MIC-3 of T. gondii from local isolate using recombinant DNA technology by cloning mic3 in an expression vector. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA from T. gondii tachyzoites was amplified by PuRe Taq RTG-PCR Beads using mic3 specific primers. Amplified DNA was double digested using EcoRV and HindIII restriction endonucleases and then purified using EZ-10 spin coloumn purification kit. The mic3 DNA was ligated into pET-32a(+ expression vector and transformated into Escherichia coli BL21. The results showed that recombinant mic3 gene 4.2 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC-3 protein of T. gondii local isolate into pET-32a(+ and transformed to E. coli BL21.

  18. B-MIC: An Ultrafast Three-Level Parallel Sequence Aligner Using MIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingbo; Liao, Xiangke; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Bingqiang; Peng, Shaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Sequence alignment is the central process for sequence analysis, where mapping raw sequencing data to reference genome. The large amount of data generated by NGS is far beyond the process capabilities of existing alignment tools. Consequently, sequence alignment becomes the bottleneck of sequence analysis. Intensive computing power is required to address this challenge. Intel recently announced the MIC coprocessor, which can provide massive computing power. The Tianhe-2 is the world's fastest supercomputer now equipped with three MIC coprocessors each compute node. A key feature of sequence alignment is that different reads are independent. Considering this property, we proposed a MIC-oriented three-level parallelization strategy to speed up BWA, a widely used sequence alignment tool, and developed our ultrafast parallel sequence aligner: B-MIC. B-MIC contains three levels of parallelization: firstly, parallelization of data IO and reads alignment by a three-stage parallel pipeline; secondly, parallelization enabled by MIC coprocessor technology; thirdly, inter-node parallelization implemented by MPI. In this paper, we demonstrate that B-MIC outperforms BWA by a combination of those techniques using Inspur NF5280M server and the Tianhe-2 supercomputer. To the best of our knowledge, B-MIC is the first sequence alignment tool to run on Intel MIC and it can achieve more than fivefold speedup over the original BWA while maintaining the alignment precision.

  19. The triple system AT Mic AB + AU Mic in the β Pictoris association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Sergio; Leto, Giuseppe; Pagano, Isabella

    2016-09-01

    Equal-mass stars in young open clusters and loose associations exhibit a wide spread of rotation periods, which likely originates from differences in the initial rotation periods and in the primordial disc lifetimes. We want to explore if the gravitational effects by nearby companions may play an additional role in producing the observed rotation period spread, as well as, the role that magnetic activity may also play. We measure the photometric rotation periods of components of multiple stellar systems and look for correlations of the period differences among the components to their reciprocal distances. In this paper, we analyzed the triple system AU Mic + AT Mic A&B in the 25± 3-Myr β Pictoris association. We have retrieved from the literature the rotation period of AU Mic ({P} = 4.85 d) and measured from photometric archival data the rotation periods of both components of AT Mic ({P} = 1.19 d and {P} = 0.78 d) for the first time. Moreover, we detected a high rate of flare events from AT Mic. Whereas the distant component AU Mic has evolved rotationally as a single star, the A and B components of AT Mic, separated by ˜ 27 AU, exhibit a rotation rate a factor 5 larger than AU Mic. Moreover, the A and B components, despite have about equal mass, show a significant difference (˜ 40 %) between their rotation periods. A possible explanation is that the gravitational forces between the A and B components of AT Mic (that are a factor ˜ 7.3× 106 more intense than those between AU Mic and AT Mic) have enhanced the dispersal of the AT Mic primordial disc, shortening its lifetime and the disc-locking phase duration, making the component A and B of AT Mic to rotate faster than the more distant AU Mic. We suspect that a different level of magnetic activity between the A and B components of AT Mic may be the additional parameter responsible for the difference between their rotation periods.

  20. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper......-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students’ perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used...

  1. Why Men Choose Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Julia L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Male nursing students surveyed (n=146, 69 percent) responded that (1) career attributes (job security, opportunity, flexibility) were primary reasons for choosing nursing; (2) they had moderate to high support from significant others; and (3) they were more likely to be older and single. (SK)

  2. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  3. The Customer Cannot Choose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPeople can choose and they make many choices each and every day. However, most people are unaware of how strong their environment influences the choices they make. In his inaugural address, Bas Donkers highlights the impact of what people see (and what they don’t see), what people experi

  4. The triple system AT Mic AB + AU Mic in the beta Pictoris Association

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Sergio; Pagano, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Equal-mass stars in young open clusters and loose associations exhibit a wide spread of rotation periods, which likely originates from differences in the initial rotation periods and in the primordial disc lifetimes. We want to explore if the gravitational effects by nearby companions may play an additional role in producing the observed rotation period spread. We measure the photometric rotation periods of components of multiple stellar systems and look for correlations of the period differences among the components to their reciprocal distances. In this paper, we analysed the triple system AU Mic + AT Mic A&B in the 25-Myr beta Pictoris Association. We have retrieved from the literature the rotation period of AU Mic (P = 4.85d) and measured from photometric archival data the rotation periods of both components of AT Mic (P = 1.19d and P = 0.78d) for the first time. Moreover, we detected a high rate of flare events from AT Mic. Whereas the distant component AU Mic has evolved rotationally as a single sta...

  5. Choosing for learning objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Responding to differences between students; (4) The joint development of learning materials together with other institutions or external parties; (5) Attuning to professional practice; (6) Attuning to...

  6. Identification of host proteins, Spata3 and Dkk2, interacting with Toxoplasma gondii micronemal protein MIC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Yuan; Pan, Ming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Shen, Bang; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-07-01

    As an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii is a successful pathogen infecting a variety of animals, including humans. As an adhesin involving in host invasion, the micronemal protein MIC3 plays important roles in host cell attachment, as well as modulation of host EGFR signaling cascade. However, the specific host proteins that interact with MIC3 are unknown and the identification of such proteins will increase our understanding of how MIC3 exerts its functions. This study was designed to identify host proteins interacting with MIC3 by yeast two-hybrid screens. Using MIC3 as bait, a library expressing mouse proteins was screened, uncovering eight mouse proteins that showed positive interactions with MIC3. Two of which, spermatogenesis-associated protein 3 (Spata3) and dickkopf-related protein 2 (Dkk2), were further confirmed to interact with MIC3 by additional protein-protein interaction tests. The results also revealed that the tandem repeat EGF domains of MIC3 were critical in mediating the interactions with the identified host proteins. This is the first study to show that MIC3 interacts with host proteins that are involved in reproduction, growth, and development. The results will provide a clearer understanding of the functions of adhesion-associated micronemal proteins in T. gondii.

  7. Developing a wireless implantable body sensor network in MICS band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiang; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Permana, Hans; Ghorbani, Kamran; Cosic, Irena

    2011-07-01

    Through an integration of wireless communication and sensing technologies, the concept of a body sensor network (BSN) was initially proposed in the early decade with the aim to provide an essential technology for wearable, ambulatory, and pervasive health monitoring for elderly people and chronic patients. It has become a hot research area due to big opportunities as well as great challenges it presents. Though the idea of an implantable BSN was proposed in parallel with the on-body sensor network, the development in this area is relatively slow due to the complexity of human body, safety concerns, and some technological bottlenecks such as the design of ultralow-power implantable RF transceiver. This paper describes a new wireless implantable BSN that operates in medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band. This system innovatively incorporates both sensing and actuation nodes to form a closed-control loop for physiological monitoring and drug delivery for critically ill patients. The sensing node, which is designed using system-on-chip technologies, takes advantage of the newly available ultralow-power Zarlink MICS transceiver for wireless data transmission. Finally, the specific absorption rate distribution of the proposed system was simulated to determine the in vivo electromagnetic field absorption and the power safety limits.

  8. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  9. Me Nuh Choose None

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Cooke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on textual modes of fictional representation first valorised then disseminated by British imperialists, this story appropriates then abrogates Eurocentric ideals of normative creative expression. By appropriating the rhythm of lyrical poetry into the descriptions of this fictionalized Jamaica as well as the structure of modernist prose into Akúa’s psychical shift from colonial subject to postcolonial agent, “Me Nuh Choose None” inverts these narrative conventions historically used to systematize and exclude in order to puncture the imperious myth that complex writing in English primarily concerns itself with gratifying the colonial centre. Moreover, by treating the textual approximations of the Jamaican storyteller Miss Lou’s oral folktales with equal depth and sophistication as the instances of alliteration and onomatopoeia, this story abrogates the autocratic standard of “proper” spelling and pronunciation so as to textually privilege Jamaican folklore using the literariness usually reserved for Western texts. The effect is a form of fiction that acknowledges the dense matrix of cultural and colonial systems English writing exists within, while simultaneously gesturing between and beyond these systems to the linguistic interstices of postcolonial liminality.

  10. How couples choose vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehl, M

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted by AVSC International between 1992 and 1995 found that couples around the world go through a highly similar decision-making process when they choose vasectomy as their family planning methods. Study findings are based upon in-depth, qualitative interviews with couples using vasectomy in Bangladesh, Mexico, Kenya, and Rwanda, where the prevalence of vasectomy is relatively low, and Sri Lanka and the US, where it is relatively high. 218 separate interviews were conducted with male and female partners. Concerns about the woman's health were cited by respondents in each country as reasons to cease childbearing and to opt for vasectomy as the means to achieving that end. Also, almost all respondents mentioned varying degrees of financial hardship as contributing to their decision to end childbearing. These findings highlight the concept of partnership in relationships and family planning decision-making, and demonstrate the importance of going beyond traditional stereotypes about gender roles in decision-making. Social influences and the potential risks of using other forms of contraception also contributed to the choice of using vasectomy. The decision-making process and lessons learned are discussed.

  11. A suitable procedure to choose antimicrobials as controlling agents in fermentations performed by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Romulo C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and streptomycin at 50, 25 and 12,5% of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC on maximum specific growth rate (µmax and specific polymer accumulation rate (µPHB of Alcaligenes eutrophus, considered resistant to those antimicrobials. Nitrofurantoin strongly affected µmax even at 50% MIC. Streptomycin moderately affected µmax only at 50%MIC. Nitrofurantoin showed the most harmful effect on µPHB when 50% MIC was applied and erythromycin was not harmful.

  12. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  13. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for toys are determined by safety factors, not intelligence or maturity. Here are some age-specific guidelines ... stable and secure enough to prevent tipping. Stuffed animals and other toys that are sold or given ...

  14. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic; Teri Storino

    2003-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. (pepper) extraction by soxhlet method and analysis of a new set of extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples; and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the old set of pepper extracts in comparison with major components of known biocides and corrosion inhibitors. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol) were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies. Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. extracts and components of known commercial biocides showed comparable activities when tested against two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  15. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... costs including system installation and operating expenses. The approach is applied to a case study of a residential single family house under Danish conditions. It delivers rapidly site-specific solutions and can easily be used as an extension for common building energy simulation software. In the case...

  16. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, James; De Juan Sanjuan, Cristina; Guzman, Efrain; Ellis, Shirley A

    2008-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related (MIC) genes have been previously identified and characterised in human. They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D. We have identified three MIC genes within the cattle genome, located close to three non-classical MHC class I genes. The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. Analysis of MIC cDNA sequences derived from a range of cattle cell lines suggest there may be four MIC genes in total. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable.

  17. MIC in long oil pipelines: diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer; Webb, Robert [ConocoPhillips (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) in long oil pipelines. The presence of inorganic solids, bacteria, gases and organic acids in produced water in the oil pipelines causes MIC, which is hard to detect or test and it does not produce any unique type of corrosion. Chemical analysis of water from pig runs is presented in a tabular form and a graphical analysis of pig sludge solids is shown. From the biometabolite analysis, 23 putative hydrocarbon biometabolites were identified and biometabolites for the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic HC were also detected. Operational considerations include the history of MIC in upstream pipelines, water slugging, and presence of suspended solids, among others. From microbiological, chemical, metallurgical and operational evidence it was suggested that MIC is a likely mechanism. The mitigation program is described and suggestions for successful mitigation measures include removal of oxygen sources, scale inhibitor injection, and increasing CO2 inhibitor concentration.

  18. Cephalosporin MIC creep among gonococci: time for a pharmacodynamic rethink?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chisholm, S.A.; Mouton, J.W.; Lewis, D.A.; Nichols, T.; Ison, C.A.; Livermore, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea has been among the easiest infections to cure with antibiotics. Nevertheless, emerging resistance has driven repeated treatment shifts. Decreased cephalosporin susceptibility is now being reported. We examined cephalosporin MIC trends for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the UK and un

  19. Context and Word Choosing in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a discussion on context in relation to translation,and elaborates with examples the important role context plays in helping translators to choose the right word in the line with a specific context. Context here does not only refer to the linguistic context,but also the non-linguistic context,which can be further subcategorized as situational and cultural context.

  20. System Identification in a MIC perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ljung

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some sibjective aspects on some current research topics in system identification. A 'classical' standpoint is taken regarding complexity models. The need for specific tools for 'semi-physical-modeling' is also pointed out, and a discussion on different disturbance models is also included.

  1. Children and (Five Choose Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkin, Alexander K.

    1993-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences with a small group of elementary school students as they explore different forms of the combinatorics problem of choosing two out of five objects. Describes how students examine the connections between the problems and a proof of the relationship. (MDH)

  2. Why Do Women Choose Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, Susan; Lentini, Alison

    1999-01-01

    In interviews with 16 female nursing students, caring was a motivator, but power and empowerment for self and others were the most fully developed reasons for choosing nursing. They showed scant interest in practical motivations such as salary, security, and working conditions. (SK)

  3. Demonstration of Metastable Intermolecular Composites (MIC) on Small Caliber Cartridges and CAD/PAD Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Tetracene 4.0 Barium Nitrate 32.0 Antimony Sulfide 15.0 Aluminum Powder 7.0 PETN 5.0 Ingredient Weight % Normal Lead Styphnate 26.0 Barium Nitrate...Current Process Application Current Specification Affected Programs Candidate Parts/Substrate Lead Styphnate , Barium Nitrate, & Antimony...FA-956 and 5086 primer formulations which are based on lead styphnate , barium nitrate and antimony sulfide. The MIC mixture is an environmentally

  4. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  5. Comparison of visual 24-hour and spectrophotometric 48-hour MICs to CLSI reference microdilution MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole for Candida spp.: a collaborative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Pfaller, M.A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    A multicenter (six-center) study evaluated the performance (interlaboratory reproducibility, compatibility with reference methods, and categorical agreement) of 24-h visual and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs. MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were compared to reference

  6. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  7. A low power MICS band phase-locked loop for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiawei; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2013-08-01

    Ultra low power dissipation is essential in retinal prosthesis and many other biomedical implants. Extensive research has been undertaken in designing low power biomedical transceivers, however to date, most effort has been focused on low frequency inductive links. For higher frequency, more robust and more complex applications, such as Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band multichannel transceivers, power consumption remains high. This paper explores the design of micro-power data links at 400 MHz for a high resolution retinal prosthesis. By taking advantage of advanced small geometry CMOS technology and precise transistor-level modeling, we successfully utilized subthreshold FET operation, which has been historically limited to low frequency circuits due to the inadequate transistor operating speed in and near weak inversion; we have implemented a low power MICS transceiver. Particularly, a low power, MICS band multichannel phase-locked loop (PLL) that employs a subthreshold voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and digital synchronous dividers has been implemented on a 65-nm CMOS. A design methodology is presented in detail with the demonstration of EKV model parameters extraction. This PLL provides 600- mVpp quadrature oscillations and exhibits a phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at 200-kHz offset, while only consuming 430- μW from a 1-V supply. The VCO has a gain (KVCO) of 12 MHz/V and is designed to operate in the near-weak inversion region and consumes 220- μA DC current. The designed PLL has a core area of 0.54 mm(2). It satisfies all specifications of MICS band operation with the advantage of significant reduction in power which is crucial for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

  8. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  9. Threshold SRB populations for MIC of stainless alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, P.; Urbanic, K.; Gendron, T.S

    1997-12-01

    The three CANDU reactor sites on the Great Lakes exhibit differences in susceptibility to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of heat exchanger tubes, despite similar colonization of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Therefore, it was suspected that bacterial activity, rather than numbers, is responsible for pit initiation. Accelerated corrosion tests are being used to examine the relationship between SRB colonization and pitting activity on stainless alloy heat exchanger tubes. Experimental conditions model those of the natural systems. At present, there appears to be little correlation between bacterial numbers and pit initiation. However, there does appear to be a correlation between bacterial activity (causing a decrease in corrosion potential, as a function of sulfide production), and pit initiation. Data are being collected to develop a model to predict MIC for the CHECWORKS service water module. (author)

  10. El cómic feminista: un poco de historia

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Balda, María Antonia

    2011-01-01

    [ES] El cómic es un medio de comunicación popular en el que la narración se resuelve con viñetas dibujadas acompañadas de globos y textos breves. Se editan en serie en tiras o páginas de los periódicos o en cuadernillos independientes y se utilizan para la narración de una anécdota, un chiste o un relato. Los cómics son de fácil lectura, asequibles para todos los públicos, por eso son importantes en la educación infantil, en la transmisión de estereotipos de género y en la propaganda polít...

  11. First experiences with the Intel MIC architecture at LRZ

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Volker; Allalen, Momme

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly growing demand for computing power new accelerator based architectures have entered the world of high performance computing since around 5 years. In particular GPGPUs have recently become very popular, however programming GPGPUs using programming languages like CUDA or OpenCL is cumbersome and error-prone. Trying to overcome these difficulties, Intel developed their own Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture which can be programmed using standard parallel programming techniq...

  12. Anémic Cinéma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arbex

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma experiência cinematográfica de vanguarda, Anémic cinema, realizada por Marcel Duchamp, e tem por objetivo demonstrar que tal experiência resulta de uma reflexão, aprofundada e subversiva ao mesmo tempo, sobre a linguagem, tendo o artista absorvido a poética de Mallarmé, Roussel e Brisset.

  13. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1 as A Biomarker for Diagnosis 
and Prognosis of Stage I-II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning LIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increased macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1, member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily, was found in patients serum with epithelial tumors. Therefore, our aim was to delineate the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum MIC-1 in patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 152 consecutive patients with stage I–II NSCLC were prospectively enrolled and underwent follow up after total resection of tumor. Serum MIC-1 level was detected in lung cancer patients by ELISA, 48 benign pulmonary disease patients and 105 healthy controls, and was correlated with clinical features and prognosis of patients. Results The level of MIC-1 of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.001 and benign pulmonary disease patients (P<0.001. A threshold of 1,000 pg/mL could be used to diagnose early-stage NSCLC with 70.4% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity. The level of MIC-1 was associated with elder age (P=0.001, female (P=0.03 and T2 (P=0.022. A threshold of 1,465 pg/mL could identify patients with early poor outcome with 72.2% sensitivity and 66.1% specificity. The overall 3-year survival rate in patients with high level of MIC-1 (≥1,465 pg/mL was significantly lower than that of patients with low MIC-1 level (77.6% vs 94.8%. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that a high level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for compromised overall survival (HR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.09-10.42, P=0.035. Conclusion High level of serum MIC-1 could be served as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and poorer outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  14. Identification and characterization of a microneme protein (NcMIC6) in Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wensheng; Liu, Jing; Wang, Jing; Fu, Yong; Nan, Huizhu; Liu, Qun

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexa parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis. As described for other members of Apicomplexa, microneme proteins (MICs) play a key role in attachment and invasion of host cells by N. caninum. Herein we identified N. caninum microneme protein 6 (NcMIC6) that is orthologous to Toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 6 (TgMIC6). The open reading frame of the NcMIC6 gene is 984 bp and encodes a 327 amino acid peptide. Sequence analysis showed that NcMIC6 included a signal peptide, a transmembrane region, three epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains, and two low complexity regions. Antibodies raised against recombinant NcMIC6 recognized an approximately 35-kDa native MIC6 protein in Western blots of N. caninum tachyzoites. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that NcMIC6 had a polar labeling pattern, which was consistent with localization of micronemes in the apical region. Pulse invasion assays showed that NcMIC6 translocated from the apical tip to the posterior end of the parasites. Secretion assays demonstrated that NcMIC6 was released into the supernatants. Importantly, it was clearly revealed by co-immunoprecipitation that NcMIC6 formed a complex with other two soluble microneme proteins (NcMIC1 and NcMIC4). In conclusion, identification and characterization of the novel microneme protein NcMIC6 may contribute to understanding how this protein functions during the parasite motility and host cell invasion.

  15. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  16. El vocabulario de las armas en micénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic analysis of rise, structure, and development of the words referred to weapons in Mycenaean tablets and in first Millennium Greek. The results of application of linguistic or philological methods can so be collated with ones achieved by archaeologists.

    Estudio sistemático de la creación, estructura y desarrollo del vocabulario referido a las armas en las tablillas micénicas y en el griego posterior. Los resultados obtenidos por métodos lingüísticos o filológicos pueden así ser cotejados con los logrados por la arqueología.

  17. A Brief Review of General Patterns of MIC of Carbon Steel and Biodegradation of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Javaherdashti, Reza

    2010-01-01

    MIC (Microbiologically influenced corrosion) is an electrochemical type of corrosion enhanced by some types of micro-/ macro-organisms. However, in this paper, MIC will be used to address the corrosion enhanced by micro-organisms. In order for MIC to occur, two minimum requirements are (i) vulnerability of the material and (ii) existence of environmental factors that are favoring MIC. This type of corrosion is known to affect both metals and non-metals. On the other hand, the factors that ren...

  18. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  1. Discovery of Two Jovian Planet Candidates Around AU Mic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Tanner, Angelle M.; Furlan, Elise; Brinkworth, Carolyn; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Kane, Stephen R.; White, Russel; Johnson, John A.; Hall, Ryan; Giddens, Frank; Zilberman, Perri; Huber, Joe; Nishimoto, America; Cancino, Andrew; Weigand, Denise; Klenke, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We present a pair of candidate Jovian exoplanets discovered with the radial velocity (RV) technique in the near-infrared (NIR) orbiting the young M dwarf star AU Mic (a ~ 0.3 and 3.5 AU; M_p ~ 1.5 and 6 M_J). Data were obtained at 2.3 microns from 2010-2016 with the R=46,000 CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, and from 2005-2007 with the R=25,000 NIRSPEC spectrograph at the Keck Observatory. AU Mic possesses long-lived BY Draconis type polar starspots with a known rotation period of 4.865 days. No signal in the NIR RVs is identified that is consistent with the rotation period of the star, but stellar activity remains a possible explanation for the observed NIR RV variability. The outer Jovian planet candidate offers a plausible dynamical explanation for the observed debris disk dynamics of moving "clumps" on several year time-scales. It may be possible to directly image the outer planet candidate with the current generation of high contrast imaging instruments. If confirmed, this discovery would demonstrate the utility of RV precursor observations for informing direct imaging surveys and the utility of NIR RV searches for planets around young and/or active stars. These results also point to the promise of future NIR precise RVs, including iSHELL, SPIRou, HPF and CARMENES, which will operate at higher precision and with larger spectral grasp than CSHELL.

  2. A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng

    2017-01-12

    A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm² area. The measured phase noise is -108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  3. Potentials of plasma NGAL and MIC-1 as biomarker(s in the diagnosis of lethal pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwinder Kaur

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is lethal malignancy with very high mortality rate. Absence of sensitive and specific marker(s is one of the major factors for poor prognosis of PC patients. In pilot studies using small set of patients, secreted acute phase proteins neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL and TGF-β family member macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1 are proposed as most potential biomarkers specifically elevated in the blood of PC patients. However, their performance as diagnostic markers for PC, particularly in pre-treatment patients, remains unknown. In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of NGAL and MIC-1, their levels were measured in plasma samples from patients with pre-treatment PC patients (n = 91 and compared it with those in healthy control (HC individuals (n = 24 and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP, n = 23. The diagnostic performance of these two proteins was further compared with that of CA19-9, a tumor marker commonly used to follow PC progression. The levels of all three biomarkers were significantly higher in PC compared to HCs. The mean (± standard deviation, SD plasma NGAL, CA19-9 and MIC-1 levels in PC patients was 111.1 ng/mL (2.2, 219.2 U/mL (7.8 and 4.5 ng/mL (4.1, respectively. In comparing resectable PC to healthy patients, all three biomarkers were found to have comparable sensitivities (between 64%-81% but CA19-9 and NGAL had a higher specificity (92% and 88%, respectively. For distinguishing resectable PC from CP patients, CA19-9 and MIC-1 were most specific (74% and 78% respectively. CA19-9 at an optimal cut-off of 54.1 U/ml is highly specific in differentiating resectable (stage 1/2 pancreatic cancer patients from controls in comparison to its clinical cut-off (37.1 U/ml. Notably, the addition of MIC-1 to CA19-9 significantly improved the ability to distinguish resectable PC cases from CP (p = 0.029. Overall, MIC-1 in combination with CA19-9 improved the diagnostic

  4. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  5. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · Amber ... preferences. Q: Why did you decide to wear a breast form/prosthesis rather than have a reconstruction? ...

  6. MICS Asia Phase II - Sensitivity to the aerosol module

    CERN Document Server

    Sartelet, Karine; Sportisse, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the model inter-comparison study - Asia Phase II (MICS2), where eight models are compared over East Asia, this paper studies the influence of different parameterizations used in the aerosol module on the aerosol concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in PM10. An intracomparison of aerosol concentrations is done for March 2001 using different configurations of the aerosol module of one of the model used for the intercomparison. Single modifications of a reference setup for model configurations are performed and compared to a reference case. These modifications concern the size distribution, i.e. the number of sections, and physical processes, i.e. coagulation, condensation/evaporation, cloud chemistry, heterogeneous reactions and sea-salt emissions. Comparing monthly averaged concentrations at different stations, the importance of each parameterization is first assessed. It is found that sulfate concentrations are little sensitive to sea-salt emissions and to whether condensation is computed...

  7. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  8. MIC3, a novel cross-protective antigen expressed in Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daoyu; Liu, Jing; Hao, Pan; Wang, Jing; Lei, Tao; Shan, Dan; Liu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Microneme protein 3 (MIC3) is an important adhesion molecule expressed by Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum that plays a crucial role in invasion. In our study, we found that recombinant TgMIC3 (rTgMIC3) was recognized by both T. gondii-reactive sera and hyper-immune serum against N. caninum. Polyclonal antibodies against TgMIC3 reacted with N. caninum by western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). These results indicate that MIC3 is a novel cross-reactive antigen expressed in N. caninum and T. gondii. To evaluate the immune-protective effect of TgMIC3, we created the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-TgMIC3, transfected this vector into HEK293T cells by lipofection, and evaluated TgMIC3 expression in HEK293T cells using western blot and IFA. Then, groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant TgMIC3 protein, pcDNA3.1-TgMIC3, or two-vaccine immunization. The mice were challenged with T. gondii RH or N. caninum Nc-1 tachyzoites 14 days after the final immunization. The survival time of T. gondii-infected mice was recorded, and the parasite burden in the brain of N. caninum-infected mice 30 days post-infection was measured using real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that mice immunized with TgMIC3-based vaccines elicited high antibody titers. After parasitic challenge, mice immunized with pcDNA-TgMIC3 exhibited prolonged survival when infected with T. gondii tachyzoites and a lower parasitic burden in the brains of mice challenged with N. caninum tachyzoites. These results demonstrate that TgMIC3 is a cross-protective antigen expressed in T. gondii and N. caninum and could elicit some protection against toxoplasmosis and neosporosis.

  9. Choosing a software design method for real-time Ada applications: JSD process inversion as a means to tailor a design specification to the performance requirements and target machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, James V.

    1986-01-01

    The validity of real-time software is determined by its ability to execute on a computer within the time constraints of the physical system it is modeling. In many applications the time constraints are so critical that the details of process scheduling are elevated to the requirements analysis phase of the software development cycle. It is not uncommon to find specifications for a real-time cyclic executive program included to assumed in such requirements. It was found that prelininary designs structured around this implementation abscure the data flow of the real world system that is modeled and that it is consequently difficult and costly to maintain, update and reuse the resulting software. A cyclic executive is a software component that schedules and implicitly synchronizes the real-time software through periodic and repetitive subroutine calls. Therefore a design method is sought that allows the deferral of process scheduling to the later stages of design. The appropriate scheduling paradigm must be chosen given the performance constraints, the largest environment and the software's lifecycle. The concept of process inversion is explored with respect to the cyclic executive.

  10. Comparison of Visual 24-Hour and Spectrophotometric 48-Hour MICs to CLSI Reference Microdilution MICs of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole for Candida spp.: a Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Verweij, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    A multicenter (six-center) study evaluated the performance (interlaboratory reproducibility, compatibility with reference methods, and categorical agreement) of 24-h visual and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs. MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were compared to reference 48-h microdilution broth visual MICs (CLSI [formerly NCCLS] M27-A2 document) for 71 isolates of Candida spp. that included 10 fluconazole-resistant strains. Twenty readings (5%) were reported as showing no growth at 24 h, mostly for Candida dubliniensis and from a single center. The overall interlaboratory agreement of 24-h visual readings and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs, as well their compatibility with reference values, were excellent with the four triazoles for most of the species (93 to 99%, within 3 dilutions). The categorical agreement between the investigational reading conditions and reference values was good with fluconazole and voriconazole (93 to 97%) but lower with itraconazole (86 to 88%), due primarily to minor errors. There were only 0 to 3% very major errors with these three triazoles; the number of substantial errors (more than three dilutions) was also low (<2%) with posaconazole. These data suggest that the performance of both investigational MIC readings gives results similar to those of reference MICs. Since spectrophotometric MICs are more objective and the 24-h time period would shorten the MIC determination of azoles, the description of either of these two reading conditions in the M27-A2 document should be considered by the CLSI subcommittee in addition to or instead of the longer, less practical, and more subjective 48-h visual MIC reading. PMID:16145103

  11. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  12. How to choose a health plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000861.htm How to choose a health plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... paperwork for tax purposes. How to Compare Health Plans Employers and government sites, such as the Marketplace , ...

  13. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing To use the sharing ... you may need to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care ...

  14. Screening in interacting protein in C terminal of MIC6 from Toxoplasma gondii%弓形虫MIC6羧基端相互作用蛋白的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑斌; 尹志奎; 何蔼; 詹希美

    2011-01-01

    目的 筛选与弓形虫微线体蛋白6羧基端(MIC6C)相互作用的蛋白.方法 以GST-MIC6C蛋白作为探针蛋白,利用GST pull-down技术,从弓形虫裂解液中筛选与其相互作用的蛋白,SDS-PAGE分析实验产物;将目标蛋白条带转印至PVDF膜,测蛋白序列,BLAST2在线对比搜索相似蛋白序列,初步确定目标蛋白.制备目标蛋白的抗体,Western blot分析GST pull-down实验产物.结果 GST pull-down实验筛选到的目标蛋白的序列与弓形虫醛缩酶的序列一致;制备了醛缩酶的多克隆抗体,目标蛋白条带能被该抗体特异地识别.结论 采用GST pull-down技术,初步筛选出与弓形虫MIC6C相互作用的蛋白为醛缩酶.%To screen the interacting protein from tachyzoite lysates in C terminal of microneme protein 6 (MIC6C) of Toxoplasma gondii, glutathione sepharose beads were incubated with GST-MIC6C protein,and then incubated with tachyzoite lysates. Bound proteins were eluted by using sample buffer, and eluants were resolved by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto pol-yvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Protein band were cut from PVDF membrane, and the protein were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. BLAST2 server in Internet was used to analyse the amino acid sequences. Resutts showed that the N-terminal amino acid sequence of target protein was coincident with the amino acid sequence of aldolase, and the target protein band on NC membrane was specifically recognized by anti-aldolase antibody. The protein which interacts with C terminal of microneme protein 6 (MIC6C) of Toxoplasma gondii is aldolase.

  15. Identification and immunogenicity of microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) of Eimeria brunetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Tran Duc; Zhang, Zhenchao; Huang, Jingwei; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-03-01

    There have been only a few antigen genes of Eimeria brunetti reported up to now. In this study, the gene encoding the microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) was isolated from oocysts of E. brunetti by RT-PCR and the immunogenicity of recombinant EbMIC2 was observed. The EbMIC2 was cloned into vector pMD19-T for sequencing. The sequence was compared with the published EbMIC2 gene from GenBank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were 99.43 and 98.63%, respectively. The correct recombinant pMD-EbMIC2 plasmid was inserted into the pET-28a (+) expressing vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed product was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results indicated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein was recognized strongly by serum from naturally infected chicken with E. brunetti. Rat rcEbMIC2 antisera bound to bands of about 36 kDa in the somatic extract of E. brunetti sporozoites. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 was constructed and then the efficacies of recombinant plasmid and recombinant protein were evaluated. The results of IgG antibody level and cytokines concentration suggested that recombinant EbMIC2 could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein and recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented high anti-coccidial index. All results suggested that EbMIC2 could become an effective candidate for the development of new vaccine against E. brunetti infection.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo

    2002-11-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons. Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. desulfuricans was monitored and documented over a 7-day period. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Live/Dead BacLight was an efficient stain to determine cell viability. The extracts showed 9-25% biofilm formation inhibition against the two organisms, and 18-19% activity in detaching the already formed biofilm. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. A presentation was prepared and give at the US DOE NETL meeting on gas and petroleum infrastructure. The presentation is include as an addition to this report.

  17. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  18. Coherent Photon Mapping on the Intel MIC Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Meng Kang; Lu Wang; Pei Wang; Yan-Ning Xu; Xiang-Xu Meng

    2015-01-01

    Photon mapping is a global illumination algorithm which is composed of two steps: photon tracing and photon searching. During photon searching step, each shading point needs to search the photon-tree to find k-neighbouring photons for reflected radiance estimation. As the number of shading points and the size of photon-tree are dramatically large, the photon searching step is time consuming. We propose a parallel photon searching algorithm by using radiance estimation approach for coherent shading points on the Intelr Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. In order to efficiently use single instruction multiple data (SIMD) units, shading points are clustered by similarity first (every cluster contains 16 shading-points), and an initial neighbouring scope is searched from the photon-tree for each cluster. Then we use 16-wide SIMD units by performing k-NN searching from the initial neighbouring scope for those 16 shading-points in a cluster in parallel. We use the method to simulate some global illumination scenes on Intelr Xeonr processors and Intelr Xeonr PhiTM coprocessors. The comparison results with existing photon mapping techniques indicate that our method gives significant improvement in speed with the same accuracy.

  19. Comparison of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MICs obtained by Etest and agar dilution for ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, cefixime and azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Severin; Kong, Carol J; Lee, Yer; Samuel, Michael C; Bauer, Heidi M; Dixon, Paula; Soge, Olusegun O; Lei, John; Pandori, Mark

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated Neisseria gonorrhoeae Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) relative to agar dilution MICs for 664 urethral isolates for ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), 351 isolates for cefpodoxime (CPD) and 315 isolates for cefixime (CFM). Etest accurately determined CPD, CFM and AZM MICs, but resulted in higher CRO MICs.

  20. Herramienta observacional para el estudio de conductas violentas en un cómic audiovisual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper presents a study which aimed to structure a system of categories for observation and description of violent behavior within an audiovisual children program, specifically in cartoons. A chapter of an audiovisual cartoon was chosen as an example. This chapter presented three main female characters in a random fashion in order to be observed by the children. Categories were established using the taxonomic criteria proposed by Anguera (2001 and were made up of various typed behaviors according to levels of response. To identify a stable behavioral pattern, some events were taken as a sample, taking into account one or several behavior registered in the observed sessions. The episode was analyzed by two observers who appreciated the material simultaneously, making two observations, registering the relevant data and contrasting opinions. The researchers determined a set of categories which expressed violent behavior such as: Nonverbal behavior, special behavior, and vocal/verbal behavior. It was concluded that there was a pattern of predominant and stable violent behavior in the cartoon observed. Resumen El presente artículo de investigación presenta un trabajo cuyo objetivo consistió en estructurar un sistema de categorías para la observación y descripción de conductas violentas en un cómic audiovisual (dibujo animado. Se seleccionó como muestra un cómic audiovisual que tiene tres personajes principales femeninos; tomándose de forma aleatoria, para su observación, uno de sus capítulos. Para el establecimiento de las categorías se escogieron como base los criterios taxonómicos propuestos por Anguera (2001, con lo cual se tipificaron las conductas que conforman cada categoría según los niveles de respuesta. Y para identificar un patrón de conducta estable se ha realizado un muestreo de eventos, usando todas las ocurrencias de una o varias conductas que se registraron en las sesiones observadas. El episodio

  1. Construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid of gene MIC3 of Toxoplasma Gondii and its expression in BHK cells%弓形虫MIC3基因真核表达质粒的构建及其在BHK细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉娜; 刘涛; 黄雨婷; 徐丽娜; 卢丽丹

    2012-01-01

    目的 构建弓形虫微线体蛋白( MIC3)的真核表达质粒,为进一步研究MIC3蛋白的功能奠定基础.方法 PCR法扩增弓形虫MIC3目的基因,将纯化的目的基因插入到真核表达质粒PCDNA3.0,并转入DH5α 宿主菌中,在含有青霉素的SOB平板上筛选阳性重组子,采用酶切和PCR扩增法对重组质粒进行鉴定;应用HifectinⅡ真核细胞转染试剂将弓形虫PCDNA-MIC3真核表达质粒转染幼地鼠肾细胞(BHK),表达产物用SDS-PAGE进一步确认,ELISA法检测表达蛋白的免疫原性.结果 重组质粒PCDNA-MIC3经单双酶切及PCR扩增都得到以原插入片段MIC3基因1120 bp大小相同的片段,PCDNA-MIC3能在BHK细胞中高效表达,表达产物能被弓形虫特异性血清所识别.结论 成功构建了弓形虫MIC3基因真核表达质粒PCDNA-MIC3.%Objective To construct eukaryotic expression piasmid of microneme protein MIC3 of Toxoplasma gondii, and so as to lay a foundation for further sturdy on function of protein MIC3. Methods To amplify target gene of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR, insert purified target gene into eukaryotic expression piasmid PCDNA3. 0 and then transfer into host bacteria DH5α, screen positive recombinant on SOB plate that contains penicillin, then carry out identification on the re-combinant plasmid by enzyme digestion and method of PCR amplification, and transfect the constructed eukaryotic expression piasmid of Toxoplasma gondii PCDNA-MIC3 into BHK cells, and further verify the expression product with SDS-PAGE, and test the immunogenicity of expression protein using ELISA, Results For recombinant piasmid PCDNA-MIC3, either by single or double enzyme digestion or PCR amplification, fragment that equals the size of the originally inserted fragment of gene MIC3 1 120 bp were obtained. Toxoplasma gondii PCDNA-MIC3 had high expression in BHK cells, and the expression product could be identified by specific serum of Toxoplasma gondi. Conclusion Eukaryotic expression

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  3. Salmonella subtypes with increased MICs for Azithromycin in travelers returned to the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassing, R.J.; Goessens, W.H.; Pelt, van W.; Mevius, D.J.; Stricker, B.H.; Molhoek, W.M.L.; Verbon, A.; Genderen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility was analyzed for 354 typhoidal Salmonella isolates collected during 1999-2012 in the Netherlands. In 16.1% of all isolates and in 23.8% of all isolates that showed increased MICs for ciprofloxacin, the MIC for azithromycin was increased. This resistance may complicate em

  4. ENVIROMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic

    2003-10-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. We initiated the delivery system for these new biocides in the test cell and in mixtures of foam components and biocides/anti-biofilms. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, Chile de Arbol) were subjected to growth inhibition tests against two SRB strains, D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. desulfuricans only. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis

  5. Determination Of Appropriate Antibiotic In Bacterial Meningitis Of Children Based On MIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections in infants and children. Three organisms include S.Pneumo;N.mening;H.Influ are the most common cause of meningitis in children between 2M-14y age.Etest is a new method for determination the MIC of some antimicrobial drugs in agarose .This method is useful for some organisms like as S .Pneumo; N.mening; H.Influ;sensitive Streptococcus and anaerobic ;aerobic gram negative. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study; In 57 suspected meningitis children ; organisms isolated from blood; CSF or other sterile boy fluid after culturing and antibiogram;. .MIC of someorganisms detected by Etest method. Results: Streptococcuswas the most prevalent ( 70% and S.pneumon( 90% of all Streptococcus; H.infl 2%;N.mening 4%and L.monocyt 6%(more than expected;Gram negative (Ecoli; Klebsiella; entrobacter and psudomona 18%. There was significant difference (P =0.01in type of organisms between age groups. S.pneumonia was more frequent in children > 2 year ;N.meningitis in>4yr old .Site of isolation :blood; CSF (35.8*;28.3%other sterile site 18.4%;concomitant positive culture in two site:17%.Mean age in Streptococcus was significantly different with Listeria (p=0.05; N.meningitis (p=0.04;H.influ (p=0.04;.but no difference with Staphylococcus;Klebsiella and E.coli Two type of H.inf were sensitive to Ampici or chloram ;both of them were sensitive to ceftiaxon. GBS were sensitive to PNC or Ampici Strep.nonAnonBnon- Cotrimoxazol>32mic/ml /PNC >256mic/ml/ Vanco>256mic/ml Strep.D: Cotrimoxazol>0.062mg/ml/ /PNC >0.016mic/ml/Imipenem>0.032mic/ml. Strep Pneumonia: All fo them were sensitive except 3 cases /Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml /PNC =0.01mic/ml/Vanco>0.125mic/ m Vanco>0. 25mic/ ml/.Cotrimoxazol>2ic/ml / PNC =0.01mg/ml Vanco>0.125mic/ ml / Cotrimoxazol>2mic/ml /MIC-PNC >0.016mic/ml Therefore high dose of PNC is adequate for S.pneu ;because of Interm resistance to PNC All 3 N.menin were

  6. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  7. Free to Choose Service-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Michael P.; Heet, Justina A.

    2000-01-01

    Service learning holds tremendous potential for expanding and enriching children's education. However, community polarization can result when such programs are implemented in schools that are not freely chosen by families of children attending them. Parents must be allowed to choose schools reflecting their priorities and beliefs. (MLH)

  8. Don't Choose Your Own Successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Harry

    1974-01-01

    Chief executive officers (CEOs) often select successors who fail. CEOs may choose badly because they cannot foresee the future, recognize the qualities that led them to success, or betray company traditions. Most often, however, they unconsciously wish to prove that no one can do the job as well as they have. (Author/JF)

  9. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...

  10. Who Chooses Primary Teaching and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sabine; Kiel, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates who chooses primary teaching and how prospective primary school teachers differ from future teachers in other types of schools. Using variance analysis, future student-teachers of different types of schools are compared with regard to their motives for the choice of studies and profession. As a main result, prospective…

  11. Patient values and preferences when choosing anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Palacio,1–3 Irene Kirolos,2,3 Leonardo Tamariz1–3 1The Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 2The Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 3Division of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA Background: New oral anticoagulants have similar efficacy and lower bleeding rates compared with warfarin. However, in case of bleeding there is no specific antidote to reverse their effects. We evaluated the preferences and values of anticoagulants of patients at risk of atrial fibrillation and those who have already made a decision regarding anticoagulation.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Veterans in the primary care clinics and the international normalized ratio (INR laboratory. We developed an instrument with patient and physician input to measure patient values and preferences. The survey contained a hypothetical scenario of the risk of atrial fibrillation and the attributes of each anticoagulant. After the scenario, we asked participants to choose the option that best fits their preferences. The options were: 1 has better efficacy at reducing risk of stroke; 2 has been in the market for a long period of time; 3 has an antidote to reverse the rare case of bleeding; 4 has better quality of life profile with no required frequent laboratory tests; or 5 I want to follow physician recommendations. We stratified our results by those patients who are currently exposed to anticoagulants and those who are not exposed but are at risk of atrial fibrillation.Results: We approached 173 Veterans and completed 137 surveys (79% response rate. Ninety subjects were not exposed to anticoagulants, 46 reported being on warfarin, and one reported being on dabigatran at the time of the survey. Ninety-eight percent of subjects stated they would like to participate in the decision-making process of selecting an anticoagulant. Thirty-six percent of those exposed and 37% of those

  12. 8. mednarodna znanstvena konferenca o managementu MIC 07 = 8th Management International Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bojnec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ways in which 8th Management International Conference (MIC 2007 titled Managing Global Transitions: Globalisation, Localisation, Regionalisation was organised and directed. The conference was held between 20 and 24 November 2007 in the Congress Centre Bernardin in Portorož, Slovenia. More than 200 participants from 26 countries all over the world attended the event. The MIC conference, organized by the University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, has throughout the years become a traditional annual conference. Next conference, MIC 2008, will be for the first time organized outside Slovenia, in Barcelona, Spain.

  13. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light

  14. Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • In- and Sn-based MIC phenomenon on amorphous (α)-Ge is newly reported. • The In- and Sn-MIC phenomenon respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. • The Sn-MIC process presents higher sheet resistance and bigger crystal grains. - Abstract: In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on α-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

  15. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  16. Choosing wisely-where is the choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A little over a year ago an editorial was posted in the Southwest Journal about the Choosing Wisely campaign from the American Board of Internal Medicine and Consumer Reports (1. You may remember that Choosing Wisely announced a list of procedures or treatments that patients should question (2. In the editorial we wondered why pulmonary organizations such as the American Thoracic Society (ATS and the American College of Chest Physicians authored none of the recommendations and offered 10 suggestions. We also openly questioned if the recommendations were intended to improve patient care or reduce costs, and thus improve the profits of third party carriers. We can now report that recommendations were announced at the recent ATS meeting in Philadelphia. Seven recommendations were made for critical care and seven for pulmonary disease. Five from the critical care list and five from the pulmonary list will eventually be chosen for inclusion in …

  17. Heinz dilemma? Let the subject choose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durm, M W; Pitts, S

    1993-12-01

    This description of a novel approach for studying the validity of Kohlberg's sequential and hierarchical theory of moral development involved 138 boys and 113 girls (14 to 18 years old) choosing a solution among 12 to Kohlberg's Heinz dilemma instead of being assigned one by an interviewer. The results were not supportive of the theory. The methodology of research on moral development needs to be examined.

  18. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.;

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five a...

  19. Influence of Water Pollution on MIC of Stainless Steel 304L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of water pollution and welding defects on MIC (microbiologically influenced corrosion) was studied. The open circuit potential (OCP) was measured during MIC test. It was found that OCP shifted to a higher level when the system was inoculated with bacteria while the OCP of those samples in water without bacteria was kept at a low level. The OCP decreased dramatically when MIC started in polluted water. Combination of weld defect-heat tint, polluted water and adding bacteria causes MIC happen at high rate. Some elements inside the tubercle were analyzed with EDXA. The pits and biofilm were observed with SEM. Microbiological analysis revealed the difference of bacteria between corroded and uncorroded samples.

  20. [Evaluation of an automated procedure determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabaut, A; Durosoir, J L; Meyran, M

    1982-06-01

    The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) and 6 aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin) obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for 302 gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics (oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin) obtained by the 2 methods for 117 Staphylococcus aureus strains. The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

  1. Sub-MIC Tylosin Inhibits Streptococcus suis Biofilm Formation and Results in Differential Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yanbei; Zhao, Yulin; Zhao, Honghai; Bai, Jingwen; Chen, Jianqing; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Chang; Li, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the effect of tylosin on biofilm formation of S. suis was investigated. 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 1/4 MIC of tylosin were shown to inhibit S. suis biofilm formation in vitro. By using the iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment and with no treatment. A total of 1501 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Ninety-six differentially expressed proteins were identified (Ratio > ±1.5, p MIC tylosin treatment. Thus, our data revealed the rough regulation of biofilm formation that may provide a foundation for future research into mechanisms and targets.

  2. Anti-MIC2 as a tool in examination of testicular biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visfeldt, J; Cortes, D; Thorup, J M;

    1999-01-01

    MIC2 is a pseudoautosomal gene localized on X and Y chromosomes. The MIC2 gene product is a glycoprotein expressed on the cell membranes of a number of somatic cells, including Sertoli cells of the testis, but not on the cell membranes of germ cells. In cases of cryptorchidism, a testicular biopsy...... transverse section is lower than 1% of the lowest normal age-matched value. Besides Sertoli cells the seminiferous tubules in undescended testes contain only a few germ cells, and it may be difficult to pinpoint the germ cells in small biopsies. Especially in nonpalpable testes their number may be heavily...... reduced. A reliable identification of germ cells may also be difficult in cultures of testicular biopsies from undescended testes. Against this background, we tried the use of an immunohistochemical method with DAKO antibody to the MIC2 gene product (MIC2, 12 E7, code no. M3601) in order to obtain...

  3. Correlation of the MIC and dose/MIC ratio of fluconazole to the therapeutic response of patients with mucosal candidiasis and candidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Almirante, B.; Rodriguez-Pardo, D.; Laguna, F.; Donnelly, J.P.; Mouton, J.W.; Pahissa, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the correlation of the outcomes for two cohorts of patients who had been treated for candidemia (126 episodes) or oropharyngeal candidiasis (110 episodes) with various doses of fluconazole and the MIC of fluconazole obtained by using the EUCAST standard for fermentative yeasts. Of 145 e

  4. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered ...

  5. In Vitro selection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants with elevated MIC values and increased resistance to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven R; Grad, Yonatan; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Burroughs, Mark; Frace, Mike; Lipsitch, Marc; Weil, Ryan; Trees, David

    2014-11-01

    Strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with mosaic penA genes bearing novel point mutations in penA have been isolated from ceftriaxone treatment failures. Such isolates exhibit significantly higher MIC values to third-generation cephalosporins. Here we report the in vitro isolation of two mutants with elevated MICs to cephalosporins. The first possesses a point mutation in the transpeptidase region of the mosaic penA gene, and the second contains an insertion mutation in pilQ.

  6. Differences in vancomycin MIC among MRSA isolates by agar dilution and E test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the correlation between vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC obtained by the E test technique and the Clinical And Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI agar dilution method was evaluated. A total of 53 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains were tested by both the methods in the present study. MICs of vancomycin obtained by the E test method were consistently higher (+0.5 to 2 log2 dilutions than those obtained by the agar dilution method. Out of 53 MRSA isolates, 49 isolates showed higher MIC results by E test than by agar dilution method. Three isolates showed same MIC result by both methods. Since many studies have demonstrated increased clinical failure with MRSA isolates for which vancomycin MICs are increased (>1 μg/ml but still within the susceptibility range (≤ 2 μg/ml, our findings suggest the requirement to re-look into the breakpoints for vancomycin for determining sensitivity of MRSA isolates. Guidelines should also specify the method to be used for determining the MIC.

  7. MIC risk in the Halfdan oil export system quantified with a DNA-based diagnostic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Jan; Rasmussen, Kim; Andersen, Kenneth [Maersk Oil (Denmark); Holmkvist, Lars [DTI Oil and Gas (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the risk involved due to microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) using the halfdan oil export system. With growth of assets, scale and microbial fouling, corrosion and souring have increased. Some of the consequences to operators include, safety issues and loss of production. An example of the effects caused by MIC is the Valhall platform in the Norwegian sector, which was shut down for 80 days. Some of the factors causing bacterial growth and MIC are O2, CO2, and H2S, solids. Consideration of four objectives, corrosive products, microbiological activities, microbes, and spatially associating microbes is very important for diagnosing MIC. The objective of the halfdan study was to investigate the corrosion mechanism in the oil export spool section. Observations show severe pitting inside the pipelines. Suggestions for the operator, including the risk assessment of MIC, are given along with a summary of results. It can be concluded that there is a certain need in the industry to understand and act upon MIC.

  8. ALTERNATIVE DIRECTIONS OF CHOOSING THE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategic choosing refers to making decisions (selecting the strategic option related to the future of the enterprise and the ways it respond to the action of certain pressure and influence factors identified by analysis and strategic diagnosis. The clear definition of the enterprise objectives is very important from the viewpoint of the business types where it is involved and of the connections existent between them (by means of the SBU mix. But, the successful development of the strategies should consider the fact that they cannot be built only on the existent financial resources, but also on the development of these resources.

  9. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; JAMES, WILLIAM; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...

  10. SubMICs of penicillin and erythromycin enhance biofilm formation and hydrophobicity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D L R; Peixoto, R S; Barbosa, E A B; Napoleão, F; Sabbadini, P S; dos Santos, K R N; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Hirata, R

    2013-05-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics may alter bacterial surface properties and change microbial physiology. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a subMIC (⅛ MIC) of penicillin (PEN) and erythromycin (ERY) on bacterial morphology, haemagglutinating activity, cell-surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm formation on glass and polystyrene surfaces, as well as the distribution of cell-surface acidic anionic residues of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (HC01 tox(-) strain; CDC-E8392 and 241 tox(+) strains). All micro-organisms tested were susceptible to PEN and ERY. Growth in the presence of PEN induced bacterial filamentation, whereas subMIC of ERY caused cell-size reduction of strains 241 and CDC-E8392. Adherence to human erythrocytes was reduced after growth in the presence of ERY, while CSH was increased by a subMIC of both antibiotics in bacterial adherence to n-hexadecane assays. Conversely, antibiotic inhibition of biofilm formation was not observed. All strains enhanced biofilm formation on glass after treatment with ERY, while only strain 241 increased glass adherence after cultivation in the presence of PEN. Biofilm production on polystyrene surfaces was improved by ⅛ MIC of ERY. After growth in the presence of both antimicrobial agents, strains 241 and CDC-E8392 exhibited anionic surface charges with focal distribution. In conclusion, subMICs of PEN and ERY modified bacterial surface properties and enhanced not only biofilm formation but also cell-surface hydrophobicity. Antibiotic-induced biofilm formation may contribute to the inconsistent success of antimicrobial therapy for C. diphtheriae infections.

  11. MIC of Delamanid (OPC-67683) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates and a Proposed Critical Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Kelly; Kurepina, Natalia; Venter, Amour; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kawasaki, Masanori; Timm, Juliano; Shashkina, Elena; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Liu, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    The increasing global burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires reliable drug susceptibility testing that accurately characterizes susceptibility and resistance of pathogenic bacteria to effectively treat patients with this deadly disease. Delamanid is an anti-TB agent first approved in the European Union in 2014 for the treatment of pulmonary MDR-TB in adults. Using the agar proportion method, delamanid MIC was determined for 460 isolates: 316 from patients enrolled in a phase 2 global clinical trial, 76 from two phase 2 early bactericidal activity trials conducted in South Africa, and 68 isolates obtained outside clinical trials (45 from Japanese patients and 23 from South African patients). With the exception of two isolates, MICs ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml, resulting in an MIC50 of 0.004 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 0.012 μg/ml. Various degrees of resistance to other anti-TB drugs did not affect the distribution of MICs, nor did origin of isolates from regions/countries other than South Africa. A critical concentration/breakpoint of 0.2 μg/ml can be used to define susceptible and resistant isolates based on the distribution of MICs and available pharmacokinetic data. Thus, clinical isolates from delamanid-naive patients with tuberculosis have a very low MIC for delamanid and baseline resistance is rare, demonstrating the potential potency of delamanid and supporting its use in an optimized background treatment regimen for MDR-TB. PMID:26976868

  12. Eimeria tenella microneme protein EtMIC3: identification, localisation and role in host cell infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, M; de Venevelles, P; Girard-Misguich, F; Bourdieu, C; Guillaume, A; Péry, P

    2005-03-01

    The gene coding for Eimeria tenella protein EtMIC3 was cloned by screening a sporozoite cDNA library with two independent monoclonal antibodies raised against the oocyst stage. The deduced sequence of EtMIC3 is 988 amino acids long. The protein presents seven repeats in tandem, with four highly conserved internal repeats and three more divergent external repeats. Each repeat is characterised by a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, WRCY, and a reminiscent motif of the thrombospondin1 (TSP1)-type I domain, CXXXCG. The protein EtMIC3 is localised at the apex of free parasite stages. It is not detected in the early intracellular parasite stage but is synthesised in mature schizonts. Secretion of the protein is induced when sporozoites are incubated in complete medium at 41 degrees C. Strangely enough, the two independent mAb that allow cloning of EtMIC3 interfere with parasitic growth in different ways. One is able to inhibit parasite invasion whereas the other inhibits development. Expression and localisation of the protein EtMIC3 are consistent with a protein involved in the invasion process as is expected for a microneme protein.

  13. Dynamic Ni gettered by PSG from S-MIC poly-Si and its TFTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zhi-Guo; Li Yang; Wu Chun-Ya; Zhao Shu-Yun; Li Juan; Man Wong; Hoi Sing-Kwok; Xiong Shao-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic phosphor-silicate glass (PSG) gettering method is proposed in which the processes of the gettering of Ni by PSG and the crystallizing of á-Si into poly-Si by Ni take place simultaneously. The effects of PSG gettering process on the performances of solution-based metal induced crystallized (S-MIC) poly-Si materials and their thin film transistors (TFTs) are discussed. The crystallization rate is much reduced due to the fact that the Ni as a medium source of crystallization is extracted by the PSG during crystallization at the same time. The boundary between two neighbouriug grains in S-MIC poly-Si with PSG looks blurrier than without PSG. Compared with the TFTs made from S-MIC poly-Si without PSG gettering, the TFTs made with PSG gettering has a reduced gate induced leakage current.

  14. El cómic en España: 1977-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vergara Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende repasar las tres últimas décadas del cómic en España. El estudio se realiza valorando la evolución de la industria del cómic, desde sus inicios durante la dictadura y su expansión con la llegada de la democracia hasta la época actual de dificultades y cambios. El auge del cómic se observa en su relevancia creciente dentro de la prensa, en la aceptación de un público que va madurando con el paso del tiempo y, sobre todo, en las ventas de una industria que tiene que adaptarse a nuevas situaciones.

  15. En el umbral. El cómic español contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, when we talk about contemporary Spanish comics, or comics produced primarily in Spain for the Spanish market, we have to contemplate two main trends: the graphic novel and the humor comics. The fall of the traditional industry opened the door to the realization of authoral ambitions that previous generations of artists couldn’t fulfil.

    En la actualidad, cuando hablamos de cómic español contemporáneo, es decir, cuando nos referimos a cómics producidos en España y para el mercado español en primer lugar, tenemos que tener en cuenta dos corrientes principalmente: la novela gráfica y el cómic de humor. La caída de la industria tradicional ha abierto el camino para que se cumplan las aspiraciones autorales que durante décadas tuvieron muchos dibujantes españoles.

  16. Linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Motoyasu; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Koichi; Takata, Tohru; Tanihara, Shinichi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep occurred in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), over a recent 5-year period at a single Japanese center. A total of 453 MRSA and 195 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from inpatients from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2013 were analyzed. The MIC of linezolid was determined by automated Vitek-2 system. The modal MIC, MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively), geometric mean MIC and percentages of susceptible and resistant isolates were evaluated for each fiscal year. None of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid. Isolates with an MIC of >1 µg/mL were more common in the MSSA samples than in the MRSA samples (91.3% versus 38.2%, pMRSA isolates (p=0.006, r(2)=0.945 according to a linear regression analysis) over the 5-year period; however, no increase was observed in the MSSA isolates. The frequency of MRSA isolates with an MIC of 1 µg/mL decreased (from 76.3% in 2008 to 35.4% in 2012) and the isolates with MICs of >1 µg/mL increased over time (from 23.7% in 2008 to 64.6% in 2012). This report demonstrates the occurrence of linezolid MIC creep, as determined using the geometric mean MIC, in MRSA clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

  17. A thermodynamic approach to choosing pervaporatives membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes separating a mixture of several components obtained as a product of methyl polymethyl metha- crylate (PMMA thermo-degradation. It was aimed at purifying methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA obtained by 95% mass thermal degradation to reach 99.5% maximum pervaporation concentration. This work studied the theory of pervaporation and applying the main thermodynamic criteria for choosing suitable polymer membranes for separating the MMA/PRP/ISB mixture. Such thermodynamic criteria were based on monomer interaction with and solubility on the membrane. The advantage of using this separation technique lies mainly in the fact that this method has low energy consumption compared to other processes, such as distillation or crystallisation.

  18. How to choose the right financial planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    An "economic Pearl Harbor." That is how the world's most famous investor, Warren Buffett, described what we have gone through and what we're still going through.' Even the most optimistic appraisals of our economic conditions suggest that we are likely to feel the effects of the Great Recession through the decade we recently entered. Healthcare reform, in whatever form, may also create change in your medical practice ranging from immaterial to revolutionary. To whom should you turn to ensure that your personal economy survives and thrives, especially in these times? A financial planner, possibly, but what is a financial planner, how do you choose one, and what sort of service should you expect?

  19. Coneixements previs i rendiment acadèmic a la Universitat

    OpenAIRE

    García Gay, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    CONEIXEMENTS PREVIS I RENDIMENT ACADÈMIC A LA UNIVERSITATAdoptant el model del constructivisme, la tesi es proposa com a objectiu esbrinar quina és la base acadèmica de l'alumnat en arribar als estudis universitaris de Fisioteràpia i comprovar si aquesta base influeix en el rendiment acadèmic durant el primer curs de la carrera.La tesi està estructurada en dues parts. En la fonamentació teòrica cal considerar el context en què se situa la tesi (canvi del sistema educatiu, renovació de les PAA...

  20. Análisis de los problemas expresivos del cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís RODRÍGUEZ BELTRÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se plantea en este artículo una aproximación a los códigos específicos del cómic que busca principalmente determinar algunas de las relaciones existentes entre los mismos. No se busca, por lo tanto, definir cada uno de estos códigos, tarea ya realizada en numerosos trabajos más extensos que el presente artículo, sino buscar claves que permitan entender por qué algunas historietas presentan una narración fluida y otras, en cambio, resultan de lectura difícil y poco clara. El proceso que se siguió a este efecto fue la realización de un estudio estadístico sobre una muestra de cómics "de calidad". Los criterios para la selección de la muestra residieron fundamentalmente en la eliminación de subproductos, con la intención de dejar aisladas una serie de historietas narradas con efectividad. A continuación, una vez definida la muestra, se trató de convertir en variables bipolares todo aquello que, a juicio del autor y de las referencias consultadas, fuera de importancia como código específico o elemento significativo en una narración de viñetas. El resultado arroja cierta luz sobre la conveniencia o no de usar determinados recursos de modo conjunto, y podría resultar útil como marco de referencia flexible para aquellos interesados en conocer la gramática del cómic más allá de sus elementos constitutivos mínimos.ABSTRACT: This article sets forth an approach to the specific codes of the comic, in which the main aim is to determine some of the relationships existing between them. The objective is thus not to define each one of these codes - a task already performed in numerous studies, more extensive than this article, - but to find keys that will enable us to understand why some comic strips have a fluent series of incidents and others, on the contrary, are difficult to read and not very clear. The process foliowed for this purpose was that of carrying out a statistical study of a sample of "quality" comics. The

  1. Choosing the best heuristic for seeded alignment of DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhler Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeded alignment is an important component of algorithms for fast, large-scale DNA similarity search. A good seed matching heuristic can reduce the execution time of genomic-scale sequence comparison without degrading sensitivity. Recently, many types of seed have been proposed to improve on the performance of traditional contiguous seeds as used in, e.g., NCBI BLASTN. Choosing among these seed types, particularly those that use information besides the presence or absence of matching residue pairs, requires practical guidance based on a rigorous comparison, including assessment of sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. This work performs such a comparison, focusing on alignments in DNA outside widely studied coding regions. Results We compare seeds of several types, including those allowing transition mutations rather than matches at fixed positions, those allowing transitions at arbitrary positions ("BLASTZ" seeds, and those using a more general scoring matrix. For each seed type, we use an extended version of our Mandala seed design software to choose seeds with optimized sensitivity for various levels of specificity. Our results show that, on a test set biased toward alignments of noncoding DNA, transition information significantly improves seed performance, while finer distinctions between different types of mismatches do not. BLASTZ seeds perform especially well. These results depend on properties of our test set that are not shared by EST-based test sets with a strong bias toward coding DNA. Conclusion Practical seed design requires careful attention to the properties of the alignments being sought. For noncoding DNA sequences, seeds that use transition information, especially BLASTZ-style seeds, are particularly useful. The Mandala seed design software can be found at http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~yanni/mandala/.

  2. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating.

  3. Imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Torres, Adriana Patricia

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo nos centraremos en el análisis crítico de la imagen popular de la ciencia transmitida por los cómics existentes en el mercado (en la medida que hagan referencia al trabajo científico).

  4. Luces y sombras de la amazona de cómic Wonder Woman, la Mujer Maravilla

    OpenAIRE

    Marfil Díaz, María Inmaculada Concepción

    2014-01-01

    La mujer constituye una parte determinante que sustenta el tejido social de todas las culturas y, sin embargo, no ha sido protagonista principal en el mundo del cómic de superhéroes. Pero hay excepciones, como Wonder Woman, la Mujer Maravilla. ¿Qué

  5. Correlation of MIC value and disk inhibition zone diameters in clinical Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, J.P. de; Diederen, B.M.; Ijzerman, E.P.; Boer, J.W. den; Mouton, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Routine use of disk diffusion tests for detecting antibiotic resistance in Legionella pneumophila has not been described. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation of MIC values and inhibition zone diameter (MDcorr) in clinical L. pneumophila isolates. METHODS: Inhibition z

  6. Algebraic Treatment of the MIC-Kepler System in Spherical Coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Chefrour

    2007-01-01

    @@ The MIC-Kepler system is studied via the Milshtein-Strakhovenko variant of the so(2,1) Lie algebra. Green's function is constructed in spherical coordinates, with the help of the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables and the generators of the SO(2,1) group. The energy spectrum and the normalized wavefunctions of the bound states are obtained.

  7. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A. Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, similar to 10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0 ''.6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU an

  8. mic digital hoy: «A Brand (New) Digital World. A modo de introducción»

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez García, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción a una antología digital con casos de estudio de obras y tendencias del cómic online o producido para dispositivos digitales, así como el impacto de internet en los modos de consumo, difusión y comercialización del cómic digital reciente. Capítulo (introducción) del libro digital colectivo 'Cómic digital hoy. Una introducción en presente', presentado en el congreso Gexto Cómic XV Edición (2016). Enlace al libro digital: http://www.acdcomic.es/comicdigitalhoy/ Universidad de ...

  9. Regulation of the small regulatory RNA MicA by ribonuclease III: a target-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Sandra C; Silva, Inês J; Saramago, Margarida; Domingues, Susana; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2011-04-01

    MicA is a trans-encoded small non-coding RNA, which downregulates porin-expression in stationary-phase. In this work, we focus on the role of endoribonucleases III and E on Salmonella typhimurium sRNA MicA regulation. RNase III is shown to regulate MicA in a target-coupled way, while RNase E is responsible for the control of free MicA levels in the cell. We purified both Salmonella enzymes and demonstrated that in vitro RNase III is only active over MicA when in complex with its targets (whether ompA or lamB mRNAs). In vivo, MicA is demonstrated to be cleaved by RNase III in a coupled way with ompA mRNA. On the other hand, RNase E is able to cleave unpaired MicA and does not show a marked dependence on its 5' phosphorylation state. The main conclusion of this work is the existence of two independent pathways for MicA turnover. Each pathway involves a distinct endoribonuclease, having a different role in the context of the fine-tuned regulation of porin levels. Cleavage of MicA by RNase III in a target-dependent fashion, with the concomitant decay of the mRNA target, strongly resembles the eukaryotic RNAi system, where RNase III-like enzymes play a pivotal role.

  10. Choosing Communication Portfolios to Accomplish Tasks: The Effects of Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chei Sian; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Chua, Alton Y. K; Luyt, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    The myriad of information communication technologies (ICTs) available today has changed the way students choose and use them. Specifically, individuals are increasingly relying on a mix of ICTs for communication to accomplish tasks. Yet, past studies on ICT use has largely assumed that people use a single ICT per task. We attempt to address this…

  11. Differential association of fluconazole dose and dose/MIC ratio with mortality in patients with Candida albicans and non-albicans bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, T; Ben-Ami, R

    2015-11-01

    Targeting fluconazole therapy to achieve predefined pharmacodynamic goals has been suggested as a means of optimizing the treatment of patients with candidaemia. However, data regarding species-specific dosing targets are inconclusive. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 75 adult patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) who received initial treatment with fluconazole for ≥48 h (36 Candida albicans and 39 non-albicans Candida (NAC)). Fluconazole dose, the dose/MIC ratio and the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24)/MIC ratio were determined for each patient, and classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine breakpoints for significant interactions with 30-day survival. Both fluconazole exposure parameters and patient-related and disease-related variables were assessed in univariable and multivariable survival models. The crude 30-day mortality rate was 32% (44% and 21% for C. albicans and NAC, respectively). An average fluconazole dose of >200 mg/day, a dose/MIC ratio of >400 and an AUC24/MIC ratio of >400 were associated with a higher 30-day survival rate and better microbiological response in patients with C. albicans BSI but not in those with NAC BSI. Baseline chronic kidney disease was a risk factor for fluconazole underdosing and mortality. Severity of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) was the only significant predictor of death in patients with NAC BSI. We conclude that, although pharmacodynamic target-directed fluconazole dosing may help to optimize outcomes for patients with C. albicans BSI, additional studies are needed to define the role of fluconazole in the treatment of NAC BSI.

  12. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  13. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 gene deletion promotes cancer growth in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Husaini

    Full Text Available The divergent TGF-β superfamily member, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15, is overexpressed by most cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa. Whilst its circulating levels are linked to cancer outcome, the role MIC-1/GDF15 plays in cancer development and progression is incompletely understood. To investigate its effect on PCa development and spread, we have used TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice bearing a germline deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC-/-. On average TRAMPMIC-/- mice died about 5 weeks earlier and had larger prostatic tumors compared with TRAMP mice that were wild type for MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC+/+. Additionally, at the time of death or ethical end point, even when adjusted for lifespan, there were no significant differences in the number of mice with metastases between the TRAMPMIC+/+ and TRAMPMIC-/- groups. However, consistent with our previous data, more than twice as many TRAMP mice overexpressing MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPfmsmic-1 had metastases than TRAMPMIC+/+ mice (p<0.0001. We conclude that germ line gene deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 leads to increased local tumor growth resulting in decreased survival consistent with an overall protective role for MIC-1/GDF15 in early primary tumor development. However, in advancing disease, as we have previously noted, MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression may promote local invasion and metastatic spread.

  14. Proposed MIC and disk diffusion microbiological cutoffs and spectrum of activity of retapamulin, a novel topical antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traczewski, Maria M; Brown, Steven D

    2008-11-01

    Retapamulin, the first pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent approved for the topical treatment of skin infections in humans, was tested against 987 clinical isolates representing 30 species and/or resistance groups. MICs were determined along with disk diffusion zone diameters using a 2-microg disk. Population distribution and MIC versus disk zone diameter scattergrams were analyzed to determine microbiological MIC cutoff values and inhibition zone correlates. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed on a smaller subset of key species. The retapamulin MIC(90) against 234 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 110 coagulase-negative staphylococci was 0.12 microg/ml. Retapamulin MIC(90)s ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 microg/ml against beta-hemolytic streptococci including 102 Streptococcus pyogenes, 103 Streptococcus agalactiae, 59 group C Streptococcus, and 71 group G Streptococcus isolates. The MIC(90) against 55 viridans group streptococci was 0.25 microg/ml. Retapamulin had very little activity against 151 gram-negative bacilli and most of the Enterococcus species tested. Based on the data from this study, for staphylococci, MICs of or=2 microg/ml with corresponding disk diffusion values of >or=20 mm, 17 to 19 mm, and microbiological cutoffs, respectively. For beta-hemolytic streptococci, a susceptible-only MIC of or=15 mm can be proposed for susceptible-only microbiological cutoffs.

  15. General aspects for choosing the DICOM viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Niakan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of physicians choose the PACS by its viewer. DICOM Image viewers, the programs that run in workstations, facilitate accessing to the digital im-ages via a DICOM network. A good workstation should be equipped with professional monitors and other hardware requirements. A wide range of DICOM image viewers are available from simple 2D viewers which offer means of manipulating the im-ages (rotate, zoom, brightness, contrast and others to 3D or 4D programs with sophisticated features such as multimodality image fusion, vessel segmentation and computer aided diagnostic tools."nThese programs can be categorized to client-based and web-based viewers. Despite the client-based viewers, which are heavy-weighted programs, equipped with strong features, web-based viewers are usually light-weighted with essential imaging features and suitable for TeleRadiology. Accessing to the digital images via the Internet is the main propose behind a web-based viewer. Web-based viewers may be used for remote consulting when a city or region lacks of native specialists."nAn image viewer as a part of PACS should be in conformance with DICOM standard as communication protocol instated of customized networking. This issue allows the viewer to communicate with any DICOM server and operate as an independent module. Structured Report (SR editor is an essential part of a DICOM viewer. This kind of reporting benefits the archiving system because of small data size in comparison with keeping reports as scanned images or Secondary Capture Images (SC. Also, connection of DICOM viewer to RIS/HIS is important and as our previous experiences in RIS/HIS we connected Payvand DICOM viewer to the RIS/HIS. "nPayvand DICOM viewer has a lot of features and abilities, but for reaching to the high performance image processing by BARCO-EPD collaboration contract, we integrated our DICOM viewer to the VOXAR 3D and now our users have advanced 3D, vessel, cardiac and colon processing, PET CT

  16. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  17. Correlation between beta-lactamase production and MIC values against penicillin with coagulase negative staphylococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayani T

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred strains of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS isolated from various clinical specimens (116 and healthy hospital personnel (84 were investigated for the production of beta-lactamases by means of three iodometric techniques and correlated with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of penicillin-G by agar dilution technique and disc diffusion technique. One hundred and fifty (75.0% of the 200 strains tested produced beta-lactamases. Seventy two per cent of the CNS were found to be beta-lactamase positive by the starch paper technique which was the most sensitive one in our study. The MIC values of penicillin against CNS ranged from less than or equal to 1.25 to greater than or equal to 2000 units. The present study indicated the higher prevalence of beta-lactamase producers with increased penicillin resistance among CNS strains isolated from healthy carriers and hospitalised patients.

  18. The "Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars" (BinaMIcS) project

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, C; Alecian, E

    2015-01-01

    The "Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of stars" (BinaMIcS) project is based on two large programs of spectropolarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS at CFHT and Narval at TBL. Three samples of spectroscopic binaries with two spectra (SB2) are observed: known cool magnetic binaries, the few known hot magnetic binaries, and a survey sample of hot binaries to search for additional hot magnetic binaries. The goal of BinaMIcS is to understand the complex interplay between stellar magnetism and binarity. To this aim, we will characterise and model the magnetic fields, magnetospheric structure and coupling of both components of hot and cool close binary systems over a significant range of evolutionary stages, to confront current theories and trigger new ones. First results already provided interesting clues, e.g. about the origin of magnetism in hot stars.

  19. Anti-MIC2 as a tool in examination of testicular biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visfeldt, J; Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M;

    1999-01-01

    is recommended in order to evaluate future fertility potential. The spermatogonia are identified on histological sections and the number per tubular transverse section is compared with normal values for age. The patient is at 33-100% risk of subsequent infertility when the number of spermatogonia per tubular...... transverse section is lower than 1% of the lowest normal age-matched value. Besides Sertoli cells the seminiferous tubules in undescended testes contain only a few germ cells, and it may be difficult to pinpoint the germ cells in small biopsies. Especially in nonpalpable testes their number may be heavily...... testes which had been cultured in vitro for 7, 14 or 21 days. In all cases the immunohistochemical method with DAKO antibody to the MIC2 gene product was helpful for identification of Sertoli cells and germ cells, and we therefore recommend the use of anti-MIC2 in all testicular biopsies where...

  20. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid MIC creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is associated with clonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates of different clones over an 11-year period. From 2000 to 2010, all bloodstream MRSA isolates from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan were prospectively collected. Three periods, namely 2000 to 2001, 2004 to 2005, and 2010, were included and 124 MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test. All the isolates were molecularly characterized. MRSA molecular epidemiology evolved from 1 predominant pulsotype (type A) to 5 major pulsotypes of 3 clonal complexes (CC). Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin MICs creep were observed, particularly for pulsotype A-CC 239-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) III though its prevalence dramatically decreased since 2004 to 2005. Throughout the study period, the overall vancomycin modal MIC was stable at 1.5 mg/L, but teicoplanin and linezolid modal MIC increased to 2 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Isolates with teicoplanin and linezolid ≧ 2 ug/mL belonged to multiple clones. Pulsotype F-ST5-SCCmec II with a high rate of teicoplanin MIC ≧ 2 ug/mL continued clonal spread. Teicoplanin MIC had a high correlation with linezolid MIC. Molecular epidemiology MRSA bloodstream isolates in northern Taiwan evolved from 2000 throughout 2010, which was subsequently associated with the changing distribution of antibiotic MICs. While vancomycin MIC level remained unchanged, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid MIC levels increased. The impact of these changes on clinical treatment response deserves further investigations. PMID:27741120

  1. El cómic español desde 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz de Guereñu, Juan Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years comic has changed dramatically in Spain. The small size of the comics industry in the Spanish market doesn’t allow comic creators to turn his job into a profession, but the medium has attained prestige, critical attention on the cultural spaces and a place in the bookstores. Those changes are the consequence of some significant facts of the period: after the extinction of former comic magazines, comic books substituted them as the first format for comics edition, and a number of critical fanzines and self-edited fanzines and magazines were published by the authors themselves. Newborn and independent smallpress, more focused on the aesthetic values than on the economic profits of comics edition, have defined the new author comic, often printed in the format of books and associated to the “graphic novel” label.

    En los últimos quince años, el cómic ha cambiado mucho en España. Aunque el escaso peso de la industria del cómic no permite a los autores vivir como profesionales, el medio ha ganado prestigio, atención crítica en las páginas culturales y un lugar en las librerías. Dichos cambios son consecuencia de algunos hechos significativos del periodo: tras la desaparición de las revistas, las sustituyeron cuadernillos o comic-books como soporte fundamental del cómic, y proliferaron revistas críticas de aficionados y fanzines o revistas autoeditadas por los autores. Nuevas editoriales, pequeñas e independientes, más atentas a los valores estéticos que a los comerciales, han definido el nuevo cómic de autor, a menudo identificado con el formato libro y la etiqueta “novela gráfica”.

  2. Hazard Concerns: MIC at Bhopal and Virginia and the Indian Nuclear Liability Act

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oblivious to the anger and outrage expressed throughout the world after the methyl isocyanate leak in December 1984, the continued storage of MIC at the parent West Virginia plant until 2011, despite several accidents, indicates the limited effect of public safety concerns on corporate strategy. As in India, neither the US executive nor the judiciary seemed capable of withstanding pressures exerted by the chemical processing industry. This is an ongoing story of struggle. What gave Bhopal a f...

  3. Choosing Your China Structure: Foreign-Invested Commercial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMAN

    2010-01-01

    When choosing an appropriate invest-When choosing an appropriate investment vehicle in China,many factors must be considered,as these will lead to different legal and tax considerations.Once you’ve clearly defined the needs and goals for your

  4. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  5. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  6. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  7. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  8. Deep Spitzer 24mic COSMOS imaging -- I. The evolution of luminous dusty galaxies - Confronting the models

    CERN Document Server

    Le Floc'h, E; Ilbert, O; Riguccini, L; Frayer, D; Salvato, M; Surace, J; Arnouts, S; Feruglio, C; Rodighiero, G; Capak, P; Kartaltepe, J; Heinis, S; Sheth, K; Yan, L; McCracken, H; Thompson, D; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Koekemoer, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the first results obtained from the identification of ~30,000 sources in the 24mic observations of the COSMOS field at S24>~80muJy. Using accurate photo-z's and extrapolations of the counts at faint fluxes we resolve with unprecedented detail the build-up of the mid-IR background across cosmic ages. We find that ~50% and ~80% of the 24mic background intensity originate from galaxies at z~2) contribute only marginally to the CIB. Assuming flux-limited selections at optical wavelengths, we also find that the fraction of i-band sources with 24mic detection strongly increases up to z~2 as a consequence of the rapid evolution that star-forming galaxies have undergone with lookback time. Nonetheless this rising trend shows a clear break at z~1.3, probably due to k-correction effects implied by the complexity of SEDs in the mid-IR. Finally, we compare our results with the predictions from different models of galaxy formation. We note that semi-analytical formalisms fail to reproduce the redshift distribut...

  9. Determination of halogens and sulfur in high-purity polyimide by IC after digestion by MIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzaniak, Sindy R; Santos, Rafael F; Dalla Nora, Flavia M; Cruz, Sandra M; Flores, Erico M M; Mello, Paola A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A relatively high polyimide mass (600mg) was completely digested by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) using 20bar of O2 and 50mmolL(-1) NH4OH as absorbing solution. These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content (IC and ICP-MS. The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. No statistical difference (t-test, 95% of confidence level) was observed between the results obtained for Cl, Br and S by IC after MIC and the certified values. In addition, spike recoveries obtained for F, Cl, Br, I and S ranged from 94% to 101%. The proposed method was suitable for polyimide decomposition for further determination of halogens and sulfur by IC and by ICP-MS (Br and I only). Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS.

  10. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered architecture for every single node. We then present the design of autonomous behavior management based on the observe-orient-decide-act cognitive behavior model and the design of collective intelligence including collective perception, collective cognition, collective game and collective dynamics. We also give the design of morphable resource management, which first categorizes robot resources into physical, information, cognitive and social domains, and then achieve morphability based on self-adaptive software technology. We finally deploy micROS on NuBot football robots and achieve significant improvement in real-time performance.

  11. Sub-MIC tylosin inhibits Streptococcus suis biofilm formation and results in differential protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis is a crucial zoonotic pathogen which causes severe diseases in humans and pigs. Biofilms of S. suis can induce persistent infections which are harder to treat. Sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC of tylosin can inhibit biofilm formation in bacteria. By using iTRAQ strategy, we compared the protein expression profiles of S. suis grown with sub-MIC tylosin treatment or no treatement. The result showed that 96 proteins expression were changed with 77 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins. Several metabolism proteins (such as phosphoglycerate kinase, as well as cell surface proteins (such as ABC transporter proteins, were found to be involved in biofilm formation. Overall, our results indicated that S. suis metabolic regulation, cell surface proteins, and virulence proteins appear to be of importance in biofilm growth by sub-MIC tylosin treated. Thus, our data analyzed rough regulation of biofilm formation that lay the foundation for the future research of mechanism and targets.

  12. Precision of vancomycin and daptomycin MICs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and effect of subculture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Carmen L; Hindler, Janet A; Turnidge, John; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-11-01

    The reproducibility of vancomycin and daptomycin MICs, measured by broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest, was prospectively assessed for 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from the blood samples from patients on vancomycin therapy. The isolates were tested at the time of isolation from blood and following 5, 10, and 20 subcultures and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of storage at -70 °C. The MICs were determined by Etest and BMD using two different manufacturers (BBL and Difco) of cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB), and using three different drug powders: vancomycin from Sigma, vancomycin from Novation, and daptomycin from Cubist. The antimicrobial concentrations tested were 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 μg/ml. Two isolates were vancomycin intermediate and daptomycin nonsusceptible, and two isolates had reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (BMD MIC, 1.5 or 2.0 μg/ml). The vancomycin MICs were significantly higher in the BBL CA-MHB than those in the Difco CA-MHB, and with Sigma versus Novation vancomycin powder. The daptomycin MICs were also significantly higher in the BBL CA-MHB. The Etest MICs were significantly higher than those obtained by BMD for vancomycin but not for daptomycin. The average precision of the vancomycin BMD MICs when analyzing 20 results was ± 1.10-fold log2 dilutions, and it was ± 1.67-fold for daptomycin (10 results). The average precision for Etest was ± 1.11-fold for vancomycin and ± 1.16-fold for daptomycin. No significant change in MICs was noted following 5, 10, or 20 subcultures or at up to 6 months of frozen storage. However, the vancomycin MICs alone were significantly lower (0.74-fold) following 12 months of frozen storage. From these data, despite variations in CA-MHB and antimicrobial powder, the MIC result precision was <0.5 log2 dilutions in a single laboratory, suggesting that testing interdilution MICs (e.g., MICs between serial 2-fold dilutions) is a possibility. A

  13. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole when testing Cryptococcus neoformans as determined by the CLSI broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana; Diekema, Daniel J; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N

    2011-11-01

    When clinical susceptibility breakpoints (CBPs) are absent, establishing wild-type (WT) MIC distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) provides a sensitive means for detecting emerging resistance to antimicrobials. We determined species-specific ECVs for fluconazole (FLC), posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC) using a large global collection of Cryptococcus neoformans (CNEO) isolates obtained from the ARTEMIS and SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Programs. From 2006 to 2009, 285 invasive clinical isolates of CNEO were collected from 61 centers worldwide (178 isolates from ARTEMIS and 107 from SENTRY) and susceptibility testing was performed against FLC, PSC, and VRC using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 broth microdilution method (72 h of incubation). The ARTEMIS isolates were tested at the University of Iowa and the SENTRY Program isolates were tested at JMI Laboratories, and the results were combined for analysis. An additional collection of 986 isolates tested against FLC between 1996 and 2008 were used to assess temporal trends in the frequency of non-WT isolates. The modal MICs (mg/L) for FLC, PSC, and VRC were 4, 0.12, and 0.06, respectively. The ECVs expressed as milligrams per liter (% of isolates that had MIC ≤ECV) for FLC, PSC, and VRC were 8 (96.9), 0.25 (96.5), and 0.12 (95.1), respectively. Temporal trends in the emergence of non-WT strains (% of isolate MICs >ECV) for the time periods 1996-2000, 2001-2004, and 2005-2008 for FLC were 4.2, 3.8, and 0.5, respectively. In the absence of CBPs for FLC, PSC, and VRC, these WT MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for detection of emergence of azole reduced susceptibility among CNEO. Application of the FLC ECV to a large collection of CNEO tested over time (1996-2008) revealed a decrease in the frequency of non-WT strains. These findings are consistent with those of more limited surveys in developed countries, suggesting that CNEO susceptibility to FLC

  14. To Think, To Choose, To Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, LeRoy

    Social, political, and business moral issues that impede solving public problems, and the situation in higher education, specifically in Florida, are considered. Problems in society that have a moral impact include the high rate of crime and an ineffective rehabilitation system for convicted criminals, illicit drug traffic, and the strength of…

  15. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  16. SAFER STERILE COMPOUNDING: Choosing and Using Disinfectants for the Cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastango, Eric S; Douglass, Kate; Patel, Kedar; Givehchi, Babak; Brister, Paul; Postlewaite, Jay; Taraban, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Compounders worldwide are responsible for ensuring that the sterile preparations they dispense are pure, potent, and safe. To achieve that result, proper cleaning and disinfection of International Organization for Standardization controlled environments must occur. Because those tasks must be performed according to established standards, the compounding pharmacist must research regulatory requirements and appropriate products for use. In this report, we focus on U.S. regulations, guiding entities, and effective products that enable compliance with the increasingly stringent procedures required for pharmaceutical compounding. We also review cleaning and disinfecting processes, discuss the importance of correctly choosing and using disinfectants and/ or sporicidal disinfectants with surface claims in the cleanroom, and provide answers to questions frequently asked by staff who use those agents. In addition, we profile specific disinfectants that are compliant with UnitedStates Pharmacopeia Chapter and current good manufacturing practice standards. Biological safety cabinets and compounding aseptic containment isolators must undergo an additional process that deactivates hazardous drug residues and removes them from the interior surfaces of those devices before they are cleaned and disinfected, but that discussion is beyond the scope of this article.

  17. First Comprehensive Evaluation of the M.I.C. Evaluator Device Compared to Etest and CLSI Broth Microdilution for MIC Testing of Aerobic Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, L.; Brosnikoff, C.; Cloke, J.

    2012-01-01

    The M.I.C. Evaluator strip (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Basingstoke, United Kingdom) uses a methodology similar to that of Etest. In this first assessment of the M.I.C. Evaluator device, 409 strains of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci) and 325 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas species, and Acinetobacter species were tested by M.I.C. Evaluator strip, Etest, and broth microdilution as a reference standard. The Gram-positive bacteria included staphylococci (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci), Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci and viridians group strains, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and other enterococci. The Gram-negative bacteria included 250 strains of 60 Enterobacteriaceae species plus 50 Pseudomonas and 25 Acinetobacter species. A total of 14 antimicrobial agents (depending on the species) were included. The same methodology and reading format were used for M.I.C. Evaluator strips and Etest. Broth microdilution methodology was performed according to CLSI document M07-A8. For the clinical strains, >95% of results were plus or minus one doubling dilution for all species. There were fewer than 5% minor errors, fewer than 3% major errors, and fewer than 1% very major errors. M.I.C. Evaluator strips and Etest often reported higher MICs than the reference broth microdilution method. The M.I.C. Evaluator strips provided results comparable to those of the predicate Etest device and are of value for the accurate testing of MICs for these important pathogens. PMID:22238441

  18. El cómic en la clase de ELE: una propuesta didáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Abal, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suplemento del número 14 de marcoELE (enero - junio de 2012 La presente memoria pretende hacer una reflexión sobre el valor del cómic como herramienta pedagógica. Para ello y, como punto de partida, se plantean tres cuestiones que sirven como eje vertebrador de dicho trabajo. La primera tiene que ver con los motivos de su utilización en la clase de ELE. En dicho apartado, se tratan aspectos como el factor afectivo, lo lúdico, el humor, la interculturalidad, etc., todos ellos presentes en las tiras cómicas y que, tal y como se pone de manifiesto en el segundo bloque, en el que se analiza la finalidad de su explotación en el aula, favorecen un aprendizaje significativo en consonancia con los postulados del MCER y del PCIC. El tercer bloque pretende desarrollar de manera práctica los aspectos teóricos abordados anteriormente. Se presentan tres cómics que se utilizarán como eje central de tres secuencias de actividades, correspondientes a cada uno de los niveles del MCER (A, B, C. En cada secuencia se desarrollarán una serie de actividades para alcanzar un objetivo comunicativo concreto confirmando, así, el valor didáctico de los cómics más allá de la utilización de dicho material como actividad complementaria de revisión al final de la unidad, como una actividad aislada para practicar un determinado contenido lingüístico o como una mera distracción o una excusa para la conversación.

  19. Thread-Level Parallelization and Optimization of NWChem for the Intel MIC Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Williams, Samuel; Jong, Wibe de; Oliker, Leonid

    2014-10-10

    In the multicore era it was possible to exploit the increase in on-chip parallelism by simply running multiple MPI processes per chip. Unfortunately, manycore processors' greatly increased thread- and data-level parallelism coupled with a reduced memory capacity demand an altogether different approach. In this paper we explore augmenting two NWChem modules, triples correction of the CCSD(T) and Fock matrix construction, with OpenMP in order that they might run efficiently on future manycore architectures. As the next NERSC machine will be a self-hosted Intel MIC (Xeon Phi) based supercomputer, we leverage an existing MIC testbed at NERSC to evaluate our experiments. In order to proxy the fact that future MIC machines will not have a host processor, we run all of our experiments in tt native mode. We found that while straightforward application of OpenMP to the deep loop nests associated with the tensor contractions of CCSD(T) was sufficient in attaining high performance, significant effort was required to safely and efficiently thread the TEXAS integral package when constructing the Fock matrix. Ultimately, our new MPI OpenMP hybrid implementations attain up to 65x better performance for the triples part of the CCSD(T) due in large part to the fact that the limited on-card memory limits the existing MPI implementation to a single process per card. Additionally, we obtain up to 1.6x better performance on Fock matrix constructions when compared with the best MPI implementations running multiple processes per card.

  20. Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... move more. If you are looking for a safe place to be active, contact your local parks department ... place while you watch TV. 15. Choose a place to walk that is safe, such as your local mall. 16. Get off ...

  1. Aorta após endoprótese para aneurisma micótico

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Alpagut; Murat Ugurlucan; Emin Tireli; Izzet Rozanes; Enver Dayioglu

    2011-01-01

    Endopróteses vasculares são atualmente utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes patologias da aorta. Podem salvar a vida de pacientes com comorbidades e virtualmente inoperáveis quando da utilização de técnicas convencionais. Esse manuscrito relata o caso de um paciente de 40 anos, que havia sido previamente tratado de um aneurisma micótico sacular no arco aórtico e que apresentou ruptura da aorta descendente no seguimento de médio prazo. O tratamento da ruptura da aorta descendente também foi ...

  2. Wideband bandpass filters employing broadside-coupled microstrip lines for MIC and MMIC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M.; Nguyen, C.

    1994-01-01

    Wideband bandpass filters employing half-wavelength broadside-coupled microstrip lines suitable for microwave and mm-wave integrated monolithic integrated circuits (MIC and MMIC) are presented. Several filters have been developed at X-band (8 to 12 GHz) with 1 dB insertion loss. Fair agreement between the measured and calculated results has been observed. The analysis of the broadside-coupled microstrip lines used in the filters, based on the quasi-static spectral domain technique, is also described.

  3. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  4. What is the 'minimum inhibitory concentration' (MIC) of pexiganan acting on Escherichia coli? - A cautionary case study

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Alys K; Ryan, Lloyd; Ryadnov, Maxim G; Poon, Wilson C K

    2016-01-01

    We measured the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antimicrobial peptide pexiganan acting on Escherichia coli, and report an intrinsic variability in such measurements. These results led to a detailed study of the effect of pexiganan on the growth curve of E. coli, using a plate reader and manual plating (i.e. time-kill curves). The measured growth curves, together with single-cell observations and peptide depletion assays, suggested that addition of a sub-MIC concentration of pexiganan to a population of this bacterium killed a fraction of the cells, reducing peptide activity during the process, while leaving the remaining cells unaffected. This pharmacodynamic hypothesis suggests a considerable inoculum effect, which we quantified. Our results cast doubt on the use of the MIC as 'a measure of the concentration needed for peptide action' and show how 'coarse-grained' studies at the population level give vital information for the correct planning and interpretation of MIC measurements.

  5. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Lixandroiu; Catalin Maican

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the...

  6. A case of clinical and microbiological failure of azithromycin therapy in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi despite low azithromycin MIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, Abi; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Rupali, Priscilla

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in many developing countries. Due to resistance to multiple first line drugs, azithromycin has evolved as an important drug in the treatment of typhoid. While therapy with azithromycin is highly effective, no clinically validated mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) break points or disc diffusion cutoff guidelines are available so far. We describe an Indian adult with clinical and microbiological failure to azithromycin despite low azithromycin MIC.

  7. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy...

  8. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  9. Construction and expression of the eukaryotic expressed plasmid of MIC3 gene from Toxoplasma gondii in IBRS-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIANG; Donglin ZHANG; Hao NIE; Baoan YAO; Junlong ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    The sequence encoding MIC3 was obtained by amplification from genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain and cloned into the vector pMD18-T. The tar-get gene was subcloned into the eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1 after the identification of pMD18-T-MIC3 by enzyme digesting, PCR amplification and sequencing. Then the target recombinant plasmids pcMIC3 were transfected into IBRS-2 cells, and the positive cells con-taining pcMIC3 plasmids were obtained under the selec-tion of G418. The expressed proteins from the positive cells were detected by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. The results showed that the DNA sequence iden-tity was 99.9% between amplified MIC3 and that from GenBank. The molecular weight of the recombinant MIC3 protein with good immuno-activity was about 39.2 ku. These available data would lay the foundation for further studies on DNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii.

  10. Robust PCA and MIC statistics of baryons in early mini-haloes

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, R S; Biffi, V; Ciardi, B

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel approach, based on robust principal components analysis (RPCA) and maximal information coefficient (MIC), to study the redshift dependence of halo baryonic properties. Our data is composed by a set of different physical quantities for primordial mini-haloes: dark-matter mass ($M_{\\mathrm{dm}}$), gas mass ($M_{\\mathrm{gas}}$), stellar mass, molecular fraction (${\\mathrm{x_{mol}}}$), metallicity (\\textit{Z}), star formation rate (\\textit{SFR}) and temperature. We find that $M_{\\mathrm{dm}}$ and $M_{\\mathrm{gas}}$ are dominant factors for variance at high redshift. Nonetheless, with the emergence of the first stars and subsequent feedback mechanisms, ${\\mathrm{x_{mol}}}$, \\textit{SFR} and \\textit{Z} start to dominate the variance. The RPCA gives three principal components (PCs) that are capable to explain more than 97 per cent of the data variance at any redshift, while 2 PCs usually account for more than 92 per cent. Our MIC analysis suggests that all the gaseous properties have a stronger co...

  11. MicROS-drt: supporting real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Wang, Huaimin; Fan, Zedong; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Hui

    A primary requirement in distributed robotic software systems is the dissemination of data to all interested collaborative entities in a timely and scalable manner. However, providing such a service in a highly dynamic and resource-limited robotic environment is a challenging task, and existing robot software infrastructure has limitations in this aspect. This paper presents a novel robot software infrastructure, micROS-drt, which supports real-time and scalable data distribution. The solution is based on a loosely coupled data publish-subscribe model with the ability to support various time-related constraints. And to realize this model, a mature data distribution standard, the data distribution service for real-time systems (DDS), is adopted as the foundation of the transport layer of this software infrastructure. By elaborately adapting and encapsulating the capability of the underlying DDS middleware, micROS-drt can meet the requirement of real-time and scalable data distribution in distributed robotic systems. Evaluation results in terms of scalability, latency jitter and transport priority as well as the experiment on real robots validate the effectiveness of this work.

  12. Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.

  13. Multicenter study of anidulafungin and micafungin MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for eight Candida species and the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Diekema, D J; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J F; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; St-Germain, G; Turnidge, J

    2014-01-01

    Since epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) using CLSI MICs from multiple laboratories are not available for Candida spp. and the echinocandins, we established ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin on the basis of wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (for organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) for 8,210 Candida albicans, 3,102 C. glabrata, 3,976 C. parapsilosis, 2,042 C. tropicalis, 617 C. krusei, 258 C. lusitaniae, 234 C. guilliermondii, and 131 C. dubliniensis isolates. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered from 15 different laboratories in Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs encompassing 97.5% of the statistically modeled population for anidulafungin and micafungin were, respectively, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. glabrata, 8 and 4 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis, 0.25 and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 1 and 0.5 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 8 and 2 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, and 0.12 and 0.12 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis. Previously reported single and multicenter ECVs defined in the present study were quite similar or within 1 2-fold dilution of each other. For a collection of 230 WT isolates (no fks mutations) and 51 isolates with fks mutations, the species-specific ECVs for anidulafungin and micafungin correctly classified 47 (92.2%) and 51 (100%) of the fks mutants, respectively, as non-WT strains. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin due to fks mutations.

  14. Pathobiological implications of the expression of EGFR, pAkt, NF-κB and MIC-1 in prostate cancer stem cells and their progenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Mimeault

    Full Text Available The progression of prostate cancers (PCs to locally invasive, androgen-independent and metastatic disease states is generally associated with treatment resistance and disease relapse. The present study was undertaken to establish the possibility of using a combination of specific oncogenic products, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, pAkt, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1 as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for optimizing the management of patients with localized PC at earlier disease stages. The immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence data have revealed that the expression levels of EGFR, Ser(473-pAkt, NF-κB p65 and MIC-1 proteins were significantly enhanced in the same subset of 76 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma specimens during the disease progression and these biomarkers were expressed in a small subpopulation of CD133(+ PC cells and the bulk tumor mass of CD133(- PC cells. Importantly, all of these biomarkers were also overexpressed in 80-100% of 30 PC metastasis bone tissue specimens. Moreover, the results have indicated that the EGF-EGFR signaling pathway can provide critical functions for the self-renewal of side population (SP cells endowed with stem cell-like features from highly invasive WPE1-NB26 cells. Of therapeutic interest, the targeting of EGFR, pAkt, NF-κB or MIC-1 was also effective at suppressing the basal and EGF-promoted prostasphere formation by SP WPE1-NB26 cells, inducing disintegration of SP cell-derived prostaspheres and decreasing the viability of SP and non-SP WPE1-NB26 cell fractions. Also, the targeting of these oncogenic products induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis in chemoresistant SP WPE1-NB26 cells and enhanced their sensibility to the cytotoxic effects induced by docetaxel. These findings suggest that the combined use of EGFR, pAkt, NF-κB and/or MIC-1 may represent promising strategies for improving the accuracy of current diagnostic and

  15. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Taking a Bourdieusian perspective, this paper analyzes the relevance of social background and capital for choosing English as a medium of instruction (EMI). It focuses on students with a non-native English-language background in a business school setting. While proponents argue that EMI generally...... increases the employability of graduates, they do not sufficiently consider that study strategies differ substantially across social milieus and between the sexes. Failing to account for social distance to the educational system in choosing EMI can foster social inequality, and contribute...... to the reproduction of elites. Using a survey, we conduct a quasi-experiment in two identical bachelor's degree programs that differ only in their instruction language. Using structural equation modeling, we find that students from higher social strata are much more likely to choose EMI. As suggested...

  16. Sport, how people choose it: A network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Luca; Ivaldi, Marco; Daolio, Fabio; Giacobini, Mario; Rainoldi, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of athletes in choosing sports, we analyse data from part of the We-Sport database, a vertical social network that links athletes through sports. In particular, we explore connections between people sharing common sports and the role of age and gender by applying "network science" approaches and methods. The results show a disassortative tendency of athletes in choosing sports, a negative correlation between age and number of chosen sports and a positive correlation between age of connected athletes. Some interesting patterns of connection between age classes are depicted. In addition, we propose a method to classify sports, based on the analyses of the behaviour of people practising them. Thanks to this brand new classifications, we highlight the links of class of sports and their unexpected features. We emphasise some gender dependency affinity in choosing sport classes.

  17. ABUNDANCE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF MAYFLY COMMUNITIES (INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA FROM SOMESUL MIC RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca Petrovici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The collecting of quantitative benthos samples in 1996-1997, at three sampling sites on the Someşul Mic River, allowed the identification of 12 species of 5 families. The highest diversity was found upstream Cluj-Napoca, and it had decreased downstream town, the mayfly being absent downstream Gherla. Baëtis lutheri along with Baëtis vernus, were the dominant species upstream the town. Baëtis vernus was the only species present downstream Cluj Napoca, in every season. The presence of that species, with very low densities, and being the only identified species in some seasons, reflect a high depreciation of the water quality by the city of Cluj-Napoca. This species although known as very pollution tolerant, absent in the benthos of the river after crossing Gherla industrial town.

  18. Literatura e imagen del cómic: Laura Pérez Vernetti-Blina

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Gutiérrez, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    En esta tesis, a partir del estudio de la obra de Laura Pérez Vernetti, objeto de estudio, pretendo ofrecer una reflexión metodológica y crítica sobre el cómic española de proyección internacional en Europa y en el mundo, que nos conduzca a calibrar mejor el lugar que ocupa hoy en el ámbito internacional. Contexto histórico en el que se centra la metodología de esta tesis, situando esta metodología para enmarcar a Laura. Desde esta perspectiva de proyección internacional, ha sido de mi interé...

  19. Impacte de la SIDA sobre el creixement econòmic de l'Àfrica

    OpenAIRE

    García Carreté, Maria del Mar; Ibar Penaba, Leandre; Panyella Amatller, Pere; Pereira Batlle, Pau

    2007-01-01

    Aquest treball tracta, des d’una perspectiva general, sobre quin impacte té el virus del VIH sobre el creixement econòmic dels països africans. Per a veure com evoluciona una economia, s’ha pres com a mesura el PIB per càpita, ja que es tracta d’una mesura que no té en compte el tamany dels estats, sinó que permet veure de manera més directa com pateix la malaltia la població.Partint d’una hipòtesi en forma de pregunta, i després d’una introducció a la malaltia i la seva situació en l’actuali...

  20. Aorta após endoprótese para aneurisma micótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Alpagut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Endopróteses vasculares são atualmente utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes patologias da aorta. Podem salvar a vida de pacientes com comorbidades e virtualmente inoperáveis quando da utilização de técnicas convencionais. Esse manuscrito relata o caso de um paciente de 40 anos, que havia sido previamente tratado de um aneurisma micótico sacular no arco aórtico e que apresentou ruptura da aorta descendente no seguimento de médio prazo. O tratamento da ruptura da aorta descendente também foi realizado através de medidas endovasculares, com sucesso.

  1. La temporalidad en el cómic = The construction of time in comics

    OpenAIRE

    Peñalba García, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se examina la noción de temporalidad en el lenguaje visual del cómic: en las viñetas de prensa, en las transiciones de viñetas adyacentes (clausura y mapa temporal de McCloud) y en las relaciones semánticas entre viñetas consecutivas de una misma página o de páginas distantes con gran similitud gráfica (concepto de «artrología» de Groensteen). El análisis de casos prácticos pone en tela de juicio las tesis de McCloud y de Groensteen, basadas en la linealidad...

  2. Irreproducible and uninterpretable Polymyxin B MICs for Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, David; Salamera, Julius; Quale, John

    2013-12-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter species are emerging nosocomial pathogens. As with most multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, the polymyxins are often the only therapeutic option. In this study involving clinical isolates of E. cloacae and E. aerogenes, susceptibility testing methods with polymyxin B were analyzed. All isolates underwent testing by the broth microdilution (in duplicate) and agar dilution (in duplicate) methods, and select isolates were examined by the Etest method. Selected isolates were also examined for heteroresistance by population analysis profiling. Using a susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml, categorical agreement by all four dilution tests (two broth microdilution and two agar dilution) was achieved in only 76/114 (67%) of E. cloacae isolates (65 susceptible, 11 resistant). Thirty-eight (33%) had either conflicting or uninterpretable results (multiple skip wells, i.e., wells that exhibit no growth although growth does occur at higher concentrations). Of the 11 consistently resistant isolates, five had susceptible MICs as determined by Etest. Heteroresistant subpopulations were detected in eight of eight isolates tested, with greater percentages in isolates with uninterpretable MICs. For E. aerogenes, categorical agreement between the four dilution tests was obtained in 48/56 (86%), with conflicting and/or uninterpretable results in 8/56 (14%). For polymyxin susceptibility testing of Enterobacter species, close attention must be paid to the presence of multiple skip wells, leading to uninterpretable results. Susceptibility also should not be assumed based on the results of a single test. Until the clinical relevance of skip wells is defined, interpretation of polymyxin susceptibility tests for Enterobacter species should be undertaken with extreme caution.

  3. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    . For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  4. High MICs for Vancomycin and Daptomycin and Complicated Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections with Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Esther; Chaves, Fernando; Lalueza, Antonio; Fortún, Jesús; Loza, Elena; Pujol, Miquel; Ardanuy, Carmen; Morales, Isabel; de Cueto, Marina; Resino-Foz, Elena; Morales-Cartagena, Alejandra; Rico, Alicia; Romero, María P.; Orellana, María Ángeles; López-Medrano, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic role of high MICs for antistaphylococcal agents in patients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bloodstream infection (MSSA CRBSI). We prospectively reviewed 83 episodes from 5 centers in Spain during April 2011–June 2014 that had optimized clinical management and analyzed the relationship between E-test MICs for vancomycin, daptomycin, oxacillin, and linezolid and development of complicated bacteremia by using multivariate analysis. Complicated MSSA CRBSI occurred in 26 (31.3%) patients; MICs for vancomycin and daptomycin were higher in these patients (optimal cutoff values for predictive accuracy = 1.5 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL). High MICs for vancomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.5) and daptomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.9) were independent risk factors for development of complicated MSSA CRBSI. Our data suggest that patients with MSSA CRBSI caused by strains that have high MICs for vancomycin or daptomycin are at increased risk for complications. PMID:27192097

  5. Application of open-source photogrammetric software MicMac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Olivier; Bertelsen, Hâvard S.; Guldstrand, Frank; Girod, Luc; Johannessen, Rikke F.; Bjugger, Fanny; Burchardt, Steffi; Mair, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software MicMac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms. Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: magma emplacement and strike-slip faulting. MicMac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthorectified images of model surfaces. MicMac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images. Using 24 MP cameras, the precision of DEMs and displacements is ~0.05 mm on a 40 × 40 cm surface. Processing displacement maps with Matlab® scripts allows automatic fracture mapping on the monitored surfaces. MicMac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of MicMac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems.

  6. La memoria en viñetas : historia y tendencias del cómic autobiográfico

    OpenAIRE

    de la Fuente Soler, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    El uso de la autobiografía en el cómic ha supuesto que, en las últimas décadas, el medio supere su consideración social como medio infantil. En el cómic autobiográfico, los creadores asumen su autoría, expresan sus ideas y se hacen, en definitiva, visibles ante el lector. Desde Maus hasta Paracuellos, a través de la autobiografía el cómic actual se muestra como un medio expresivo válido de análisis de la sociedad, de reflexión política y de crónica generacional.

  7. Evaluation of the correlation of caspofungin MICs and treatment outcome in murine infections by wild type strains of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Valentina; Pastor, F Javier; Capilla, Javier; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Guarro, Josep

    2013-09-01

    We have evaluated the in vitro activity of caspofungin against 36 wild-type strains of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto using 3 techniques: broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and the determination of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The first 2 methods showed a good in vitro activity of caspofungin, but the MFCs were ≥2 dilutions above their corresponding MICs. In a murine model of disseminated infection, we evaluated the efficacy of caspofungin at 5 mg/kg against 8 strains of C. parapsilosis representing different degrees of in vitro susceptibility (0.12-1 μg/mL). All the isolates responded to treatment and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels were reduced in all the cases; however, the study revealed differences among isolates, since caspofungin reduced the tissue burden of mice infected with isolates with MICs ≤0.5 μg/mL but was less effective against those with MICs of 1 μg/mL.

  8. First Behavioural Characterisation of a Knockout Mouse Model for the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Superfamily Cytokine, MIC-1/GDF15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jac Kee; Ambikairajah, Ananthan; Shang, Kani; Brown, David A.; Tsai, Vicky W. W.; Breit, Samuel N.; Karl, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating. Mic-1 KO mice exhibited a task-dependent increase in locomotion and exploration and reduced anxiety-related behaviours across tests. Spatial working memory and social behaviours were not affected by Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency. Interestingly, knockout mice formed an increased association with the conditioned stimulus in fear conditioning testing and also displayed significantly improved prepulse inhibition. Overall sex effects were evident for social behaviours, fear conditioning, and sensorimotor gating. This is the first study defining the role of Mic-1/Gdf15 in a number of behavioural domains. Whether the observed impact is based on direct actions of Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency on the CNS or whether the behavioural effects are mediated by indirect actions on e.g. other neurotransmitter systems must be clarified in future studies. PMID:28081177

  9. Choosing a Strategy for Return-on-Investment Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshay, Wellesley R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital, including how it is linked to strategic analysis and how it relates to four alternative models for return-on-investment (ROI). Discusses how to choose the best model for ROI justification of training or other human performance technology (HPT) interventions. (AEF)

  10. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.H. Mitchell; A. Kwizera; M. Usta; H. Gebreselassie

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration fo

  11. Still "Choosing Our Futures": How Many Apples in the Seed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James G.

    2015-01-01

    James Neal begins this essay with the introduction of the 1996 paper, "Choosing Our Futures," by calling it a provocation, and a call to arms for the academic library community to challenge complacency and move forward toward fundamental change. Neal writes here that in the context of extraordinary economic pressures, the early…

  12. The Experience of Choosing Nursing as a Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2000-01-01

    Nursing students (n=27) wrote descriptions of the experience of choosing nursing as a career. Influences included intense desire to help others, professional reward, prior work experiences, family and friends in health care occupations, observing nurses in action, something lacking in previous career choices, and fascination with science and the…

  13. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  14. The Dilemma of Individual Autonomy versus Choosing Rightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkely, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Many important goals or values of education are tokens of either one of these two meta-goals-values: raising our children to be autonomous, or raising them to choose rightly. Thus, the conflicts between many educational goals-values are tokens of the meta-conflict between these two, and the questions of priority that such conflicts invite are…

  15. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of S. suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbei Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available S. suis (Streptococcus suis caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin nontreated cells and treated cells, we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ABC superfamily ATP binding cassette transporter (G7SD52, CpsR (K0FG35, Cps1/2H (G8DTL7, CPS16F (E9NQ13, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0, NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259, Putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6, Amino acid permease (B0M0G6 and NsuB (G5L351 were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide (CP content of S. suis was significantly higher.

  16. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Chen, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Bai, Jing-Wen; Ding, Wen-Ya; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xue-Ying; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin non-treated cells and treated cells), we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ATP-binding cassette superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter (G7SD52), CpsR (K0FG35), Cps1/2H (G8DTL7), CPS16F (E9NQ13), putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259), putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6), amino acid permease (B0M0G6), and NsuB (G5L351)) were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide content of S. suis was significantly higher. PMID:27812354

  17. Quality control MIC ranges used for telavancin with application of a revised CLSI reference broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James E; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-09-01

    The telavancin broth microdilution susceptibility testing method was revised, which provides MIC results lower than those obtained by the previous method. This study was performed to reestablish the quality control ranges for telavancin when tested against the strains (updated MIC range) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (0.03 to 0.12 μg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (0.03 to 0.12 μg/ml), and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (0.004 to 0.015 μg/ml).

  18. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma Granuloma micótico nasal bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alejandro Conti Díaz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.É apresentado caso de granuloma micótico nasal bovino, em vaca Jersey, com 10 anos de idade, produzido por Drechslera halodes. Cortes histopatológicos mostraram abundantes estruturas fúngicas hialinas e pigmentadas extra e intracelulares junto com granuloma polimorfo celular formado por neutrófilos, linfócitos, plasmócitos, histiócitos e células gigantes de Langhans. É o primeiro caso de granuloma micótico nasal bovino diagnosticado no Uruguai embora esta doença pareça ser freqüente de acordo com a opinião de veterinários especializados. Outro caso clínico semelhante, também em vaca Jersey da mesma fazenda de criação de gado leiteiro, com intenso infiltrado celular rico em eosinófilos, sem imagem granulomatosa, junto com formas fúngicas fuliginosas hialinas extra celulares é também relatado para fins de comparação. Geotrichum sp. foi isolado. A necessidade de diagnóstico precoce e tratamento da doença é enfatizada.

  19. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determination of disinfectant and/or sterilizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Gava Mazzola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital and nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Validating the effectiveness of decontamination and disinfection is an important and often challenging task. In order to study and compare the behavior of selected microorganisms, they were submitted to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 6 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs and 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide. Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus showed resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.Devido ao número crescente de surtos de infecção hospitalar, torna-se proeminente o estabelecimento de um programa de sanitização que liste os agentes químicos a serem empregados e o modo de aplicação mais efetivo. Validação da eficácia de descontaminação é uma tarefa ao mesmo tempo importante e desafiadora. Para estudar e comparar o comportamento dos microrganismos selecionados foram realizados ensaios de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A CIM capaz de reduzir o bioburden inicial (>6 log10 foi: 59 - 156 mg/L de quartenários de amônia; 63 - 10000 mg/L de clorexidina, 1375 - 3250 mg/mL de glutaraldeído, 39 - 246 mg/L de formaldeído, 43750 - 87500 mg/L de etanol 1250 - 6250 mg/L de PVPI, 150 - 4491 mg/L de compostos liberadores de cloro e 469 -2500 mg/L de peróxido de hidrogênio.

  20. Validation of 24-Hour Posaconazole and Voriconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Application of Epidemiological Cutoff Values to Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations of posaconazole and voriconazole against more than 16,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the 24- and 48-h epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs), the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 97.1% (C. parapsilosis and voriconazole) to 99.8% (C. krusei and voriconazole), with 0.0 to 2.9% very major discrepancies (VMD). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24- and 48-h results was 99.6% for both posaconazole and voriconazole. The MIC results obtained for both posaconazole and voriconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to these important antifungal agents. The applications of ECVs to this large collection of Candida isolates suggests the potential to develop 24-h species-specific clinical breakpoints for both posaconazole and voriconazole. PMID:21289155

  1. In vitro activity of ertapenem versus ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with highly diverse ceftriaxone MIC values and effects of ceftriaxone resistance determinants: ertapenem for treatment of gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Tapsall, John W

    2012-07-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone-resistant isolates (MIC = 0.5 to 4 μg/ml) had ertapenem MICs of 0.016 to 0.064 μg/ml. Accordingly, ertapenem had in vitro advantages over ceftriaxone for isolates with ceftriaxone resistance. These in vitro results suggest that ertapenem might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential.

  2. Chelsea Boys: paradigmas sexuales de un cómic queer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Manuel Mérida Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Más allá del barrio neoyorquino que da título a este serie de volúmenes –aunque en diálogo tanto con su realidad como con sus representaciones anteriores, como Rear Window, dónde se presenta ya como espacio sexualizado–; y más allá del estereotipo gay que la misma expresión representa, Chelsea Boys aparece como un espacio de ruptura de clichés. En el contexto del cómic gay norteamericano que se repasa en este artículo, constituye una propuesta plural, donde la universalidad de las situaciones que representa superan tanto el localismo como la rigidez estereotípica de algunas creaciones anteriores. En él emerge una comunidad queer a través de cuya representación se plantean cuestiones cruciales en y para la/s realidad/es gays.

  3. Could the stellar magnetic field explain the vertical structures in the AU Mic debris disk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezestre, É.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations of the edge-on debris disk of AU Mic have revealed asymmetric, fast-moving wave-like structures above its disk midplane. Although asymmetries are frequent in debris disks, no model can readily explain these features.} {In this paper, we present a model aiming to reproduce such structures, particularly the wave morphology and the high projected speeds. We test the hypothesis of dust emitted by a point source, interacting with the stellar wind and the large-scale magnetic field of the star.} {We perform numerical simulations of test particle trajectories to explore the available parameter space. The impact of the stellar wind and the magnetic field on the dust dynamics is discussed separately, then together.} {The stellar wind and, to a smaller extent, the magnetic topology, can reproduce the arches. The observed structures cannot be explained by a single trajectory common to all dust grains emitted intermittently by a fixed point source in space.} {This excludes a giant collision as the emission process. Therefore, our preferred scenario relies on an orbiting source of dust, possibly a planetary companion, emitting at different epochs.

  4. Millimeter Emission Structure in the first ALMA Image of the AU Mic Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Andrews, Sean M; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    We present 1.3 millimeter ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, ~10 Myr-old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.6 arcsec (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU, and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass about 1 lunar mass is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the "birth ring" of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is ~6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations chara...

  5. Extension of the AMBER molecular dynamics software to Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Perri J.; Bhuiyan, Ashraf; Walker, Ross C.

    2016-04-01

    We present an implementation of explicit solvent particle mesh Ewald (PME) classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the PMEMD molecular dynamics engine, that forms part of the AMBER v14 MD software package, that makes use of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors by offloading portions of the PME direct summation and neighbor list build to the coprocessor. We refer to this implementation as pmemd MIC offload and in this paper present the technical details of the algorithm, including basic models for MPI and OpenMP configuration, and analyze the resultant performance. The algorithm provides the best performance improvement for large systems (>400,000 atoms), achieving a ∼35% performance improvement for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (1,067,095 atoms) when 2 Intel E5-2697 v2 processors (2 ×12 cores, 30M cache, 2.7 GHz) are coupled to an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor (Model 7120P-1.238/1.333 GHz, 61 cores). The implementation utilizes a two-fold decomposition strategy: spatial decomposition using an MPI library and thread-based decomposition using OpenMP. We also present compiler optimization settings that improve the performance on Intel Xeon processors, while retaining simulation accuracy.

  6. The AU Mic Debris Disk: far-infrared and submillimeter resolved imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Brenda C; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W R F; de Vries, Bernard L; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R J; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L

    2015-01-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500 and 850 micron. The disk is resolved at 70, 160 and 450 micron. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic's halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is $3.9 \\times 10^{-4}$ and its mm-grain dust mass is 0.01 MEarth (+/- 20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk SED as a blackbody of 53 +/- 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best fit model is consistent with the "birth ring" model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8-40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an $r^{-1.5}$ surface density profile...

  7. An empirical model of ion plasma in the inner magnetosphere derived from CRRES/MICS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Chen, M. W.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    We describe an empirical model of energetic ion plasma (˜20-400 keV/q) that is constructed from measurements taken by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Spectrometer (MICS) instrument that flew on the CRRES spacecraft. This is a unique data set in that it provides energetic ion composition in the near-equatorial ring current region during a very active solar maximum. The model database is binned by energy, equatorial pitch angle, L shell, and magnetic local time and provides unidirectional, differential number fluxes of the major ionic constituents of the inner magnetosphere, such as protons (H+), singly charged oxygen (O+), and singly charged helium (He+). The H+ and O+ model fluxes are examined in detail and are consistent with well-known particle transport effects (e.g., adiabatic heating). We also validate these model fluxes against a number of other ion plasma models that are available in the literature. The primary finding is the elevated levels of energetic O+ flux during the CRRES era. We attribute this to a solar cycle effect, related to the enhanced upwelling and oxygen outflow from the ionosphere that occurs during solar maximum, driven by elevated solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. We briefly discuss the implications that the enhanced O+ environment during the CRRES era may have for other results derived from CRRES observations (e.g., statistical wave distributions).

  8. Choosing Your China Structure:Foreign-Invested Commercial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD HOFFMAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ When choosing an appropriate investment vehicle in China,many factors must be considered,as these will lead to different legal and tax considerations.Once you've clearly defined the needs and goals for your China investment,it is time to consider the legal form your China entity should take.Foreign investors have several choices for structuring a China enterprise: the representative office,the joint venture,the wholly foreign-owned enterprise(WFOE)and the foreign-invested commercial enterprise(FICE).These structures have different features that can help or hinder your China venture,so choosing the appropriate vehicle from the outset will be invaluable for the long-term success of any investment.Here we examine the FICE.

  9. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lixandroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the most popular open source ecommerce platforms using a mathematical model based on the platform functionalities. Each of these allows parameterization of an online store in a very short time, with some relatively low cost or close to 0.

  10. ALGORITHM TO CHOOSE ENERGY GENERATION MULTIPLE ROLE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STĂNESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm that is based on a complex analysis method that is used for choosing the configuration of a power station. The station generates electric energy and hydrogen, and serves a "green" highway. The elements that need to be considered are: energy efficiency, location, availability of primary energy sources in the area, investment cost, workforce, environmental impact, compatibility with existing systems, meantime between failure.

  11. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  12. I choose health (Elijo Salud: impacting youth through parish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Janet; Hoebeke, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) found that 34% of adolescents are overweight and 18% obese. The chance of an overweight/obese adolescent becoming an overweight/obese adult by age 35 is 60%. Hispanic youth are at risk for becoming obese related to eating habits. This paper describes an intervention, I Choose Health (Elijo Salud), with Hispanic church youth.

  13. On Design of Automatic Choosing Control by Pole Placement

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 等; 提, 祐樹; 八野, 知博; TAKATA, Hitoshi; Sage, Yuki; HACHINO, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with design of an augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems. The AACC is synthesized by smoothly uniting a set of sectionwise linear controls, in which pole placement approach is used. An observer theory is applied to it in a case that the state vector includes some unmeasurable variables directly. Control and observer's gains are obtained by the pole placement method.

  14. The one who chooses a country chooses its laws: health law and multicultural societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2010-06-01

    Health systems in Europe tangle with various cultural traditions and religious convictions and ethnic related specific health needs. Multicultural societies face health systems with challenges of human rights and values. When a person's right to freedom of religion comes into conflict with other interests of public health and the rights and freedoms of others, the freedom of religion might then be justifiably limited. Such limitation is a necessary means to be considerd under every democratic society; such limitations concerns a mechanism of proportionality as prescribed by law; yet does not constitute a discriminatory regime. To meet with health disparities between the non-western and the autochtonous groups of the population in multicultural societies, health systems must appropriately address the health needs of the different groups. To overcome present inequality in access for non-autochthonous groups of the population in multicultural societies, a paradigm shift from primary focus on the health of a rather homogenous Western population towards diversity in health needs is necessary.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity and MIC quality control guidelines of RPR 106972 (RPR 112808/RPR106950): a novel orally administered streptogramin combination. The Quality Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, S D; Jones, R N; Johnson, D M

    1997-07-01

    RPR 106972 is a novel oral streptogramin combination with reported therapeutic potency against Gram-positive and certain respiratory tract pathogens. MICs for RPR 106972, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and seven comparison drugs were determined by the reference methods against 337 strains selected to define spectrum and potency. RPR 106972 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ranges of 0.12 to 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively), and coagulase-negative staphylococci were also inhibited by RPR 106972 (MIC90, RPR 106972 was highly active with MIC results at RPR 106972 inhibited Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 0.5 microgram/ml). Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), and some Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). RPR 106972 and quinupristin/dalfopristin demonstrated little activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90s, 4 to 32 micrograms/ml) as compared to Enterococcus faecium (MIC90s, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) and other Enterococcus ssp. (MIC90s, 1 microgram/ml). Studies to establish MIC quality-control guidelines indicated the following ranges: for E. faecalis ATCC 29212, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml; for S. aureus ATCC 29213, 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml; and for Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 against Gram-positive bacteria and selected Gram-negative respiratory organisms is promising and warrants additional studies of pharmacokinetics, and in vivo infection model dynamics.

  16. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Woo, J.-H.; He, K. B.; Lu, Z.; Ohara, T.; Song, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hong, C. P.; Huo, H.; Jiang, X. J.; Kang, S. C.; Liu, F.; Su, H.; Zheng, B.

    2015-12-01

    An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 30 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best-available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. We estimate the total Asian emissions of ten species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006-2010 are estimated as follows: -8.0 % for SO2, +19 % for NOx, +4 % for CO, +15 % for NMVOC, +2 % for NH3, -3 % for PM10, -2 % for PM2.5, +6 % for BC, +2 % for OC and +20 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  17. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 30 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best-available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. We estimate the total Asian emissions of ten species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds, 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006–2010 are estimated as follows: −8.0 % for SO2, +19 % for NOx, +4 % for CO, +15 % for NMVOC, +2 % for NH3, −3 % for PM10, −2 % for PM2.5, +6 % for BC, +2 % for OC and +20 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  18. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine;

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  19. Rationale for reading fluconazole MICs at 24 hours rather than 48 hours when testing Candida spp. by the CLSI M27-A2 standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Alexander, Barbara D; Andes, David; Brown, Steven D; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Knapp, Cindy C; Sheehan, Daniel J; Walsh, Thomas J

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if CLSI M27-A2 Candida species breakpoints for fluconazole MIC are valid when read at 24 h. Analysis of a data set showed good correlation between 48- and 24-h MICs, as well as similar outcomes and pharmacodynamic efficacy parameters, except for isolates in the susceptible dose-dependent category, such as Candida glabrata.

  20. Rationale for Reading Fluconazole MICs at 24 Hours Rather than 48 Hours When Testing Candida spp. by the CLSI M27-A2 Standard Method▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Andes, David; Brown, Steven D.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Knapp, Cindy C.; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if CLSI M27-A2 Candida species breakpoints for fluconazole MIC are valid when read at 24 h. Analysis of a data set showed good correlation between 48- and 24-h MICs, as well as similar outcomes and pharmacodynamic efficacy parameters, except for isolates in the susceptible dose-dependent category, such as Candida glabrata. PMID:18809944

  1. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  2. Cómo, cuándo y por qué hicimos un cómic bollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Arquero (Project Manager

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo traza un recorrido por distintos aspectos que desempeñaron un papel destacado en la génesis del cómic Salidas de Emergencia. Sus autoras explican la importancia que su situación personal y el contexto político de la España de 2005 tuvieron en la decisión de iniciar su proyecto creativo, situándonos a la vez en las coordenadas culturales en que éste se inscribe. Con ello, también se lleva a cabo un repaso por distintos productos culturales de temática lésbica, con el que se ponen en evidencia las particularidades de este cómic.

  3. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  4. De los cómics a la cinematografía = From Comics to Cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Gubern Garriga-Nogués

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar nos sumergimos en la Historia del Arte para bucear en los antecedentes del cómic y, a partir de ahí, seguir a lo largo del tiempo la interacción que ha existido entre éste y los grandes medios de difusión de imágenes y de creación de iconos visuales: pintura, fotografía y especialmente el cine. Analiza el paso de la imagen estática a la imagen en movimiento tanto en la alta cultura como en la cultura popular y como todas estas artes visuales se han interrelacionado y retroalimentado, mucho más aún en la actualidad. Un largo recorrido que tiene por objeto rastrear los procesos, la dinámica y la evolución que existe alrededor de la viñeta desde sus orígenes ancestrales hasta el mundo del cine, sus semejanzas y sus diferencias, su interactividad y, sobre todo la influencia y los nexos existentes entre uno y otro en la búsqueda y desarrollo de un lenguaje plástico narrativo.From a multidisciplinary perspective we immerse ourselves into the History of Art, to dive into the background of the history of comics and, from there, to follow along the way the interaction that has existed between this and the main media that are specialized in images and creating visual icons, painting, photography and especially the cinema. It analyses the step from the static image to the moving image, in both high culture and popular culture, and shows how all these visual arts have been interrelating and have nurtured themselves, even more so nowadays. A long journey that aims to track the processes, the dynamic and the evolution that exist around the vignette from their ancestral origins to the cinematic world, their similarities and their differences, its interactivity and especially the influence and links between one another in the pursuit and development of a narrative visual language.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopic Indicators in SeisMic Archive (SISMA) (Rainer+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Misto, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2017-02-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. CoRoT was launched on 2006 December 27 and it was retired on 2013 June 24. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA; http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The ground-based activities started with the Large Programme 178.D-0361 using the FEROS spectrograph at the 2.2m telescope of the ESO-La Silla Observatory, and continued with the Large Programmes LP182.D-0356 and LP185.D-0056 using the HARPS instrument at the 3.6m ESO telescope. In the framework of the awarded two HARPS Large Programmes, 15 nights were allocated each semester over nine semesters, from 2008 December to 2013 January, for a total of 135 nights. The HARPS spectrograph covers the spectral range from 3780 to 6910Å, distributed over echelle orders 89-161. We usually used it in the high-efficiency mode EGGS, with resolving power R=80000 to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectroscopic time series. All of the data (reduced spectra, indicators, and photometric series) are stored as either FITS or PDF files in the SISMA archive and can be accessed at http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/. The data can also be accessed through the Seismic Plus portal (http://voparis-spaceinn.obspm.fr/seismic-plus/), developed in the framework of the SpaceInn project in order to gather and help coordinated access to several different solar and stellar seismic data sources. (1 data file).

  6. Webgrafia al voltant del ciberplagi. Referències a la xarxa sobre el ciberplagi acadèmic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Sureda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es proporcionen les fonts de documentació que hi ha a internet i que poden aportar al lector que hi estigui interessat un coneixement més profund de qualsevol de les cares, les arestes i els vèrtexs del polièdric fenomen del plagi acadèmic entre l'alumnat. Text complet (PDFDossier complet (PDF

  7. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  8. LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20 h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

  9. Choosing nursing as a career: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mary; Glacken, Michele; O'Brien, Frances

    2008-04-01

    It is widely accepted that nursing as a career is viewed favourably by society in that it offers job security, mobility and career variety. The main reason for choosing nursing in the 21st century remains the desire to help and care for others, as this paper demonstrates. The findings presented here are part of an on-going longitudinal study which is exploring whether mode of selection into nursing has an impact on a number of variables, of which, career choice is one. The aim of this paper is to identify why non-mature under-graduate students choose nursing as a career and to determine what factors influence this decision. An exploratory-descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Following receipt of ethical approval, data were collected using focus group interviews and content analysis was employed. Participants were students on a general nursing programme delivered in a large Irish Higher Education Institute. Interviews took place within the first 3 months of the programme, prior to the first clinical placement. It emerged that although nursing was not everybody's first career choice, all participants had sought a career which involved caring. Family or friends in the profession played a role in influencing participants' career selection.

  10. Israelis' perceived motivation for choosing a nursing career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Becker, Fainna

    2010-05-01

    Recruitment problems are one of the main reasons for the shortage of nurses in Israel and elsewhere. The purpose of this study is to clarify factors affecting choice of ideal careers and nursing careers among the general population. A questionnaire constructed by McCabe et al. (2005) was administered to 309 men and women aged 18-50. Data were analyzed by quantitative methods. Research findings indicate that 8% of respondents expressed interest in studying nursing. Significant differences were reported between the choice of ideal and nursing careers. Nursing careers were perceived as lacking interest, challenge, creativity, responsibility, varied wages, high status, comfortable conditions, versus ideal careers. A moderately positive correlation was identified between choice of a nursing career and intrinsic factors affecting this choice. People motivated by desire to help others rather than personal interest or challenges are predisposed to choose a nursing career. Finally, a negative correlation was identified between psychometric scores and choice of a nursing career. The study also identified a positive correlation between both the image of nursing as a profession and the availability of nursing jobs - and the decision to choose a nursing career. This study may facilitate the development of nurse recruitment programs.

  11. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods You are here Home 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods Print Share 10 Tips: Choosing Whole-Grain Foods Whole grains are important sources of nutrients ...

  12. 20 CFR 702.403 - Employee's right to choose physician; limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee's right to choose physician... PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.403 Employee's right to choose physician; limitations. The employee shall have the right to choose his/her attending physician from among those authorized by...

  13. The anorectic actions of the TGFβ cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 require an intact brainstem area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 modulates food intake and body weight under physiological and pathological conditions by acting on the hypothalamus and brainstem. When overexpressed in disease, such as in advanced cancer, elevated serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels lead to an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. To gain a better understanding of its actions in the brainstem we studied MIC-1/GDF15 induced neuronal activation identified by induction of Fos protein. Intraperitoneal injection of human MIC-1/GDF15 in mice activated brainstem neurons in the area postrema (AP and the medial (m portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, which did not stain with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. To determine the importance of these brainstem nuclei in the anorexigenic effect of MIC-1/GDF15, we ablated the AP alone or the AP and the NTS. The latter combined lesion completely reversed the anorexigenic effects of MIC-1/GDF15. Altogether, this study identified neurons in the AP and/or NTS, as being critical for the regulation of food intake and body weight by MIC-1/GDF15.

  14. Discovery and characterization of the first non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression,micF RNA:A historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas; Delihas

    2015-01-01

    The first evidence that RNA can function as a regulator of gene expression came from experiments with prokaryotes in the 1980 s. It was shown that Escherichia coli micF isan independent gene,has its own promoter,and encodes a small non-coding RNA that base pairs with and inhibits translation of a target messenger RNA in response to environmental stress conditions. The mic F RNA was isolated,sequenced and shown to be a primary transcript. In vitro experiments showed binding to the target ompF mR NA. Secondary structure probing revealed an imperfect micF RNA/ompF RNA duplex interaction and the presence of a non-canonical base pair. Several transcription factors,including OmpR,regulate micF transcription in response to environmental factors. micF has also been found in other bacterial species,however,recently Gerhart Wagner and J?rg Vogel showed pleiotropic effects and found micF inhibits expression of multiple target mR NAs; importantly,one is the global regulatory gene lrp. In addition,micF RNA was found to interact with its targets in different ways; it either inhibits ribosome binding or induces degradation of the message. Thus the concept and initial experimental evidence that RNA can regulate gene expression was born with prokaryotes.

  15. [Strategies to choose scaffold materials for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which

  16. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  17. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetised neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  18. Bedouin Women's Gender Preferences When Choosing Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Hadar; Abokaf, Hanaa; Levy, Yifat Amir; Azem, Foad; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-31

    Patients' preferences in choosing obstetricians/gynecologists are widely investigated, but studies among traditional populations are lacking. Bedouins comprise a traditional Arab Muslim society in the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia), The Levant (Syria, Jordan and Israel) and North Africa (Egypt). Most of the Bedouins in Israel populate several villages, mostly in the southern part of the country. This cross-sectional study compared 200 Bedouin and 200 Jewish women who responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Queried on gender alone, more Bedouin responders preferred female obstetricians/gynecologists (59.5 vs. 33% Jewish responders, p value reputation in 4th place and gender in 5th place. Bedouin women strongly preferred female obstetricians/gynecologists, although professional skills were an important factor in their choice of caregiver. The ideal obstetrician/gynecologist for Bedouin women would be a skilled, knowledgeable, and experienced female.

  19. MEDICAL TOURISTS' EXPECTATIONS WHEN CHOOSING LITHUANIA FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglė Eleonora Černikovaitė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Identify medical expectations of tourists choosing Lithuania as medical tourism country and to make comparative analysis with situation in Thailand. Medical tourism is one of the most promising fields of business in the world. International trade in medical services also has huge economic potential and gradually increasing outcome for the global economy (Bookman & Bookman, 2007. Major medical tourism destinations: Thailand, India, Singapore and Malaysia attracted more than 2.5 million medical travellers (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2008. Lithuania is among the major emerging markets in medical tourism that is increasing every year. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good quality services with affordable prices and location, while people choosing Thailand – mainly is affected by advertising. The main recommendation for attracting medical tourists to Lithuania is to initiate the advertising campaign to the targeted audiences. Design/methodology/approach – The comparative analysis of scientific literature and empirical comparative quantitative research was executed for acquiring the expectations for medical tourists in Lithuania. Findings – Overview of health and medical tourism situation in Lithuania and other emerging markets. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services and other. Comparative empirical analysis of medical tourist expectations in Lithuania and Thailand. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good

  20. Bending the law and crossing borders choosing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    In recent years, Denmark has become a European destination for couples and single women wanting sperm donation. One reason is that the current regulation is liberal in the sense that it enables single women and lesbians to be treated. Since neither private sperm banks nor clinics run by midwifes...... have to apply to the law, it is even possible to choose between anonymous and non-anonymous donors. In this presentation, I focus on how the fertility travellers seeking sperm donation in Denmark, and the employees at Danish fertility clinics and sperm banks, negotiate the ethical implications of using...... sperm donation. Inspired by Karen Barad’s theory agential realism, I will analyze how ethics is material-discoursively negotiated in practice. The presentation is based on an ethnographic fieldwork carried out at fertility clinics in Denmark. It includes observations from the clinics, and interviews...

  1. Choosing a coverage probability for forecasting the incidence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Derek S; Mills, Terence M

    2014-10-15

    Loddon Mallee Integrated Cancer Service plays a key role in planning the delivery of cancer services in the Loddon Mallee Region of Victoria, Australia. Such planning relies on the accuracy of forecasting the incidence of cancer. Perhaps more importantly is the need to reflect the uncertainty of these forecasts, which is usually carried out through prediction intervals. Standard confidence levels (e.g., 90% or 95%) are typically employed when forecasting the incidence of cancer, but decision-theoretic approaches are available to help choose an optimal coverage probability by minimizing the combined risk of the interval width and noncoverage of the interval. We proceed with the decision-theoretic framework and discuss some general strategies for defining candidate loss functions for forecasting the incidence of cancer, such as the data we analyze for the Loddon Mallee Region.

  2. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  3. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  4. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.;

    1995-01-01

    The MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents, tested for comparison, for 515 bacterial isolates of pigs from the United States, Canada, and Denmark with various diseases were compared. The organisms tested included Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida....../ml). However, this antimicrobial agent was much less active when it was tested against A. pleuropneumoniae, S. cholerae-suis, and E. coli (MIC(90)s, 16.0, >32.0, and >32.0 mu g/ml, respectively). Against the U.S. isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, tilmicosin was moderately active (MIC(90)s, 4...

  5. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. Objective This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Methods Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers’ thought processes, we instructed participants to “think aloud”, namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important

  6. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Canton, E; Castanheira, M; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Diekema, D J; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Ghannoum, M; Jones, R N; Lockhart, S R; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Melhem, M S C; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pappas, P; Pelaez, T; Peman, J; Rex, J; Szeszs, M W

    2012-06-01

    Clinical breakpoints (CBPs) and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for several Candida spp. and the newer triazoles and echinocandins but are not yet available for older antifungal agents, such as amphotericin B, flucytosine, or itraconazole. We determined species-specific ECVs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC) and itraconazole (ITR) for eight Candida spp. (30,221 strains) using isolates from 16 different laboratories in Brazil, Canada, Europe, and the United States, all tested by the CLSI reference microdilution method. The calculated 24- and 48-h ECVs expressed in μg/ml (and the percentages of isolates that had MICs less than or equal to the ECV) for AMB, FC, and ITR, respectively, were 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (94.2)/1 (91.4), and 0.12 (95.0)/0.12 (92.9) for C. albicans; 2 (99.6)/2 (98.7), 0.5 (98.0)/0.5 (97.5), and 2 (95.2)/4 (93.5) for C. glabrata; 2 (99.7)/2 (97.3), 0.5 (98.7)/0.5 (97.8), and 05. (99.7)/0.5 (98.5) for C. parapsilosis; 2 (99.8)/2 (99.2), 0.5 (93.0)/1 (90.5), and 0.5 (97.8)/0.5 (93.9) for C. tropicalis; 2 (99.3)/4 (100.0), 32 (99.4)/32 (99.3), and 1 (99.0)/2 (100.0) for C. krusei; 2 (100.0)/4 (100.0), 0.5 (95.3)/1 (92.9), and 0.5 (95.8)/0.5 (98.1) for C. lusitaniae; -/2 (100.0), 0.5 (98.8)/0.5 (97.7), and 0.25 (97.6)/0.25 (96.9) for C. dubliniensis; and 2 (100.0)/2 (100.0), 1 (92.7)/-, and 1 (100.0)/2 (100.0) for C. guilliermondii. In the absence of species-specific CBP values, these wild-type (WT) MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful for monitoring the emergence of reduced susceptibility to these well-established antifungal agents.

  7. Sobre el plagi acadèmic a Europa. Un enfocament analític basat en quatre estudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Pupovac

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amb el desenvolupament de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC, el plagi esdevé un problema cada cop més greu en la comunitat acadèmica. Segons els estudis sobre el plagi acadèmic elaborats en universitats de quatre països europeus diferents, l'índex de plagi entre els estudiants és considerablement alt i els estudiants majoritàriament passen per alt o permeten el plagi per la manca de coneixement, la manca de conseqüències o simplement perquè les TIC fan que el plagi sigui fàcil de cometre. Les conclusions dels estudis que es presenten en aquest article indiquen que cal introduir polítiques estrictes contra el plagi a les universitats. Pensem que s'hauria de captar l'atenció del públic sobre el problema del plagi, que s'hauria de debatre en altes esferes i que s'haurien d'aplicar mesures efectives contra el plagi. L'abast del plagi entre estudiants i les seves actituds envers el plagi reben influències de l'entorn cultural i també per l'escenari acadèmic. En comunitats multiculturals, com ara la comunitat europea, és necessari investigar i comparar el comportament acadèmic a diferents països per a establir estàndards equivalents en l'ensenyament arreu d'Europa. Text complet (PDFDossier complet (PDF

  8. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  9. Regulació motivacional, satisfacció i rendiment acadèmic dels estudiants de psicologia

    OpenAIRE

    Moral Roig, Agnès; Pallisera Herrero, Yanira; Santaló Jurado, Estefania; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Villar, Esperança

    2008-01-01

    Aquest estudi aplica la Teoria de l‟Autodeterminació (Deci i Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002) i el constructe motivacional d‟Engagement (Schaufeli, Martínez, Marqués, Salanova i Bakker, 2002; Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Roma i Bakker, 2002) per investigar els efectes de la regulació motivacional dels estudiants, l‟Engagement, la Competència percebuda i la Vinculació sobre les Expectatives Acadèmiques i Laborals, la Satisfacció i el Rendiment acadèmic. Els resultats revelen que: (1) els 214 estudiant...

  10. Validation of 24-Hour Fluconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations and disk diffusion testing of fluconazole against more than 11,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the reference MIC breakpoints, the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 93.8% (all Candida species) to 94.9% (all Candida species minus Candida krusei), with only 0.1% very major errors (VME). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24-h and 48-h results was 99.6%. The categorical agreement between the 24-h disk diffusion results and the 24-h MIC results, using the previously established breakpoints, was 94.4%, with 0.1% VME. Both the MIC and the disk diffusion results obtained for fluconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to this widely used antifungal agent. PMID:18784314

  11. A new MIC1-MAG1 recombinant chimeric antigen can be used instead of the Toxoplasma gondii lysate antigen in serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Drapała, Dorota; Lautenbach, Dariusz; Kur, Józef

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the MIC1 (microneme protein 1)-MAG1 (matrix antigen 1) Toxoplasma gondii recombinant chimeric antigen for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis for the first time. The recombinant MIC1-MAG1 antigen was obtained as a fusion protein containing His tags at the N- and C-terminal ends using an Escherichia coli expression system. After purification by metal affinity chromatography, the chimeric protein was tested for usefulness in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG). One hundred ten sera from patients at different stages of infection and 40 sera from seronegative patients were examined. The results obtained for the MIC1-MAG1 chimeric antigen were compared with those of IgG ELISAs using a Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA), a combination of recombinant antigens (rMIC1ex2-rMAG1) and single recombinant proteins (rMIC1ex2 and rMAG1). The sensitivity of the IgG ELISA calculated from all of the positive serum samples was similar for the MIC1-MAG1 chimeric antigen (90.8%) and the TLA (91.8%), whereas the sensitivities of the other antigenic samples used were definitely lower, at 69.1% for the mixture of antigens, 75.5% for the rMIC1ex2, and 60% for rMAG1. This study demonstrates that the MIC1-MAG1 recombinant chimeric antigen can be used instead of the TLA in the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

  12. Tigecycline MIC testing by broth dilution requires use of fresh medium or addition of the biocatalytic oxygen-reducing reagent oxyrase to standardize the test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Patricia A; Petersen, Peter J; Young, Mairead; Jones, C Hal; Tischler, Mark; O'Connell, John

    2005-09-01

    Tigecycline is a broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic with activity against not only susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens but also strains that are resistant to many other antibiotics. In the process of determining quality control (QC) limits for the American Type Culture Collection reference strains for tigecycline, a number of inconsistencies in MICs were encountered which appeared to be related to the age of the Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) medium used in the MIC testing. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of the discrepant MIC results between fresh and aged MHB. The MICs of tigecycline were determined in MHB that was either prepared fresh (reagent Oxyrase. When tested in fresh media, tigecycline was 2 to 3 dilutions more active against the CLSI-recommended QC strains compared to aged media (MICs of 0.03 to 0.25 and 0.12 to 0.5 mug/ml, respectively). Media aged under anaerobic conditions prior to testing or supplemented with Oxyrase resulted in MICs similar to those obtained in fresh medium (MICs of 0.03 to 0.12 and 0.03 to 0.25 mug/ml, respectively). Time-kill kinetics demonstrated a >3 log(10) difference in viable growth when tigecycline was tested in fresh or Oxyrase-supplemented MHB compared to aged MHB. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed the accumulation of an early peak (oxidative by-product of tigecycline) to be 3.5% in fresh media and 25.1% in aged media after 24 h and that addition of Oxyrase prevented the accumulation of this oxidized by-product. These results suggested that the activity of tigecycline was affected by the amount of dissolved oxygen in the media. The use of fresh MHB or supplementation with Oxyrase resulted in a more standardized test method for performing MIC tests with tigecycline.

  13. Time to choose – DSM-5, ICD-11 or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrer, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 was published in May 2013, and ICD 11 is not due to be published until the end of 2015 at the earliest. Nevertheless, it is possible to make a comparison at this early stage as much of the main decisions have been made with both classifications. DSM-5 aimed to make a paradigm shift by providing objective, independent measures of classification, but in this respect it clearly failed. It did respond to previous criticisms that there were too many diagnoses in the classification and that eliminated some conditions in favour of larger groupings (eg, autism spectrum disorder, but it has still come in for heavy criticism. ICD 11 deviates from DSM-5 in radically different classifications of personality and stress disorders and in general has pursued a different pathway, concentrating on clinical utility as the main guide to the classification. It is up to practitioners to choose which they prefer, but ICD 11 will be in a much stronger position than ICD 10 was when it was published in 1999.

  14. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  15. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  16. Choosing amine-based absorbents for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Santos, Samuel; Bordado, João

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture from gaseous effluents is one of the great challenges faced by chemical and environmental engineers, as the increase in CO2 levels in the Earth atmosphere might be responsible for dramatic climate changes. From the existing capture technologies, the only proven and mature technology is chemical absorption using aqueous amine solutions. However, bearing in mind that this process is somewhat expensive, it is important to choose the most efficient and, at the same time, the least expensive solvents. For this purpose, a pilot test facility was assembled and includes an absorption column, as well as a stripping column, a heat exchanger between the two columns, a reboiler for the stripping column, pumping systems, surge tanks and all necessary instrumentation and control systems. Some different aquous amine solutions were tested on this facility and it was found that, from a set of six tested amines, diethanol amine is the one that turned out to be the most economical choice, as it showed a higher CO2 loading capacity (0.982 mol of CO2 per mol of amine) and the lowest price per litre (25.70 €/L), even when compared with monoethanolamine, the benchmark solvent, exhibiting a price per litre of 30.50 €/L.

  17. When I cut, you choose method implies intransitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2014-12-01

    There is a common belief that humans and many animals follow transitive inference (choosing A over C on the basis of knowing that A is better than B and B is better than C). Transitivity seems to be the essence of rational choice. We present a theoretical model of a repeated game in which the players make a choice between three goods (e.g. food). The rules of the game refer to the simple procedure of fair division among two players, known as the “I cut, you choose” mechanism which has been widely discussed in the literature. In this game one of the players has to make intransitive choices in order to achieve the optimal result (for him/her and his/her co-player). The point is that an intransitive choice can be rational. Previously, an increase in the significance of intransitive strategies was achieved by referring to models of quantum games. We show that relevant intransitive strategies also appear in the classic description of decision algorithms.

  18. GPU/MIC Acceleration of the LHC High Level Trigger to Extend the Physics Reach at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Tully, Christopher [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-04-14

    The quest for rare new physics phenomena leads the PI [3] to propose evaluation of coprocessors based on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture for integration into the trigger system at LHC. This will require development of a new massively parallel implementation of the well known Combinatorial Track Finder which uses the Kalman Filter to accelerate processing of data from the silicon pixel and microstrip detectors and reconstruct the trajectory of all charged particles down to momentums of 100 MeV. It is expected to run at least one order of magnitude faster than an equivalent algorithm on a quad core CPU for extreme pileup scenarios of 100 interactions per bunch crossing. The new tracking algorithms will be developed and optimized separately on the GPU and Intel MIC and then evaluated against each other for performance and power efficiency. The results will be used to project the cost of the proposed hardware architectures for the HLT server farm, taking into account the long term projections of the main vendors in the market (AMD, Intel, and NVIDIA) over the next 10 years. Extensive experience and familiarity of the PI with the LHC tracker and trigger requirements led to the development of a complementary tracking algorithm that is described in [arxiv: 1305.4855], [arxiv: 1309.6275] and preliminary results accepted to JINST.

  19. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. T.; Westblade, L. F.; Dien Bard, J.; Wallace, M. A.; Stanley, T.; Burd, E.; Hindler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  20. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  1. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...

  2. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi XS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Song Mi,1,2 Ti-Fei Yuan,3,4 Yong Ding,1 Jing-Xiang Zhong,1 Kwok-Fai So4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of Central Nervous System, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. Keywords: animal model, in vitro culture, ex vivo culture, neurovascular dysfunction

  3. Evaluation of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Patients with joint pain/stiffness/swelling were assessed to determine if ANA testing was indicated. An a priori threshold was set before ANA testing would be considered. Those who did not have ANA testing ordered were followed for 1 year to determine if any of them went on to have a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other connective tissue disease. A parallel study was conducted with a similar a priori threshold for the use of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and again, patients were followed for 1 year. A total of 866 subjects were examined, 509 females (58.8 %) and 357 males (41.2 %). The mean age of the group was 47.5 ± 16.8 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 12.0 ± 5.6 weeks. Of the 866 subjects, 68 met an a priori threshold for ordering ANA, RF, and anti-CCP testing. Of these 68, there was a newly diagnosed case of SLE, 4 newly diagnosed cases of RA, and 3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica. The remaining 798 subjects were followed for approximately 1 year and none developed evidence of SLE, RA, or other connective tissue disease. In the evaluation of non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms, setting an a priori threshold for ordering serology in keeping with the spirit of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation for antibody testing results in a very low risk of missing a case of systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Mito clásico y cultura popular : reminiscencias mitológicas en el cómic estadounidense

    OpenAIRE

    Unceta Gómez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    La profunda influencia de la mitología clásica en todos los ámbitos de creación artística tradicional es algo fuera de toda duda. Sin embargo, su presencia en otras manifestaciones contemporáneas de la llamada «cultura popular» no resulta tan evidente, quizá por haber recibido una menor atención. El presente trabajo propone una aproximación a la pervivencia del mito clásico en el cómic estadounidense de superhéroes, a través del análisis de algunos casos concretos.

  5. Mathematical model for the growth of P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains in sub-MIC concentration of Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Madsen, Henrik;

    growing under sub-MIC Ciprofloxacin concentration (0.1 μg/ml), in order to describe the growth pattern under the presence of antibiotic. Data available for the modelling process is bioscreen measurements of the bacterial content as a function of time for each bacteria strain growing in LB media...... parameters are estimated from data using a Maximum Likelihood approach. We introduce a new expression for multiple substrate dependent growth in LB media, which is identified by a method first introducing the growth as a random walk in the model. From the bioscreen measurement we found a change in the growth...... pattern under the presence of Ciprofloxacin. In most cases the presence of Ciprofloxacin resulted in a longer lag phase, a period of growth followed by a transition phase and then a second period of growth. We have developed a new mathematical model using a multi substrate approach, which will be able...

  6. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index 70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes.

  7. Experimental approaches to identify small RNAs and their diverse roles in bacteria--what we have learnt in one decade of MicA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Sandra; Vanderleyden, Jozef; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays the identification of small RNAs (sRNAs) and characterization of their role within regulatory networks takes a prominent place in deciphering complex bacterial phenotypes. Compared to the study of other components of bacterial cells, this is a relatively new but fast-growing research field. Although reports on new sRNAs appear regularly, some sRNAs are already subject of research for a longer time. One of such sRNAs is MicA, a sRNA best described for its role in outer membrane remodeling, but probably having a much broader function than anticipated. An overview of what we have learnt from MicA led to the conclusion that even for this well-described sRNA, we still do not have the overall picture. More general, the story of MicA might become an experimental lead for unraveling the many sRNAs with unknown functions. In this review, three important topics in the sRNA field are covered, exemplified from the perspective of MicA: (i) identification of new sRNAs, (ii) target identification and unraveling the biological function, (iii) structural analysis. The complex mechanisms of action of MicA deliver some original insights in the sRNA field which includes the existence of dimer formation or simultaneous cis and trans regulation, and might further inspire the understanding of the function of other sRNAs.

  8. La novel·la gràfica: un canvi d’horitzó en la indústria del còmic

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Salamanca, Daniel; Rom Rodríguez, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Des de fa poc més d’una dècada, autors, teòrics i periodistes parlen de la novel·la gràfica com a àmbit en el qual el còmic, per fi, ha aconseguit un nivell de qualitat literari que obri, així, les portes de la legitimació cultural. En aquest article ens allunyarem de les perspectives d’estudi més comunes i qüestionarem la relació entre còmic, novel·la gràfica i literatura. Des de l’anàlisi de la indústria del còmic espanyola, parant especial atenció a la distribució i als canals de venda, bu...

  9. Nuevos lenguajes para nuevas tecnologías. El cómic, una publicación electrónica de entretenimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Virginia Luzón Fernández

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hoy día el cómic ha sido concebido como un medio narrativo de comunicación social que comprende gráficos y textos con un desarrollo secuencial y una narrativa interna. Ha estado relacionado con unos códigos particulares y una serie de convenciones expresivas, como los globos. Pero, el cómic de papel que leíamos, coleccionábamos e incluso algunos veneraban, está dejando paso a un nuevo tipo de cómic que nace con el desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías y encaja a la perfección en la que denominamos, no sólo sociedad de la información, sino también nueva sociedad de la velocidad.

  10. Application of the Vertex Exchange Method to estimate a semi-parametric mixture model for the MIC density of Escherichia coli isolates tested for susceptibility against ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stijn; Verbeke, Geert; Böhning, Dankmar; Aerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, considerable attention has been paid to the collection of antimicrobial resistance data, with the aim of monitoring non-wild-type isolates. This monitoring is performed based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values, which are collected through dilution experiments. We present a semi-parametric mixture model to estimate the entire MIC density on the continuous scale. The parametric first component is extended with a non-parametric second component and a new back-fitting algorithm, based on the Vertex Exchange Method, is proposed. Our data example shows how to estimate the MIC density for Escherichia coli tested for ampicillin and how to use this estimate for model-based classification. A simulation study was performed, showing the promising behavior of the new method, both in terms of density estimation as well as classification.

  11. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    developed control technology were evaluated and verified through both simulations and testbed implementations. Simulations coupling a DOE medium office reference building in EnergyPlus building simulation software and a prototype controller in Matlab were performed. During summer time in a mixed-humid climate zone, the simulations revealed reductions of 27% and 42% in electric lighting load and cooling load, respectively, when compared to an advanced base case with daylight dimming and blinds automatically tilted to block direct sun. Two single-room testbeds were established. The testbed at Philips Lighting business building (Rosemont, IL) was designed for quantifying energy performance of integrated controls. This particular implementation achieved 40% and 79% savings on lighting and HVAC energy, respectively, compared to a relatively simple base case operated on predefined schedules. While the resulting energy savings was very encouraging, it should be noted that there may be several caveats associated with it. 1) The test was run during late spring and early summer, and the savings numbers might not be directly used to extrapolate the annual energy savings. 2) Due to the needs for separate control and metering of the small-scale demonstrator within a large building, the HVAC system, hence the corresponding savings, did not represent a typical energy code-compliant design. 3) The light level in the control case was regulated at a particular setpoint, which was lower than then the full-on light level in the base case, and the savings resulted from tuning down the light level to the setpoint was not attributable to the contribution of the developed technology. The testbed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA) specifically focused on glare control integration, and has demonstrated the feasibility and capability of the glare detection and prevention technique. While the short one-month test in this testbed provided a functional indication of the

  12. La representación de la diversidad afectivo-sexual en el cómic, algunos materiales para trabajar en el aula

    OpenAIRE

    Soler-Quílez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    La siguiente propuesta versa sobre las diferentes representaciones de la diversidad afectivo-sexual en la historia del cómic. Se trata de un recorrido espacio temporal, que va desde las primeras representaciones en el cómic de personajes gais y lesbianas, alrededor de los años sesenta, hasta las últimas publicaciones. Un recorrido que parte de Japón, con la presencia de la diversidad afectivo-sexual en el manga ofreciendo una muestra de sus variantes y formas. En el continente americano desta...

  13. Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Vos, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Orientation is a key component to successful movements between habitats. We hypothesized that barren agricultural landscapes hinder the ability of frogs to orient and move between habitats. Specifically, we predicted that when presented with a choice between a short route through a hostile environme

  14. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    developed control technology were evaluated and verified through both simulations and testbed implementations. Simulations coupling a DOE medium office reference building in EnergyPlus building simulation software and a prototype controller in Matlab were performed. During summer time in a mixed-humid climate zone, the simulations revealed reductions of 27% and 42% in electric lighting load and cooling load, respectively, when compared to an advanced base case with daylight dimming and blinds automatically tilted to block direct sun. Two single-room testbeds were established. The testbed at Philips Lighting business building (Rosemont, IL) was designed for quantifying energy performance of integrated controls. This particular implementation achieved 40% and 79% savings on lighting and HVAC energy, respectively, compared to a relatively simple base case operated on predefined schedules. While the resulting energy savings was very encouraging, it should be noted that there may be several caveats associated with it. 1) The test was run during late spring and early summer, and the savings numbers might not be directly used to extrapolate the annual energy savings. 2) Due to the needs for separate control and metering of the small-scale demonstrator within a large building, the HVAC system, hence the corresponding savings, did not represent a typical energy code-compliant design. 3) The light level in the control case was regulated at a particular setpoint, which was lower than then the full-on light level in the base case, and the savings resulted from tuning down the light level to the setpoint was not attributable to the contribution of the developed technology. The testbed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA) specifically focused on glare control integration, and has demonstrated the feasibility and capability of the glare detection and prevention technique. While the short one-month test in this testbed provided a functional indication of the

  15. 携带兔斯氏艾美耳球虫MIC-5基因减毒鼠伤寒沙门菌活疫苗的安全性、稳定性与免疫原性%Safety, stability and immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying MIC-5 gene of Eimeria stieda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆玲; 乔军; 才学鹏; 闫鸿斌; 田广孚; 骆学农

    2011-01-01

    对携带兔斯氏艾美耳球虫微线蛋白-5基因(MIC-5)真核表达质粒asd-pBMIC-5-IL-15的减毒鼠伤寒沙门菌X4550(X4550/asd-pBMIC-5-IL-15)进行了安全性、稳定性与免疫原性试验.结果显示,重组菌在109CFU剂量以下对家兔安全;连续培养30代重组菌,重组表达质粒可稳定存在于X4550内,具有良好的遗传稳定性;用重组菌2次免疫动物后,既能诱导机体产生抗兔斯氏艾美耳球虫抗体,也能显著增强淋巴细胞增殖水平,抗球虫指数为164.4.试验表明,减毒沙门菌介导的兔球虫调节型DNA疫苗具有良好的安全性、稳定性和免疫原性.%The security,stability and immunogenicity trials of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium X4550 carrying rabbit's Eimeria stiedai MIC-5 gene expression plasmid asd-pBMIC-5-IL-15 (X4550/asd-pBMIO5-IL-15) was assayed in this study. The results showed that the 109 CFU inoculation dose was safe in the experimental rabbits. The recombinant plasmid existed stably in X4550 after 30 passages, which displayed a good genetic stability. After two immunizations in rabbits, the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium induced the specific antibodies against rabbit Eimeria stiedai and significantly improved the level of lymphocyte proliferation. The anti-coccidia index reached 164. 4. The results indicated that the regulation DNA vaccine mediated by Salmonella had a good security,stability and immunogenicity against rabbit Eimeria stiedai.

  16. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Posaconazole and Voriconazole and Candida spp. as Determined by 24-Hour CLSI Broth Microdilution▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16,191 strains of Candida against posaconazole and voriconazole, using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution (BMD) method (24-h incubation), in order to define wild-type (WT) populations and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). From 2001 to 2009, 8,619 isolates of Candida albicans, 2,415 isolates of C. glabrata, 2,278 isolates of C. parapsilosis, 1,895 isolates of C. tropicalis, 508 isolates of C. krusei, 205 isolates of C. lusitaniae, 177 isolates of C. guilliermondii, and 93 isolates of C. kefyr were obtained from over 100 centers worldwide. The modal MICs (μg/ml) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: for C. albicans, 0.016 and 0.007; for C. glabrata, 0.5 and 0.06; for C. parapsilosis, 0.06 and 0.007; for C. tropicalis, 0.03 and 0.015; for C. krusei, 0.25 and 0.12; for C. lusitaniae, 0.03 and 0.007; for C. guilliermondii, 0.12 and 0.03; and for C. kefyr, 0.06 and 0.007. The ECVs (μg/ml [% of isolates that had MICs equal to or less than the ECV]) for posaconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.06 (98.5) and 0.03 (98.9) for C. albicans, 2 (96.2) and 0.5 (90.4%) for C. glabrata, 0.25 (99.3) and 0.12 (97.9) for C. parapsilosis, 0.12 (97.6) and 0.06 (97.2) for C. tropicalis, 0.5 (99.8) and 0.5 (99.4) for C. krusei, 0.12 (95.6) and 0.03 (96.6) for C. lusitaniae, 0.5 (98.9) and 0.25 (98.3) for C. guilliermondii, and 0.25 (100.0) and 0.015 (100.0) for C. kefyr. In the absence of clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for posaconazole, these WT distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for emergence of reduced susceptibility to posaconazole among Candida spp. Whereas a CBP for susceptibility of ≤1 μg/ml has been established for voriconazole and all species of Candida, it is notable that ECVs for this agent range from 10- to >100-fold lower than the CBP, depending on the species of Candida. The CBP is inadequate in detecting the emergence of voriconazole resistance among most Candida species encountered

  17. Choosing a suitable method for the identification of replication origins in microbial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng eSong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the replication of genomic DNA is arguably the most important task performed by a cell and given that it is controlled at the initiation stage, the events that occur at the replication origin play a central role in the cell cycle. Making sense of DNA replication origins is important for improving our capacity to study cellular processes and functions in the regulation of gene expression, genome integrity in much finer detail. Thus, clearly comprehending the positions and sequences of replication origins which are fundamental to chromosome organization and duplication is the first priority of all. In view of such important roles of replication origins, tremendous work has been aimed at identifying and testing the specificity of replication origins. A number of computational tools based on various skew types have been developed to predict replication origins. Using various in silico approaches such as Ori-Finder 2, and databases such as DoriC and oriDB, researchers have predicted the locations of replication origins sites for thousands bacterial chromosomes and archaeal genomes. Based on the predicted results, we should choose an effective method for identifying and confirming the interactions at origins of replication. Here we describe the main existing experimental methods that aimed to determine the replication origin regions and list some of the many the practical applications of these methods.

  18. Choosing Beauty and Feeling Good: How Attractive Product Design Increases Self-Affirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townsend Claudia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers construct and maintain self-concepts through the use of branded consumer products. Yet product choice not only reflects an actual or desired image of the self but can also directly influence a person’s sense of self and even boost self-esteem. The aesthetics of a product is an attribute that has the power to transform how consumers perceive themselves. The mere act of choosing a beautiful product over a less good-looking one affirms people’s sense of self - who they are and what their values are. It goes beyond personal image building and self-presentation; its impact is also turned inwards. Choice of high design works as a unique form of affirmation. It works unconsciously, and high design may even be a particularly powerful form of affirmation precisely because its relationship to the self and one’s values is not obvious. And design is more powerful than other features in this respect. Comfort and ease of use, taste and brand do not have the same self-affirming quality as design. It is not simply that “treating” oneself or going for the pleasurable option has an affirming effect; it is specific to the choice of aesthetics.

  19. Streamlining the functioning of the FSO systems by choosing the optimal transmission/reception components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Viorel; Puşcoci, Sorin; Stoichescu, Dan Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    FSO systems are becoming more and more used taking under consideration the ease of installation and exploitation under the conditions of the supply of a major fraction of optical fiber bandwidth at reasonable cost. Choosing elements for manufacturing FSO transceivers must keep into account their destination. FSO transceivers can be made using LED or LASER devices at the transmission side, the reception side could be equipped with PIN or APD diodes. This paper makes an analysis of the behavior of semiconductor LASER and LED sources, as well as semiconductor devices PIN and APD for reception side, in various attenuation scenarios, with the aim of achieving an optimization of FSO transceiver, corresponding to different geographical areas, taking into account the specific area and attenuation induced by atmospheric factors, in order to obtain an optimal functioning/price ratio. In this paper it is calculated the bit error rate versus transmission distance for various combinations of sources/receivers, using the Matlab and Optiwave modeling environment, for point to point optical system communication.

  20. The Determinants of Choosing Traditional Korean Medicine or Conventional Medicine: Findings from the Korea Health Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Heon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify key factors that determine a person’s decision to seek treatment from traditional Korean medicine (TKM instead of conventional medicine through analysis of nationally representative data from Korea, where a dual healthcare system exists. The analysis is based on episodic data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel. The main dependent variable is the selection between TKM and conventional medicine. We used a multiple logistic regression model to identify the determinants of TKM while controlling for clustered error. Approximately 5% of all doctor’s visits were characterized as TKM services. Urban residents were 1.441 times more likely to use TKM than rural residents P=0.001. The probability of choosing TKM over conventional medicine for a range of conditions compared to the reference condition (gastrointestinal disease was as follows: circulatory system diseases (OR 5.267, P<0.001, nervous system diseases (OR 12.054, P<0.001, musculoskeletal system diseases (OR 20.579, P<0.001, and neoplasms (OR 0.209, P=0.004. Certain diseases are significantly more likely to be treated by TKM than by conventional medicine. This suggests that many people view TKM as being additionally effective for specific diseases, particularly musculoskeletal disorders.

  1. La intertextualidad en el cine de Álex de la Iglesia:El caso del cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neftalí Pérez Franco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo repasa la influencia del tebeo en las películas del director vasco, Alex de la Iglesia, cuyas primeras obras artísticas se deben a su condición de joven autor de historietas. El cine de este cineasta está marcado por claras reminiscencias provenientes de las viñetas: los superhéroes patéticos de Acción mutante se mueven por un contexto futurista muy del cómic de ciencia ficción; el humor estereotipado y los personajes grotescos del tebeo de la editorial Bruguera inundan todas sus comedias; o también son destacables los diversos homenajes narrativos o estéticos a la escuela franco-belga de Hergé y Goscinny. Esta fuerte influencia recorre toda su filmografía desde la mencionada ópera prima Acción mutante, hasta Crimen Ferpecto, pasando por títulos como El día de la bestia, Perdita Durango, Muertos de risa o La comunidad, hasta convertirse en un autor abanderado del fenómeno freak que marca tendencia en el cine español.

  2. El cómic en la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Catalá Carrasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia práctica que voy a relatar pretende mostrar las posibilidades que el cómic tiene, como producto cultural, dentro de las clases de español para extranjeros. Mi relación con las clases de español como lengua extranjera (E/LE se ciñe a estudiantes universitarios de un nivel avanzado, esto es, aquellos que han cursado las clases básicas de gramática y quieren profundizar en la lengua y la cultura hispánicas. Dentro de este marco es donde encuadro la presente experiencia. Los estudiantes con los que he trabajado provienen, en su mayoría, de The University of Georgia en los EE.UU. y cursan un semestre en Valencia (España para perfeccionar el idioma. Mi relación profesional con esta universidad norteamericana data de hace más de 4 años, primero como profesor asistente de español en los EE.UU. y luego como coordinador y profesor dentro del programa académico UGA en España, en Valencia.

  3. Measurement of ground displacement from optical satellite image correlation using the free open-source software MicMac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Ana-Maria; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Delorme, Arthur; Binet, Renaud; Klinger, Yann

    2015-02-01

    Image correlation is one of the most efficient techniques to determine horizontal ground displacements due to earthquakes, landslides, ice flows or sand dune migrations. Analyzing these deformations allows a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of the events. By using sub-pixel correlation on before- and after-event ortho-images obtained from high resolution satellite images it is possible to compute the displacement field with high planimetric resolution. In this paper, we focus on measuring the ground displacements due to seismotectonic events. The three sub-pixel correlators used are: COSI-Corr - developed by Caltech, a free, closed-source correlator, dependent on commercial software (ENVI) and widely used by the geoscience community for measuring ground displacement; Medicis - developed by CNES, also a closed-source correlator capable of measuring this type of deformation; and MicMac - developed by IGN, the free open-source correlator we study and tune for measuring fine ground displacements. We measured horizontal ground deformation using these three correlators on SPOT images in three study cases: the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, the 2005 dyke intrusion in the Afar depression and the 2008 Yutian earthquake.

  4. National and Gender Measurement Invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-Nation Study With University Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cieciuch, Jan; Gao, Cheng Hai; Klimstra, Theo; Lin, Ching Ling; Matos, Paula Mena; Morsünbül, Ümit; Negru, Oana; Sugimura, Kazumi; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  5. National and gender measurement invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-nation study with university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.; Cieciuch, J.; Gao, C.-H.; Klimstra, T.A.; Lin, C.-L.; Mena de Matos, P.; Morsünbül, U.; Negru, O.; Sugimura, K.; Zimmermann, G.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  6. [Evaluation of the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; De Moüy, Danny; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Szymanowicz, Anton; Watine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie (edition2007), using to AGREE criteria, which are consensual at an international level, in particular at the the World Health Organisation (WHO) and at the European Union. The methodological quality of the Rémic appears to be sub-optimal. These shortcomings in quality are mainly observed in AGREE domain n° 5 (applicability), in AGREE item n° 5 (patients' opinions were not considered), and in AGREE item n° 23 (conflicts of interest were not declared). The users of the Rémic must be aware of these few methodological shortcomings in order for them to be careful before they put its recommendation in practice. In conclusion, we advise the editors of the Rémic to insert at least a methodological chapter in their next edition.

  7. Las emociones en el niño autista a través del cómic estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Díaz, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Nuestro estudio tiene la finalidad de conocer si el cómic puede llegar a ser un medio útil para romper los silencios emocionales de los niños autistas, un medio capaz de ayudar a exteriorizar a través de las viñetas, emociones y sentimientos que no son ca

  8. Rhodium, iridium and nickel complexes with a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene tris-MIC ligand. Study of the electronic properties and catalytic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mejuto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination versatility of a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-mesoionic carbene ligand is illustrated by the preparation of complexes with three different metals: rhodium, iridium and nickel. The rhodium and iridium complexes contained the [MCl(COD] fragments, while the nickel compound contained [NiCpCl]. The preparation of the tris-MIC (MIC = mesoionic carbene complex with three [IrCl(CO2] fragments, allowed the estimation of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP for the ligand, which was compared with the TEP value for a related 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-NHC ligand. The electronic properties of the tris-MIC ligand were studied by cyclic voltammetry measurements. In all cases, the tris-MIC ligand showed a stronger electron-donating character than the corresponding NHC-based ligands. The catalytic activity of the tri-rhodium complex was tested in the addition reaction of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Microamounts of Uranium previous Extraction with TBP-MIC; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Microcantidades de Uranio previa extraccin con Metilisobutilcetona-Fosfato de Tributilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement, J.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-07-01

    Selective extraction of uranium in nitric acid medium with a mixture of Tbp-MIC (1:10) has been achieved. Aluminium nitrate was used as salting agent. Complexing agents were added in order to avoid extraction of impurities. Extraction conditions have been studied so that extraction is almost practically complete in a single run. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikha, N. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively.

  11. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu Dadi; MinhThong Le; Hunduma Dinka; DinhTruong Nguyen; Hojun Choi; Hyesun Cho; Minkyeung Choi; Jin-Hoi Kim; Jin-Ki Park; Nagasundarapandian Soundrarajan; Chankyu Park

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-M...

  12. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1 and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A in tumor adjacent tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Jones

    Full Text Available Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1 and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS. Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1 and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25, histologically normal adjacent (n = 22, and disease-free (n = 6 prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively. In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively. Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A. All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%. Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false

  13. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) in tumor adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C; Antillon, Kresta S; Jenkins, Shannon M; Janos, Sara N; Overton, Heidi N; Shoshan, Dor S; Fischer, Edgar G; Trujillo, Kristina A; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  14. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... taking care of yourself. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  15. Choosing goals, not rules: deciding among rule-based action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaes, Christian; Westendorff, Stephanie; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Gail, Alexander

    2011-05-12

    In natural situations, movements are often directed toward locations different from that of the evoking sensory stimulus. Movement goals must then be inferred from the sensory cue based on rules. When there is uncertainty about the rule that applies for a given cue, planning a movement involves both choosing the relevant rule and computing the movement goal based on that rule. Under these conditions, it is not clear whether primates compute multiple movement goals based on all possible rules before choosing an action, or whether they first choose a rule and then only represent the movement goal associated with that rule. Supporting the former hypothesis, we show that neurons in the frontoparietal reach areas of monkeys simultaneously represent two different rule-based movement goals, which are biased by the monkeys' choice preferences. Apparently, primates choose between multiple behavioral options by weighing against each other the movement goals associated with each option.

  16. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... help address your problems. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  17. Causes and Consequences of Choosing Different Assurance Providers: An International Study of Sustainability Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Perego (Paolo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAn increasing number of companies voluntary disclose information about their social and environment performance in sustainability reports. This study investigates the causes and consequences of choosing different assurance providers for companies seeking independent verification of their

  18. Study of Model of Grey Decision Making to Choose Leading Industry of Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinglongZhang; GuangyongChen; WeiGuo; GangXie

    2004-01-01

    The Leading industry influences the economic development of one city. This paper establishes a decision factor system of choosing leading industry of cities, applies related decision theory in Grey System and invents the procedure of choosing leading industry, which achieved a good practical effect. Afterwards, the city Tianmen acclaims the dress industry as Leading Industry in its "The Tenth Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of City TianMen".

  19. Induction of human papilloma virus E6/E7-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in immune-tolerant, E6/E7-transgenic mic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, A; Regts, J; Freyschmidt, EJ; Dontje, B; Wilschut, J; Daemen, T

    2005-01-01

    Despite promising preclinical results of various therapeutic anticancer immunization strategies, these approaches may not be effective enough to eradicate tumors in cancer patients. While most animal models are based on fast-growing transplantable tumors, malignancies in, for example, cervical cance

  20. A systematic review: How to choose appropriate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in routine general practice?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-hui; LI Lu; KOCHEN Michael M.

    2005-01-01

    In more recent times, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurements have formed an important part of assessing the quality of routine care in general practice. For a measure to have clinical usefulness it must not only be valid, appropriate, reliable, responsive, and capable of being interpreted, but it must also be simple, fast to complete, easy to score, and provide useful clinical data. The Two-step method of choosing appropriate measures is introduced. Then through comparison of generic instruments with disease-specific instruments, we can conclude that sometimes a combination of generic and disease-specific HRQOL measures may be more appropriate for monitoring changes in a patient's health status due to an intervention.

  1. Wanted: pediatric nephrologists! - why trainees are not choosing pediatric nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Maria; Iglesia, Edward; Ko, Zion; Amamoo, Ahinee; Mahan, John; Desai, Tejas; Gibson, Keisha; Jhaveri, Kenar; Primack, William

    2014-09-01

    A workforce crisis for many pediatric specialties, particularly nephrology, is due to growing retirement rates, attrition during training, and retention difficulties. To obtain specific information regarding pediatric nephrology trainee shortages, we administered two cross-sectional surveys to non-renal pediatric subspecialty fellows and pediatric nephrology program directors. We characterized the fellows' experiences with nephrology and the program directors' experiences with their fellows as well as their outcomes in the last 10 years. We analyzed responses from 531 non-renal fellows (14.4% response rate). Overall, 317 (60%) fellows rated nephrology as difficult, particularly women (65.4% vs. 49.5%, p nephrology as more difficult compared to all others (p = 0.001). More men than women (24% vs. 8%, p nephrology workforce. These findings support our belief that a strong effort needs to be made by the academic community to teach nephrology in more interesting and understandable formats. While these are national samples, we were unable to contact non-nephrology fellows directly and program directors from larger programs were underrepresented. Difficulties in attracting/retaining trainees (particularly women) to nephrology must be addressed systematically, identifying incentives to practice in this field. Bold concerted efforts are required and we propose seven steps to achieve this goal.

  2. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities.

  3. Intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: How to choose the best treatment modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Tortora, Raffaella

    2015-05-28

    Intermediate stage, or stage B according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comprises a heterogeneous population with different tumor burden and liver function. This heterogeneity is confirmed by the large variability of treatment choice and disease-relate survival. The aim of this review was to highlight the existing evidences regarding this specific topic. In a multidisciplinary evaluation, patients with large (> 5 cm) solitary HCC should be firstly considered for liver resection (LR). When LR is unfeasible, locoregional treatments are evaluable therapeutic options, being transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), the most used procedure. Percutaneous ablation can be an evaluable treatment for large HCC. However, the efficacy of all ablative procedures decrease as tumor size increases over 3 cm. In clinical practice, a combination treatment strategy [TACE or transarterial radioembolization (TARE)-plus percutaneous ablation] is "a priori" preferred in a relevant percentage of these patients. On the other hands, sorafenib is the treatment of choice in patients who are unsuitable to surgery and/or with a contraindication to locoregional treatments. In multifocal HCC, TACE is the first-line treatment. The role of TARE is still undefined. Surgery may have also a role in the treatment of multifocal HCC in selected cases (patients with up to three nodules, multifocal HCC involving 2-3 adjacent liver segments). In some patients with bilobar disease the combination of LR and ablative treatment may be a valuable option. The choice of the best treatment in the patient with intermediate stage HCC should be "patient-tailored" and made by a multidisciplinary team.

  4. Intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: How to choose the best treatment modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Tortora, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate stage, or stage B according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification, of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comprises a heterogeneous population with different tumor burden and liver function. This heterogeneity is confirmed by the large variability of treatment choice and disease-relate survival. The aim of this review was to highlight the existing evidences regarding this specific topic. In a multidisciplinary evaluation, patients with large (> 5 cm) solitary HCC should be firstly considered for liver resection (LR). When LR is unfeasible, locoregional treatments are evaluable therapeutic options, being transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), the most used procedure. Percutaneous ablation can be an evaluable treatment for large HCC. However, the efficacy of all ablative procedures decrease as tumor size increases over 3 cm. In clinical practice, a combination treatment strategy [TACE or transarterial radioembolization (TARE)-plus percutaneous ablation] is “a priori” preferred in a relevant percentage of these patients. On the other hands, sorafenib is the treatment of choice in patients who are unsuitable to surgery and/or with a contraindication to locoregional treatments. In multifocal HCC, TACE is the first-line treatment. The role of TARE is still undefined. Surgery may have also a role in the treatment of multifocal HCC in selected cases (patients with up to three nodules, multifocal HCC involving 2-3 adjacent liver segments). In some patients with bilobar disease the combination of LR and ablative treatment may be a valuable option. The choice of the best treatment in the patient with intermediate stage HCC should be “patient-tailored” and made by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:26019734

  5. Intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: How to choose thebest treatment modality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate stage, or stage B according to BarcelonaClinic Liver Cancer classification, of hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) comprises a heterogeneous populationwith different tumor burden and liver function. Thisheterogeneity is confirmed by the large variability oftreatment choice and disease-relate survival. The aimof this review was to highlight the existing evidencesregarding this specific topic. In a multidisciplinaryevaluation, patients with large (〉 5 cm) solitary HCC should be firstly considered for liver resection (LR).When LR is unfeasible, locoregional treatments areevaluable therapeutic options, being transarterialchemoembolization (TACE), the most used procedure.Percutaneous ablation can be an evaluable treatmentfor large HCC. However, the efficacy of all ablativeprocedures decrease as tumor size increases over 3 cm.In clinical practice, a combination treatment strategy[TACE or transarterial radioembolization (TARE)-plus percutaneous ablation] is "a priori" preferredin a relevant percentage of these patients. On theother hands, sorafenib is the treatment of choice inpatients who are unsuitable to surgery and/or witha contraindication to locoregional treatments. Inmultifocal HCC, TACE is the first-line treatment. Therole of TARE is still undefined. Surgery may have alsoa role in the treatment of multifocal HCC in selectedcases (patients with up to three nodules, multifocalHCC involving 2-3 adjacent liver segments). In somepatients with bilobar disease the combination of LR andablative treatment may be a valuable option. The choiceof the best treatment in the patient with intermediatestage HCC should be "patient-tailored" and made by amultidisciplinary team.

  6. Contemporary tetracycline susceptibility testing: doxycycline MIC methods and interpretive criteria (CLSI and EUCAST) performance when testing Gram-positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G; Wilson, Michael L; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2013-05-01

    International susceptibility testing breakpoint organizations and regulatory agencies have markedly differing interpretive criteria for the tetracycline class. Here we examined the magnitude of these differences for doxycycline and tetracycline hydrochloride (HCL) when tested against a collection of 13,176 Gram-positive cocci from a worldwide surveillance network (SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2010). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints are routinely higher, usually 4-fold, compared to those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST); however, CLSI recently (2013) modified Streptococcus pneumoniae breakpoints (≤ 2 μg/mL in 2012) to ≤ 0.25 and ≤ 1 μg/mL for doxycycline and tetracycline HCL, respectively. We report that these changes are a promising step toward international breakpoint harmonization, but lack a comprehensive approach needed for testing tetracyclines against all Gram-positive cocci. Generally, EUCAST breakpoint criteria showed i) lower spectrums (reduced susceptibility rates) for the tetracyclines, but highest for doxycycline versus all species examined; ii) greater test accuracy (lower predictive categorical errors), especially for tetracycline to predict doxycycline susceptibility (99.91%); and iii) zone diameter correlate breakpoints which are generally available online. Molecular tests for tet resistance genes demonstrate that tet (K) and tet (M) containing strains can occur in the susceptible population of MIC results by both CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. In summary, doxycycline continues to show greater comparative potency versus tetracycline HCL against all monitored Gram-positive species and the international harmonization of tetracycline breakpoints should be a priority, as the most recent CLSI update only addressed 1 streptococcal species and 2 tetracycline agents.

  7. Cyberbullying: Should Schools choose between Safety and Privacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Laubscher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this theoretical article, we explore the tangled messiness of the application of human rights versus the 21st-century monster called "cyberbullying" in schools and focus on some of the challenges schools face daily. The research will reveal that cyberbullying victims were almost twice as likely to attempt suicide as youth who had not experienced cyberbullying, which implies that this is a phenomenon schools ought not to take lightly. We argue that everyone has a right to the freedom of expression, including in cyberspace, and begin by exploring how legal principles evolved in an attempt to deal with the limitations placed on an individual's right to freedom of expression. As we are about to reveal, though, matters become even more complicated when this freedom of expression relates to cyberspace, a space where users might have an expectation of privacy and even enjoy a state of anonymity. Clearly, the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression need to be balanced and respected should school authorities be called upon to identify and discipline a cyberbully. This balancing act is one that needs to be investigated and carefully expounded upon, and is an issue that has not yet been sufficiently addressed in South Africa. Seeing that countries such as the United States of America and Canada have attempted to deal with this issue, it would be prudent to discuss the strides these countries have made, the challenges they have faced, and the insights they have gained, in an attempt to alert South Africa to the complex issues cyberbullying could raise. Working from this premise, this article will focus on the right to privacy, specifically in relation to Bill C-13 recently passed in Canada and the resultant Canadian Supreme Court decision in the case R v Spencer, a case that shed further light on the issue of privacy in cyberspace. We conclude the discussion by highlighting several potential pitfalls legislation such as Bill C-13 could

  8. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  9. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2) Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadi, Hailu; Le, MinhThong; Dinka, Hunduma; Nguyen, DinhTruong; Choi, Hojun; Cho, Hyesun; Choi, Minkyeung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Jin-Ki; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Park, Chankyu

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT) method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses.

  10. Genetic Diversity and mRNA Expression of Porcine MHC Class I Chain-Related 2 (SLA-MIC2 Gene and Development of a High-Resolution Typing Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Dadi

    Full Text Available The genetic structure and function of MHC class I chain-related (MIC genes in the pig genome have not been well characterized, and show discordance in available data. Therefore, we have experimentally characterized the exon-intron structure and functional copy expression pattern of the pig MIC gene, SLA-MIC2. We have also studied the genetic diversity of SLA-MIC2 from seven different breeds using a high-resolution genomic sequence-based typing (GSBT method. Our results showed that the SLA-MIC2 gene has a similar molecular organization as the human and cattle orthologs, and is expressed in only a few tissues including the small intestine, lung, and heart. A total of fifteen SLA-MIC2 alleles were identified from typing 145 animals, ten of which were previously unreported. Our analysis showed that the previously reported and tentatively named SLA-MIC2*05, 07, and 01 alleles occurred most frequently. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.26 to 0.73 among breeds. The number of alleles of the SLA-MIC2 gene in pigs is somewhat lower compared to the number of alleles of the porcine MHC class I and II genes; however, the level of heterozygosity was similar. Our results indicate the comprehensiveness of using genomic DNA-based typing for the systemic study of the SLA-MIC2 gene. The method developed for this study, as well as the detailed information that was obtained, could serve as fundamental tools for understanding the influence of the SLA-MIC2 gene on porcine immune responses.

  11. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory under the international collaboration framework of the MICS-Asia and HTAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Kebin; Lu, Zifeng; Ohara, Toshimasa; Song, Yu; Streets, David G.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Cheng, Yafang; Hong, Chaopeng; Huo, Hong; Jiang, Xujia; Kang, Sicong; Liu, Fei; Su, Hang; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The MIX inventory is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 29 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. Emissions are aggregated to five anthropogenic sectors: power, industry, residential, transportation, and agriculture. We estimate the total Asian emissions of 10 species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006-2010 are estimated as follows: -8.1 % for SO2, +19.2 % for NOx, +3.9 % for CO, +15.5 % for NMVOC, +1.7 % for NH3, -3.4 % for PM10, -1.6 % for PM2.5, +5.5 % for BC, +1.8 % for OC, and +19.9 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  12. Mentor Graphics推出MicReD工业化的1500A功率循环测试设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    日前,Mentor Graphics公司宣布推出全新MicReD Industrial Power Tester1500A(工业化的1500A功率循环测试设备),用于电力电子器件的功率循环测试和热特性测试,以模拟和测量电力电子器件寿命期内的表现。

  13. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  14. International Evaluation of MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Value (ECV) Definitions for Fusarium Species Identified by Molecular Methods for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Colombo, A L; Cordoba, S; Dufresne, P J; Fuller, J; Ghannoum, M; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Kidd, S E; Meis, J F; Melhem, T M S C; Pelaez, T; Pfaller, M A; Szeszs, M W; Takahaschi, J P; Tortorano, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Turnidge, J

    2016-02-01

    The CLSI epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of antifungal agents are available for various Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and the Mucorales. However, those categorical endpoints have not been established for Fusarium spp., mostly due to the difficulties associated with collecting sufficient CLSI MICs for clinical isolates identified according to the currently recommended molecular DNA-PCR-based identification methodologies. CLSI MIC distributions were established for 53 Fusarium dimerum species complex (SC), 10 F. fujikuroi, 82 F. proliferatum, 20 F. incarnatum-F. equiseti SC, 226 F. oxysporum SC, 608 F. solani SC, and 151 F. verticillioides isolates originating in 17 laboratories (in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and the United States). According to the CLSI guidelines for ECV setting, ECVs encompassing ≥97.5% of pooled statistically modeled MIC distributions were as follows: for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml (F. verticillioides) and 8 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC and F. solani SC); for posaconazole, 2 μg/ml (F. verticillioides), 8 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC), and 32 μg/ml (F. solani SC); for voriconazole, 4 μg/ml (F. verticillioides), 16 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC), and 32 μg/ml (F. solani SC); and for itraconazole, 32 μg/ml (F. oxysporum SC and F. solani SC). Insufficient data precluded ECV definition for the other species. Although these ECVs could aid in detecting non-wild-type isolates with reduced susceptibility to the agents evaluated, the relationship between molecular mechanisms of resistance (gene mutations) and MICs still needs to be investigated for Fusarium spp.

  15. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Pullia, L.; Hazelton, T., E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com, E-mail: lou.pullia@opg.com, E-mail: trek.hazelton@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Daks, W. [CAD WIRE, Markham, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020{sup )} for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  16. National and Gender Measurement Invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): A 10-Nation Study With University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cieciuch, Jan; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Klimstra, Theo; Lin, Ching-Ling; Matos, Paula Mena; Morsünbül, Ümit; Negru, Oana; Sugimura, Kazumi; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Meeus, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in university students from a large array of cultural contexts, including 10 nations located in Europe (i.e., Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland), Middle East (i.e., Turkey), and Asia (i.e., China, Japan, and Taiwan). Furthermore, we tested national and gender measurement invariance. Participants were 6,118 (63.2% females) university students aged from 18 to 25 years (Mage = 20.91 years). Results indicated that the three-factor structure of the U-MICS fitted well in the total sample, in each national group, and in gender groups. Furthermore, national and gender measurement invariance were established. Thus, the U-MICS can be fruitfully applied to study identity in university students from various Western and non-Western contexts.

  17. New recombinant chimeric antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1, for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3 chimeric Toxoplasma gondii antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1 and MAG1-ROP1, in the serodiagnosis of an acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Proteins were produced as fusion proteins containing His tags ends and then further purified by metal affinity chromatography. Their application for the diagnosis of recently acquired T. gondii infection was tested in IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). At 100%, 77.3%, and 86.4%, respectively, the reactivity of the IgG ELISA using P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was significantly higher than for the samples from people with a chronic infection, at 26.2%, 36.1%, and 32.8%, respectively. Moreover, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 detected IgM antibodies with a reactivity at 81.8%, 72.7%, and 59.1%, respectively. The results presented in the article show that, particularly, P35-MAG1 may be useful in the preliminary detection of recent T. gondii infection.

  18. Anorexia-cachexia and obesity treatment may be two sides of the same coin: role of the TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, V W W; Lin, S; Brown, D A; Salis, A; Breit, S N

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia-cachexia associated with cancer and other diseases is a common and often fatal condition representing a large area of unmet medical need. It occurs most commonly in advanced cancer and is probably a consequence of molecules released by tumour cells, or tumour-associated interstitial or immune cells. These may then act directly on muscle to cause atrophy and/or may cause anorexia, which then leads to loss of both fat and lean mass. Although the aetiological triggers for this syndrome are not well characterized, recent data suggest that MIC-1/GDF15, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily cytokine produced in large amounts by cancer cells and as a part of other disease processes, may be an important trigger. This cytokine acts on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem to cause anorexia leading to loss of lean and fat mass and eventually cachexia. In animal studies, the circulating concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15 required to cause this syndrome are similar to those seen in patients with advanced cancer, and at least some epidemiological studies support an association between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and measures of nutrition. This article will discuss its mechanisms of central appetite regulation, and the available data linking this action to anorexia-cachexia syndromes that suggest it is a potential target for therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia and conversely may also be useful for the treatment of severe obesity.

  19. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  20. [The social representations of the process of choosing leaders in the perspective of the nursing team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Souza, Dirciara Barañano; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria

    2012-10-01

    This exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study was performed with the objective to analyze the social representation of the process of choosing leaders among nursing workers of a university hospital. The information was obtained through free word association and open interviews. For the purposes of this study, thematic content analysis was performed, guided by the Social Representations Theory. Through this focus the following category emerged: division of the nursing team - the input and output of the process of choosing leaders. The category consists of a crystallization of the social representation of the subject, anchored in elements related to leadership, impartiality, change, knowledge, trust and humanization. The idea of leadership is highlighted as inducing a movement in the division of the team as it is associated with the process of choosing leaders for an environment of communication, suitable for integrating the team and recognizing potential leaders.

  1. [Dentistry students' reasons for choosing dentistry as a career in Damascus University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashlah, A M

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.

  2. Using the hydrophobic subtraction model to choose orthogonal columns for online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Christensen, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    A method for choosing orthogonal columns for a specific sample set in on-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) was developed on the basis of the hydrophobic subtraction model. The method takes into account the properties of the sample analytes by estimating new F...... by Gilroy et al. [1], (3) F-weights determined from the retention of sample analytes but using principal component analysis (PCA) for the estimation, and (4) the Gilroy F-weights modified by excluding the C-term in the hydrophobic subtraction model, as suggested by Dolan and Snyder [2]. The retention of 13...... neutral and 4 acidic oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and 3 nitrogen-containing PAC bases was measured isocratically on 12 columns. The isocratic runs were used to determine the hydrophobic subtraction model analyte parameters, and these were used to estimate new F-weights and predict...

  3. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  4. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  5. [Choosing contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    The development of contraception has allowed women to think about and experience motherhood not as their destiny but as an option. Humans have always been interested in controlling their fertility. Writings unearthed in the 18th century demonstrated the interest of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks in fertility control. The oral contraceptive (OC) pill, developed in the 1950s by Pincus and Rock, has allowed millions of women to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Since 1960, when the oral contraceptive Enovid was first marketed in the US, over 200 million women throughout the world have used OCs. Modern formulations have low hormone doses, which has minimized side effects. OCs now have an effectiveness of 98%. The method is controlled by the woman, permitting autonomous decisions about pregnancy. Currently, in Colombia, 12.9% of women in union use OCs, 25.7% are sterilized, 11.1% each use IUDs and traditional methods, 4.3% use condoms, 2.5% use injectables, 1.4% use vaginal tablets, 0.7% each use Norplant and vasectomy, and 1.8% use other methods. 27.8% use no method. OCs can be used as an emergency method in case of rape, an unexpected sexual encounter, or failure of another method. When used as a postcoital method, OCs must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse.

  6. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients.In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg, Amikacin (30μg, Ceftriaxone (30μg, Nalidixic Acid (30μg, Cefixime (5μg, and Nitrofurantoin (300μg tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test.Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%. In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96% and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%.Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  7. Empirical Investigation into Motives for Choosing Web-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhattabi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Today, in association with rapid social and economic changes, there is an increasing level of demand for distance and online learning programs. This study will focus on identifying the main motivational factors for choosing a web-based distance-learning program. Moreover, it will investigate how these factors relate to age, gender, marital status…

  8. Fuzzy Reasoning Methods by Choosing Different Fuzzy Counters and Analysis of Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were gave by choosing different fuzzy counters. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller,and compared and analysised the reasoning effect of fuzzy reasoning methods and the effect of computer simulating control basicly on different fuzzy counters.

  9. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  10. Choosing High-Yield Tasks for the Mathematical Development of Practicing Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, James A. Mendoza; Rhoads, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Many mathematics teacher educators encounter the challenge of creating or choosing mathematical tasks that evoke important mathematical insights and connections yet remain firmly grounded in school mathematics. This challenge increases substantially when trying to meet the needs of practicing secondary mathematics teachers pursuing graduate work…

  11. Choosing a Hospital for Surgery: The Importance of Information on Quality of Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijs-Elsinga, J.; Otten, W.; Versluijs, M.; Smeets, H.J.; Kievit, J.; Vree, R.; Made, W.J. van der; Marang-Van De Mheen, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients use information on quality of care when choosing a hospital for surgery compared with more general hospital information. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in 3 Dutch hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 2122 patients who underwent 1 of 6 elective surgical

  12. Refined Method for Choosing a Security Solution for Mobile Application – Web Service Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Trif; Adrian Visoiu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a refined algorithm for choosing the appropriate security implementation for mobile applications connecting to web services. Common security scenarios are presented. Each scenario has several characteristics associated. The correlations between these security scenarios characteristics are computed and selected only the characteristics that are less correlated. The proposed algorithm inventories the available scenarios, inventories the requirements and selects the se...

  13. Why political context is key in determining the parties interest groups choose to collaborate with

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    When interest groups choose to collaborate with political parties what determines the type of party they opt to work with? Anne Rasmussen and Simon Otjes write that the two key elements shaping this decision are typically the ideological similarities between the interest group and the party, togethe

  14. Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…

  15. Elementary School-Age Children's Capacity To Choose Positive Diagnostic and Negative Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mark C.; McDonald, John

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments compared 10-year-olds' and adults' ability to choose positive and negative diagnostic tests over positive and negative nondiagnostic tests. Findings indicated that both age groups were more likely to prefer positive diagnostic tests over positive nondiagnostic tests, although only adults showed a significant preference for negative…

  16. Why Women Choose Information Technology Careers: Educational, Social, and Familial Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sandra V.; Bernt, Phyllis W.; Pecora, Norma

    The educational, social, and familial influences that lead women to choose information technology (IT) careers were examined in an online survey. Of the 2,500 women who were employed in IT careers in 38 countries and who belonged to the IT professional organization, Systers, 275 responded to the online survey (11% response rate). The respondents…

  17. Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The effects of choosing academic assignments on the undesirable behaviors manifested by a second-grade student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed. This study extended Dunlap et al.'s (1994) research on choice making as a form of antecedent control. A reversal design showed that undesirable behaviors decreased when the student was given a choice of academic assignments.

  18. Assignment Choice: Do Students Choose Briefer Assignments or Finishing What They Started?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; O'Neil, Michael; Conley, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Academic skill development requires engagement in effortful academic behaviors. Although students may be more likely to choose to engage in behaviors that require less effort, they also may be motivated to complete assignments that they have already begun. Seventh-grade students (N = 88) began a mathematics computation worksheet, but were stopped…

  19. How do individuals apply risk information when choosing among health care interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    weighting of different types of risk information under various circumstances. The effect of presenting questions, and of explicitly formulating RRR, was analyzed. A preference for increases in RRR was demonstrated. There was a stronger inclination to choose the intervention that offered the highest RRR...

  20. First-year dental students’ motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Avramova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine first-year dental students’ current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Material and methods. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students’ socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. Results. The majority of the students (73% were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% – for financial security; 59% – because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Conclusion. Independence, financial security and ‘prestige’ were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction.

  1. Econobiophysics - game of choosing. Model of selection or election process with diverse accessible information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We propose several models applicable to both selection and election processes when each selecting or electing subject has access to different information about the objects to choose from. We wrote special software to simulate these processes. We consider both the cases when the environment is neutral (natural process) as well as when the environment is involved (controlled process). PMID:21892959

  2. A Method for Choosing an Initial Time Eigenstate in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Noemí Jiménez-García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A subject of interest in classical and quantum mechanics is the development of the appropriate treatment of the time variable. In this paper we introduce a method of choosing the initial time eigensurface and how this method can be used to generate time-energy coordinates and, consequently, time-energy representations for classical and quantum systems.

  3. Comparison of clinical categories for Escherichia coli harboring specific qnr and chromosomal-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants according to CLSI and EUCAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Jesús; Briales, Alejandra; Díaz-de-Alba, Paula; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    EUCAST breakpoints are more restrictive than those defined by CLSI. This study highlights the discrepancies between CLSI and EUCAST in a well characterized isogenic Escherichia coli collection and their correlations with specific quinolone resistance mechanisms. The greatest number of discrepancies was observed in strains containing 2-4 resistance mechanisms (MIC values on the borderline of clinical resistance). Bearing in mind that quinolones are concentration dependent antimicrobial agents, small changes in MIC may have relevant consequences for treatment outcomes.

  4. An investigation of microbial diversity in crude oil & seawater injection systems and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of linepipe steels under different exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbbas, Faisal Mohammed

    During oil and gas operations, pipeline networks are subjected to different corrosion deterioration mechanisms that result from the interaction between the fluid process and the linepipe steel. Among these mechanisms is microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) that results from accelerated deterioration caused by different indigenous microorganisms that naturally reside in the hydrocarbon and associated seawater injection systems. The focus of this research is to obtain comprehensive understanding of MIC. This work has explored the most essential elements (identifications, implications and mitigations) required to fully understand MIC. Advanced molecular-based techniques, including sequencing of 16S rRNA genes via 454 pyrosequencing methodologies, were deployed to provide in-depth understanding of the microbial diversity associated with crude oil and seawater injection systems and their relevant impact on MIC. Key microbes including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) were cultivated from sour oil well field samples. The microbes' phylotypes were identified in the laboratory to gain more thorough understanding of how they impact microbial corrosion. Electrochemical and advanced surface analytical techniques were used for corrosion evaluations of linepipe carbon steels (API 5L X52 and X80) under different exposure conditions. On the identification front, 454 pyrosequencing of both 16S rRNA genes indicated that the microbial communities in the corrosion products obtained from the sour oil pipeline, sweet crude pipeline and seawater pipeline were dominated by bacteria, though archaeal sequences (predominately Methanobacteriaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae) were also identified in the sweet and sour crude oil samples, respectively. The dominant bacterial phylotypes in the sour crude sample included members of the Thermoanaerobacterales, Synergistales, and Syntrophobacterales. In the sweet crude sample, the dominant phylotypes included

  5. The Comparison of Iranian and Foreign Students’ Motivations to Choose Dentistry Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. The students usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Iranian and Foreign student’s motivations to choose dentistry field of study. Materials and Methods We searched international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, Iranmedex using a searching strategy during 2000 to 2015 years. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Choose dentistry field" AND "Students". At first, in the initial search,152 articles were found, and finally, 51 of them which were related to the subject of this research were used. Results In general, the motivation of students to choose field of study in Iranain and Foreign students include the following:: an independent office or job independence, high economic income, appropriate social status,  job attractiveness of dentistry, appropriate job position, individual longing, help others, top rank of student in the university entrance exam, continue to study at specialized PhD in one of dentistry trends, successful marriage nd interest in the field of dentistry. Conclusion It seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates in Iran, the most important incentives of applicants who want to enter the dentistry discipline are high income and  particular social prestige at this major. Moreover, high income and independent job situations are the most important factors in Foreign students for choosing this filed of study in the overseas studies.

  6. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  7. Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... targeted psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © American ...

  8. Relaciones formales entre el cómic japonés contemporáneo y su adaptación audiovisual animada

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Gracia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cada año decenas de cómics japoneses, conocidos como manga, se convierten en series de televisión o largometrajes anime. Se han publicado numerosos análisis a sus historias, autores consagrados, temas frecuentes y aspectos sociológicos. Sin embargo la relación que se establece entre los elementos formales de ambos medios aún no ha sido objeto de ningún estudio. Hemos seleccionado una treintena de títulos manga y sus correspondientes adaptaciones audiovisuales animadas, desde 1984 hasta 2013. ...

  9. Attempt to validate breakpoint MIC values estimated from pharmacokinetic data obtained during oxolinic acid therapy of winter ulcer disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.

    2004-01-01

    and between healthy and moribund fish, presents difficulties in generating a clinically meaningful description relevant to the whole population. This issue is discussed, and it is suggested that for this application, the minimum concentration achieved by at least 80% of the treated population might represent...... a useful parameter for describing the concentrations of agents achieved during therapy. The plasma data from this investigation were used to estimate clinically relevant breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The validity of these breakpoint values was discussed with reference...

  10. In Vitro Activity of Polymyxin B plus Imipenem, Meropenem, or Tigecycline against KPC-2-Producing Enterobacteriaceae with High MICs for These Antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Natália; Ribeiro, Vanessa B.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of polymyxin B plus imipenem, meropenem, or tigecycline against six KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains with high MICs for these antimicrobial agents. Polymyxin B with carbapenems, especially meropenem, were the most active combinations for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae regardless of the polymyxin B concentration used in the time-kill assay. This combination was also synergistic against two Serratia marcescens strains that are intrinsically resistant to polymyxins. Polymyxin B and tigecycline also presented synergistic activity in most experiments. PMID:25801560

  11. Funciones narrativas del personaje femenino en el cómic y la animación japonesa para adolescentes masculinos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El cómic japonés (manga) y la animación japonesa (anime) son poderosas industrias culturales que, progresivamente, se han ido expandiendo internacionalmente. A medida que estas obras han ido llegando a los mercados occidentales, la atención de los investigadores se ha fijado en las particularidades expresivas, narrativas y culturales de estos productos. La investigación en género relacionada con el manga y el anime se ha centrado principalmente en las obras destinadas a un público femenino y,...

  12. Arquetipos iconográficos femeninos en el cómic y la animación japonesa para adolescentes masculinos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El cómic japonés (manga) y la animación japonesa (anime) son poderosas industrias culturales que, progresivamente, se han ido expandiendo internacionalmente. A medida que estas obras han ido llegando a los mercados occidentales, la atención de los investigadores se ha fijado en las particularidades expresivas, narrativas y culturales de estos productos. La investigación en género relacionada con el manga y el anime se ha centrado principalmente en las obras destinadas a un público femenino y,...

  13. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granuloma...

  14. Vectorized K-Means Algorithm on Heterogeneous CPU/MIC Architecture%面向CPU/MIC异构架构的K-Means向量化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭郁松; 伍复慧; 吴庆波; 陈微; 孙晓利

    2014-01-01

    In the context of big data era, K-Means is an important algorithm of cluster analysis of data mining. The massive high-dimensional data processing brings strong performance demand on K-Means algorithms. The newly proposed MIC (many integrated core) architecture provides both thread-level parallel between cores and instruction-level parallel in each core, which make MIC good choice for algorithm acceleration. Firstly, this paper describes the basic K-Means algorithm and analyzes its bottleneck. Then it proposes a novel vectorized K-Means algorithm which optimizes vector data layout strategy and gets higher parallel performance. Moreover, it implements the vectorized algorithm on CPU/MIC heterogeneous platform, and explores the MIC optimization strategy in non-traditional HPC (high performance computing) applications. The experimental results prove that the vectorized K-Means algorithm has excellent performance and scalability.%在大数据背景下,以K-Means为代表的聚类分析对于数据分析和挖掘十分重要。海量高维数据的处理给K-Means算法带来了性能方面的强烈需求。最新提出的众核体系结构MIC(many integrated core)能够为算法加速提供众核间线程级和核内指令级并行,使其成为K-Means算法加速的很好选择。在分析K-Means基本算法特点的基础上,分析了K-Means算法的瓶颈,提出了可利用数据并行的K-Means向量化算法,优化了向量化算法的数据布局方案。最后,基于CPU/MIC的异构架构实现了向量化K-Means算法,并且探索了MIC在非传统HPC(high performance computing)应用领域的优化策略。测试结果表明,K-Means向量化算法具有良好的计算性能和扩展性。

  15. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Jaud; Sophie Passot; Réjanne Le Bivic; Christophe Delacourt; Philippe Grandjean; Nicolas Le Dantec

    2016-01-01

    For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in s...

  16. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori determined by measuring MICs of antimicrobial agents in color indicator egg yolk agar in a miniwell format. The Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group of Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the Johns Hopkins University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A; Valdez, Y; Gilman, R H; McDonald, J J; Westblom, T U; Berg, D; Mayta, H; Gutierrez, V

    1996-05-01

    Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole often causes failure of commonly used combination drug treatment regimens. We determined the MICs of metronidazole and clarithromycin against 18 H. pylori strains from Peru using tetrazolium egg yolk (TEY) agar. The MIC results obtained by agar dilution with petri dishes were compared with the results found through a miniwell format. The results of the two protocols for measuring drug susceptibility differed by no more than 1 dilution in all cases. On TEY agar, bright-red H. pylori colonies were easy to identify against a yellow background. Sixty-one percent (11 of 18) of the strains were resistant to metronidazole (MIC, > or = 4 micrograms/ml) and 50% (9 of 18) were resistant to clarithromycin (MIC, > or = 0.125 micrograms/ml), whereas none (0 of 5) of the strains tested were resistant to tetracycline (MIC, > or = 1 micrograms/ml). Thus, the prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance in Peru is higher than that in developed regions of the world. The miniwell plate with TEY agar allows easy H. pylori colony identification, requires about one-third less of the costly medium necessary for petri dish assaying, conserves space, and yields MICs equivalent to those with agar dilution in petri dishes.

  17. Empowering Learners to Choose the Difficulty Level of Problems Based on Their Learning Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mannheimer Zydney

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that increasing learner control offers several benefits, including increased motivation, attitude, and learning. The goal of the present study was to determine how prior math achievement influences students' selection of the difficulty level of problems within Math Pursuits, a hypermedia learning program. Math Pursuits was designed to help children understand mathematics by discovering how it relates to the world around them. The program presented each learner with an adjustable level of challenge, along with the necessary scaffolding to support success. The researchers hypothesized that students with lower math skills would choose to start with a lower difficultly level; whereas, students with higher math skills would begin the program by choosing a question with a higher level of difficulty. Results supported these hypotheses. This research also examined the motivational framework guiding students' selection of problem difficulty.

  18. Why do young Arabs in Denmark choose to study their heritage language at the university?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the phenomenon that an increasing number of young Arabs in Denmark are choosing to study their heritage language at the university. The study aimed at investigating three elements: the motivation behind choosing to study the heritage language at the university......; whether the informants had learned/maintained Arabic before starting at the university; and the role of the families in motivating the informants to learn and study Arabic. The informants are students just enrolled at the University of Southern Denmark in autumn 2012. A mixed method was used......: a quantitative method, where 18 informants completed a questionnaire, and a qualitative, where 11 out of the 18 were interviewed. The study found that the motivation behind the decision to study Arabic at the university is multiple, primarily to understand the holy book of Islam and Arabic culture, besides...

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 444: choosing the route of hysterectomy for benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Hysterectomies are performed vaginally, abdominally, or with laparoscopic or robotic assistance. When choosing the route and method of hysterectomy, the physicians should take into consideration how the procedure may be performed most safely and cost-effectively to fulfill the medical needs of the patient. Evidence demonstrates that, in general, vaginal hysterectomy is associated with better outcomes and fewer complications than laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomy. When it is not feasible to perform a vaginal hysterectomy, the surgeon must choose between laparoscopic hysterectomy,robot-assisted hysterectomy, or abdominal hysterectomy. Experience with robot-assisted hysterectomy is limited at this time; more data are necessary to determine its role in the performance of hysterectomy. The decision to electively perform a salpingoophorectomy should not be influenced by the chosen route of hysterectomy and is not a contraindication to performing a vaginal hysterectomy.

  20. The capacity to choose: reformulating the concept of choice in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Peacock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite being conceived as a ‘theory of rational choice’, orthodox economics fails to ascribe to human beings the ability to choose in a meaningful sense, something philosophical approaches to economics have long noted and tried to remedy. Tony Lawson’s critical realism is one attempt at a remedy. If, following Lawson, one conceives of choice as a ‘capacity’ of human beings, critical realist analysis suggests a distinction between humans’ possession and their exercise of this capacity. If one can sustain this distinction, one should be able to distinguish cases in which agents actually exercise their capacity to choose from those in which they do not. Investigation of this distinction does not, however, lead to the desired distinction between such cases. Consequently, a reformulation of the notion of choice is required. An implication for economic theory – namely, the possibility of conceptualizing ‘exploitation’ – is discussed.

  1. A qualitative study of the factors that influence mothers when choosing drinks for their young children

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Alexandria; Virgo-Milton, Monica; Boak, Rachel; Gold, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Gussy, Mark; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; de Silva, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of sweetened beverages is a known common risk factor for the development of obesity and dental caries in children and children consume sweet drinks frequently and in large volumes from an early age. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence mothers when choosing drinks for their children. Method Semi-structured interviews (n = 32) were conducted with a purposive sample of mothers of young children from Victoria’s Barwon South Western Region (select...

  2. Motivation of foreign degree students to choose ABC University for their undergraduate studies

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Suman; Phung, Mai Anh

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of foreign degree students is increasing in Finnish universities. These foreign students come from a wide range of nations all over the world. Being one of the best universities of applied sciences in Helsinki, Finland, each year ABC University receives applications of students from Vietnam, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Russia, various African countries and so on. The aim of this qualitative research is to investigate why foreign degree students choose ABC University as th...

  3. Curbing overuse. Providers hail value of Choosing Wisely, but skeptics say initiative comes with risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Maureen

    2013-02-25

    The Choosing Wisely campaign, with participating medical societies, spotlighted a list of 135 potentially unnecessary procedures. Critics are questioning whether patients and physicians are seeing the guidelines and if they are leading to any changes. But Dr. Glen Stream, AAFP board chairman, says his group's participation was the right choice. "It's a proactive stance, driven by the medical profession, and it really does make conversations with patients easier."

  4. Multicultural desires? Parental negotiation of multiculture and difference in choosing secondary schools for their children

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Bridget; De Tona, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which parents talk about choosing secondary schools in three areas of Greater Manchester. It argues that this can be a moment when parents are considering their own attitudes to, and shaping their children's experiences of, multiculture. Multiculture is taken as the everyday experience of living with difference. The paper argues that multiculture needs to be understood as shaped not only by racialized, ethnic or religious difference (as it is commonly understo...

  5. 实验评价6个氟喹诺酮药物对250株致病菌的MIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东亮; 邓达东; 王波; 罗育新

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较研究加替沙星(GTLX)等6个氟喹诺酮类药(FQNS)对临床分离致病菌的体外抗菌活性.方法 采用国际推行的琼脂平板和肉汤2倍稀释法测定GTLX等6个FQNS对250株临床分离的G+和G-的MIC.结果 抗菌活力排位大致为GTLX=MXLX>LVFX>OFLX>SPFX>CPLX.GTLX和MXLX对葡萄球菌属的MIC比其他4个FQNS低,对其他G+球菌亦是如此,GTLX(和MXLX对埃希菌属的MIC90比LVEX低2倍,比其他FQNS低8倍左右,而对肠肝菌属、假单胞菌属及其他G-杆菌的敏感率都明显的强.结论 临床分离的致病菌对FQNS的敏感率有下降趋势,目前GTLX和MXLX仍保持其广谱高效的抗菌作用.

  6. SOLUTION FOR ICHTHYOFAUNA MIGRATION UPSTREAM- DOWNSTREAM OF THE TWO SPILLWAYS LOCATED NEAR MANASTUR DAM ON THE SOMESUL MIC RIVER IN THE CLUJ NAPOCA CITY (ROMÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers.Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III and barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD are blocked but the Hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams etc located across the watercourse Somes Mic River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Someşul Mic River in the Manastur neighborhood. România is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004. This engineering solution for fish fauna migration upstream – downstream of the spillways supports the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  7. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Amphotericin B and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Ghannoum, M.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Turnidge, J.

    2011-01-01

    Although clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are available for Aspergillus spp. versus the triazoles and caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and amphotericin B. Two sets (CLSI/EUCAST broth microdilution) of available MICs were evaluated: those for A. fumigatus (3,988/833), A. flavus (793/194), A. nidulans (184/69), A. niger (673/140), A. terreus (545/266), and A. versicolor (135/22). Three sets of data were analyzed: (i) CLSI data gathered in eight independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States; (ii) EUCAST data from a single laboratory; and (iii) the combined CLSI and EUCAST data. ECVs, expressed in μg/ml, that captured 95%, 97.5%, and 99% of the modeled wild-type population (CLSI and combined data) were as follows: for A. fumigatus, 2, 2, and 4; for A. flavus, 2, 4, and 4; for A. nidulans, 4, 4, and 4; for A. niger, 2, 2, and 2; for A. terreus, 4, 4, and 8; and for A. versicolor, 2, 2, and 2. Similar to the case for the triazoles and caspofungin, amphotericin B ECVs may aid in the detection of strains with acquired mechanisms of resistance to this agent. PMID:21876047

  8. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A2 document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Ghannoum, M; Johnson, E; Pelaez, T; Pfaller, M A; Turnidge, J

    2011-11-01

    Although clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are available for Aspergillus spp. versus the triazoles and caspofungin. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ECVs for six Aspergillus spp. and amphotericin B. Two sets (CLSI/EUCAST broth microdilution) of available MICs were evaluated: those for A. fumigatus (3,988/833), A. flavus (793/194), A. nidulans (184/69), A. niger (673/140), A. terreus (545/266), and A. versicolor (135/22). Three sets of data were analyzed: (i) CLSI data gathered in eight independent laboratories in Canada, Europe, and the United States; (ii) EUCAST data from a single laboratory; and (iii) the combined CLSI and EUCAST data. ECVs, expressed in μg/ml, that captured 95%, 97.5%, and 99% of the modeled wild-type population (CLSI and combined data) were as follows: for A. fumigatus, 2, 2, and 4; for A. flavus, 2, 4, and 4; for A. nidulans, 4, 4, and 4; for A. niger, 2, 2, and 2; for A. terreus, 4, 4, and 8; and for A. versicolor, 2, 2, and 2. Similar to the case for the triazoles and caspofungin, amphotericin B ECVs may aid in the detection of strains with acquired mechanisms of resistance to this agent.

  9. Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chowdhary, A; Gonzalez, G M; Lass-Flörl, C; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J; Peláez, T; Pfaller, M A; Turnidge, J

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established for the new triazole isavuconazole and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) that were defined with 855 Aspergillus fumigatus, 444 A. flavus, 106 A. nidulans, 207 A. niger, 384 A. terreus, and 75 A. versicolor species complex isolates; 22 Aspergillus section Usti isolates were also included. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in Europe, India, Mexico, and the United States were aggregated to statistically define ECVs. ECVs were 1 μg/ml for the A. fumigatus species complex, 1 μg/ml for the A. flavus species complex, 0.25 μg/ml for the A. nidulans species complex, 4 μg/ml for the A. niger species complex, 1 μg/ml for the A. terreus species complex, and 1 μg/ml for the A. versicolor species complex; due to the small number of isolates, an ECV was not proposed for Aspergillus section Usti. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibility to isavuconazole due to cyp51A (an A. fumigatus species complex resistance mechanism among the triazoles) or other mutations.

  10. Liberalismo vs. neo-fascismo: perspectiva sociosemiótica y análisis político del cómic Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liber Daniel Cuñarro Conde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación analiza desde una perspectiva sociosemiótica y política algunos de los aspectos más relevantes del cómic Guerra Civil de Marvel como expresión de los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en los Estados Unidos de América. Dicho texto se examina desde los enfoques postulados por Greimas (1966 y Eco (1993. A tal efecto se ha seleccionado un corpus concreto, constituido por los siete ejemplares que representan la historia principal de la serie titulada Civil War, en su lenguaje original. Para lograr la comprensión del programa narrativo del cómic, este estudio proporciona el antetexto y la información pertinente para hacer posible una interpretación de los elementos políticos e ideológicos de la Guerra Civil de Marvel, su relación con la representación alegórica de los hechos históricos y su textualización como expresión simbólica de la sociedad contemporánea.

  11. Choosing R&D or advertising for competing firms in uncertain market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: R&D and advertising have become important means to enhance the competitiveness of firms’ products. Design an appropriate model to help the firm to make the right choice is value in supply chain.Design/methodology/approach: In considering that whether the market is completely covered or not, we build the strategy selection model for R&D and advertising for two competing firms and solve the optimal strategy.Findings and Originality/value: The research results show that when a firm does not take any measures to enhance competitiveness, another firm will neither. However when one takes measures to improve the competitiveness, another will do so, also. When two firms must choose one measure to improve the competitiveness, either in full-covered market or not full-covered market, the two firms will not choose to do advertising in step, even if the firms do not have to pay additional cost in advertising.Originality/value: In the game model, the firm could compare the own profit in different strategies. According to the above model, the firm choose the right strategy to make the profit maximize in a vertically differentiated market. And when the firm make the choice, it must think about other primary elements such as market.

  12. Motives and career barriers choosing studies in Physics and Mathematics: gender aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona, Augustiene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of professional motivation and career barriers from the gender point of view. The research problem is expressed in the following questions: what personal and socio-cultural factors motivate young people to choose Physics and Mathematics study programmes? Are there significant differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students? The sample consisted of 86 undergraduate students: 45 females and 41 male. Respondents were asked to write down their reflections as a free text answering the question why did they make such a professional choice choosing Physics and Mathematics studies. Motives that influenced the choice of Physics and Mathematics mostly expressed the dimension of self-realization and the dimension of material achievements. It was also found that both personality and social-cultural factors were important in choosing Physics and Mathematics, i.e. sensation of vocation and professional aptitude, as well as encouragement of relatives and good evaluation of future profession’s status. There were also found differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students.

  13. Choosing wisely: Review and commentary on anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzler, Marvin J

    2016-03-01

    Choosing Wisely®: Next Steps in Improving Healthcare Value is an initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation. The driving forces for the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign include rising and unstainable health care expenditures and evidence that there is lack of fiscal stewardship of health care resources. The American College of Rheumatology and the Canadian Rheumatology Association published their top five Choosing Wisely recommendations, the first of which pertained to antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA subserology testing. Concerns about the wasteful use of these tests prompted an analysis of the expenditures attributable to ANA testing as a proportion of total health care expenditures and based on a financial model was in the range of 0.00125%. It is suggested that if the sole use of ANA testing is to add evidence to support a diagnosis when the pre-test probability is high, then the ANA test has limited clinical value. Accordingly, the goal of ANA testing needs to be reconsidered and expanded beyond an approach to simply confirming a diagnosis with 'intention to treat' to a goal of case finding of 'pre- or early disease' with an 'intent to prevent' disease. This an area where more significant inroads can be made in preventing end organ disease and thereby reducing health care expenditures HCE. One CW recommendation that bears emphasizing is that, with a few possible exceptions, repeat ANA or ANA subserology testing has little clinical value in monitoring disease activity or predicting a flare.

  14. Antigen S1, encoded by the MIC1 gene, is characterized as an epitope of human CD59, enabling measurement of mutagen-induced intragenic deletions in the AL cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. B.; Seilly, D.; Willers, C.; Vannais, D. B.; McGraw, M.; Waldren, C. A.; Hei, T. K.; Davies, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    S1 cell membrane antigen is encoded by the MIC1 gene on human chromosome 11. This antigen has been widely used as a marker for studies in gene mapping or in analysis of mutagen-induced gene deletions/mutations, which utilized the human-hamster hybrid cell-line, AL-J1, carrying human chromosome 11. Evidence is presented here which identifies S1 as an epitope of CD59, a cell membrane complement inhibiting protein. E7.1 monoclonal antibody, specific for the S1 determinant, was found to react strongly with membrane CD59 in Western blotting, and to bind to purified, urinary form of CD59 in ELISAs. Cell membrane expression of S1 on various cell lines always correlated with that of CD59 when examined by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, E7.1 antibody inhibited the complement regulatory function of CD59. Identification of S1 protein as CD59 has increased the scope of the AL cell system by enabling analysis of intragenic mutations, and multiplex PCR analysis of mutated cells is described, showing variable loss of CD59 exons.

  15. Technical note: Coordination and harmonization of the multi-scale, multi-model activities HTAP2, AQMEII3, and MICS-Asia3: simulations, emission inventories, boundary conditions, and model output formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, Stefano; Koffi, Brigitte; Solazzo, Efisio; Keating, Terry; Hogrefe, Christian; Schulz, Michael; Benedictow, Anna; Griesfeller, Jan Jurgen; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Carmichael, Greg; Fu, Joshua; Dentener, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012-2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). To improve model estimates of the impacts of intercontinental transport of air pollution on climate, ecosystems, and human health and to answer a set of policy-relevant questions, these three initiatives performed emission perturbation modelling experiments consistent across the global, hemispheric, and continental/regional scales. In all three initiatives, model results are extensively compared against monitoring data for a range of variables (meteorological, trace gas concentrations, and aerosol mass and composition) from different measurement platforms (ground measurements, vertical profiles, airborne measurements) collected from a number of sources. Approximately 10 to 25 modelling groups have contributed to each initiative, and model results have been managed centrally through three data hubs maintained by each initiative. Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives to address a common set of policy-relevant questions, this publication provides the motivation for the modelling activity, the rationale for specific choices made in the model experiments, and an overview of the organizational structures for both the modelling and the measurements used and analysed in a number of modelling studies in this special issue.

  16. Factors influencing a patient's decision to choose the type of treatment to improve dental esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gržić Renata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroung/Aim. Interest in dental esthetics has increased rapidly during the last few decades among both patients and dentists, and the creation of a natural dental appearance has become an important task in all fields of dentistry, especially in prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. The aim of this research was to investigate factors influencing a patient's decision to choose the type of treatment to improve dental esthetics. Methods. A total of 700 Caucasian subjects participated in the crosssectional study (261 men, 439 women, aged 18-86 years, mean age 46.2 ± 18.6. The study included clinical examination and a self-administrated questionnaire based on self-perceived esthetics, satisfaction with the appearance of their maxillary anterior teeth and previous dental experience. Multiple logistic regression was used in statistical analysis. Results. Hiding teeth during smile was the most important predictor for choosing fixed prosthetic restorations (OR 9.1, followed by self-perceived bad fixed prosthesis, malpositioned teeth and female gender (OR 2.9, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively. The increase in satisfaction with dental appearance and previous orthodontic therapy reduced chances for seeking prosthetic therapy (each OR 0.4. The significant predictors for bleaching choosing were hiding teeth during smiling, already done bleaching, female gender, lower levels of satisfaction with dental appearance and the absence of the previous orthodontic therapy (OR 5.8, 2.4, 1.8, 0.5 and 0.4, respecitively. Hiding teeth during smile, self-perceived malposition and crowding, and lower levels of satisfaction, were significant predictors for choosing orthodontic treatment (OR 3.1, 2.4, 2.2 and 0.6, respectively. None of current dental statuses was statistically significant predictor for choosing prosthodontic, bleeching nor orthodontic therapy. Conclusion. The psychological elements and female gender are the main predictors of seeking dental therapy

  17. First Comprehensive Evaluation of the M.I.C. Evaluator Device Compared to Etest and CLSI Reference Dilution Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Strains of Anaerobes and Other Fastidious Bacterial Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, L.; Brosnikoff, C.; Cloke, J.

    2012-01-01

    The new M.I.C. Evaluator strip uses test methodology and the recording of results that are similar to those of Etest. For this first assessment, 102 clinical strains of anaerobic bacteria from 12 genera and 155 strains from 7 genera and 8 species of fastidious bacteria were tested by M.I.C. Evaluator, Etest, and agar dilution or broth microdilution as a reference standard. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, imipenem, levofloxacin, metronidazole, penicillin, and tetracycline were tested depending on the species. Agar dilution for anaerobes was performed according to CLSI document M11-A7. For the fastidious bacteria, CLSI document M45-A2 was followed. For the anaerobes, essential and categorical agreement between M.I.C. Evaluator and Etest was >90%. Compared to agar dilution, essential agreement was low for both strip tests, and many very major errors were observed for metronidazole (13 to 14%) and penicillin (8 to 9%) with isolates from the Bacteroides fragilis group and Clostridium species. For fastidious species, essential agreements for M.I.C. Evaluator and Etest plus or minus one doubling dilution were >95%. Compared to broth microdilution, essential agreements were low (40 to 90%) plus or minus one dilution and were >90% plus or minus two dilutions, with high overall category agreement (CA). Major and minor errors were within established parameters for all strains tested. The M.I.C. Evaluator strips were equivalent to Etest for anaerobes and fastidious species. These observations require further investigation to determine which methods provide the most accurate MIC for clinical utility. The further evaluation of additional M.I.C. Evaluator agents will be performed as they become available. PMID:22238439

  18. Autoras contemporáneas en la historieta española. Revisión de la etiqueta ‘cómic femenino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortijo, Adela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, whose title is so generic, does not intend to be an exhaustive and historiographic list of women authoring contemporary Spanish comics. A priori, the deficiencies of the global label “woman comic” are questioned and the representative work of a group of draftswomen and scriptwriters is shown, since the 1980 decade (Madriz, El Cairo and El Víbora to nowadays publications: Laura Pérez-Vernetti, Ana Juan, Ana Miralles, Sonia Pulido and Clara- Tanit. These authors are linked by a generational bond and offer a series of sights, paintstrokes, subjects and diverse plastic styles. The woman production phenomenon is observed along with its reception in ad hoc-collections published by some publishing houses through retrospectives, symposium and exhibitions which are still alerting about the so needed visibility. At the same time, both the atraction and the tendency towards the drawing art and equally the links between comic made by women and the concept related to the author comic, literature and egotistic tales are studied too.

    Este artículo, de título tan genérico, no pretende ser un listado exhaustivo e historiográfico de autoras de historieta contemporánea española. En esta aproximación se cuestionan a priori las deficiencias de la etiqueta global de “cómic femenino”, y se muestra el trabajo representativo de una serie de dibujantes y guionistas mujeres, desde los años ochenta (desde Madriz, El Cairo y El Víbora hasta la actualidad: Laura Pérez-Vernetti, Ana Juan, Ana Miralles, Sonia Pulido y Clara-Tanit. Autoras que se hilvanan en un hilo generacional y que ofrecen una explosión de miradas, de trazos, temas y estilos plásticos distintos. Se observa el fenómeno de la producción femenina y su recepción a través de colecciones ad hoc de algunas casas de edición, de retrospectivas, coloquios y exposiciones, que siguen alertando de la necesidad de una visibilidad

  19. Why do some males choose to breed at home when most other males disperse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Eve; Courtiol, Alexandre; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert; Höner, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal is a key driver of ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite substantial efforts to explain the evolution of dispersal, we still do not fully understand why individuals of the same sex of a species vary in their propensity to disperse. The dominant hypothesis emphasizes movements and assumes that leaving home (dispersal) and staying at home (philopatry) are two alternative strategies providing different fitness. It suggests that only individuals of high phenotypic quality can pursue the most beneficial strategy; the others are left to do a “best-of-a-bad” job. An alternative hypothesis emphasizes settlement decisions and suggests that all individuals pursue a single strategy of choosing the breeding habitat or group with the highest fitness prospects; choosing the natal group (philopatry) and choosing a nonnatal group (dispersal) are then outcomes of these decisions. We tested both hypotheses using a long-term study of a free-ranging population of a group-living carnivore, the spotted hyena. We combined demographic data with data on dispersal-relevant phenotypic traits, breeding-group choice, survival, and reproductive success of 254 males. Our results contradict the best-of-a-bad-job hypothesis: philopatric males and dispersers were of similar phenotypic quality, had similar fitness, and applied similar settlement rules based on the fitness prospects in groups. Our findings demonstrate that the distribution of breeding partners can be more important in shaping dispersal patterns than the costs associated with the dispersal movement. The study provides novel insights into the processes leading to the coexistence of philopatry and dispersal within the same sex of a species. PMID:27034982

  20. Health-related restrictions of choices and choosing: implications for quality of life and clinical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Gurland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Gurland1, Huai Cheng2, Mathew S Maurer31Columbia University Department of Psychiatry, Stroud Center for Study of Quality of Life, New York, NY, USA; 2Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY, USABackground: The process of “accessing choices and choosing among them” (c-c has been proposed as a model for understanding, evaluating, and assisting a patient’s management of quality of life. If desired choices are freely accessible, and the act of choosing is efficient and unconstrained, then the outcome is optimized quality of life. The c-c model fits many clinical situations where improved quality of life is a goal, and interventions may be aimed at relieving health-related restrictions of the patient’s desired activities. Aims: To determine the impact of health restrictions of choices and choosing on indicators and outcomes reflecting quality of life. Method: Secondary analysis of a community-based health survey of three ethnic groups, 65 years and older (n = 2,130, repeated after 18 months, with mortality over 6 years. Findings: Complaints of health restrictions of desired activities accounted for about half the variance of all determinants of a quality of life proxy indicator, and had a high frequency. Such complaints also predicted declines in mood and function, higher death rates, and increased service use.Conclusions: Clinical trials are warranted of the efficacy for quality of life improvement of interventions that focus on the relief of health-induced restrictions of desired activities.Keywords: choice, quality of life, aging, health restrictions

  1. Aplicació de rúbriques per a l'avaluació d'estudiants en grups de treball de laboratori químic

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El present treball de millora educativa constitueix un exemple de millora en les pràctiques de laboratori de l’assignatura QU0924 Química Inorgànica III mitjançant la introducció de rúbriques com a instrument d’avaluació. Clàssicament, l’avaluació en el laboratori químic es feia de manera subjectiva, és a dir, el professor tenia la intuïció de qui estava seguint i fent correctament les pràctiques. A més a més, la distribució dels grups de treball de laboratori per parelles feia mé...

  2. A 37-year-old man trying to choose a high-quality hospital: review of hospital quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    Mr A, a previously healthy 37-year-old man, was diagnosed as having Prinzmetal angina and a hypercoagulable state 3 years ago after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Now, his cardiologist is moving and Mr A must select a new physician and health system. Geographic relocation, insurance changes, and other events force millions in the United States to change physicians and hospitals every year. Mr A should begin by choosing a primary care physician, since continuity and coordination of care improves outcomes. Evidence for evaluating specific physicians is less robust, though a variety of sources are available. A broad range of detailed quality information, such as Medicare's Hospital Compare (http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov/), is available for selecting a hospital. However, the relationship of these metrics to patient outcomes is variable, and different Web sites provide meaningfully different rankings and data interpretations. For Mr A in particular, a warfarin management team, the hospital's location, and a cardiologist with whom he feels comfortable and who can communicate with his primary care physician are important factors. Nevertheless, hospital quality information and metrics are an important component of the strategy Mr A should take to solve this challenging problem.

  3. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  4. Decision and experience: why don't we choose what makes us happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsee, Christopher K; Hastie, Reid

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest among psychologists and other social scientists in subjective well-being and happiness. Here we review selected contributions to this development from the literature on behavioral-decision theory. In particular, we examine many, somewhat surprising, findings that show people systematically fail to predict or choose what maximizes their happiness, and we look at reasons why they fail to do so. These findings challenge a fundamental assumption that underlies popular support for consumer sovereignty and other forms of autonomy in decision-making (e.g. marriage choice), namely, the assumption that people are able to make choices in their own best interests.

  5. What Do You Think Would Make You Happier? What Do You Think You Would Choose?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Kimball, Miles S.; Heffetz, Ori; Rees-Jones, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Would people choose what they think would maximize their subjective well-being (SWB)? We present survey respondents with hypothetical scenarios and elicit both choice and predicted SWB rankings of two alternatives. While choice and predicted SWB rankings usually coincide in our data, we find systematic reversals. We identify factors—such as predicted sense of purpose, control over one’s life, family happiness, and social status—that help explain hypothetical choice controlling for predicted SWB. We explore how our findings vary by SWB measure and by scenario. Our results have implications regarding the use of SWB survey questions as a proxy for utility. PMID:23275649

  6. Choosing to be happy? Age differences in 'maximizing' decision strategies and experienced emotional well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Bruine de Bruin, W; Parker, A; Strough, J

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing is a decision strategy that seeks the very best option, which is more elaborate and potentially more regret-inducing than choosing an option that is ‘good enough.’ In surveys with a large national sample, we find that older adults are less likely than younger adults to self-report maximizing, which is associated with their better experienced well-being reported two years later. This pattern holds after controlling for demographic characteristics and negative life events. Our findin...

  7. How prevalent and costly are Choosing Wisely low-value services? Evidence from Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2014-10-01

    (1) Through the Choosing Wisely initiative, medical specialty societies identified non-indicated cardiac testing in low-risk patients and short-interval dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bone density testing as low-value care. (2) Nationally, 13 percent of low-risk Medicare beneficiaries received non-indicated cardiac tests, and 10 percent of DXAs reimbursed by Medicare were administered at inappropriately short intervals. There is significant geographic variation in the provision of these services. (2) Carefully designed policy and payment changes will likely prove most effective in reducing low-value care.

  8. Method of Choosing the Information Technology System Supporting Management of the Military Aircraft Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the information technology system, the task of which is to support the management process of the military aircraft operation. The proposed method is based on surveys conducted among direct users of IT systems used in aviation of the Polish Armed Forces. The analysis of results of the surveys was conducted using statistical methods. The paper was completed with practical conclusions related to further usefulness of the individual information technology systems. In the future, they can be extremely useful in the process of selecting the best solutions and integration of the information technology systems

  9. Choosing Open Source ERP Systems: What Reasons Are There For Doing So?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems attract a high attention and open source software does it as well. The question is then if, and if so, when do open source ERP systems take off. The paper describes the status of open source ERP systems. Based on literature review of ERP system selection criteria based on Web of Science articles, it discusses reported reasons for choosing open source or proprietary ERP systems. Last but not least, the article presents some conclusions that could act as input for future research. The paper aims at building up a foundation for the basic question: What are the reasons for an organization to adopt open source ERP systems.

  10. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  11. Dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão Dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, descreve-se o diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica aplicada em caso de dermatomicose e ceratite micótica causada por Exophiala sp em um cão com um ano e seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos incluíam alopecia, crostas, despigmentação e ulceração do plano nasal e focinho, e ceratite superficial bilateral no canto lateral dos olhos. Na cultura fúngica foi isolado Exophiala sp e o exame histopatológico da biopsia cutânea revelou dermatite nodular superficial e profunda granulomatosa. O tratamento com itraconazol sistêmico promoveu remissão dos sinais clínicos. Conclui-se que a realização de cultura fúngica e biópsia de pele são exames complementares eficazes no diagnóstico de dermatomicoses e que o emprego de itraconazol sistêmico pode ser efetivo no tratamento de dermatite fúngica e ceratite micótica causado por Exophiala sp em cão.This report describes the diagnosis and the therapeutic conduct applied to the cases of subcutaneous dermatomycosis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in a one and a half year-old dog. The clinical signs included alopecia, crusts, dispigmentation, ulcerations in the nose and superficial bilateral keratitis in the corner of the eyes. In the fungal cultures, Exophiala sp was isolated and the microscopic analysis revealed characteristics of fungal dermatitis. Systemic therapy with itraconazole evidenced remission of clinical signs. The realization of fungal cultures and cutaneous biopsy are efficient complementary procedures in the diagnosis of dermatomycosis and that the usage of oral itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of fungal dermatitis and mycotic keratitis caused by Exophiala sp in dogs.

  12. Choosing and using climate change scenarios for ecological-impact assessments and conservation decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy K. Snover,; Nathan J. Mantua,; Littell, Jeremy; Michael A. Alexander,; Michelle M. McClure,; Janet Nye,

    2013-01-01

    Increased concern over climate change is demonstrated by the many efforts to assess climate effects and develop adaptation strategies. Scientists, resource managers, and decision makers are increasingly expected to use climate information, but they struggle with its uncertainty. With the current proliferation of climate simulations and downscaling methods, scientifically credible strategies for selecting a subset for analysis and decision making are needed. Drawing on a rich literature in climate science and impact assessment and on experience working with natural resource scientists and decision makers, we devised guidelines for choosing climate-change scenarios for ecological impact assessment that recognize irreducible uncertainty in climate projections and address common misconceptions about this uncertainty. This approach involves identifying primary local climate drivers by climate sensitivity of the biological system of interest; determining appropriate sources of information for future changes in those drivers; considering how well processes controlling local climate are spatially resolved; and selecting scenarios based on considering observed emission trends, relative importance of natural climate variability, and risk tolerance and time horizon of the associated decision. The most appropriate scenarios for a particular analysis will not necessarily be the most appropriate for another due to differences in local climate drivers, biophysical linkages to climate, decision characteristics, and how well a model simulates the climate parameters and processes of interest. Given these complexities, we recommend interaction among climate scientists, natural and physical scientists, and decision makers throughout the process of choosing and using climate-change scenarios for ecological impact assessment.

  13. Influencing Factors on Choosing Psychiatry as a Career: An Exploration in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Zheng, Luna; Chen, Xiaoling; Gao, Qianqian; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    There is a consistent need of psychiatric professionals in the world including China, and a consistent challenge to recruit more medical students into the psychiatric careers. We aimed to look for factors which have an impact on career-choosing of psychiatry in Chinese university students. We invited 508 non-medical students (NM), 304 medical students without (MO) and 123 medical students with clinical internship experience (MW), to answer a matrix of 43 questions regarding factors influencing career-choosing of psychiatry. Answers to these questions were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, once the latent factors were identified and structurally-validated, their mean scores in three groups of students were calculated. Five factors with five items each were identified, namely social status inferiority, career importance, practice reward, career preference, and practice stress. NM scored lower than MO and MW did on Social Status Inferiority; NM group scored higher than MO and MW groups did on Career Importance; MW scored lower than NM and MO did on Practice Reward and on Career Preference; Regarding Practice Stress, NM scored higher than MO did, who then in turn, scored higher than MW did. In addition, Practice Stress was positively correlated with advice of the medical educators; and Social Status Inferiority and Career Preference were positively correlated with the psychiatry teaching of the medical educators. Raising career rewards, improving social status, and reinforcing psychiatric education might help to recruit more medical students to specialize in psychiatry practicing.

  14. Choosing and remaining in mental health nursing: perceptions of Western Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Carole A; Hauck, Yvonne; Hoffman, Rosemary

    2014-12-01

    Mental health nursing has an ageing workforce with a critical shortage of nurses in Western Australia. Additionally, mental health is not the preferred career for many graduate nurses. Current challenges with recruitment and retention suggest that strategies are needed to address this issue. This research project adopted a novel approach that focused on exploring the positive aspects of why mental health nurses remain, rather than why they leave. A cross-sectional design was employed comprising a brief interview survey, and nurses working within one public mental health service in Western Australia were invited to participate. A total of 192 nurses participated across 5 months, from adult, older adult, forensic, and education/research programmes. Thematic analysis was conducted from five key questions, and responses from questions one and two are discussed in this paper: 'Why did you choose mental health nursing?' and 'Why do you remain in mental health nursing?'. The main themes extracted in response to choosing mental health nursing were wanting to make a difference, mental health captured my interest, encouraged by others, and opportunities. Subsequent themes extracted from responses to remaining in mental health nursing were facing reality, passion for mental health nursing, patient-centred caring, and workplace conditions. Findings will be utilized to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of graduate nurses; further development of support systems, such as preceptorship training and improving student clinical experiences; as well as improving professional development opportunities for existing mental health nurses.

  15. Modeling the Intention to Choose Natural Vaginal Delivery: Using Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Kanani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Behavioral Intention Model is one of the best and most widely models used regarding attitude of behavioral of pregnancy and decrease the rate of cesarean section (CS among pregnant women, except effect of atti-tude and subjective norms on behavioral intention. Two variables of self-efficacy, and outcome expectation, relate to individual’s behavior in an upcoming situation, and both of them are important at the development of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model to explain women’s inten-tion to choose natural vaginal delivery (NVD. The variables of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, derived from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, and Behavioral Intention Model constructs were used to define the model.Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in nature and took place in Pars Abad, Iran in 2014. The non-probability sample consisted of 200 pregnant women who voluntarily participated in the study and provided the data. SPSS 21 and MPLUS 6.8 were employed to analyze the data.Results: Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and attitude toward NVD were associated with intention to choose the NVD.Conclusion: The study findings may play a role in designing educational inter-ventions aimed at influencing the NVD and improving childbirth programs.

  16. A New System for Choosing the Form and Size of Complete Denture Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Melilli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the absence of pre-extraction records, the choice of the size an form of anterior complete denture teeth can be extremely subjective. Several clinical and statistical parameters are usually used for choosing the correct size and form of the complete denture anterior teeth. Clinical Innovation: The technique consists of a system that allows the dentist to choose and, if necessary, easily change the dental mold during maxillomandibular recording session. The unique feature of the system is that six teeth of each mold are represented by veneers, which are connected to each other on the lingual surface by a fiber that allows each veneer some degree of movement. Discussion: This technique allows the three-dimensional verification of the patient’s esthetics and realistic phonetic test during the session of maxillomandibular records; if necessary, the dentist may easily replace the mold with a different one in form or size, without working the wax to move or replace a tooth.

  17. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  18. Scenario analysis in business model choosing for instrument-making enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Krykavskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this study is to develop the selection technology of the enterprise business model in conditions of market dynamism and uncertainty, as well as testing of this technology at a specific enterprise according to the method of situational analysis. The results of the analysis. Economic development of modern markets is characterized by the fact that almost all the enterprises experience significant dynamics and a high degree of entropy, which complicates the decision-making process. As the basic unit of the economy, the enterprise should respond correctly to new objective challenges, including: instability of global financial markets, business intellectualization and acceleration of scientific-technological progress with simultaneous strengthening of environmental demands to economic systems, increasing of competition and its transition to a global level, rapid change of consumer demands and individualization of consumer proposal, increased attention to corporate responsibility towards society and so on. Obviously, the important task of modern enterprises becomes a justification of business organization model, which is selected in accordance with the established potential and the aforementioned challenges. The authors have developed a selection technology of the enterprise business model, which involves the combination of scenarios use, strategic alternatives matrix, SWOT-analysis and the method of «decisions tree» during the implementation of the following steps: - generating of alternative scenarios of enterprise business models with the help of strategic alternatives matrix. Previously prepared analytical materials are used in the preparation of scenarios. Creating a scenario involves the following steps: determining a time interval formulation of the events, verbal interpretation of their essence, their quantitative assessment; - choosing the type of scenarios and scenarios selection criteria for business

  19. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  20. Los insectos como Estrategia Didactica en la enseñanza de la Ecologia, a través del Cómic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Robles Piñeros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de implementar una estrategia didáctica basada en el estudio de los insectos como organismo tipo, haciendo énfasis en su importancia filogenética y ecológica. Por consiguiente, se abordaron algunos conceptos estructurantes de ecología pertinentes y necesarios en los grados octavos del Instituto Pedagógico Nacional (IPN; se propició un acercamiento a las problemáticas ambientales actuales y se promovió la conservación biológica desde el contexto inmediato. Parallevar a cabo estos objetivos, el proyecto se fundamentó en la realización de un cómic que funcionó como herramienta y recurso educativo que articula conceptos de entomología, ecología, conservación y permitió contribuir en la alfabetización científica del estudiante a través de un lenguaje sencillo y atractivo, hecho que además brindó la posibilidad de abordar la ciencia desde una visión holística y contextual. La finalización del proyecto de investigación permitió la evaluación de la estrategia y la materialización del cómic. El seguimiento realizado posibilitó visualizar la ampliación delas concepciones en uno de los obstáculos en el aprendizaje de las ciencias referido a los conocimientos previos, lo cual desarrolló en los estudiantes actitudes y tendencias positivas frente a los insectos y la naturaleza, su conservación y la responsabilidad inminente con el medio ambiente. El lenguaje cotidiano, promovido por el contexto social y cultural, se concibe como el principal obstáculo epistemológico en la enseñanza de la ecología. El abordaje de conceptos básicos en ecología fue un factor de transformación en las actitudes y percepciones de los estudiantes con respecto a los insectos. En cuanto al cómic, este se mantiene como una herramienta llamativa, eficaz y motivadora para la enseñanza de las temáticas científicas y promueve al estudiante actuar frente a las problemáticas ambientales más pr

  1. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria: Table 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2016-12-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetized neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  2. Opting in and Creating Demand: Why Young People Choose to Teach Mathematics to Each Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Lewis, Naama; Moses, Maisha; Milner, Chad

    2016-12-01

    Access to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields serves as a key entry point to economic mobility and civic enfranchisement. Such access must take seriously the intellectual power of the knowledge and practices of non-dominant youth. In our case, this has meant to shift epistemic authority in mathematics from academic institutions to young people themselves. This article is about why high school-aged students, from underrepresented groups, choose to participate in an out-of-school time program in which they teach younger children in the domains of mathematics and computer science. It argues for programmatic principles based on access, identity engagement, relationship building, and connections to community to support underrepresented youth as learners, teachers, leaders, and organizers in mathematics-related activities using game design as the focus of activity.

  3. Live as we choose: The role of autonomy support in facilitating intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    According to Self-determination Theory (SDT), autonomy is a basic psychological need, satisfaction of which may lead to enhanced intrinsic motivation and related beneficial outcomes. By manipulating the opportunity to choose between tasks of equal difficulty, throughout the motivational process, the effect of autonomy support was examined both behaviorally and electrophysiologically. More negative stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and an enlarged FRN loss-win difference wave (d-FRN) indicated an enhanced expectation toward the positive outcome (during the anticipation stage) as well as intensified intrinsic motivation toward the task (during the outcome appraisal stage) when choice was available. Taken together, results of the present study suggest d-FRN upon feedback as a real-time electrophysiological indicator of intrinsic/autonomous motivation and illustrate the important role of autonomy-supportive job design in the workplace.

  4. A new method for choosing parameters in delay reconstruction-based forecast strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, Joshua; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Delay-coordinate reconstruction is a proven modeling strategy for building effective forecasts of nonlinear time series. The first step in this process is the estimation of good values for two parameters, the time delay and the reconstruction dimension. Many heuristics and strategies have been proposed in the literature for estimating these values. Few, if any, of these methods were developed with forecasting in mind, however, and their results are not optimal for that purpose. Even so, these heuristics -- intended for other applications -- are routinely used when building delay coordinate reconstruction-based forecast models. In this paper, we propose a general framework for choosing optimal parameter values for forecast methods that are based on delay-coordinate reconstructions. The basic calculation involves maximizing the shared information between each delay vector and the future state of the system. We illustrate the effectiveness of this method on several synthetic and experimental systems, showing tha...

  5. You Are What You See and Choose: Agreeableness and Situation Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Konrad; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Agreeableness positively predicts subjective well-being, but why does it do so? Recent theorizing has highlighted possible substrates related to emotion regulation. Following suit, the present studies focus on the situation selection stage of the emotion regulation sequence. Undergraduate participants reported on their agreeableness levels and completed a picture-viewing task (Studies 1 and 2) or a media choice task (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that the tendency to view negative pictures for a longer period of time than positive pictures was evident at low levels of agreeableness and absent at high levels. The Study 3 paradigm asked individuals whether they typically choose to expose themselves to positive or negative stimuli across diverse media sources. Preferences for positive media were more pronounced at higher levels of agreeableness. The results have systematic implications for understanding the emotional lives of disagreeable versus agreeable people.

  6. Analysis and design of a web-based decision support system for choosing higher education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostoglou Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vocational orientation of the youngsters who are about to enter, study, or have recently graduated at higher education (HE institutions, and linking HE with labor market are two research areas which have not been investigated extensively in Balkan countries. Job (or occupational profiles, among other tools used in vocational orientation, provide standardized and digitized descriptions of different professions. This article focuses on the analysis and the design of a web-based decision support system (DSS to assist its users in getting thoroughly informed about HE studies in Greece, and eventually in choosing their vocational prospects. Apart from reviewing the related previous research work and relevant web-based systems, we present the main elements of the system’s analysis and its design, the extensions that could lead to even more powerful systems, and conclusions about the advantages, limitations and practical application of the DSS.

  7. Description of women's personality traits and psychological vulnerability prior to choosing hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loekkegaard, E; Eplov, L F; Køster, A

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data suggest that women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) represent a special subgroup of the general population regarding, for instance, cardiovascular risk factors and education. OBJECTIVE: To analyse if women who choose HRT are characterised a priori by high neuroticism score...... included Eysencks personality questionnaire concerning intro/extroversion and neuroticism. At the age of 45, the re-examination of the women included a test for psychological vulnerability. The participants reported whether or not they used HRT at the age of 40, 45, 51 and 60 years. The analyses comprised...... "never users" of HRT and "future users", defined as women who started HRT subsequent to baseline registration during the observation period. The groups were compared by multivariate statistical methods to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Women with high neuroticism score at the age of 40 were...

  8. Instructors’ reasons for choosing problem features in a calculus-based introductory physics course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Yerushalmi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the beliefs and values of physics faculty influence their choice of physics problems for their students in an introductory physics course. The study identifies the goals these instructors have for their students, the problem features they believe facilitate those goals, and how those features correspond to problems they choose to use in their classes. This analysis comes from an artifact-based interview of 30 physics faculty teaching introductory calculus-based physics at a wide variety of institutions. The study concludes that instructors’ goals and the problem features they believe support those goals align with research-based curricular materials intended to develop competent problem solvers. However, many of these instructors do not use the beneficial problem features because they believe these features conflict with a more powerful set of values concerned with clarity of presentation and minimizing student stress, especially on exams.

  9. Children choose their own stories: the impact of choice on children's learning of new narrative skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kiren; Nelson, Keith; Whyte, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence that early narrative abilities are predictive of literacy skills and academic achievement, only limited progress has been made in understanding how the development of these narrative skills can be facilitated. The current study measured the effectiveness of a new narrative intervention conducted with 26 preschoolers. Children were assigned to one of two intervention conditions: an active-choice condition (able to choose story components) or a no-choice condition (story components were preselected). Both groups otherwise received the same explicit and engaging teaching of story grammar. As predicted, greater narrative skill gains were evident for the active-choice intervention; including larger gains on both central story grammar components and story information overall. Future implications for how stories might be presented to young children in order to more richly facilitate narrative skill acquisition are discussed.

  10. Entropy-Based Method of Choosing the Decomposition Level in Wavelet Threshold De-noising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Sang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy distributions of various noises following normal, log-normal and Pearson-III distributions are first described quantitatively using the wavelet energy entropy (WEE, and the results are compared and discussed. Then, on the basis of these analytic results, a method for use in choosing the decomposition level (DL in wavelet threshold de-noising (WTD is put forward. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified by analysis of both synthetic and observed series. Analytic results indicate that the proposed method is easy to operate and suitable for various signals. Moreover, contrary to traditional white noise testing which depends on “autocorrelations”, the proposed method uses energy distributions to distinguish real signals and noise in noisy series, therefore the chosen DL is reliable, and the WTD results of time series can be improved.

  11. A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF KEY POINTS WHEN CHOOSING OPEN SOURCE ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gustavo Dos Santos Gripe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at presenting a theoretical analysis of the main features of Open Source ERP systems, herein identified as success technical factors, in order to contribute to the establishment of parameters to be used in decision-making processes when choosing a system which fulfills the organization´s needs. Initially, the life cycle of ERP systems is contextualized, highlighting the features of Open Source ERP systems. As a result, it was verified that, when carefully analyzed, these systems need further attention regarding issues of project continuity and maturity, structure, transparency, updating frequency, and support, all of which are inherent to the reality of this type of software. Nevertheless, advantages were observed in what concerns flexibility, costs, and non-discontinuity as benefits. The main goal is to broaden the discussion about the adoption of Open Source ERP systems.

  12. Opting in and Creating Demand: Why Young People Choose to Teach Mathematics to Each Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Lewis, Naama; Moses, Maisha; Milner, Chad

    2016-08-01

    Access to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields serves as a key entry point to economic mobility and civic enfranchisement. Such access must take seriously the intellectual power of the knowledge and practices of non-dominant youth. In our case, this has meant to shift epistemic authority in mathematics from academic institutions to young people themselves. This article is about why high school-aged students, from underrepresented groups, choose to participate in an out-of-school time program in which they teach younger children in the domains of mathematics and computer science. It argues for programmatic principles based on access, identity engagement, relationship building, and connections to community to support underrepresented youth as learners, teachers, leaders, and organizers in mathematics-related activities using game design as the focus of activity.

  13. Analytic Hierarchy Process While Choosing Authentication with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Cihad Çağlayan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it cannot be thought that companies carry out their activities stand away from technology. Especially, with Fourth Industrial Revolution 4.0 (Industry 4.0 smart technologies has started to play big role in factories. One of the innovation of industry 4.0 is RFI technology, today used by various industries in multiple areas, and there are widespread researches about this subject thus aims that to improve these technologies one step further. Besides that, management of technology becomes more crucial from many points of view of companies. Inaccurate technology investment usually might cause loss for companies. In this context, in order to choose best RFID option with defined criteria, at a company in automotive sector where technological development is followed and implemented, hierarchical model is established and from based on this model analytical hierarchy process used and an application is carried out.

  14. Guidelines for choosing molecular "alligator clip" binding motifs in electron transport devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Matthew G.; Seideman, Tamar; Ratner, Mark A.

    2011-04-01

    We employ a one-electron, tight-binding model of an electrode-molecule-electrode junction to explore the fundamental relationship between adsorption geometry and electron transport, producing exact results (within this model). By varying the chemisorption location (e.g., atop a surface atom or in a hollow site between surface atoms) and the molecule-electrode coupling, we find that the largest currents are realized when the molecule (i) is highly coordinated by the surface and (ii) has favorable overlap with electrode states near the Fermi level. We also show the importance of electrode-induced molecular level shifting for certain adsorption geometries, which can cause molecular levels far from the Fermi level to conduct better than those near the Fermi level. Since all of these factors are greatly influenced by the chemical moiety used to link the molecule to an electrode, these results present a set of guidelines to help choose "alligator clips" for molecular electronic devices.

  15. RELATIONSHIP AMONG CORPORATE IMAGE, INTANGIBLE PERCEIVED QUALITY, CHOOSING, HABIT AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam REHMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores relationships among Corporate Image, Intangible Perceived Quality, Choosing, Habit and Customer Loyalty and investigates the pivotal role these variables play in establishing and maintaining healthy base of loyal customers. Data were collected from Pakistani bank account holders and the empirical findings showed that corporate image plays the most important role in establishing and maintaining customer loyalty in the markets. Organizations always look forward to long lasting success. In order to be successful in the long run, they need to keep abreast with all of their stakeholders. Out of the stakeholders, customers are considered to be the most important one. Customer Loyalty is a psychological motive which today’s managers are considerate about. This study concludes that long-term success and sustainable reputation of an organization depends on customer loyalty.

  16. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function. How should we choose?

    CERN Document Server

    Dorato, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The main claim of the paper is that one can be 'realist' (in some sense) about quantum mechanics without requiring any form of realism about the wave function. We begin by discussing various forms of realism about the wave function, namely Albert's configuration-space realism, Duerr Zanghi and Goldstein's nomological realism about the wave function, Esfeld's dispositional reading of the wave function and Pusey Barrett and Rudolph's realism about the quantum state. By discussing the articulation of these four positions, and their interrelation, we conclude that instrumentalism about the wave function is by itself not sufficient to choose one over the other interpretations of quantum mechanics, thereby confirming in a different way the indetermination of the metaphysical interpretations of quantum mechanics.

  17. Refined Method for Choosing a Security Solution for Mobile Application – Web Service Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a refined algorithm for choosing the appropriate security implementation for mobile applications connecting to web services. Common security scenarios are presented. Each scenario has several characteristics associated. The correlations between these security scenarios characteristics are computed and selected only the characteristics that are less correlated. The proposed algorithm inventories the available scenarios, inventories the requirements and selects the security scenario that match. A case study applies the proposed method to a situation where a WP7 application and a WCF service are interacting. Security scenarios for WCF services and their characteristics are described. Application security requirements are established. A security solution is proposed based on the results of the proposed method.

  18. ["Choosing wisely" in infectious diseases : Overuse of antibiotics - too few vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, N; Koop, H; Riessen, R; Galle, J-C; Jany, B; Märker-Herrmann, E

    2016-06-01

    The "choosing wisely" recommendations of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and its specialist societies address diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are of particular medical importance but applied too often or too rarely in clinical practice. The aim is to further improve treatment of patients. Important topics of overuse and insufficient treatment related to the diagnostics, therapy, prevention and exclusion of infectious diseases could be identified. These topics not only play an important role in the discipline of infectious diseases but are also relevant for other internal medical disciplines. These topics related to infectious diseases have also been integrated into the recommendations of the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases as well as the German Societies for Internal Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, for Pneumology, for Nephrology and for Rheumatology. The pivotal issues of the recommendations are the inappropriate use of antibiotics and insufficient vaccination rates.

  19. Determination Of Prevalence Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Infections Through Measurement Of Mics Of S. Aureus Isolates Imam Hospital (November 2001 To January 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohraz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen which its prevalence has increased worldwide over the past three decades."nMaterials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The following study is designed for determination of prevalence of MRSA infection through measurement of MICs of S. aureus isolates in Imam Khomeini Hospital (a teaching hospital from November 2001 to January 2003. A total number of 402 specimens were isolated and specified as S. aureus by Imam Khomeini microbiology lab. Demographic and clinical data and results of MIC were analysed by Epilnfo 6 software."nResults: During the study, staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 402 patients that 187 (46.5% of isolates were MRSA and 215 (53.5% were MSSA. Of 402 patients, 254 (63.2% were male and 148 (36.8% were female. The difference of the prevalence of MRSA between males and females was not statistically significant (p= 0.09. The difference in mean age in MRSA and MSSA groups was not statistically significant (p= 0.55. In the age group of < 1 month, the prevalence of MRSA infection was significantly higher than other groups (P= 0.01."nConclusion: In this study, the prevalence of MRSA infection was increased, statistically significant in the presence of such factors as sepsis, longer duration of hospitalization, hospital- acquired infection, history of invasive procedure, history of antimicrobials used in the past 3 months and type of administered antimicrobial (s, history of hospitalization in the preceding year, certain underlying diseases, type of admission ward, type of infection, type of specimen and type of administered antimicrobials for treatment. Surprisingly, the prevalence of MRSA infection in IV drug user group was low that was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. In this study, there was no statistically significant difference in outcome between MRSA infected and MSSA infected patients. Based on results of

  20. Choosing to biopsy or refer suspicious melanocytic lesions in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robison Sean

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs are involved in the management of most melanocytic skin lesions in Australia. A high quality biopsy technique is a crucial first step in management, as it is recognized that poor techniques can mislead, delay, or miss a diagnosis of melanoma. There has been little published on the biopsy decisions and techniques of GPs. This study aims to describe the current management choices made by GPs for suspicious melanocytic skin lesions and to compare their choices with the best practice guidelines. Methods An anonymous survey of GPs presented with three clinical scenarios with increasing complexity of melanoma in which a referral or biopsy decision was specified. Results 391 mailed surveys with a 76.3% response rate. Mean biopsy experience was 4.14 biopsies per GP per month. The rates of choosing to refer among the three scenarios were 31%, 52% and 81% respectively, with referral to surgery being the most common choice (81%. Most biopsy techniques (55% were chosen according to best practice guidelines, although non-guideline biopsy techniques chosen included shave (n = 10, punch biopsy (n = 57, wide excisions (n = 65, and flaps (n = 10. The few GPs (n = 5 who identified themselves as skin specialist GPs were no more likely to adhere to guidelines than their colleagues. Conclusion A majority of referrals and biopsies were chosen by GPs according to best practice guidelines, but concern remains for the high proportion of GPs making non-guideline based choices. How GPs choose to biopsy or refer needs further training, audit, and research if Australia is to improve the outcome of melanoma management in general practice.

  1. Religious freedom and family life: reflections on the right to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrow, L M

    1985-01-01

    Family integrity, family life and family privacy, and parental authority are the arguments used to convince legislators to pass parental consent and notification laws and judges to uphold them. Those who favor these laws argue that the government is interfering with family life and undermining parental authority when it permits minors to get abortions without parental consent or notification. It is time to challenge the family integrity argument. Too often the notion is accepted that abortion is unique in the sense that it is unlike all other constitutionally protected rights. Imagine a 16-year-old girl who lives in a rigidly orthodox Catholic family who is never encouraged to read and think, even about religious laws. One day she discovers that that she is pregnant. This young woman thinks of her dreams of the future and her ability to care for and raise a child. Ultimately, she decides to have an abortion. She finds a local doctor and clinic and has an abortion without her parents' knowledge or consent. Carol Gilligan, in her book, "In a Different Voice," examines the psychological development of women. Her studies reveal that, for women, decisions about pregnancy are among the most significant in providing opportunities for moral development, personal growth, and the separation from family that achieving adulthood requires. Yet, some would deny women that opportunity to make these decisions by requiring parental consent or notice. The right to choose abortion is not all that different from other constitutionally protected individual rights. Both free speech and the right to choose provide unequalled opportunities for people to become responsible, thinking citizens. Possibly abortion is not unique, since many decisions affect and involve other's lives. What is unique is that moral reasoning is not attributed to young women who must make choices about pregnancy.

  2. Choosing and using climate-change scenarios for ecological-impact assessments and conservation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, Amy K; Mantua, Nathan J; Littell, Jeremy S; Alexander, Michael A; McClure, Michelle M; Nye, Janet

    2013-12-01

    Increased concern over climate change is demonstrated by the many efforts to assess climate effects and develop adaptation strategies. Scientists, resource managers, and decision makers are increasingly expected to use climate information, but they struggle with its uncertainty. With the current proliferation of climate simulations and downscaling methods, scientifically credible strategies for selecting a subset for analysis and decision making are needed. Drawing on a rich literature in climate science and impact assessment and on experience working with natural resource scientists and decision makers, we devised guidelines for choosing climate-change scenarios for ecological impact assessment that recognize irreducible uncertainty in climate projections and address common misconceptions about this uncertainty. This approach involves identifying primary local climate drivers by climate sensitivity of the biological system of interest; determining appropriate sources of information for future changes in those drivers; considering how well processes controlling local climate are spatially resolved; and selecting scenarios based on considering observed emission trends, relative importance of natural climate variability, and risk tolerance and time horizon of the associated decision. The most appropriate scenarios for a particular analysis will not necessarily be the most appropriate for another due to differences in local climate drivers, biophysical linkages to climate, decision characteristics, and how well a model simulates the climate parameters and processes of interest. Given these complexities, we recommend interaction among climate scientists, natural and physical scientists, and decision makers throughout the process of choosing and using climate-change scenarios for ecological impact assessment. Selección y Uso de Escenarios de Cambio Climático para Estudios de Impacto Ecológico y Decisiones de Conservación.

  3. Reasons for mini-implants failure: choosing installation site should be valued!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mini-implant loss is often associated with physical and mechanical aspects that result from choosing an inappropriate placement site. It is worth highlighting that: a Interdental alveolar bone crests are flexible and deformable. For this reason, they may not offer the ideal absolute anchorage. The more cervical the structures, the more delicate they are, thus offering less physical support for mini-implant placement; b Alveolar bone crests of triangular shape are more deformable, whereas those of rectangular shape are more flexible; c The bases of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and the mandible are not flexible, for this reason, they are more likely to receive mini-implants; d The more cervical a mini-implant is placed, the higher the risk of loss; the more apical a mini-implant is placed, the better its prognosis will be; e 3D evaluations play a major role in planning the use of mini-implants. Based on the aforementioned considerations, the hypotheses about mini-implant loss are as follows: 1 Deflection of maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes when mini-implants are more cervically placed; 2 Mini-implants placed too near the periodontal ligament, with normal intra-alveolar tooth movement; 3 Low bone density, low thickness and low alveolar bone volume; 4 Low alveolar cortical bone thickness; 5 Excessive pressure inducing trabecular bone microfracture; 6 Sites of higher anatomical weakness in the mandible and the maxilla; 7 Thicker gingival tissue not considered when choosing the mini-implant.

  4. Delineating Two Exclusive Views on Power of Choosing & Modal Dynamics of Double Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Jalalpourroodsari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavors to make use of the theories presented by French semiotician Algirdas Julien Greimas, in order to demonstrate the main structural exchanges inherent within some of the critical choices and acute performances at the heart of Ibsen’s A Doll’s House. In this study, the syntagmatic exchange structures and the paradigmatic structures of gift and test which are at work within the narrative line of the play are discussed and exteriorized so that there can be a better apprehension and appreciation for the internal path of signification concerning the relation of the main couple actants (Note 1 in this discourse. It will be seen how the power to choose of the protagonists of exchange or loci of exchange structures might be exercised or overlooked and how one may devalorise and negate an offer of exchange based on the way it is modally interpreted. This study will contemplate on the manner in which one’s voluntary renunciation of rights may metamorphose into a manipulative and deceptive dispossession of that right, when actants get involved in parallel programmes which are complementary and at the same time contradictory to one another. Thus, through adopting such a perspective towards the choices made and the dilemmas faced by the main actants of Ibsen’s discourse, one gets the chance to have a more tangible canvas on which to draw Nora and Torvald’s change of hearts and malfunctioning transactions.  Keywords: Exchange Structure, Double Performance, Power of Choosing, Dilemma, Free Choice, Veridictory  Modality, Overmodality, Valence, Attribution, Renunciation, Dispossession, Appropriation.

  5. Mic Check/Reality Check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Vrasti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of months history has been unfolding with dizzying speed. The #occupy model of leaderless, demandless direct action, which in the beginning no one with only a slim understanding of how capitalism works thought could become anything more than a facile if charming jab at anti-corporate activism, has gone viral. Every morning we wake up to new reports about ‘occupying X’, where X can be anything from cities, campuses, boardrooms, buildings, highways, and public events, all the way to academic disciplines. What originally seemed like a romantic fantasy about temporary autonomous zones now feels like history. And no one likes to find themselves on thewrong side of history, especially not intellectuals, let alone intellectuals in the business of explaining global politics.

  6. Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    low lying areas breaks down protective coating system and causes structural corrosion , • Water and organic/inorganic nutrients BUSINESS SENSITIVE...Chemical disinfection (T.O 1-1-8 and T.O 1-1-691) • Biocidal rinses and coatings • Biocidal Corrosion Preventative Compounds or CPCs BUSINESS...Type: H    Proprietary  Coating  w/ Silver  Inhibitor   Non‐Chrome Treatment + Mg‐Rich  Primer  Coupon Type: I    Prekote® (Pantheon Chemical) N/A

  7. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohad Mabood Husain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial quorum sensing (QS is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil at sub-MICs strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the quorum sensing inhibitory activity exhibited by peppermint oil to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with quorum sensing systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two E. coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs quorum sensing systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum quorum sensing inhibitor.

  8. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fohad M; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohammad S; Ahmad, Ejaz; Tahseen, Qudisa; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alshabib, Nasser A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil (PMO) at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (sub-MICs) strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the QS inhibitory activity exhibited by PMO to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with QS systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors, and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two Escherichia coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs QS systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum QS inhibitor.

  9. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision.

  10. Brief Report: The Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS)--Factor Structure, Reliability, and Convergent Validity in French-Speaking University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Genoud, Philippe A.; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and the reliability of the French versions of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) in a sample of college students (N = 457, 18-25 years old). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution…

  11. Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G.M.; Guinea, J.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Thompson, G.R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of isavuconazole are not available for Cryptococcus spp. The isavuconazole ECVs based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions for 438 Cryptococcus neoformans nongenotyped isolates, 870 isolates of genotype VNI, and 406 Cryptococcus gattii isolates from six laboratori

  12. Statistical Analyses of Correlation between Fluconazole MICs for Candida spp. Assessed by Standard Methods Set Forth by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (E.Dis. 7.1) and CLSI (M27-A2)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Donnelly, J. Peter; Pfaller, Michael A.; Chryssantou, Erja; Warn, Peter; Denning, David W.; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Barchiesi, Francesco; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing recently published a standard for determining the susceptibility of fermentative yeasts to antifungals. From the beginning, the EUCAST and its North American counterpart, the CLSI, decided to work together in order to establish common standards. As part of this exercise, the susceptibility of a set of 475 yeast isolates was tested by both standards. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the equations defining the linear regression between both methods were estimated. Both methods produced very similar results, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.954 (0.945 to 0.962), although linear regression analysis shows that the EUCAST standard resulted in slightly lower MICs. There were only eight isolates showing at least four twofold dilution MIC differences between both standards. After 24 h of incubation, the MICs obtained by the CLSI method were equivalent to those obtained by the EUCAST standard. In summary, both methods produce very similar MICs, indicating that methodology does not pose any obstacle to obtaining uniform standards for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. PMID:17093015

  13. THE ROLE AND THE IMPORTANCE IN CHOOSING THE PROPER MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS REGARDING THE NEED FOR INFORMATION ON THE DECISION MAKING FACTORS WITHIN THE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both the theory and modern practice of the management accounting took over two general concepts regarding its organizational process, structuring accounting in either an integrated system or a dualist one. We aim at emphasizing the characteristics, the role and the importance of these concepts in regards to the calculation process and the accounting entries of the costs generated by economic entities with an eye at gaining profit. Choosing one of the previously mentioned concepts must be done taking into consideration the specific of the company in question as well as the information necessary to the manager who needs to find out the optimum solution in order to achieve the rehabilitation and efficiency of the activity which is supposed to be carried out. The subject of this work is approached both theoretically and practically, relying on the following research methods: the comparison method, the observation method and the case study method.

  14. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  15. Do female Nicrophorus vespilloides reduce direct costs by choosing males that mate less frequently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazué, G. P. F.; Carter, M. J.; Head, M. L.; Moore, A. J.; Royle, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when selection to maximize fitness in one sex does so at the expense of the other sex. In the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, repeated mating provides assurance of paternity at a direct cost to female reproductive productivity. To reduce this cost, females could choose males with low repeated mating rates or smaller, servile males. We tested this by offering females a dichotomous choice between males from lines selected for high or low mating rate. Each female was then allocated her preferred or non-preferred male to breed. Females showed no preference for males based on whether they came from lines selected for high or low mating rates. Pairs containing males from high mating rate lines copulated more often than those with low line males but there was a negative relationship between female size and number of times she mated with a non-preferred male. When females bred with their preferred male the number of offspring reared increased with female size but there was no such increase when breeding with non-preferred males. Females thus benefited from being choosy, but this was not directly attributable to avoidance of costly male repeated mating. PMID:26979560

  16. Choosing processor array configuration by performance modeling for a highly parallel linear algebra algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, R.J.; Maschhoff, K.J.

    1991-04-01

    Many linear algebra algorithms utilize an array of processors across which matrices are distributed. Given a particular matrix size and a maximum number of processors, what configuration of processors, i.e., what size and shape array, will execute the fastest The answer to this question depends on tradeoffs between load balancing, communication startup and transfer costs, and computational overhead. In this paper we analyze in detail one algorithm: the blocked factored Jacobi method for solving dense eigensystems. A performance model is developed to predict execution time as a function of the processor array and matrix sizes, plus the basic computation and communication speeds of the underlying computer system. In experiments on a large hypercube (up to 512 processors), this model has been found to be highly accurate (mean error {approximately} 2%) over a wide range of matrix sizes (10 {times} 10 through 200 {times} 200) and processor counts (1 to 512). The model reveals, and direct experiment confirms, that the tradeoffs mentioned above can be surprisingly complex and counterintuitive. We propose decision procedures based directly on the performance model to choose configurations for fastest execution. The model-based decision procedures are compared to a heuristic strategy and shown to be significantly better. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Personal values Involved in choosing a College: Analysis Using the Means-End Chain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Carolina Viana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation the reasons for choice of products and services by consumers stands out as relevant in the area of ​​market studies, as well as notes management for any organization. Through the Theory of Means-End Chain proposed by Gutman (1982, which relates the “means” (attributes and benefits linked to the consumption of products or services with the “ends” in terms of personal values achieved, it is possible understand of the meanings that consumers attribute the choice of products and services in a more abstract level. Thus, the objective of this study is to understand what aspects, considering attributes, consequences and personal values ​​guide the behavior of students in choosing the nursing course at a private institution of higher education. Based on the theory mentioned it was adopted the technique laddering, in-depth interview and analysis methodology and representation of the hierarchical value map, which was interpreted and analyzed in order to understand the cognitive structure of students’ choice.The analysis of the results indicate that students are guided primarily by hedonistic values of happiness itself the choice of nursing in college studied.

  18. What Would Women Choose When Given a Choice in Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Caleb J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction after mastectomy is an important milestone for many women treated for breast cancer. However, because many surgeons only offer their preferred method of reconstruction, it is not clear which approach women would choose if offered a genuine choice. Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, the breast reconstruction service at a major Australian teaching hospital was staffed by a single plastic surgeon trained in both prosthetic and autologous breast reconstruction techniques. The choices of all 837 women who underwent reconstruction were compared across time for publicly and privately funded patients using binary logistic regression. Results: Overall, women chose prosthetic over autologous reconstruction at a ratio of 4.7:1. This ratio increasingly favored prosthetic reconstruction over time, though less strongly for private patients who did not face a 3-year waiting list for autologous reconstruction. Conclusions: Financial constraints affected these women’s reconstruction choices. Nevertheless, and in contrast to the situation in the United States, these women clearly favored prosthetic over autologous reconstruction.

  19. Identifying & Classification of Criteria in Choosing a Bank By Customers: Case Study at Bank Mellat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Haghighi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: in order to attract the customers, it’s really needed to consider the elements they take in to account in evaluating a company. New banks attempts in stealing the customers from the experienced bank especially in retail banks prove the importance of such topic. The main purpose of this research is to identify the criteria by which a customer chooses a bank in retail banking in competitive market. Doing so, 166 evaluating criteria were extracted using field study, interviews with 43customers, back office and front office in several banks. After reconsidering the criteria by the experts, they were reduced to 50 elements and distributed as a pre-test among 60 customers. After validity and reliability test by "Stage random sampling" and "Cochran method" 669 samples were obtained. 678 questionnaires were confirmed out of 810. In order to identify and analyze these factors, by "factor analysis method", 45 questions were remained, The identified factors are as follows: Employees and trust, Quality and ease of service, Up to date technology and techniques, Physical appearance, Variety of services, investment , credits and loan, cost, reputation, convenience, incentives. Among these factors, employee and trust by 13,317 percent of variance were recognized as most important ones.

  20. African primary care research: Choosing a topic and developing a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a  research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  1. A study among dental students regarding the factors influenced dental students to choose dentistry as career

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    Gobichetti Palayam Jagatheeswaran AnbuSelvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Career choice is a complex decision for students since it determines the kind of profession that they intend to pursue in life. As students try to make a career choice while in secondary school, they face the problem of matching their career choices with their abilities and school performance. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing career choice among dental college students in private dental collages in Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted using descriptive survey design with a population of 989 students. The data for this study was collected using a questionnaire and interview schedules. Materials and Methods: The data for this study was collected using questionnaire previously used by Swati Shah and Rajaraman and interview schedules. The analysis of the study was based on the factors: Outcome expectations, gender, personal interests, and other factors. Results and Conclusion: The most common reason for among the dental students to choose dental science as their career choice was self-interested followed by didn′t get medicine degree, prestige and gives respect. The least common reasons observed in the study population were inspired by dentists. The findings of this study indicate that availability the most influential factors affecting career choices among students.

  2. African primary care research: choosing a topic and developing a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Bob

    2014-02-06

    This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind--both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.

  3. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-05

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  4. Choosing between two semi-finalists: On academic performance gap, sex category, and decision question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Martha; Valenzuela, Jerilee

    2015-11-01

    We use an application-files experimental design to investigate a new topic in the assessment of candidates for junior-engineering jobs. Our focus is on two semi-finalists, a man and a woman, who show clearly different but still good levels of academic record. We keep the gap between those levels constant, but vary the sex category of the better performer. We also include control conditions in which the two have similar records. Each assessor's task was to choose either one applicant or neither, and to rate both in competence and suitability. The control-group competence ratings indicate no gender bias by either men or women; the experimental-conditions competence data are consistent with the candidates' records as predicted, but also show women minimizing the record of the better-performing male candidate. Choice and suitability, on the other hand, reveal a preference for the female applicant across respondents and conditions, as anticipated given the more open nature of those two questions, while still reflecting the academic records. Findings and their interpretation are presented in detail.

  5. A Decision Support System to Choose Optimal Release Cycle Length in Incremental Software Development Environments

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    Avnish Chandra Suman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years it has been seen that many software vendors have started delivering projects incrementally with very short release cycles. Best examples of success of this approach has been Ubuntu Operating system that has a 6 months release cycle and popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Opera, Mozilla Firefox. However there is very little knowledge available to the project managers to validate the chosen release cycle length. We propose a decision support system that helps to validate and estimate release cycle length in the early development phase by assuming that release cycle length is directly affected by three factors, (i choosing right requirements for current cycle, (ii estimating proximal time for each requirement, (iii requirement wise feedback from last iteration based on product reception, model accuracy and failed requirements. We have altered and used the EVOLVE technique proposed by G. Ruhe to select best requirements for current cycle and map it to time domain using UCP (Use Case Points based estimation and feedback factors. The model has been evaluated on both in-house as well as industry projects.

  6. Restoration of posterior teeth in clinical practice: evidence base for choosing amalgam versus composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current use of amalgam versus resin composite in posterior restorations and the evidence-base for choosing between these two treatment options. While much research has been published on the issue of the clinical use of amalgam versus resin composite, there are several issues that limit the true evidence-base on the subject. Furthermore, while the majority of published studies on posterior composites would seem to indicate equivalent clinical performance of resin composite to amalgam restorations, the studies that should be weighted much more heavily (randomized controlled trials) do not support the slant of the rest of the literature. As part of an evidence-based approach to private practice, clinicians need to be aware of the levels of evidence in the literature and need to properly inform patients of the true clinical outcomes that are associated with the use of amalgam versus resin composite for posterior restorations, so that patients are themselves making informed decisions about their dental care.

  7. Choosing a genome browser for a Model Organism Database: surveying the maize community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Taner Z; Harper, Lisa C; Schaeffer, Mary L; Andorf, Carson M; Seigfried, Trent E; Campbell, Darwin A; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2010-01-01

    As the B73 maize genome sequencing project neared completion, MaizeGDB began to integrate a graphical genome browser with its existing web interface and database. To ensure that maize researchers would optimally benefit from the potential addition of a genome browser to the existing MaizeGDB resource, personnel at MaizeGDB surveyed researchers' needs. Collected data indicate that existing genome browsers for maize were inadequate and suggest implementation of a browser with quick interface and intuitive tools would meet most researchers' needs. Here, we document the survey's outcomes, review functionalities of available genome browser software platforms and offer our rationale for choosing the GBrowse software suite for MaizeGDB. Because the genome as represented within the MaizeGDB Genome Browser is tied to detailed phenotypic data, molecular marker information, available stocks, etc., the MaizeGDB Genome Browser represents a novel mechanism by which the researchers can leverage maize sequence information toward crop improvement directly. Database URL: http://gbrowse.maizegdb.org/

  8. Impact of the Choosing the Best Program in Communities Committed to Abstinence Education

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    Lisa Lieberman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available States vary in standards for sex education, some requiring an emphasis on abstinence. Schools seek to identify curricula that reflect local community values and meet state standards. Choosing the Best (CTB, a classroom-based abstinence education curriculum, has been implemented in 75 Georgia school districts since 1995. CTB Inc., sought to determine if this popular program had an impact on abstinence attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Six Georgia public schools (1,143 ninth graders participated in the study in 2009-2010. Four randomly assigned schools received the CTB curriculum, taught by trained CTB staff. Two control schools received their usual textbook-based abstinence lessons. Surveys were conducted at the beginning and end of 9th grade, and the beginning of 10th grade. Data demonstrated significant impact of CTB at the end of 9th grade on commitment to abstinence, proabstinence beliefs and attitudes, intentions to maintain abstinence, and lower onset of sexual intercourse, and at the beginning of 10th grade on proabstinence attitudes. In two communities that sought an abstinence education approach, CTB had a short-term impact on abstinence attitudes, commitment, and behaviors, and a longer term impact on abstinence attitudes only.

  9. The Input-output Status and Farmers’Willingness to Choose Ecological Operation of Hickory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; LI Shi-yong; WU Wei-guang

    2012-01-01

    This study takes Lin’an City which early carries out the experiment of ecological operation of hickory as the study site.On the basis of the input-output data on hickory and farmers’ land,we analyze the input-output status of hickory land which practises ecological operation,the operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation and the influencing factors.The results show that in the short term,ecological operation of hickory will have a certain negative impact on the economic benefits;within the experimental area,the degree of operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation of hickory is high,and the operators have a clear understanding of long-term comprehensive benefits which may be brought by ecological operation;the ecological experiment and demonstration of hickory have achieved certain results;family income level,characteristics of householders,education and training,and so on,are the main factors that affect the operators’ willingness to choose ecological operation.Finally,for how to further improve the promotion efficiency of ecological operation of hickory,we put forth some constructive recommendations.

  10. Why do males choose heterospecific females in the red spider mite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Staudacher, Heike; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2016-01-01

    In some species, males readily show courtship behaviour towards heterospecific females and even prefer them to females of their own species. This behaviour is generally explained by indiscriminate mating to acquire more mates, but may partly be explained by male mate preference mechanisms that have developed to choose among conspecific females, as male preference for larger females causes mating with larger heterospecific females. Recently, we found that males of the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi collected from Spain (invasive population), prefer to mate with females of the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae rather than with conspecific females. In spider mites, mate preference for non-kin individuals has been observed. Here, we investigated if T. evansi males collected from the area of its origin (Brazil) also show preference for heterospecific females. Secondly, we investigated if mate preference of T. evansi males for heterospecific females is affected by their relatedness to conspecific females which are offered together with heterospecific females. We found that mate preference for heterospecific females exists in Brazilian T. evansi, suggesting that the preference for heterospecific females is not a lack of evolved premating isolation with an allopatric species. We found that T. evansi males showed lower propensity to mate with heterospecific females when alternative females were non-kin in the two iso-female lines collected from Brazil. However, the effect of relatedness on male mate preference was not significant. We discuss alternative hypotheses explaining why T. evansi males prefer to mate with T. urticae females.

  11. Reasons for choosing the profession and profile of newly qualified physicians in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRIO CÉSAR SCHEFFER

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective To evaluate the socio-demographic profile, path to medical school admission and factors affecting the choice of becoming a physician in Brazil. Method Application of a structured questionnaire to 4,601 participants among the 16,323 physicians who graduated between 2014 and 2015 that subsequently registered with one of the 27 Regional Boards of Medicine (CRMs. Results The average age of participants is 27 years, 77.2% are white, 57% come from families with a monthly income greater than ten times the minimum wage, 65% have fathers who have completed higher education, 79.1% attended a private high school, and 63.5% selected the “will to make a difference in people’s lives or do good” as their main reason for choosing medicine, with some differences between the sexes and matriculation at a public or private medical school. Conclusion The recent politics for educational diversity and the opening of additional medical schools has not yet had an impact on the socio-demographic profile of graduates, who are mainly white, wealthy individuals.

  12. I choose, therefore I like: preference for faces induced by arbitrary choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Behavioral choice alters one's preference rather than simply reflecting it. This effect to fit preferences with past choice, is known as "choice-induced preference change." After making a choice between two equally attractive options, one tends to rate the chosen option better than they initially did and/or the unchosen option worse. The present study examined how behavioral choice changes subsequent preference, using facial images for the choice options as well as blind choice techniques. Participants rated their facial preference for each face, and chose between two equally preferred faces and subsequently rated their facial preference. Results from four experiments demonstrated that randomly chosen faces were more preferred only after participants were required to choose "a preferred face," (in Experiment 1 but not "an unpreferred face," (in Experiment 2 or "a rounder face" (in Experiment 3. Further, preference change was still observed after participants were informed that choices were actually random (in Experiment 4. Our findings provide new and important implications characterizing the conditions under which random choice changes preference, and show that people are tempted to make a biased evaluation even after they know that they did not make the choice for themselves.

  13. A predator from East Africa that chooses malaria vectors as preferred prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena J Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility.

  14. Factors associated with choosing a chiropractor for episodes of back pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekelle, P G; Markovich, M; Louie, R

    1995-08-01

    Back pain is a common illness and chiropractors provide a large proportion of back pain care in the United States. This is the first study to systematically compare chiropractic patients with those who saw other providers for back pain. The authors analyzed data from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, a community-based study of the use of health services. Insurance claims forms were examined for all visits specified by the patient as occurring for back pain. Visits were grouped into episodes using decision rules and clinical judgment. The primary provider of back pain care was defined as the provider who delivered most of the services. Sociodemographic and health status and attitudes variables of patients were examined for association with the choice of chiropractor. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to calculate adjusted odds ratios for independent predictors. There were 1020 episodes of back pain care made by 686 different persons and encompassing 8825 visits. Results indicated that chiropractors were the primary provider for 40% of episodes, and retained as primary provider a greater percentage of their patients (92%) who had a second episode of back pain care than did medical doctors. Health insurance experiment site, white race, male sex, and high school education were independent predictors of choosing a chiropractor. Conclusions suggested that chiropractors were the choice of one third of all patients who sought back pain care, and provided care for 40% of all episodes of care. Geographic site, education, gender, and income were independent patient factors predicting chiropractic use.

  15. Choosing fitness-enhancing innovations can be detrimental under fluctuating environments.

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    Julian Z Xue

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the consequences of one's behavior in a particular environment is a mechanism for adaptation. In the absence of any cost to this activity, we might expect agents to choose behaviors that maximize their fitness, an example of directed innovation. This is in contrast to blind mutation, where the probability of becoming a new genotype is independent of the fitness of the new genotypes. Here, we show that under environments punctuated by rapid reversals, a system with both genetic and cultural inheritance should not always maximize fitness through directed innovation. This is because populations highly accurate at selecting the fittest innovations tend to over-fit the environment during its stable phase, to the point that a rapid environmental reversal can cause extinction. A less accurate population, on the other hand, can track long term trends in environmental change, keeping closer to the time-average of the environment. We use both analytical and agent-based models to explore when this mechanism is expected to occur.

  16. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  17. Multicultural desires? Parental negotiation of multiculture and difference in choosing secondary schools for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bridget; de Tona, Carla

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers the ways in which parents talk about choosing secondary schools in three areas of Greater Manchester. It argues that this can be a moment when parents are considering their own attitudes to, and shaping their children's experiences of, multiculture. Multiculture is taken as the everyday experience of living with difference. The paper argues that multiculture needs to be understood as shaped not only by racialized, ethnic or religious difference (as it is commonly understood) but also by other differences which parents may consider important, particularly class and approaches to parenting. We stress the need to examine what parents say about schooling in the context in which they are talking, which is shaped by local areas and the experiences of their children in primary schools. Based on interviews with an ethnically mixed groups of parents from different schools, we show how perceptions of the racialized and class demographics of schools can influence parents' choice of secondary schools. The paper also argues that attention needs to be paid to the ways in which terms such as 'multicultural' and 'mix' are applied uniformly to very different contexts, be they particular schools or local areas, suggesting there is a paucity of language in Britain when talking about multiculture.

  18. Specific Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  19. La industria del cómic en España: radiografía de ¿un mito o una realidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, Álvaro M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the importance of figures referred to published titles, or number of copies printed, which help to set publishing strategies and to really know the comic situation in Spain, there are no liable data. We are giving in this article, some enlightening data along with some explanations related to the evolution of the market from 2001 to 2009. The different titles are grouped considering the place they come from (Europe, Asia, United States…, along with their format (album, book, magazine, comic-book…. Using all this information, we can deduce evolution lines, tendencies, futures perspectives in an industry that, despite its precariousness, is facing an increasing number of copies sold and a progressive settlement in the Spanish publishing world.

    A pesar de la importancia que revestiría para establecer estrategias editoriales y para un mejor conocimiento de la situación del cómic en España, no existen cifras fiables sobre títulos publicados y cifras de tiradas. En este artículo se proporcionan algunos datos aclaradores al respecto. Se ofrece una evolución de nuestro mercado desde 2001 a 2009. Se agrupan los diversos títulos por lugar de procedencia (Europa, Asia, Estados Unidos…, así como por formatos (álbum, libro, revista, comic-book…. De todo ello se desprenden líneas evolutivas, tendencias y perspectivas de futuro de una industria que, a pesar de su precariedad, conoce un aumento de las ventas y un progresivo asentamiento en el panorama de la edición española.

  20. How to Choose Grammatical Forms in Communication——A reading response of Larsen-Freeman’s Grammar of Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余静

    2014-01-01

    <正>While some believe that speakers choose certain grammar structures is to keep pace with the meaning they want to express,Larsen-Freeman holds the view that it is not the only intention.In fact,speakers face socially or discursively motivated grammatical choice even when the expressions stay the same meaning.This

  1. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  2. Student Performance-University Preference Model: A Framework for Helping Students Choose the Right A-Level Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Meeran, Sheik

    2011-01-01

    Every year, many students in the UK fail to achieve a place at their preferred university because they take the wrong A-level subjects. This study aims to suggest a framework for helping students choose the right subjects. Data on student achievement in A-level examinations were obtained from a UK sixth form college over a four-year period.…

  3. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Participation in Physical Activities and Motives for Choosing Teaching Physical Education as a Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawahi, Nasser; Al-Yarabi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the relationship between physical education teachers' attitudes toward participation in physical activity and their motives toward choosing physical education as a teaching profession. Two questionnaires with a sample of 98 participants were employed as a data collection vehicle. The results showed that…

  4. Why Choose Teaching? an International Review of Empirical Studies Exploring Student Teachers' Career Motivations and Levels of Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Why do individuals all over the world choose to become school teachers? What motivates them to become educators of young people, and how committed are they to this cause when they enter their teacher education courses? Considering that teacher motivation and commitment have been identified as crucial factors for the future success of education and…

  5. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... choose to use this option? If the option to use a NOX CEMS is chosen: (a) Each NOX diluent CEMS must be..., Procedure 1 in appendix F to this part is not required. Alternatively, a NOX diluent CEMS that is installed... subpart. The relative accuracy test audit (RATA) of the CEMS shall be performed on a lb/MMBtu basis....

  6. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Motivations for Choosing a Teaching Career and Intention to Teach in Urban Settings: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    This study uses quantitative and qualitative designs to examine if motivations for choosing a teaching career influence the intention to teach or not to teach in urban settings, and if a short-term urban field experience has significant impact on the change in the motivations as well as the intention to teach in urban settings. Overall,…

  8. Women’s Attitudes towards the Option to Choose between Karyotyping and Rapid Targeted Testing during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J. A. Kooper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pregnant women, referred because of an increased risk of fetal Down syndrome, who underwent an invasive prenatal procedure were offered a choice between karyotyping and rapid targeted testing. This study aims to assess women’s attitudes and experiences towards what option to choose. Methods. A retrospective multicentre survey (2008–2010 was conducted among 1370 women. General questions were asked about decision making issues, followed by personal questions about their experiences in choice making, test preference, influence of others, and possible regrets. Results. In total, 90.1% of the respondents (N=825 indicated that pregnant women are able to choose, although 33.1% stated that the choice can best be made by a professional. 18.4% indicated that making a choice places a burden on women. In 96.4%, respondents preferred to have the option to choose again in case of a next pregnancy, whereas 2.7% preferred the choice to be made by a professional. Regret was indicated by 1.2%. Decision making was influenced by others in 64.9%. A slightly higher preference for karyotyping was indicated by 52.7% of the respondents. Conclusions. Positive attitudes and experiences were expressed towards the option to choose. Respondents took decisions freely, although sometimes influenced by a partner or a professional, to follow their individual perspectives.

  9. Gender Associated with the Intention to Choose a Medical Specialty in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in 11 Countries in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Ancalli, Felix; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco; Diaz-Velez, Cristian; Gutierrez-Quezada, Erick; Gomez-Alhach, Jennifer; Muñoz-Medina, Carlos E.; Sanchez-Pozo, Adriana; Vidal, Milisen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship. Objective To determine whether there is an association between gender and the intention to choose a medical specialty in medical students from 11 countries in Latin America. Methods Secondary analysis of the Collaborative Working Group for the Research of Human Resources for Health (Red-LIRHUS) data; a multi-country project of students in their first year and fifth year of study, from 63 medical schools in 11 Latin American countries. All students who referred intention to choose a certain medical specialty were considered as participants. Results Of the 11073 surveyed students, 9235 indicated the name of a specific specialty. The specialties chosen most often in the fifth year were General Surgery (13.0%), Pediatrics (11.0%), Internal Medicine (10.3%) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (9.0%). For women, the top choices were Pediatrics (15.8%), Obstetrics/Gynecology (11.0%), Cardiology (8.7%), General Surgery (8.6%), and Oncology (6.4%). In the adjusted analysis, the female gender was associated with the choice of Obstetrics/Gynecology (RP: 2.75; IC95%: 2.24–3.39); Pediatric Surgery (RP: 2.19; IC95%: 1.19–4.00), Dermatology (RP: 1.91; IC95%:1.24–2.93), Pediatrics (RP: 1.83; IC95%: 1.56–2.17), and Oncology (RP: 1.37; IC95%: 1.10–1.71). Conclusions There is an association between the female gender and the intention to choose Obstetrics/Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery, Dermatology, and Oncology. We recommend conducting studies that consider other factors that can influence the choice of a medical specialty. PMID:27519055

  10. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  11. The Main Motivations of Ukrainian Students Who Choose to Study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rębisz Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Students’ educational migration is one of the phenomena characteristic of the globalization processes. It has been growing dynamically since the 1970s. A number of young people studying abroad has grown globally from 0.8m in 1975 to almost 5m in 2014. It comes therefore as no surprise that educational migration has become a subject of many sociological and economic studies. Their authors usually use the push-pull factors model i.e. they investigate the factors that “push” students out of their own countries and those that “pull” them to the new place of study. Our research on foreign students in Poland has been approached from a similar angle. In fact, we set out to find an answer to the question “What made foreign students from Ukraine leave their country and why did they choose to study in Poland?” To find our answers we conducted questionnaire interviews on a random purposive sample of foreign students from Ukraine (N=83. In addition, to avoid the risk that the resulting correlations were accidental and the knowledge yielded in this way false, we also used the triangulation procedure – a supporting, in-depth qualitative study involving a focus group. We altogether managed to hold 4 sessions. The results obtained in the questionnaire study and in the focus group sessions were sorted and analyzed statistically (quantitative and qualitative analysis, which allowed us to find out about the main motives influencing students’ migration decisions as well as the factors “pushing” them out of Ukraine and attracting them to Poland.

  12. Choose your weapon: defensive behavior is associated with morphology and performance in scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma ("tail") carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative "thickness" (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae.

  13. An extended L-curve method for choosing a regularization parameter in electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanbin; Pei, Yang; Dong, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The L-curve method is a popular regularization parameter choice method for the ill-posed inverse problem of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). However the method cannot always determine a proper parameter for all situations. An investigation into those situations where the L-curve method failed show that a new corner point appears on the L-curve and the parameter corresponding to the new corner point can obtain a satisfactory reconstructed solution. Thus an extended L-curve method, which determines the regularization parameter associated with either global corner or the new corner, is proposed. Furthermore, two strategies are provided to determine the new corner-one is based on the second-order differential of L-curve, and the other is based on the curvature of L-curve. The proposed method is examined by both numerical simulations and experimental tests. And the results indicate that the extended method can handle the parameter choice problem even in the case where the typical L-curve method fails. Finally, in order to reduce the running time of the method, the extended method is combined with a projection method based on the Krylov subspace, which was able to boost the extended L-curve method. The results verify that the speed of the extended L-curve method is distinctly improved. The proposed method extends the application of the L-curve in the field of choosing regularization parameter with an acceptable running time and can also be used in other kinds of tomography.

  14. The importance of choosing the appropriate matrix to validate a bioanalytical method according to the study needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Sylvain; Lévesque, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Sylvain Lachance is a Bioanalytical Scientific Expert in the Bioanalytical Division of inVentiv Health Clinical Quebec City's (Canada) site, a CRO offering clinical, commercial and consulting services to the healthcare industry. He is responsible for following up on the conduct of bioanalytical method development activities by enhancing the scientific and technical knowledge of the researchers, bioanalytical project coordinators and of the laboratory technicians. He assists bioanalytical project coordinators in investigations during bioanalyses and method validations. He has been working in the Bioanalytical Division of inVentiv Health Clinical for over 16 years, working as a Research Scientist, Chromatographic Specialist and Scientific Expert. He has worked on multiple method developments in HPLC and LC-MS/MS, specifically on troubleshooting. He has been involved in more than 70 posters and publications in the bioanalytical field for different scientific meetings. Ann Lévesque obtained her PhD in Biochemistry at the Université Laval in Québec City in 1994 studying the biological actions of peptide analogs of the gastrin releasing peptide in the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Prior to joining inVentiv Health Clinical, she held management positions at other Contract Research Organizations. Her publications include over 100 posters, 17 scientific articles and book chapters in the clinical biochemistry and bioanalytical fields. Within inVentiv Health, Dr. Lévesque is responsible for managing the R&D and sample analysis teams performing bioanalytical analysis of small molecules and peptides. She is also acting as the Biomedical Laboratory Director accountable for the oversight of all activities related to the safety testing of samples from subjects enrolled in early stage clinical trials. Since joining the Bioanalytical Division, Dr. Lévesque has been instrumental in the great success of the laboratory by developing a culture of quality, innovation and value

  15. Subject-specific models for image-guided cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Drangova, Maria; Peters, Terry

    2008-10-01

    Three-dimensional visualization for planning and guidance is still not routinely available for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). This can be addressed by providing the surgeon with subject-specific geometric models derived from 3D preoperative images for planning of port locations or to rehearse the procedure. For guidance purposes, these models can also be registered to the subject using intraoperative images. In this paper, we present a method for extracting subject-specific heart geometry from preoperative MR images. The main obstacle we face is the low quality of clinical data in terms of resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and presence of artefacts. Instead of using these images directly, we approach the problem in three steps: (1) generate a high quality template model, (2) register the template with the preoperative data, and (3) animate the result over the cardiac cycle. Validation of this approach showed that dynamic subject-specific models can be generated with a mean error of 3.6 ± 1.1 mm from low resolution target images (6 mm slices). Thus, the models are sufficiently accurate for MICS training and procedure planning. In terms of guidance, we also demonstrate how the resulting models may be adapted to the operating room using intraoperative ultrasound imaging.

  16. Doripenem MICs and ompK36 Porin Genotypes of Sequence Type 258, KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae May Predict Responses to Carbapenem-Colistin Combination Therapy among Patients with Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan K.; Potoski, Brian A.; Press, Ellen G.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Clarke, Lloyd G.; Eschenauer, Gregory A.; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment failures of a carbapenem-colistin regimen among patients with bacteremia due to sequence type 258 (ST258), KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were significantly more likely if both agents were inactive in vitro, as defined by a colistin MIC of >2 μg/ml and the presence of either a major ompK36 porin mutation (guanine and alanine insertions at amino acids 134 and 135 [ins aa 134–135 GD], IS5 promoter insertion [P = 0.007]) or a doripenem MIC of >8 μg/ml (P = 0.01). Major ompK36 mutations among KPC-K. pneumoniae strains are important determinants of carbapenem-colistin responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25534733

  17. Different condylar displacements between centric relation and maximum intercuspation before and after orthodontic intervention%正畸干预前后 MIC-CR 位髁突位移变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭; 邵玉婷; 孙钦凤; 郭泾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of orthodontic intervention on maximum intercuspation (MIC)-centric relation (CR)condylar displacement of patients with or without temporomandibular disorders (TMD).Methods A total of 31 orthodontic patients aged 16 to 45 years were selected and divided into the TMD group (n =15)and non-TMD group (n =16).Records of MIC and CR of these patients taken before and after orthodontic intervention were compared.Results The two groups had different MIC-CR displacement before and after treatment.There were more changes in the TMD group,and the changes were mostly favorable.The MIC-CR condylar displacement was correlated with the symptom checklist (SCL)score.Conclusion Orthodontic intervention has effect on condylar position of pa-tients,especially for those with TMD.Orthodontists,therefore,need to understand and pay attention to the effect of malocclusion on TMD and limitations of measurement of condylar displacement (MCD)in the diagnosis.%目的:旨在探讨正畸干预对最大牙尖交错位(MIC)-正中关系位(CR)髁突位移量的影响。方法选取16~45岁门诊正畸患者31例,其中非颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)组16例(NTMD 组),TMD 组15例,在正畸干预前后分别取 MIC 与 CR 位记录。分析两组患者正畸干预前后正中牙合位与正中关系位的髁突位置差异。结果正畸干预前 TMD 组与 NTMD 组 MIC-CR 之间髁突位移(MCD)量存在差异,正畸干预后两组 MIC-CR 位移量减小,TMD组较为显著,且多为有利变化,TMD 组正畸干预前后 MIC-CR 髁突位移量与 TMD 症状自评量表得分呈相关性。结论正畸干预在一定程度上对错牙合畸形患者的髁突位置产生影响,对于 TMD 患者尤甚。因此,正畸医生要认识并注意到错牙合畸形对 TMD 产生和发展的作用,并正确认识 MCD 在诊断中的局限性。

  18. Wild-Type MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for the Triazoles and Six Aspergillus spp. for the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method (M38-A2 Document)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Diekema, D. J.; Fothergill, A.; Johnson, E.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Canton, E.; Turnidge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing. Wild-type (WT) MIC distributions (organisms in a species/drug combination with no detectable acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) for five Aspergillus spp. and itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Also, we have expanded prior ECV data for Aspergillus fumigatus. The number of available isolates varied according to the species/triazole combination as follows: 1,684 to 2,815 for A. fumigatus, 323 to 592 for A. flavus, 131 to 143 for A. nidulans, 366 to 520 for A. niger, 330 to 462 for A. terreus, and 45 to 84 for A. versicolor. CLSI broth microdilution MIC data gathered in five independent laboratories in Europe and the United States were aggregated for the analyses. ECVs expressed in μg/ml were as follows (percentages of isolates for which MICs were equal to or less than the ECV are in parentheses): A. fumigatus, itraconazole, 1 (98.8%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.2%); voriconazole, 1 (97.7%); A. flavus, itraconazole, 1 (99.6%); posaconazole, 0.25 (95%); voriconazole, 1 (98.1%); A. nidulans, itraconazole, 1 (95%); posaconazole, 1 (97.7%); voriconazole, 2 (99.3%); A. niger, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (96.9%); voriconazole, 2 (99.4%); A. terreus, itraconazole, 1 (100%); posaconazole, 0.5 (99.7%); voriconazole, 1 (99.1%); A. versicolor, itraconazole, 2 (100%); posaconazole, 1 (not applicable); voriconazole, 2 (97.5%). Although ECVs do not predict therapy outcome as clinical breakpoints do, they may aid in detection of azole resistance (non-WT MIC) due to cyp51A mutations, a resistance mechanism in some Aspergillus spp. These ECVs should be considered for inclusion in the future CLSI M38-A2 document revision. PMID:20592159

  19. Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Chowdhary, A; Gonzalez, G M; Guinea, J; Hagen, F; Meis, J F; Thompson, G R; Turnidge, J

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of isavuconazole are not available for Cryptococcus spp. The isavuconazole ECVs based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions for 438 Cryptococcus neoformans nongenotyped isolates, 870 isolates of genotype VNI, and 406 Cryptococcus gattii isolates from six laboratories and different geographical areas were 0.06, 0.12, and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. These ECVs may aid in detecting non-WT isolates with reduced susceptibilities to isavuconazole.

  20. Brief report: The Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in French-speaking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Grégoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Genoud, Philippe A; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and the reliability of the French versions of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) in a sample of college students (N = 457, 18-25 years old). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution of the ISI-3 identity styles (i.e. informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant styles), the one-factor solution of the ISI-3 identity commitment, and the three-factor structure of the U-MICS (i.e. commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment). Additionally, theoretically consistent and meaningful associations among the ISI-3, U-MICS, and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ) confirmed convergent validity. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the French versions of the ISI-3 and UMICS are useful instruments for assessing identity styles and processes, and provide additional support to the cross-cultural validity of these tools.

  1. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  2. The complex task of choosing a de novo assembly: lessons from fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juan Esteban; Muñoz, José Fernando; Misas, Elizabeth; McEwen, Juan Guillermo; Clay, Oliver Keatinge

    2014-12-01

    Selecting the values of parameters used by de novo genomic assembly programs, or choosing an optimal de novo assembly from several runs obtained with different parameters or programs, are tasks that can require complex decision-making. A key parameter that must be supplied to typical next generation sequencing (NGS) assemblers is the k-mer length, i.e., the word size that determines which de Bruijn graph the program should map out and use. The topic of assembly selection criteria was recently revisited in the Assemblathon 2 study (Bradnam et al., 2013). Although no clear message was delivered with regard to optimal k-mer lengths, it was shown with examples that it is sometimes important to decide if one is most interested in optimizing the sequences of protein-coding genes (the gene space) or in optimizing the whole genome sequence including the intergenic DNA, as what is best for one criterion may not be best for the other. In the present study, our aim was to better understand how the assembly of unicellular fungi (which are typically intermediate in size and complexity between prokaryotes and metazoan eukaryotes) can change as one varies the k-mer values over a wide range. We used two different de novo assembly programs (SOAPdenovo2 and ABySS), and simple assembly metrics that also focused on success in assembling the gene space and repetitive elements. A recent increase in Illumina read length to around 150 bp allowed us to attempt de novo assemblies with a larger range of k-mers, up to 127 bp. We applied these methods to Illumina paired-end sequencing read sets of fungal strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other species. By visualizing the results in simple plots, we were able to track the effect of changing k-mer size and assembly program, and to demonstrate how such plots can readily reveal discontinuities or other unexpected characteristics that assembly programs can present in practice, especially when they are used in a traditional molecular

  3. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  4. [Systematization of diseases and lesions of the endometrium by etiological and pathogenetical mechanisms of development to choose an optimal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroda, A M

    2004-03-01

    Current clinical gynecology considers pathological states of endometrium (PSE) as one of the most challenging issue of the day. Many questions of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and treatment of PSE are still under discussion. Nowadays there isn't a whole agreed classification of PSE. Morphological classification remains the most widely used one, but morphological changes occurring in the endometrium don't show a wide variety of disorders related to these pathological states. A new clinicopathogenetic classification of PSE was proposed, which is based on choosing the optimal treatment with functional state of the disease taken into account. This classification helps us to perceive the problem as a whole with choosing functionally based treatment for each patient.

  5. Effect of Educational Intervention on Self-efficacy for Choosing Delivery Method among Pregnant Women in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Taheri; Maryam Amidi Mazaheri; Mahbubeh Khorsandi; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Masoud Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, there has been a growing trend of caesarean sections in Iran. One reason would be the mother′s desire. Increased maternal self-efficacy can be an important step to reduce percentage of cesarean. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of training-based strategies to increase the self-efficacy for choosing delivery method among pregnant women in Shahrekord city. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 130 pregnant women who attended urban healt...

  6. A study to assess the perceptions of first year medical students for choosing medical school as a career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Tiwari

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These data showed that the maximum percentages of the Medical Students were satisfied with the medical school as 95 (91.34% but still some of them have regrets. In choosing medical school they wants to help poor, earn money and personal development, and influenced by some doctor relative. These were important factors for decision making in medical school. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2649-2655

  7. The Analysis of Financial Enterprises Recruitment Strategy and Way of Choosing and Employing People------Citigroup, for Example

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Citibank is a leading multinational bank. In its development history of nearly 200 years, Citibank has developed from an unknown small bank to a world-leading financial predator. This period contains a lot of Citibank's secret methods. This paper starts from Citibank's recruitment strategy and introduces Citibank's basic recruitment standards and requirements for its employees. This paper also summarizes Citibank's way of choosing and employing persons, attributes the quality which the succes...

  8. 万古霉素MIC值与MRSA菌血症患者病死率的关系%Relationship of vancomycin MIC and mortality in patients with MRSA bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉景娟; 丁秀荣; 马立艳; 孙伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of vancomycin MIC in the range of sensitive and mortality in patients with MRSA bactere-mia,and to provide the reference of drug use to treat MRSA bacteraemia for clinicians. Methods All patients with an Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection who were hospitalized in our hospital in China from January 2011 to June 2014 were included into this study. Stain identifica-tion and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were determined using VITEK-II automatic microbial analysis system. Results There was no significant difference in attributable mortality or 30-day mortality among high-MIC group( MIC=2 μg/ml),middle-MIC group(MIC=1 μg/ml)and low-MIC group(MIC≤0. 5 μg/ml). By Logistic regression analysis,renal insufficiency and pneumonia were found to be associated with attributable 30-day mortality. Conclusion Our study suggests that a high vancomycin MIC in a range are not associ-ated with mortality,but patients with renal insufficiency and patients with pneumonia are predictors of all-cause 30-day mortality.%目的:研究在敏感范围内的万古霉素最低抑菌浓度( MIC)值与金黄色葡萄球菌菌血症患者病死率的关系,为临床医生用药提供参考。方法收集2011年1月至2014年6月分离自住院患者血培养阳性的金黄色葡萄球菌,对金黄色葡萄球菌及耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌( MRSA)用VITEK-II全自动微生物分析系统进行鉴定及药敏检测,并对患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果根据万古霉素MIC值为2μg/ml、1μg/ml和≤0.5μg/ml将患者分为高MIC组、中MIC组和低MIC组,金黄色葡萄球菌相关病死率在三组中无显著差异,MRSA相关病死率在三组中也无显著差异。逻辑回归分析结果显示,出现肾功能不全或肺炎对金黄色葡萄球菌菌血症及MRSA菌血症患者的病死率的影响有统计学意义。结论在敏感范围内万

  9. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Someş-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (urban-industrial and agricultural contaminants, aiming to evaluate the sensitivity and structural patterns of groundwater crustaceans communities to aquifer contamination with trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb), As, Se and nitrates. We conducted a survey in seven monitoring boreholes (1-8 m beneath the surface) through the Quaternary porrous aquifer of the Somesul Mic River on a 10 km long longitudinal transect. Hydrologic and geologic variables (rainfall amount, drainage network density, aquifer and drainage elevation, transmisivity and aquifer porosity) were extracted from previous works and Pearson correlations were calculated for paired variables. Water and faunal sampling was performed on a seasonal basis at one pristine and six impacted sites during 2013. Invertebrates were sampled with a submersible pump by extracting a volume of 50-100 l of water and filtering through a 63 microns planktonic net. Subsequently, 2 l of water was extracted after pumping for compositional analyses of major constituents, trace elements (by ICP-MS) and nutrients. The results of water geochemical analyses indicate a significant pollutant charge of groundwater with Mn (max. 29.26 μg/l), Ni (16.55 μg/l), Fe (509.74 μg/l), As (3.87 μg/l), Se (5.07 μg/l), sulphates (549.9

  10. Choosing the right antibody for resistin-like molecule (RELM/FIZZ) family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunling; Johns, Brian A; Su, Qingning; Kolosova, Irina A; Johns, Roger A

    2013-04-01

    The family of resistin-like molecules (RELM), also known as found in inflammatory zone (FIZZ), consists of four members in mouse (RELMα/FIZZ1/HIMF, RELMβ/FIZZ2, Resistin/FIZZ3, and RELMγ/FIZZ4) and two members in human (resistin and RELMβ). The importance of these proteins in many aspects of physiology and pathophysiology, especially inflammatory processes, is rapidly evolving in the literature, and many investigators are beginning to work in this field. Most published studies focus on only one isoform, do not evaluate other isoforms that might be present, and have not tested for the specificity of the antibody used. Because RELM isoforms have high sequence and structural similarity and both distinct and overlapping functions, it is important to use a specific antibody to distinguish each isoform in the study. We constructed and established HEK 293 cell lines that constitutively express each isoform. Using these cell lines, we determined the specificity of antibodies (both commercially available and laboratory-made) to each isoform by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Some of the antibodies showed specificity in Western blotting but were not applicable in immunofluorescence. Others showed cross reactivity in Western blot assays. Our results indicate that RELM antibody specificity should be taken into account when using them in research and interpreting data obtained with them.

  11. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Choosing to Study Foreign Languages in England: An Experimental Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Florentina; Marsden, Emma J.

    2014-01-01

    The declining interest in foreign languages in English-speaking countries has been attributed to negative societal attitudes and specific pupil attitudes and perceptions. While various initiatives have aimed to encourage language study, little research has systematically documented the relationship among perceptions, attitudes, and actually opting…

  12. Motivations for Choosing Teaching as a Career: Effects on General Pedagogical Knowledge during Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Johannes; Rothland, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The authors first ask to what extent future teachers in Germany endorse teaching motivations indicated by the FIT-Choice scale. This includes reporting on the confirmatory factor analysis they carried out to examine and to replicate the FIT-Choice scale structure in the specific cultural context of Germany with a sample of 1287 preservice…

  13. From Static to Dynamic: Choosing and Implementing a Web-Based CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Working as systems librarian for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), a project for the National Solar Observatory (NSO) based in Tucson, Arizona, a large part of the author's responsibilities involve running the web site. She began looking into content management systems (CMSs), specifically ones for website control. A CMS is generally…

  14. Producción orgánica de tomate mediante la aplicación de humus de lombriz y EcoMic® en condiciones de casa de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cun G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de comparar el efecto de los biofertilizantes EcoMic® y el humus de lombriz, aplicados al tomate (var. HA 3019 cultivado en condiciones protegidas sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado. El estudio se realizó en áreas del Centro de Capacitación y Producción (CCP de la Asociación Cubana de Trabajadores Agrícolas y Forestales (ACTAF durante el invierno del 2005. Los tratamientos consistieron en : (T1, aplicar humus de lombriz (2 kg/m2, antes del trasplante y EcoMic® (1 kg/m2 después del transplante; (T2, aplicar humus de lombriz (2 kg/m2 antes del trasplante y la misma dosis a los 10 días después del trasplante. El rendimiento obtenido en el tratamiento T1 fue mayor (8,4 kg/m2 al T2 (5,01 kg/m2 . La mayor cantidad de frutos con mejor calidad se alcanzó en el tratamiento donde se incluyo el EcoMic® (T1. Desde el punto de vista económico el mayor beneficio neto (8 368 pesos y la mayor relación Beneficio/Costo (1,88, se obtuvo en el tratamiento 1 .La aplicación de estos productos indicó que es factible obtener rendimientos aceptables de tomate sin la utilización de fertilizantes químicos, lo que contribuye a la no contaminación del medio ambiente.

  15. Una aproximació polièdrica al concepte microeconòmic A Polyhedral Approach to the Microeconomic Concept Una aproximación poliédrica al concepto microeconómico

    OpenAIRE

    Penélope Hernández; José Vila Gisbert

    2009-01-01

    Una aproximació polièdrica al concepte microeconòmicA Polyhedral Approach to the Microeconomic ConceptEste artículo propone un enfoque tridimensional de cualquier concepto en Microeconomía y analiza las implicaciones de esta multidimensionalidad en el proceso de aprendizaje-enseñanza de la microeconomía en educación universitaria. Las tres facetas del aprendizaje presentadas son la experiencial-vivencial, la gráfico-geométrica y la matemático-formal. En cada una de ellas el lenguaje utilizado...

  16. Descripción clínica e histopatológica de la rinitis micótica granulomatosa en ovinos de córdoba, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Cardona; M. Vargas-Viloria; Perdomo, S.

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir clínica e histopatológicamente la rinitis micótica granulomatosa causada por Conidiobulus spp en ovinos del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Fueron analizados 7 ovinos criollos, hembras, con edades comprendidas entre 2 y 4 años, los cuales fueron diagnosticados clínicamente con conidiobolomicosis y correlacionados con los aspectos histopatológicos. Al describir los casos, se observaron manifestaciones clínicas similares en todos los animales, dificu...

  17. Coping with illness and threat: why non-religious Jews choose to consult rabbis on healthcare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido

    2014-08-01

    Whereas modern and advanced medical services are available and accessible to all citizens of Israel, the phenomenon of consulting Orthodox rabbis (Jewish clerics) on healthcare issues is gaining ground among populations that do not identify themselves as religious. The objective of the research was to enquire why non-religious Jews choose to consult rabbis on medical issues. Fifty semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted during 2009-2011 in northern Israel. The article presents the respondents' main motives, expectations, beliefs, and modes of consulting both physicians and rabbis. This study aims to contribute to discussion about conflating modern medicine with spiritual-religious beliefs in modern-secular society.

  18. Choosing MUSE: Validation of a Low-Cost, Portable EEG System for ERP Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olave E.; Williams, Chad C.; Norton, Angela; Hassall, Cameron D.; Colino, Francisco L.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of portable low-cost electroencephalographic (EEG) systems available to researchers. However, to date the validation of the use of low-cost EEG systems has focused on continuous recording of EEG data and/or the replication of large system EEG setups reliant on event-markers to afford examination of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to conduct ERP research without being reliant on event markers using a portable MUSE EEG system and a single computer. Specifically, we report the results of two experiments using data collected with the MUSE EEG system—one using the well-known visual oddball paradigm and the other using a standard reward-learning task. Our results demonstrate that we could observe and quantify the N200 and P300 ERP components in the visual oddball task and the reward positivity (the mirror opposite component to the feedback-related negativity) in the reward-learning task. Specifically, single sample t-tests of component existence (all p's EEG system for ERP research. Importantly, our work highlights that with a single computer and a portable EEG system such as the MUSE one can conduct ERP research with ease thus greatly extending the possible use of the ERP methodology to a variety of novel contexts. PMID:28344546

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease in travelers: Choosing the right vaccines and check-ups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Esteve; Carme Loras; Ester García-Planella

    2011-01-01

    The majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) achieve good control of the inflammatory activity using available therapies. When remission is achieved and quality of life recovered, a considerable proportion of IBD patients express their desire to travel abroad, be it for business, academic or leisure purposes.Their physicians should help and encourage them whenever possible. However, preventive measures are warranted to minimize the risk, since IBD patients are exposed to the same infections affecting the general population, plus opportunistic infections (OI) related to the immunosuppression. There are a large number of potential OI that might affect patients with IBD. The true prevalence of these infections is unknown, and can vary from country to country. Therefore, reactivation or de novo acquisition of infections such as tuberculosis,malaria, and viral hepatitis will be much more frequent in endemic areas. Therefore, physicians should be aware of these aspects when planning specific preventive measures for patients traveling to a particular country. This includes good control of environmental exposure, chemoprophylaxis when indicated, and the use of a specific vaccination program to prevent endemic infections. In addition, it should be noted that,though the risk of acquiring an infectious disease is probably greater for IBD patients traveling from a developed to a developing country, the inverse situation can also occur; it depends on the previous acquired immunity of the host against infections in any particular environment.

  20. Accelerating progress in Artificial General Intelligence: Choosing a benchmark for natural world interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Brandon

    2010-12-01

    Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.