WorldWideScience

Sample records for choosing efficient discriminative

  1. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  2. Corelli: Efficient single crystal diffraction with elastic discrimination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan Rosenkranz; Raymond Osborn

    2008-10-01

    Single crystal diffuse scattering provides one of the most powerful probes of short-range correlations on the 1-100 nm scale, which often are responsible for the extreme field response of many emerging phenomena of great interest. Accurate modeling of such complex disorder from diffuse scattering data however puts stringent experimental demands, requiring measurements over large volumes of reciprocal space with sufficient momentum and energy resolution. Here, we discuss the potential of the cross-correlation technique for efficient measurement of single crystal diffuse scattering with energy discrimination, as will be implemented in a novel instrument, Corelli. Utilizing full experiment simulations, we show that this technique readily leads up to a fifty-fold gain in efficiency, as compared to traditional methods, for measuring single crystal diffuse scattering over volumes of reciprocal space with elastic discrimination.

  3. Improving crop water use efficiency using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity, drought and salinity are among the most important environmental constraints challenging crop productivity in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, especially the rain-fed production systems. The current challenge is to enhance food security in water-limited and/or salt-affected areas for the benefit of resource-poor farmers in developing countries. There is also an increasing need that water use in agriculture should focus on improvement in the management of existing water resources and enhancing crop water productivity. The method based on carbon-13 discrimination in plant tissues has a potentially important role in the selection and breeding of some crop species for increased water use efficiency in some specific environments. Under various water-limited environments, low delta in the plants, indicating low carbon isotope discrimination has been generally associated with high transpiration efficiency (TE). In contrast, for well-watered environments many positive genotypic correlations have been reported between delta and grain yield indicating potential value in selecting for greater delta in these environments. Few studies have been reported on the impact of selection for delta on adaptation and grain yield in saline environments. Studies of the impact of genetic selection for greater and lower delta are currently coordinated by the Soil and water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) is currently on-going on the Selection for Greater Agronomic Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination (D1-20 08). The overall objective of this project is to contribute to increasing the agronomic water-use efficiency of wheat and rice production, where agronomic water-use efficiency is defined as grain yield/total water use including both transpiration and evaporation. The CRP is also aiming at increasing wheat productivity under drought and rice

  4. Discrimination and nepotism: the efficiency of the anonymity rule.

    OpenAIRE

    Fershtman, C.; Gneezy, U.; Verboven, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Paper considers two categories of discrimination: ‘discrimination against’ and ‘discrimination in favour’, which Becker coins ‘nepotism’. The Paper develops an experimental test to distinguish between these two types of discrimination. The experiment compares the behaviour towards individuals of different groups with the behaviour towards anonymous individuals (those having no clear group affiliation). We illustrate the two attitudes by considering two segmented societies: Belgian society...

  5. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    ) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is...... project aims to analyze the appropriateness of different regulatory methods which are available to achieve the regulatory goals.   ...

  6. Stepwise data envelopment analysis (DEA); choosing variables for measuring technical efficiency in Norwegian electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power distribution is an activity that in principle delivers a separate product to each customer. A specification of products for a utility as a whole leads potentially to a large number of product aspects including topographic and climatic conditions, and the level of disaggregation of factors and products may give the production and cost functions a high dimensionality. Some aggregation is therefore necessary. Non-parametric methods like Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) have the advantage that they may give meaningful results when parametric methods would not have enough degrees of freedom, but will have related problems if the variables are collinear or are irrelevant. Although aggregate efficiency measures will not be much affected, rates of transformation will be corrupted and observations with extreme values may be measured as efficient by default. Little work has been done so far on the statistical properties of the non-parametric efficiency measure. This paper utilizes a suggestion by Rajiv Banker to measure the significance of the change in results when disaggregating or introducing an extra variable, and shows how one can let the data participate in deciding which variables should be included in the analysis. 32 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  7. An efficient block-discriminant identification of packed malware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Naval; Vijay Laxmi; Manoj Singh Gaur; P Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Advanced persistent attacks, incorporated by sophisticated malware, are on the rise against hosts, user applications and utility software. Modern malware hide their malicious payload by applying packing mechanism. Packing tools instigate code encryption to protect the original malicious payload. Packing is employed in tandem with code obfuscation/encryption/compression to create malware variants. Despite being just a variant of known malware, the packed malware invalidates the traditional signature based malware detection as packing tools create an envelope of packer code around the original base malware. Therefore, unpacking becomes a mandatory phase prior to anti-virus scanning for identifying the known malware hidden behind packing layers. Existing techniques of unpacking solutions increase execution overhead of AV scanners in terms of time. This paper illustrates an easy to use approach which works in two phases to reduce this overhead. The first phase (ESCAPE) discriminates the packed code from the native code (non-packed) by using random block entropy. The second phase (PEAL) validates inferences of ESCAPE by employing bi-classification (packed vs native) model using relevant hex byte features extracted blockwise. The proposed approach is able to shrink the overall execution time of AV scanners by filtering out native samples and avoiding excessive unpacking overhead. Our method has been evaluated against a set consisting of real packed instances of malware and benign programs.

  8. Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory has been developed predicting an association between water-use efficiency (WUE = total biomass/transpiration) and leaf discrimination against 13C carbon isotope discrimination which could be used to indirectly select for WUE in C3 plants. Previous studies indicated variation in WUE and carbon isotope discrimination among genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and due to drought. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between WUE and carbon isotope discrimination was observed for both genotypic and drought effects, as expected based on theory. Present studies were conducted to investigate whether the inheritance of WUE and carbon isotope discrimination is nuclear or maternal, and whether any dominance is present. Contrasting cowpea accessions and hybrids were grown over 2 yr in two outdoor pot experiments, subjected to wet or dry treatments, and under full irrigation in natural soil conditions in 1 yr. Highly significant differences in WUE were observed among cowpea parents and hybrids, and due to drought, which were strongly and negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination as expected based on theory. Data from reciprocal crosses indicated that both WUE and carbon isotope discrimination are controlled by nuclear genes. High WUE and low carbon isotope discrimination exhibited partial dominance under pot conditions. In contrast, high carbon isotope discrimination was partially dominant for plants grown under natural soil conditions but in a similar aerial environment as in the pot studies. We speculate that differences in rooting conditions were responsible for the differences in extent of dominance for carbon isotope discrimination of plants growing under pot conditions compared with natural soil conditions in a similar field aerial environment

  9. Choosing disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraise, A P

    1999-12-01

    Disinfectant choice is an important part of the role of the infection control team. Its importance has increased due to concern over transmission of blood-borne viruses and the need to identify alternatives to gluteraldehyde. Factors to be taken into account when choosing disinfectants include compliance with COSHH regulations, user acceptability, instrument compatibility and antimicrobial activity. Compounds vary in their suitability for different uses and an agent's properties must be fully evaluated before adopting it for a particular purpose. This review outlines the main properties that need to be established and covers the major characteristics of main classes of disinfectants. PMID:10658801

  10. PSD Methods Comparison and Discrimination Efficiency Study for LaBr3:Ce Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cang, Jirong; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Yinong; Li, Junli

    2016-01-01

    LaBr3:Ce scintillator has been widely studied for nuclear spectroscopy because of its optimal energy resolution (<3% @ 662keV) and time resolution (~300ps). Despite these promising properties, intrinsic radiation background of LaBr3:Ce is a critical issue, and the Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) is proved to be efficient and a potential method to suppress the alpha background from the 227Ac. In this paper, a detailed comparison of 3 digital PSD algorithms, the Charge Comparison Method, the Mean Time Method and the Gamma-Alpha Model Analysis Method, for alpha and gamma discrimination in LaBr3:Ce was done. The algorithm parameters and discrimination efficiency were analyzed and optimized for each method. Moreover, for the CCM, the correlation between the CCM feature value distribution and the total charge (energy) was quantitatively analyzed, and a fitting equation of the correlation is inferred and verified with experiment. With the equation, an energy-dependent threshold was chosen to optimize the discrim...

  11. Choosing the most efficient database for a web-based system to store and exchange ophthalmologic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Isabel; Díaz, Francisco Javier; Antón, Miriam; Díez, Jose Fernando; Sainz, Beatriz; López, Miguel; Hornero, Roberto; López, María Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Response times are a critically important parameter when implementing any telematics application. Hence, it is important to evaluate those times to check the performance of the system. Different database will get different response times. This paper presents a response time comparative analysis of the Web system of Electronic Health Record (EHRs), TeleOftalWeb, with the four databases used: Oracle 10 g, dbXML 2.0, Xindice 1.2, and eXist 1.1.1. Final goal of the comparison is choosing the database providing lower response times in TeleOftalWeb. Results obtained using the four databases proposed give the native XML database eXist an edge which, added to other features such as being a free software and easy to set up, makes us opting for it. TeleOftalWeb is being used by 20 specialists from the Institute of Applied Ophthalmobiology (Instituto de Oftalmobiología Aplicada, IOBA) of the University of Valladolid, Spain. At this time, there are more than 1000 EHRs and over 2000 fundus photographs of diabetic patients stored in the system. PMID:20703772

  12. Trait Mindfulness Predicts Efficient Top-Down Attention to and Discrimination of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Jordan T; Goodman, Robert J; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2016-06-01

    In social situations, skillful regulation of emotion and behavior depends on efficiently discerning others' emotions. Identifying factors that promote timely and accurate discernment of facial expressions can therefore advance understanding of social emotion regulation and behavior. The present research examined whether trait mindfulness predicts neural and behavioral markers of early top-down attention to, and efficient discrimination of, socioemotional stimuli. Attention-based event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were recorded while participants (N = 62; White; 67% female; Mage = 19.09 years, SD = 2.14 years) completed an emotional go/no-go task involving happy, neutral, and fearful facial expressions. Mindfulness predicted larger (more negative) N100 and N200 ERP amplitudes to both go and no-go stimuli. Mindfulness also predicted faster response time that was not attributable to a speed-accuracy trade-off. Significant relations held after accounting for attentional control or social anxiety. This study adds neurophysiological support for foundational accounts that mindfulness entails moment-to-moment attention with lower tendencies toward habitual patterns of responding. Mindfulness may enhance the quality of social behavior in socioemotional contexts by promoting efficient top-down attention to and discrimination of others' emotions, alongside greater monitoring and inhibition of automatic response tendencies. PMID:25676934

  13. Studies on 13C isotope discrimination for identifying tree provenances efficient in water use under water deficit conditions in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for drought resistance traits was conducted in a semi-arid site in Machakos using 11 provenances of Acacia tortilis, 6 provenances of Prosopis juliflora and 4 provenances of Casuarina equisetifolia. Tolerance to drought was assessed by the 13C isotope discrimination (Δ) technique as well as by determining the waster use efficiency (WUE). Measurements of dry matter and early growth performance were also taken as indicators of drought resistance. The results showed significant differences in the 13C Isotope discrimination, water use efficiency and dry matter yields by the different provenances tested. Generally, the results indicated that there were significant linear negative relationships between 13C discrimination with water use efficiency as well as dry matter yield. The results further showed highly significant positive relationship between dry matter yield and water use efficiency. Acacia tortilis provenances from middle East and neighbouring North Eastern Africa region appear to possess the greatest abilities for drought resistance in comparison with those from sub-saharan Africa as indicated by their 13C Isotope discrimination levels, dry matter yield and water use efficiency. However, Acacia provenance from Israel had the highest drought resistance trail. Prosopis provenance from Costa Rica and Casuarina from Dakar region in Senegal also emerged as the best provenances in terms of drought tolerance as shown by the 13C isotope discrimination and dry matter traits. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  15. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N2 fixation potential. 13C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees to

  16. Development of sampling efficiency and internal noise in motion detection and discrimination in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Simpson, William A; Dutton, Gordon N

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an equivalent noise paradigm to investigate the development and maturation of motion perception, and how the underlying limitations of sampling efficiency and internal noise effect motion detection and direction discrimination in school-aged children (5-14 years) and adults. Contrast energy thresholds of a 2c/deg sinusoidal grating drifting at 1.0 or 6.0 Hz were measured as a function of added dynamic noise in three tasks: detection of a drifting grating; detection of the sum of two oppositely drifting gratings and direction discrimination of oppositely drifting gratings. Compared to the ideal observer, in both children and adults, the performance for all tasks was limited by reduced sampling efficiency and internal noise. However, the thresholds for discrimination of motion direction and detection of moving gratings show very different developmental profiles. Motion direction discrimination continues to improve after the age of 14 years due to an increase in sampling efficiency that differs with speed. Motion detection and summation were already mature at the age of 5 years, and internal noise was the same for all tasks. These findings were confirmed in a 1-year follow-up study on a group of children from the initial study. The results support suggestions that the detection of a moving pattern and discriminating motion direction are processed by different systems that may develop at different rates. PMID:24732568

  17. Temperature-mediated changes in microbial carbon use efficiency and 13C discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmeier, C. A.; Ballantyne, F., IV; Min, K.; Billings, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from soils feeds back to climate warming depends in part on our ability to quantify the efficiency with which microorganisms convert soil organic carbon (C) into either biomass or CO2. Quantifying ecosystem-level respiratory CO2 losses often also requires assumptions about stable C isotope fractionations associated with the microbial transformation of soil organic substrates. However, the diversity of organic substrates' δ13C and the challenges of measuring microbial C use efficiency (CUE) in soils fundamentally limit our ability to project soil, and thus ecosystem, C budgets in a warming climate. Here, we quantify the effect of temperature on C fluxes during metabolic transformations of cellobiose, a common microbial substrate, by a cosmopolitan soil microorganism growing at a constant rate. Specific respiration rate increased by 250 % between 13 and 26.5 °C, decreasing CUE from 77 to 56 %. Specific respiration rate was positively correlated with an increase in respiratory 13C discrimination from 4.4 to 6.7 ‰ across the same temperature range. This first demonstration of a direct link between temperature, microbial CUE and associated isotope fluxes provides a critical step towards understanding δ13C of respired CO2 at multiple scales, and towards a framework for predicting future soil C fluxes.

  18. Temperature-mediated changes in microbial carbon use efficiency and 13C discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmeier, Christoph A.; Ballantyne, Ford, IV; Min, Kyungjin; Billings, Sharon A.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from ecosystems feeds back to climate warming depends in part on our ability to quantify the efficiency with which microorganisms convert organic carbon (C) into either biomass or CO2. Quantifying ecosystem-level respiratory CO2 losses often also requires assumptions about stable C isotope fractionations associated with the microbial transformation of organic substrates. However, the diversity of organic substrates' δ13C and the challenges of measuring microbial C use efficiency (CUE) in their natural environment fundamentally limit our ability to project ecosystem C budgets in a warming climate. Here, we quantify the effect of temperature on C fluxes during metabolic transformations of cellobiose, a common microbial substrate, by a cosmopolitan microorganism growing at a constant rate. Biomass C specific respiration rate increased by 250 % between 13 and 26.5 °C, decreasing CUE from 77 to 56 %. Biomass C specific respiration rate was positively correlated with an increase in respiratory 13C discrimination from 4.4 to 6.7 ‰ across the same temperature range. This first demonstration of a direct link between temperature, microbial CUE, and associated isotope fluxes provides a critical step towards understanding δ13C of respired CO2 at multiple scales, and towards a framework for predicting future ecosystem C fluxes.

  19. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Toys KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Toys Print A ... can contribute to hearing damage. continue The Right Toys at the Right Ages Always read labels to ...

  20. Choosing a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing A Doctor Heath and Aging Choosing A Doctor Types of Primary Care Doctors Asking for Help ... is right for you. Types of Primary Care Doctors Your primary care doctor is the doctor you ...

  1. Selection for Greater Agronomic Water Use Efficiency in Wheat using Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of eight durum wheat genotypes was used to evaluate the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) and grain yield under different rainfall regimes during the 2002-03 and 2003-04 seasons. The study included two old Algerian cultivars (Polonicum, Oued Zenati) and six advanced lines from the CIMMYT/ICARDA durum wheat breeding programme. The same set of genotypes was used in 2004-05 and 2005-06 to evaluate the influence of inter-annual climatic variation. These cultivars represent a wide range of agronomic characteristics. The Δ values allowed the selection of three parents to analyze the genetics of grain Δ: Waha and Mexicali (high Δ and Oued Zenati (low Δ). In 2003-04, two crosses were made, Mexicali/Waha (high Δ/high Δ and Oued Zenati/Mexicali (low Δ/high Δ). The parental cultivars and the F2 and F3 populations were then grown in 2004-05 and 2005-06 seasons. For the 2006-07 season, three categories of plants were chosen and sown from the F4 population based on their similar heading date and plant height. Estimates of realized heritability were obtained, and the degree of correlation between Δ and grain yield was estimated. At the same time, two field experiments were carried out at Ain Abessa located in the north of the high plateau, and at Beni Fouda located in the east. Data generated by the water balance model 'Budget' were used to estimate the water use efficiency of the crops. The relative yield decline expected under specific levels of water stress at different growth stages was estimated using the FAO Ky approach. (author)

  2. Relationships between transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in chickpea (C. arietinum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kashiwagi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse pot experiments were carried out in 2004 to check if there are any variations available for carbon isotope discrimination (d13C, to investigate the relationship between d13C and transpiration efficiency (TE, and to ascertain the possibility of using d13C as a surrogate for TE measurements. Ten chickpea genotypes (Annigeri, ICC 10448, ICC 13219, ICC 14199, ICC 1882, ICC 283, ICC 4958, ICC 5337, ICC 5680 and ICC 8261 with contrasting growth duration, type (desi or kabuli, growth habit and root system were used. In the well-watered pots (control, the water lost in a day was added back, whereas in the water stress-imposed pots the water, which is equivalent to 70-90% of daily transpiration, was given to avoid the rapid build up of soil water stress. There were significant differences in d13C among the 10 genotypes and the d13C in stress condition was significantly higher than that in the well-wateredcontrol. Genotype ICC 5337 showed the highest d13C (-26.0% in the stress condition. ICC 4958, a well-known drought-resistant cultivar, had superior d13C value than the other genotypes. ICC 4958 ranked second (-27.2% under stress condition and the first (-28.4% in the well-watered control condition. The genotype by irrigation (G x I interaction was significant for d13C. Among 10 genotypes, a significant difference in TE was observed in both irrigated and stress conditions. Genotype ICC 5337 showed the highest TE irrespective of irrigations of 3.9 g/kg under stress and 2.8 g/kg under well-watered control. The TE under stress was significantly higher than the TE under the control. There was a significant correlation in TE between the stress and control conditions and there was no G x I interaction observed. A significant positive correlation between d13C and TE was observed under the stress condition. However, no significant correlation was observed between d13C and TE when the plants were grown under well-watered conditions. The results shows

  3. Carbon isotope discrimination and water-use efficiency in native plants of the north-central Rockies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope composition was determined on leaves of woody plants sampled along an 800—km transect on the western flank of the Rocky Mountains at altitudes ranging from 610 to 2650 m above mean sea level. Discrimination decreased by 1.20 ± 0.11% (mean ± 1 se) per km of altitude (n = 15, F1,13 = 127.8, P < 0.0001). The change in discrimination was just sufficient to maintain a constant CO2 partial pressure gradient from ambient air to the intercellular spaces within the leaf for both deciduous (P = 0.60) and evergreen (P = 0.90) species. However, the CO2 gradient so maintained was significantly steeper among evergreen (11.31 ± 0.14 Pa) than among deciduous (9.64 ± 0.14 Pa) species (t = 8.4, 27 df, P < 00001). As a consequence, the evergreens had lower discrimination than the deciduous species at any given altitude. After the data were corrected for altitude, further analysis revealed significant differences in discrimination and in CO2 partial pressure gradient among species. Thuja plicata (western red—cedar), a scale—leaved evergreen, had lowest mean discrimination (16.67 ± 0.50%, n = 4) and the steepest CO2 gradient from ambient to intercellular spaces (14.5 ± 0.5 Pa). Larix occidentalis (western larch), a deciduous conifer, had the highest discrimination (20.95 ± 0.34%, n = 9) and the flattest CO2 gradient (8.3 ± 0.4 Pa). A simple model of water—use efficiency predicted that evergreen species would average 18 ± 2% higher in water—use efficiency at any given altitude and that mean water—use efficiency would triple across a 2000—m altitude gradient. The difference between evergreen and deciduous species is attributable to variation in the CO2 partial pressure gradient, but the tripling with altitude was almost exclusively a consequence of reduced evaporative demand. (author)

  4. Carbon Isotope Discrimination is not Correlated with Transpiration Efficiency in Three Cool-Season Grain Legumes (Pulses)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The carbon Isotope discrimination (δ13C) of leaves has been shown to be correlated with the transpiration efficiency of leaves in a wide range of species. This has led to δ13C being used in breeding programs to select for improved transpiration efficiency. The correlation between δ13C and transpiration efficiency was determined under well-watered conditions during the vegetative phase In six genotypes of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), six genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and 10 cultivars of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Biomass (dry matter) accumulation and water use (transpiration)varied among the genotypes in all three species and transpiration efficiency was 40% to 75% higher In the most efficient compared with the least efficient genotypes. However, δ13C and transpiration efficiency were not significantly correlated in any of the species. This suggests that the δ13C technique cannot be used In selection for transpiration efficiency in the three grain legumes (pulses) studied.

  5. Carbon isotope discrimination in leaf juice of Acacia mangium and its relationship to water-use efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    lvliu ZOU; Guchou SUN; Ping ZHAO; Xian CAI; Xiaoping ZENG; Xiaojing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Using the PMS pressure chamber and isotope mass spectrometer (MAT-252), the leaf juice of Acacia mangium was obtained, and the carbon isotope discrimination (△) representing the most recently fixed carbon in the juice was determined. At the same time, the water-use efficiency of A. mangium was estimated. The results indicated that the carbon isotope ratio in the air of forest canopy (δa), 10m high above ground averaged -7.57 1.41‰ in cloudy days, and - 8.54±0.67 ‰ in sunny days, respectively. The diurnal change of the carbon isotope ratio in the photosynthetic products of the leaf juice (δp) was of saddle type in cloudy days, but dropped down from morning to later afternoon in sunny days. A strong negative correlation betweenδp and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (D) was observed in sunny days, but a slight change inδp, was found in cloudy days. Theδp also decreased with decreasing leaf water potential (ψ), reflecting that water stress could cause the decrease ofδp. The carbon isotope discrimination of the leaf juice was positively correlated with the ratio between intercellular (Pi) and atmospheric (Pa) partial pressure of CO2. For A. mangium, the isotope effect on diffusion of atmospheric CO2 via stomata was denoted by a = 4.6 %>, and that in net C3 diffusion with respect to Pi was indicated by b = 28.2 ‰. The results were in reasonable accord with the theoretically diffusive and biochemical fractionation of carbon isotope. It was defined that carbon isotope discrimination of photosynthetic products in A. mangium leaf juice was in proportion to that from photosynthetic products in dry material. The water-use efficiency estimated by the carbon isotope discrimination in leaf juice, fit well with that measured by gas exchange system (R2 = 0.86, p< 0.0001). The application of leaf juice in measuring the stable carbon isotope discrimination would reduce the effects of fluctuating environmental factors during the synthesis of dry matter, and improve

  6. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wholegrain pastas available at the grocery store. Narrator: One way to get fiber is by eating healthy ... you to choose between closely related foods, the one that is the best nutritional value for you. ...

  7. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bales, Ph.D., R.D.: So what nutrient density does is allow you to choose between closely ... enough calories for the day, either way, nutrient density is a very important concept.

  8. Choosing the best doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002069.htm Choosing the best doctor To use the sharing features on this page, ... patient care methods. Prescriber Checkup and Dollars for Doctors These pages are run by ProPublica, a nonprofit ...

  9. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

  10. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    -secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students’ perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used......, primarily consist of interviews with 38 students at the end of upper-secondary school. The analysis explores the students’ expectations of what higher education STEM might be like. These expectations are contrasted with the first-year experiences of 18 of the 38 students who eventually entered a higher...... education STEM programme. The results show that the students who did not choose STEM, perceived STEM as stable, rigid and fixed, and, hence, too narrow a platform for developing and constructing desirable identities. The experiences of those students who actually entered a STEM programme turned out to be...

  11. Greater Agronomic Water Use Efficiency in Wheat and Rice using Carbon Isotope Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat and rice are the two most important cereal crops worldwide. The potential yield of a cereal crop may be constrained by many factors, both biotic and abiotic, which may be related to the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil itself (edaphic factors) or to the environmental conditions pertaining during the growth of the crop. Foremost among the abiotic factors is the availability of water, which is governed by climatic conditions and the ability of the soil to store available water. Together with drought, soil salinity is becoming a major stress factor limiting cereal yields globally. Soil salinization is accelerated by anthropogenic activities, including various forms of land and water mismanagement, which allow salts in geological strata to rise to the surface soil or seawater to encroach on low-lying coastal paddy soils. National programmes in crop improvement generally focus on local production problems through selection of stress resistant germplasm and traditional breeding methods, aided by modern molecular techniques. Traditional approaches are labour intensive and time consuming, with grain yield being the final arbiter of success or failure. Thus any technique that can predict yield well in advance of harvest has the potential to save considerable time, effort and money. The objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to evaluate carbon isotope discrimination (CID, or Δ13C) as a selection tool for yield and biomass of wheat under drought stress and rice under salt stress. This CRP was implemented following the recommendations of a consultants meeting of international experts. The research network included 11 contract holders from Algeria, Australia, Bangladesh, China (2), India, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen, and two agreement holders from Mexico and the United States of America. The CRP was conducted in collaboration with national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa and Asia

  12. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  13. Carbon-13 discrimination as a criterion for identifying high water use efficiency wheat cultivars under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During four consecutive years, 20 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) and bread wheat (Triticum aestrivum L.) cultivars were grown under rain-fed conditions and supplementary irrigation with the objective of assessing the possibility of using 13C discrimination Δ as a criterion to screen for wheat cultivars that produce high yields and have a better water use efficiency under water deficit conditions. In all four growing season, both treatments were subjected to some water stress which was higher under rain-fed conditions and varied according to the intensity and time of rainfall. During the first growing season, and despite small differences between the two treatments in terms of the amounts of water used, the grain and straw yields as well as Δ were significantly higher in the treatment which received an irrigation at installation than in the one without irrigation. There was substantial genotypic variation in Δ. When both treatments were considered, the total above ground dry matter yield and grain yield were positively correlated with Δ although the correlation coefficient of grain yield versus Δ was not high (**). The data suggest that while a high Δ value may be used as a criterion for selection of cultivars of wheat with potential for high yield and high water use efficiency in wheat under field conditions, caution must be exercised in the selection process as the size of the canopy and the changes in environmental factors mainly soil water content, can result in changes in Δ and the yield of a cultivar. However, Δ of a genotype can also provide valuable information with respect to plant parameters responsible for the control of Δ and this information can be usefully employed in breeding programmes aimed at developing wheat cultivars high in yield and high in water use efficiency, and suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropics and sub-tropics. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. 紧扣教材选择恰当方法构建高效课堂%Stick to the Teaching Meterial Choose Appropriate Method Build Efficient Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学功

    2014-01-01

    It from how to select appropriate teaching methods,showing teaching materials to maximize value,build efficient classroom overview,in order to give our students more space for development.%从如何选择恰当的教学方法,最大化展现教材价值,构建出高效语文课堂进行概述,以期能够让学生获得更大的发展空间。

  15. Selection of drought tolerant and high water use efficient rice cultivars through /sup 13/C isotope discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon isotope discrimination ('A') has been suggested as an indirect tool for selecting plants having higher water use efficiency (WUE) and yield potential. Enhancing WUE is an important breeding objective as water scarcity is increasing with every passing day. This study was undertaken to assess the genotypic variation and relationship between leaf, straw, grain 'A', grain yield and WUE in eight aromatic rice cultivars grown in lysimeters under three water regimes, in absence of drainage and runoff. Highly significant positive correlations were found between aboveground biomass and WUEB, and grain yield and WUEG, due to the low variation in water consumed by different cultivars. Leaf, straw and grain A showed a consistent variation across treatments and cultivars. Under water stress conditions, both leaf and straw 'A' were positively correlated to grain yield and WUEG. In all the water treatments, WUEG was positively correlated to harvest index and negatively to plant height. All the mutants from Basmati 385 had significantly higher 'A' values as compared to the mutants from Basmati 370. It was concluded that the new cultivar, Basmati 385, represents a better genetic source for 'A' improvement than the old cultivar, Basmati 370. (author)

  16. Carbon Isotope discrimination in acacia auriculiformis - can it be used to select for higher water-use-efficiency in trees?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determining the water-use-efficiency of trees in relation lo wood production is problematic due to the sheer size of the plant and the number of years taken to produce the wood. Indirect measures of water-use-efficiency, such as carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), are therefore attractive to tree breeders wishing to select for increased water-use-efficiency. To begin to evaluate the usefulness of Δ as a selection parameter for the tropical tree Acacia auriculiformis we addressed the following questions: 1. Within the tree canopy, how variable is Δ? 2. Is there any genotypic variation in Δ? and 3. Does water availability affect genotypic variation? To address these questions we sampled foliage from pot trials and field trials of A. auriculiformis ranging in age from 3 months lo 8 years in Australia and Thailand. In 16-18m high 8-year-old trees, canopy variation in Δ was large (P>0.01). Foliage Δ values increased down the tree from 22.0 %o at the top to 24.7 %o at the base. The decrease was rapid in the lop 3 m of the canopy thus considerable care must be taken to sampling foliage from the same position in the canopy. Genotype variations in Δ was observed in seedlings and 2 year-old trees (P>0.01) but not in 8 year-old trees (P=0.60). Where genotypic variation were observed the differences between the lowest and highest values were 2.2 - 3.6 %o. Reduced water availability decreased Δ values in both pot and field studies but not in a consistent way across seedlots. Thus it would appear that the Δ of trees grown under favourable conditions does not give an indication of the Δ value which will be obtained under water-limited conditions. This complicates the use of Δ as a screening method. We have clearly shown that genotype variation occurs in A. auriculiformis in both seedlings and young field-grown trees. Considerable care is required when sampling large trees, as variation in Δ within the tree can be as large as between genotypes. The challenge

  17. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    . These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...... the planning process. The methodology allows for specifying a level of Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) performance to investigate cost reductions when allowing shares of fossil fuel consumption. The outcome is an optimal supply technology combination and optimal installed capacities in terms of the overall...

  18. Me Nuh Choose None

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Cooke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on textual modes of fictional representation first valorised then disseminated by British imperialists, this story appropriates then abrogates Eurocentric ideals of normative creative expression. By appropriating the rhythm of lyrical poetry into the descriptions of this fictionalized Jamaica as well as the structure of modernist prose into Akúa’s psychical shift from colonial subject to postcolonial agent, “Me Nuh Choose None” inverts these narrative conventions historically used to systematize and exclude in order to puncture the imperious myth that complex writing in English primarily concerns itself with gratifying the colonial centre. Moreover, by treating the textual approximations of the Jamaican storyteller Miss Lou’s oral folktales with equal depth and sophistication as the instances of alliteration and onomatopoeia, this story abrogates the autocratic standard of “proper” spelling and pronunciation so as to textually privilege Jamaican folklore using the literariness usually reserved for Western texts. The effect is a form of fiction that acknowledges the dense matrix of cultural and colonial systems English writing exists within, while simultaneously gesturing between and beyond these systems to the linguistic interstices of postcolonial liminality.

  19. Showiness or efficiency: what to choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Rekalov, D. G.; Samura, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in the world. Current treatment focuses on symptom relief and improving a patient's overall function. Pharmacological treatment’s aim is to correct symptomatic complaints as well as structural problems in osteoarthritis.Ibuprofen is a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor approved for the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis.Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have been linked as an optional treatment in osteoarth...

  20. Relationship between Water Use Efficiency and Î"13C Isotope Discrimination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Canavar, Öner; GÖTZ, Klaus-Peter; Koca, Yakup Onur; Ellmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most limiting factors in agricultural productivity because of its highly negative effect on photosynthesis and growth of plants. The main objectives of this study were to determine the performance of four selected safflower genotypes (Remzibey, Dinçer, Balcı and TRE-ASL09/14) against drought stress. The relationship between water use efficiency (WUE) and δ13C (isotope discrimination) was investigated under well watered (60%) and drought stress (30%) irrigation in ...

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Oxygen Isotope Composition and Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Selecting for Greater Agronomic Water Use Efficiency in Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of using oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C, CID or Δ) in selecting for greater agronomic water-use efficiency in wheat was studied. The objective was to determine whether natural-abundance measurements of Δ13C or δ18O of crop dry matter can be used to separate differences in access to soil water during grain filling from differences in assimilate re-translocation to the grain. The study consisted of carefully-controlled irrigation and rainfall-exclusion, which established two treatments with different soil-water availability at depth when they entered the post-anthesis (p-A) phase. Values of Δ13C and δ18O were measured on green leaves, senesced leaves, stem, non-grain ear parts (chaff) and grain from samples taken several times p-A from a field trial grown in SE Australia in 2004. Soil water content was measured from sowing to maturity using a neutron moisture meter, while roots were extracted from soil cores. Leaf porosity was also measured p-A using a Thermoline viscous-flow porometer and the values were related to stomatal conductance; in addition, canopy temperature was measured using a hand-held Mikron M-120 infrared thermometer. Substantial variation was observed in Δ13C and δ18O among plant parts, with the grain having the smallest values of Δ13C and the largest values of δ18O. There were large changes in grain Δ13C and grain δ18O with time p-A. Grain-Δ13C was smallest and grain δ18O largest at 12 d p-A. At 27, 34 and 48 d p-A, the value of grain Δ13C had increased by up to 1.5 per mille and grain δ18O had decreased by up to 2 per mille. The magnitudes of these changes with time p-A were consistent with observed contributions to grain dry weight from re-translocation of stored assimilates. No treatment differences were observed for grain δ18O. Small treatment differences found for grain Δ13C late in grain filling may have been due to the small treatment difference in sub-soil water use

  2. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  3. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  4. CHOOSING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnikov A. V.; Denisenko E. A.; Dolobenko D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as w...

  5. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  6. ALGORITHM OF CHOOSING ASPHALT MIXING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov, P.; Kravchuk, Y.; Zhukov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of transport infrastructure, which must conform to European standards and in its turn requires the development of road economy, is one of the ways out of the crisis. The development of road economy requires either construction of asphalt-concrete mixture plants or their modernization, or reconstruction of existing plants. Any reconstruction or modernization and, moreover, construction of new asphalt-concrete plants requires the optimization of choosing the most efficient aspha...

  7. CHOOSING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnikov A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as well as an algorithm for calculating solar energy systems, the sequence of which is to define the required parameters, the daily energy consumption by consumers of electric power, the calculation capacity of the battery, the choice of the inverter and determining the area of solar batteries. The article reveals the conditions that affect the calculation of the PV system. It is shown that the greatest efficiency, including economic and reliability we have at combined (hybrid Autonomous system, which was carried out with both solar power and wind power and gas stations. The important matters of improving the reliability of solar systems are the introduction to the design of a new element of the base, and first and foremost, Autonomous inventors performed on a single-phase transformer with a rotating magnetic field

  8. High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Zampieri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for understanding epidemiological profiles and for the administration of the best therapeutic protocol.Exploring the High Resolution Melting (HRM dissociation profiles of two amplicons using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR targeting heat-shock protein 70 coding gene (hsp70 revealed differences that allowed the discrimination of genomic DNA samples of eight Leishmania species found in the Americas, including Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi, L. (L. amazonensis, L. (L. mexicana, L. (Viannia lainsoni, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. guyanensis, L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. shawi, and three species found in Eurasia and Africa, including L. (L. tropica, L. (L. donovani and L. (L. major. In addition, we tested DNA samples obtained from standard promastigote culture, naturally infected phlebotomines, experimentally infected mice and clinical human samples to validate the proposed protocol.HRM analysis of hsp70 amplicons is a fast and robust strategy that allowed for the detection and discrimination of all Leishmania species responsible for the Leishmaniases in Brazil and Eurasia/Africa with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method could detect less than one parasite per reaction, even in the presence of host DNA.

  9. Children and (Five Choose Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkin, Alexander K.

    1993-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences with a small group of elementary school students as they explore different forms of the combinatorics problem of choosing two out of five objects. Describes how students examine the connections between the problems and a proof of the relationship. (MDH)

  10. Choosing a Senior Living Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that be an independent living community, assisted living community or nursing home. However, there are numerous signs that a ... Download the Guide to Choosing an Assisted Living Community checklist. ... living, assisted living, nursing homes, etc.-it's important to assess your or ...

  11. Fiscal Discrimination Between Consumer Groups: Tax Burden Distribution Under Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Plewka, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is analysed, how, under price discrimination, the tax burden is shared between the distinct consumer groups. Unit and ad valorem taxes are compared, revealing an impossibility of fiscal discrimination with regard to price changes. Contrary to conventional tax incidence analysis, it is shown that quantities traded do matter. Relative market shares are decisive for the distribution of tax burdens thereby opening up an opportunity for fiscal discrimination in choosing tax types....

  12. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the...... concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test......, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Gottingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning...

  13. Military Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  14. Genetic variation in seedling water-use efficiency of Patagonian Cypress populations from contrasting precipitation regimes assessed through carbon isotope discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorino, M. J.; Aparicio, A. G.; Marchelli, P.; Gallo, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a physiological parameter that plays a significant role in the evolutionary dynamics of many forest tree species. It can be estimated indirectly through carbon isotope discrimination (A). In general, plants of more arid origins have lower values of A. In order to study the degree of genetic control of this parameter and the genetic variation in A of Patagonian Cypress seedlings, three Argentinean natural populations chosen to represent two contrasting precipitation regimes were sampled in a common garden trial. The dry situation was represented by two neighboring marginal forest patches from the steppe, while the humid condition was represented by a population with 1,200 mm higher mean annual precipitation. Height (H) and A were measured in 246 five-year-old seedlings from 41 open-pollinated families. The factor family had a significant effect on both variables; however heritability for A was found not to be significant in two out of the three populations. This could be explained by low sample size in one of them and by a real evolutionary effect in the other. An inverse association between H and A was verified, which is interpreted as evidence of an adaptation process at the intra-population level. The studied populations were not shown to discriminate carbon isotopes differently; hence evidence of adaptation to current environmental conditions could not be obtained. On the other hand, the arid populations proved to be quite different in terms of genetic variation, which seems to be the consequence of genetic drift and isolation. (Author) 49 refs.

  15. Relationship between Yield, Carbon Isotope Discrimination (Δ13C) and Water Use Efficiency of Durum Wheat in the Syrian Arab Republic. 3. Simulation Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six durum wheat genotypes were grown at Tel Hadya during the three seasons 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, and the data were used to calibrate and validate the simulation model SIMWASER. Simulated and measured soil water status and yield production showed very good conformity, and therefore SIMWASER was able to reproduce the water balance of the site in a realistic manner, as well as yield production throughout the season. The validated model was run for the period between 1980 and 2007 for the Tel Hadya site using daily weather data. Also, different genetic scenarios were used regarding different transpiration values. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) was used as a closely-related surrogate for transpiration at the plant level. The simulated yields showed weak relationships with measured rainfall. However, closer relationships (higher R2) were found between simulated yield and plant transpiration. Moreover, when years were grouped according to rainfall, dry years (rainfall 175 mm), stronger relationships were evident between simulated yield and measured rainfall. The dry years produced much higher yields per unit of rainfall (rainfall use efficiency) compared with the wetter years, ranging between 13 and 90 kg ha-1 mm-1 for the wet and dry years, respectively. The high Δ cultivars transpired more water, had higher yields and therefore had higher water use efficiencies compared with low Δ cultivars. (author)

  16. Development of sensitive and specific molecular tools for the efficient detection and discrimination of potentially invasive mussel species of the genus Perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Joana Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine mussels of the genus Perna include three species: P. canaliculus, P. viridis and P. perna. While P. canaliculus appears to be greatlyrestricted to its endemic range of New Zealand, P. perna and P.viridis introductions have been recorded outside their native ranges in severalregions of the globe. Such introductions have often resulted in significant negative ecological, economic and social impacts. Perna perna and P.viridis are exotic to Australia and are listed under the Australian Government National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions as high priority species. Rapid detection of marine pests such as Perna species remains fundamental to their effective containment and control. The present study reports on the development and validation of both conventional and real-time PCR assays suited to the rapid identification and discrimination of juvenile and adult specimens of P. viridis, P. canaliculus and P. perna. The development of a sensitive high-throughput real-time PCR assay offers further potential for the efficient detection of the presence of single Perna specimens in mixed populations of native mussel species, and for early detection of larval stages in ballast water and plankton samples. This assay offers considerable advantages over traditional identification methods and represents an important step in developing capacity for efficient identification and management of Perna species incursions in Australian waters.

  17. Choosing the Right Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péči Matúš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines systems integration and its main levels at higher levels of control. At present, the systems integration is one of the main aspects participating in the consolidation processes and financial flows of a company. Systems Integration is a complicated emotionconsuming process and it is often a problem to choose the right approach and level of integration. The research focused on four levels of integration, while each of them is characterized by specific conditions. At each level, there is a summary of recommendations and practical experience. The paper also discusses systems integration between the information and MES levels. The main part includes user-level integration where we describe an example of such integration. Finally, we list recommendations and also possible predictions of the systems integration as one of the important factors in the future.

  18. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  19. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination (Δ13C) and Water Use Efficiency of Durum Wheat int the Syrian Arab Republic. 2. Glasshouse Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare transpiration rates of six durum wheat genotypes grown in two soil types, a clay (Tel Hadya) and a sandy clay loam (Breda). Six durum wheat genotypes varying in grain carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), an index to transpiration efficiency, were used. Pots were subjected to controlled and gradual dehydration, with a wet treatment as a control. The transpiration ratio (TR) was calculated as the ratio between daily water loss for each of the pots undergoing gradual dehydration, and the average daily water loss in the wet pots. Then the data were further normalized. The daily fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) for each pot was calculated by dividing the difference between daily pot weight and final weight by the overall transpirable soil water (difference between initial and final pot weight). The data were analyzed by plotting normalized transpiration ratio (NTR) against the FTSW using logistic, linear plateau and exponential models. Genotypes differed in transpiration rates during gradual dehydration and between the two soil types for pooled data. A significant relationship was found between dry matter production and threshold values (the point when the transpiration rate starts to be less in the gradual dehydration treatment than in the control treatment). The cultivar Brachoua (which had low grain Δ) recorded the highest dry matter production and the highest threshold value. Significant differences in threshold values were evident between the two soil types. The lowest threshold value was for the cultivar Waha (which had high grain Δ, and consequently had a potentially high transpiration efficiency), indicating a superior ability to extract water at high soil water potentials (when soil is dry). On the other hand, the genotype Brachoua was very sensitive to low soil moisture, and transpiration rates decreased at the beginning of the gradual dehydration. (author)

  20. Wage Differentials, Discrimination and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Shouyong Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I construct a search model of a large labor market in which workers are heterogeneous in productivity and (homogeneous) firms post wages and a ranking of workers to direct workers' search. I establish the following results. First, the wage differential is negatively related to productivity when the productivity differential is small, while a positive relationship emerges when the productivity differential is large. Second, as the productivity differential decreases to zero, the ...

  1. N-(2',5'-di-t-butylphenyl)-4-ethoxy-1,8-naphthalimide: A new fluorophore highly efficient for fast neutrons/gamma-rays discrimination in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, Matthieu [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: matth.hamel@gmail.com; Frelin-Labalme, Anne-Marie; Simic, Vesna [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Normand, Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: stephane.normand@cea.fr

    2009-04-21

    Discrimination between fast neutrons and gamma rays has been successfully achieved using a blue-fluorescing 4-substituted 1,8-naphthalimide in aromatic solvents. As previously stated in the literature, an important solvent effect was observed, but the substitution groups surrounding the core of the naphthalimide also appeared to be extremely crucial. Our system presents the advantages of being based on the use of a single highly soluble solute, exhibiting a large Stokes shift (to avoid self-absorption process) and presenting an emission spectrum fitting well to the photomultiplier (PM) sensitivity. More importantly, we observed that our scintillator was not affected by the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the medium. This observation has no equivalent in commercial liquid scintillators, which are known to be oxygen-sensitive. The discrimination efficiency of our system is described in terms of scintillation performances, figure of merit and the angle between neutrons and gamma lobes visualized in the bi-parametric discrimination spectrum.

  2. N-(2',5'-di-t-butylphenyl)-4-ethoxy-1,8-naphthalimide: A new fluorophore highly efficient for fast neutrons/gamma-rays discrimination in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrimination between fast neutrons and gamma rays has been successfully achieved using a blue-fluorescing 4-substituted 1,8-naphthalimide in aromatic solvents. As previously stated in the literature, an important solvent effect was observed, but the substitution groups surrounding the core of the naphthalimide also appeared to be extremely crucial. Our system presents the advantages of being based on the use of a single highly soluble solute, exhibiting a large Stokes shift (to avoid self-absorption process) and presenting an emission spectrum fitting well to the photomultiplier (PM) sensitivity. More importantly, we observed that our scintillator was not affected by the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the medium. This observation has no equivalent in commercial liquid scintillators, which are known to be oxygen-sensitive. The discrimination efficiency of our system is described in terms of scintillation performances, figure of merit and the angle between neutrons and gamma lobes visualized in the bi-parametric discrimination spectrum.

  3. 3d-4f Metal-Organic Framework with Dual Luminescent Centers That Efficiently Discriminates the Isomer and Homologues of Small Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Xing, Shanghua; Wang, Xiuru; Yang, Yulin; Ma, Dingxuan; Liang, Hongwei; Gao, Lu; Hua, Jia; Li, Guanghua; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-02-01

    A 3d-4f luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF), [Tb2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (4), and three analogues {[La2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(C4H8O2)2(H2O)2]·3C4H8O2·2H2O (1), [Ce2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (2), and [Eu2(Cu8I8)(C12H8NO2)6(H2O)4]·5C4H8O2 (3)}, were self-assembled from copper(I) halide clusters and lanthanide metal ions with an organic linker [3-(pyridin-4-yl)benzoic acid] under solvothermal conditions. Compound 4 with high quantum yield (Φ = 68%) exhibits reversible luminescence behavior, accompanying the removal and recovery of guest molecules (1,4-dioxane). Because of the unique porous structure and dual luminescent centers of compound 4, it can efficiently differentiate benzene series with different sizes and provide readouts in corresponding optical signals. Furthermore, it also can unambiguously discriminate the isomers, homologues, and other small molecules with similar structural motifs from one another. The luminescent color of the MOF sensor in different guest solvents has obvious changes that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. This multicolor luminescence originates from emissions of the dual luminescent centers, and the emissions have shifted, enhanced, weakened, or quenched to different degrees. PMID:26756250

  4. Relationships among Water Use Efficiency, Grain Yield, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Ash Content in Wheat under Different Mega-Environments and Water Regimes in China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive correlations have been repeatedly reported between grain yield, carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and ash content in wheat cultivated under Mediterranean-type environments (characterized by post-anthesis water stress). The relationships among these traits have been much less analyzed under other wheat mega-environments. The present study examined the relationships between grain yield, Δ13C and ash content in wheat in Northern China (characterized by pre-anthesis water stress) and in the Peninsular Zone of India (characterized by residual moisture stress). In both mega-environments, wheat was grown under rain fed and irrigated conditions. The relationships between grain yield, Δ and ash content were less stable than under post-anthesis water stress, and were highly dependent on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing, which in turn depends on out-of-season rainfall. This considerably limits the use of Δ and ash content as indirect selection criteria for yield in these mega-environments. In India, the relationships between Δ, ash content and components of water use efficiency (WUE) (the latter were estimated from a soil water balance model) were also investigated. Significant correlations were found across environments between ash content in leaf and grain and the model estimates of the quantity of water transpired during the growth cycle. WUE was significantly negatively correlated with ash content in leaf and grain. Additional analyses of the relationships among grain yield, Δ and ash content, including soil moisture measurements over the growing period and/or estimation of water balance components, are needed in these mega-environments to define precisely the range of conditions leading to significant correlations and allowing the use of Δ and ash content as indirect selection criteria for yield. (author)

  5. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination (Δ13C) and Water Use Efficiency of Durum Wheat in the Syrian Arab Republic. 1. Field Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted over three seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) using six durum wheat genotypes, similar in phenology, to minimize the genotype x environment (G*E) interaction, but varying in grain carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ). The four field sites at Tel Hadya, Breda, Muslmieh and Yahmoul were fully characterized according to environment and soil classification. Plant growth and development were monitored throughout the growing season. Δ was measured for every plot using grain or the 4th fully-expanded leaf. Also, ash and protein contents of grain were analyzed. Radiation use efficiency was measured at Tel Hadya only. Stomatal conductance and resistant as well as canopy temperature was also measured for the different sites and years. Soil water content throughout the growing season was measured at some sites to calculate water use. Variability between sites was mostly related to rainfall, with variability within a site being related to season. Δ was lower at the drier sites and higher at the wettest site, ranging from 12.88 to 16.62 per mille for grain, and 19.97 to 22.57 per mille for the 4th fully-expanded leaf. Positive correlations were found between grain Δ and yields of grain and biomass. The stronger correlations were at the drier sites, whilst at the wettest site (Yahmoul) there was no significant relationship. Δ was also related to ash and protein content. The genotypic variation in Δ (grain and leaf) was substantially independent of season or site. (author)

  6. Choosing Child Care: Birth to Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Like all difficult decisions, choosing child care can seem overwhelming, and this is particularly true when choosing care for children under three. The better you understand what your child's and your own personal needs are, and what is available and affordable to you, the more confident you will become in your decision-making process. This…

  7. The influence of flood basaltic source terrains on the efficiency of tectonic setting discrimination diagrams: An example from the Gulf of Khambhat, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav; Banerjee, Santanu; Burley, Stuart D.; Ghosh, Anupam; Saraswati, Pratul K.

    2010-05-01

    Petrographical and geochemical data of modern coastal and estuarine sediments from the Gulf of Khambhat, western India, illustrate the problem of inferring tectonic setting from petrographic and geochemical discrimination diagrams. The passive margin basin at the western coast of India receives sediments from diverse sources from the stable craton of peninsular India, in which a considerable input is from the Cretaceous Deccan basalt that occupies a major part of the hinterland. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams do not correctly identify the passive margin signature of sediments from the Gulf of Khambhat in most cases. Tectonic setting is correctly interpreted only in the absence of basaltic derivatives in modern sediments. The sediments predominantly derived from the Deccan basalt are wrongly placed in the oceanic island arc setting in the tectonic discrimination diagrams. Mixing of basaltic sediments derived primarily from the southern rivers with felsic sediments supplied from the northern rivers in the gulf tends to reflect active continental margin and oceanic island to continental island arc settings. Discrimination of the tectonic setting is complicated in estuaries because of the mixing of mafic and felsic derivatives in different proportions. Correct identification of the tectonic setting is possible in the inner estuaries, lying beyond the range of tidal influence, because of negligible mixing of sediments supplied by rivers and by tidal currents. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams are therefore misleading for modern shallow marine basins situated close to continental flood basalt and, by implication, should be used carefully for ancient successions, given the common occurrence of basalts in the geological record.

  8. CHOOSING A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HEAT SUPPLY NETWORK ROUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Melkumov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Modern computational technologies allow to develop mathematical modelsfor choosing optimal topology and construction routes of heat supply networks taking into accounta large amount of influencing factors. Important pivots when developing a mathematical model arethe choice of source data representation, of the model of choosing the optimal topology and routeand the computational algorithms for model implementation at computing facilities. The difficultyof choosing a computational method, aside from the nature of topological models, is complicatedby a large amount of limiting factors. This is the reason why the choice of forms of representationof mathematical models and the efficiency of computational methods of their solution is actualwhen used in practical applications.Results. A mathematical model of the cost of construction of heat supply networks has been developedwhich, as opposed to traditional models, leaves the necessary degrees of freedom for determiningacceptable and optimal topology and construction route for account of using multicriterionoptimization. A method of weighted summation has been proposed for usage for combiningraster maps corresponding to different routing criteria.Conclusions. The considered method allows to take account of the whole system of factors influencingthe construction route of heat supply network and to conduct route optimization basedon several criteria, which allows to choose the optimal topology and construction route under theinfluence of multiple external and internal factors.

  9. Discrimination alleged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-25

    The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination found probable cause to believe that Dr. [name removed] denied [name removed] reproductive services because [name removed] is gay, which [name removed] associates with being at high risk for HIV. [Name removed] claimed that the doctor refused to bank and transport his semen for artificial insemination. [Name removed], the father of one, tested negative and possesses no risk of infecting the would-be mother. The Commission will hold a conciliation session to try and resolve the dispute. If the session is not successful, the Commission will conduct an evidentiary hearing. PMID:11366047

  10. Effects of soil strength on the relation of water-use efficiency and growth to carbon isotope discrimination in wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of carbon accumulation to transpiration, W, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings increased with increasing soil strength, measured as soil penetrometer resistance, and this was already apparent at the two leaf stage. The ratio was negatively correlated with carbon isotope discrimination, in accord with theory. This means that decrease in intercellular partial pressure of CO2 accounted for an important part of the increase in W with increasing soil strength. Despite a lower CO2 concentration in the leaves at high soil strength, assimilation rate per unit leaf area was enhanced. Greater ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity confirmed that photosynthetic capacity was actually increased. This pattern of opposite variation of assimilation rate and of stomatal conductance is unusual. The ratio of plant carbon mass to leaf area increased markedly with increasing soil strength, mainly because of a greater investment of carbon into roots than into shoots. A strong negative correlation was found between this ratio and carbon isotope discrimination. For a given increase in discrimination, decrease in carbon mass per leaf area was proportionally larger than decrease in assimilation rate, so that relative growth rate was positively correlated to carbon isotope discrimination

  11. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  12. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing To use the sharing ... you may need to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care ...

  13. Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survivor’s Perspective Print to PDF Choosing a Breast Prosthesis: A Survivor’s Perspective Andrea Zinn June 16, 2015 · ... did you decide to wear a breast form/prosthesis rather than have a reconstruction? Andrea: After weighing ...

  14. Mass discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pertinent and well-known problem of the discriminative effect produced by small orifices used in mass-spectrometric ion sampling from gas discharges is one which is unfortunately not well understood. The problem has been investigated experimentally by Kingsman and Rees and by Milloy and Elford for particular experimental conditions. Parkes has investigated the problem theoretically for high-pressure discharges, where convective flow through the hole dominates. The present communication seeks to provide a simple method for calculating ion transmission coefficients through such orifices for the special case where the gas mean free path is greater than the orifice diameter and the ions have ab imposed additional axial velocity component due either to an electric-field drift velocity or to a flow velocity (flowing afterglows). (orig.)

  15. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants' guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  16. PREDICTING COMPANY PERFORMANCE BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitra STANCU; Andrei-Tudor STANCU

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the performance through discriminant analysis of 20 companies traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB). As these companies are similar in terms of business profile (manufacturing industry), we choose ten financial indicators that relate to stock value (PRICE, BETA, ALPHA, etc.) and book value (Debt / Equity, ROA and ROE) to assess and classify the companies as "good" or "bad". For a sustainable characterization the average value of the financial indicators is...

  17. Principal Component-Discrimination Model and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩天锡; 魏雪丽; 蒋淳; 张玉琍

    2004-01-01

    Having researched for many years, seismologists in China presented about 80 earthquake prediction factors which reflected omen information of earthquake. How to concentrate the information that the 80 earthquake prediction factors have and how to choose the main factors to predict earthquakes precisely have become one of the topics in seismology. The model of principal component-discrimination consists of principal component analysis, correlation analysis, weighted method of principal factor coefficients and Mahalanobis distance discrimination analysis. This model combines the method of maximization earthquake prediction factor information with the weighted method of principal factor coefficients and correlation analysis to choose earthquake prediction variables, applying Mahalanobis distance discrimination to establishing earthquake prediction discrimination model. This model was applied to analyzing the earthquake data of Northern China area and obtained good prediction results.

  18. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  19. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  20. The Efficient Discrimination Of Electron And Pi-zero Events In A Water Cherenkov Detector And The Application To Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barszczak, T

    2005-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande, a large water Cherenkov detector, observed atmospheric neutrinos produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere. By observing zenith angle and energy of the particles produced by the neutrinos in single ring events in Super-Kamiokande, it became apparent that the muon neutrino (νμ) undergoes oscillations. During the oscillations, ν μ changes into another kind of neutrino, which can be either the tau neutrino (ντ) or a sterile neutrino (ν s). In addition, a small component of νe is possible but not considered here. With the standard single ring analysis, using two-flavor oscillations without matter effects, it was hard to discriminate between these two possibilities because, while νs doesn't interact at all and ν τ does, interactions of ντ don't produce a significant single ring signal. Due to the large mass of the taon (τ), charged current interactions of ντ are sup...

  1. Choosing the right species in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    When designing animal studies, investigators must choose a species that is appropriate for the research. In this paper, the author examines various criteria that can be used to guide this selection. He discusses the concepts of phylogenetic group and sentience and finds them not to be useful in the selection of appropriate species in biomedical research. He identifies other criteria that are more useful as justifications for species selection, including susceptibility to a targeted disease process, tendency to engage in a targeted behavior, suitable size for the experimental techniques to be used, presence of a large body of data relevant to the study, species specificity (the species itself is the target of the research), intergenerational interval, similarity to humans, contractual specification and existing guidelines. He proposes that investigators should use these justifications, and perhaps others, to choose the most scientifically appropriate species for animal studies. PMID:26091133

  2. A Randomized Procedure for Choosing Data Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Corradi; Swanson, Norman R.

    2001-01-01

    Standard unit root and stationarity tests (see e.g. Dickey and Fuller (1979)) assume linearity under both the null and the alternative hypothesis. Violation of this linearity assumption can result in severe size and power distortion, both in finite and large samples. Thus, it is reasonable to address the problem of data transformation before running a unit root test. In this paper we propose a simple randomized procedure, coupled with sample conditioning, for choosing between levels and log-l...

  3. Choosing experiments to accelerate collective discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Foster, Jacob G.; Foster, Ian T.; Evans, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists perform a tiny subset of all possible experiments. What characterizes the experiments they choose? And what are the consequences of those choices for the pace of scientific discovery? We model scientific knowledge as a network and science as a sequence of experiments designed to gradually uncover it. By analyzing millions of biomedical articles published over 30 y, we find that biomedical scientists pursue conservative research strategies exploring the local neighborhood of central...

  4. Why Do Individuals Choose Self-Employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Christopher; Henley, Andrew; Latreille, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the motivating factors cited by the self-employed in the UK as reasons for choosing self-employment. Very limited previous research has addressed the question of why individuals report that they have chosen self-employment. Two questions are addressed using large scale labour force survey data for the UK. The first concerns the extent to which the self-employed are self-employed out of necessity, opportunity, lifestyle decision or occupational choice. The ...

  5. Gender Discrimination and Emigration: Push Factor Versus Screening Process Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at providing an empirical test in order to choose between two theories. The first theory is that gender discrimination in origin countries can be a push factor for women and therefore that a reduction in discrimination can reduce the flow of female migrants. The other theory is that gender discrimination may create a " gender bias " in the selection of migrants by a collective entity like the family or the village. We show that in the latter case, a reduction in discriminati...

  6. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  7. Modelling Exposure to Risk of Experiencing Discrimination in the Context of Endogenous Ethnic Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Boyd; Howlett, Monica; Biddle, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Gneezy et al. (2012) uses attribution theory from the psychology literature to argue that when the object of discrimination is a matter of choice (e.g. sexual orientation), observed discrimination may motivated by animus, which exacerbates or intensifies the emotional response to the object of discrimination. This paper builds on this insight based on the understanding that ethnicity is largely a social construct where individuals can often choose to identify with an ethnic group that may be ...

  8. Unsupervised Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for unsupervised linear discriminant analysis was presented. Optimal unsupervised discriminant vectors are obtained through maximizing covariance of all samples and minimizing covariance of local k-nearest neighbor samples. The experimental results show our algorithm is effective.

  9. Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    DiLauro, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure by Tim DiLauro This paper is based on a talk of the same name given at the IMLS–sponsored Web–Wise 2004 conference.The purpose of this paper — as with the talk before it — is to highlight some issues and help inform the choices associated with developing digital environments within a single institution or among many. While the bulk of this discussion focuses on digital repositories as a key component of the digital infrastructure, persis...

  10. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David; Procaccia, Ariel

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...... computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have...

  11. General aspects for choosing the DICOM viewer

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Niakan; Maryan Zibaeefard; Hady Daivary

    2007-01-01

    Most of physicians choose the PACS by its viewer. DICOM Image viewers, the programs that run in workstations, facilitate accessing to the digital im-ages via a DICOM network. A good workstation should be equipped with professional monitors and other hardware requirements. A wide range of DICOM image viewers are available from simple 2D viewers which offer means of manipulating the im-ages (rotate, zoom, brightness, contrast and others) to 3D or 4D programs with sophisticated features such as ...

  12. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  13. Investigation on choosing technical parameters for pulse thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijuan

    2015-04-01

    Composite material connected by glue has gained popularity as a replacement for conventional materials and structures to reduce weight and improve strength in the aerospace industry, with the development of material science and structural mechanics. However, the adhesive bonding process is more susceptible to quality variations during manufacturing than traditional joining methods. The integrality, strength and rigidity of product would be broken by disbonding. Infrared thermography is one of several non-destructive testing techniques which can be used for defect detection in aircraft materials. Pulsed infrared thermography has been widely used in aerospace and mechanical manufacture industry because it can offer noncontact, quickly and visual examinations of disbonding defects. However the parameter choosing method is difficult to decide. Investigate the choosing technical parameters for pulse thermograpghy is more important to ensure the product quality and testing efficiency. In this paper, two kinds of defects which are of various size, shape and location below the test surface are planted in the honeycomb structure, they are all tested by pulsed thermography. This paper presents a study of single factor experimental research on damage sample in simulation was carried out. The impact of the power of light source, detection distance, and the wave band of thermography camera on detecting effect is studied. The select principle of technique is made, the principle supplied basis for selection of detecting parameters in real part testing.

  14. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    . In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  15. The effect of soil fertility, crop management on carbon-isotope discrimination and their relationships with yield and water-use efficiency of crops in semi-arid and arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis of data on carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ), yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of various plant organs was carried out to determine if relationships exist among these traits for a range of C3 and C4 crops, and if Δ is a suitable selection tool for yield and WUE under different levels of applied nitrogen (N) and diverse cropping systems. The samples were from the co-ordinated research project on 'Management of Nutrients and Water in Rainfed Arid and Semi-Arid Areas for Increasing Crop Production', with Members States covering a wide range of arid and semi-arid regions. The results showed that genotypic variation in carbon-isotope discrimination exists within plant organs in all crops, with Δ values lowest in the grain component. Genotypic variation in Δ also exists in different environments; in the case of wheat, the lowest Δ was found in the driest regions (Jordan compared with China, the latter having a higher growing-season rainfall). There were strong correlations between wheat grain Δ and grain yield in all studies; however, the correlations were negative in two (China and India) and positive in the other three countries (Jordan, Morocco and Pakistan). While various factors may influence Δ, these contrasting results showed that it is difficult to predict outcome in a particular environment and hence in using Δ as a tool for selecting yield; however, breeders could argue that yield in these two environments could be chosen based on lower Δ in relatively wet years in the negative cases, and high Δ in wet years in the positive cases. Correlation between Δ and WUE was less strong, and cropping system had little effect on the variation of Δ values within plant organs for most crops. The level of N applied affected Δ value in wheat, except in China. In all cases, Δ decreased with increasing leaf-N content. Nitrogen deficiency reduces photosynthetic capacity, and hence an inverse relationship between %N and Δ should exist. This

  16. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  17. The economics of sex discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Brožová

    2006-01-01

    Paper outlines economic connections of labor market discrimination. It is intended on discrimination based upon gender, because this type of discrimination is on the point of our social background. In the introductory part are defined discrimination and delineated the various types of discrimination. Further there are presented data to suggest the possibility of discrimination. The major part of paper presents four important labor market models of discrimination: taste for discrimination mode...

  18. A Novel Multi-Purpose Matching Representation of Local 3D Surfaces: A Rotationally Invariant, Efficient, and Highly Discriminative Approach With an Adjustable Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osaimi, Faisal R

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to local 3D surface matching representation suitable for a range of 3D vision applications is introduced. Local 3D surface patches around key points on the 3D surface are represented by 2D images such that the representing 2D images enjoy certain characteristics which positively impact the matching accuracy, robustness, and speed. First, the proposed representation is complete, in the sense, there is no information loss during their computation. Second, the 3DoF 2D representations are strictly invariant to all the 3DoF rotations. To optimally avail surface information, the sensitivity of the representations to surface information is adjustable. This also provides the proposed matching representation with the means to optimally adjust to a particular class of problems/applications or an acquisition technology. Each 2D matching representation is a sequence of adjustable integral kernels, where each kernel is efficiently computed from a triple of precise 3D curves (profiles) formed by intersecting three concentric spheres with the 3D surface. Robust techniques for sampling the profiles and establishing correspondences among them were devised. Based on the proposed matching representation, two techniques for the detection of key points were presented. The first is suitable for static images, while the second is suitable for 3D videos. The approach was tested on the face recognition grand challenge v2.0, the 3D twins expression challenge, and the Bosphorus data sets, and a superior face recognition performance was achieved. In addition, the proposed approach was used in object class recognition and tested on a Kinect data set. PMID:26513787

  19. The Identity of Students Choosing Marketing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto, Idaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to look deeply into the identity of young students interested in training professional in marketing programs in Bogotá, Colombia. This descriptive study was conducted with the application of multidimensional surveys to 262 young people from five universities that offer training in marketing. The results show that there are differences and similarities in the lifestyles of young people who choose to study Marketing. The first, relating mainly to the identities assumed by students of daytime and nighttime that differ in their activities and more income. The second, by the increasing use and development of academic and social activities through the Internet of interest to young people today. It is hoped that these results provide the administrative and academic management of marketing programs that result in better communication and care of students as consumers.

  20. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...... men still encounter incomprehension when stating their choice of career. The study is actualised by five new projects supported by the Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (MBLIS). These five projects are engaged to seek new ways within attraction and recruitment of...... (more) men to early childhood education (ECE). By now the projects have completed interesting practices when aiming to attract and recruit men and the pedagogues engaged in the projects have gained new perspectives on their profession. However, attracting men to study programmes within care and ECE is...

  1. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  2. Homo Ignorans: Deliberately Choosing Not to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Engel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Western history of thought abounds with claims that knowledge is valued and sought. Yet people often choose not to know. We call the conscious choice not to seek or use knowledge (or information) deliberate ignorance. Using examples from a wide range of domains, we demonstrate that deliberate ignorance has important functions. We systematize types of deliberate ignorance, describe their functions, discuss their normative desirability, and consider how they can be modeled. To date, psychologists have paid relatively little attention to the study of ignorance, let alone the deliberate kind. Yet the desire not to know is no anomaly. It is a choice to seek rather than reduce uncertainty whose reasons require nuanced cognitive and economic theories and whose consequences-for the individual and for society-require analyses of both actor and environment. PMID:27217249

  3. How to choose the right financial planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    An "economic Pearl Harbor." That is how the world's most famous investor, Warren Buffett, described what we have gone through and what we're still going through.' Even the most optimistic appraisals of our economic conditions suggest that we are likely to feel the effects of the Great Recession through the decade we recently entered. Healthcare reform, in whatever form, may also create change in your medical practice ranging from immaterial to revolutionary. To whom should you turn to ensure that your personal economy survives and thrives, especially in these times? A financial planner, possibly, but what is a financial planner, how do you choose one, and what sort of service should you expect? PMID:20839512

  4. Beyond the "Choosing wisely": a possible attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Roberto; Ricci, Giampaolo; Cipriani, Francesca; Civitelli, Flavio; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Minasi, Domenico; Terracciano, Luigi; Duse, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Since the fundamental principles of the medical profession were clearly defined in a physician charter in 2002, special considerations have been expressed about the adequate distribution of health care resources taking in account the individual patient needs to optimize the health care service. The correct application of procedures represents a key point in order to reach the appropriateness of care, that means to avoid unnecessary or inappropriate procedures as well as the underutilization of the necessary procedures. In this context, the Choosing wisely campaign have been widely used and disclosed and even the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology - SIAIP has been working to make recommendations in order to ensure the appropriateness of care in the field of allergy and optimize the use of health care resources. PMID:27236414

  5. DNA Methylation Analysis: Choosing the Right Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kurdyukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the burgeoning field of epigenetics, there are several methods available to determine the methylation status of DNA samples. However, choosing the method that is best suited to answering a particular biological question still proves to be a difficult task. This review aims to provide biologists, particularly those new to the field of epigenetics, with a simple algorithm to help guide them in the selection of the most appropriate assay to meet their research needs. First of all, we have separated all methods into two categories: those that are used for: (1 the discovery of unknown epigenetic changes; and (2 the assessment of DNA methylation within particular regulatory regions/genes of interest. The techniques are then scrutinized and ranked according to their robustness, high throughput capabilities and cost. This review includes the majority of methods available to date, but with a particular focus on commercially available kits or other simple and straightforward solutions that have proven to be useful.

  6. Age Discrimination in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Rymkevitch; Claudia Villosio

    2007-01-01

    The Framework Directive on Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation (2000/78/EC) included age as one of its prohibited grounds of discrimination. Member States were required to transpose this Directive by December 2003. In Italy age discrimination was explicitly regulated by means of Legislative Decree no. 216, 9 July 2003. The Decree introduced the new specific prohibition of discrimination, defining its application, exceptions and remedies. The purpose of this paper is to explore, in a ...

  7. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  8. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is drive...

  9. Socially-tolerable discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  10. Research on Evaluating and Choosing Logistics Service Providers for Manufacturing Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiong GONG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing enterprise often authorizes professional logistics service companies to provide high quality logistics service for meeting commands of customer, so it refers to evaluation and selection of logistics service providers. Group decision making method of choosing logistics service providers with three parameters interval number is posed to solve problems existing in expert subjective selection. In the paper, the concept of three parameters interval number is discussed, and decision making expert weights are decided by means of deviation functions, and then the new sequencing algorithms for choosing and evaluating logistics service providers was established combined probability matrix with weight, which provided theory to evaluate and choose logistics service providers. Finally, an illustration of manufacturing enterprise was demonstrated to show the efficiency and feasibility of method.

  11. Choosing Health and the inner citadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    2006-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that the latest UK government white paper on public health, Choosing Health, is vulnerable to a charge of paternalism. For some years libertarians have levelled this charge at public health policies. The white paper tries to avoid it by constant reference to informed choice and choice related terms. The implication is that the government aims only to inform the public of health issues; how they respond is up to them. It is argued here, however, that underlying the notion of informed choice is a Kantian, "inner citadel" view of autonomy. According to this view, each of us acts autonomously only when we act in accord with reason. On such a view it is possible to justify coercing, cajoling, and conning people on the basis that their current behaviour is not autonomous because it is subject to forces that cause irrational choice, such as addiction. "Informed choice" in this sense is compatible with paternalism. This paternalism can be seen in public health policies such as deceptive advertising and the treatment of "bad habits" as addictions. Libertarians are bound to object to this. In the concluding section, however, it is suggested that public health can, nonetheless, find ethical succour from alternative approaches. PMID:16373514

  12. CHOOSING A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HEAT SUPPLY NETWORK ROUTE

    OpenAIRE

    V.N.Melkumov; Kuznetsov, I. S.; V. N. Kobelev

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement. Modern computational technologies allow to develop mathematical modelsfor choosing optimal topology and construction routes of heat supply networks taking into accounta large amount of influencing factors. Important pivots when developing a mathematical model arethe choice of source data representation, of the model of choosing the optimal topology and routeand the computational algorithms for model implementation at computing facilities. The difficultyof choosing a computa...

  13. Discriminants of multilinear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    We study well-constrained bilinear algebraic systems in order to formulate their discriminant. We derive a new determinantal formula for the discriminant of a multilinear system that appears in the study of Nash equilibria of multiplayer games with mixed strategies.

  14. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  15. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...

  16. Helping You Choose Quality Nursing and Rehabilitation Center Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About The Joint Commission Joint Commission Officers Our History Reprint Permission ... to Topic Library Helping You Choose Quality Nursing and Rehabilitation Center Services September 13, 2013 When ...

  17. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  18. General aspects for choosing the DICOM viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Niakan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of physicians choose the PACS by its viewer. DICOM Image viewers, the programs that run in workstations, facilitate accessing to the digital im-ages via a DICOM network. A good workstation should be equipped with professional monitors and other hardware requirements. A wide range of DICOM image viewers are available from simple 2D viewers which offer means of manipulating the im-ages (rotate, zoom, brightness, contrast and others to 3D or 4D programs with sophisticated features such as multimodality image fusion, vessel segmentation and computer aided diagnostic tools."nThese programs can be categorized to client-based and web-based viewers. Despite the client-based viewers, which are heavy-weighted programs, equipped with strong features, web-based viewers are usually light-weighted with essential imaging features and suitable for TeleRadiology. Accessing to the digital images via the Internet is the main propose behind a web-based viewer. Web-based viewers may be used for remote consulting when a city or region lacks of native specialists."nAn image viewer as a part of PACS should be in conformance with DICOM standard as communication protocol instated of customized networking. This issue allows the viewer to communicate with any DICOM server and operate as an independent module. Structured Report (SR editor is an essential part of a DICOM viewer. This kind of reporting benefits the archiving system because of small data size in comparison with keeping reports as scanned images or Secondary Capture Images (SC. Also, connection of DICOM viewer to RIS/HIS is important and as our previous experiences in RIS/HIS we connected Payvand DICOM viewer to the RIS/HIS. "nPayvand DICOM viewer has a lot of features and abilities, but for reaching to the high performance image processing by BARCO-EPD collaboration contract, we integrated our DICOM viewer to the VOXAR 3D and now our users have advanced 3D, vessel, cardiac and colon processing, PET CT

  19. Statistical methods of discrimination and classification advances in theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sung C

    1986-01-01

    Statistical Methods of Discrimination and Classification: Advances in Theory and Applications is a collection of papers that tackles the multivariate problems of discriminating and classifying subjects into exclusive population. The book presents 13 papers that cover that advancement in the statistical procedure of discriminating and classifying. The studies in the text primarily focus on various methods of discriminating and classifying variables, such as multiple discriminant analysis in the presence of mixed continuous and categorical data; choice of the smoothing parameter and efficiency o

  20. Quantum state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it has been shown that two pure quantum states can be discriminated by using the concept of PT- invariant non- Hermitian system. Here we demonstrate how to discriminate two non-orthogonal, entangled quantum state which are slightly different from each other by using pseudo-Hermitian system. The positive definite metric operator which makes the pseudo-Hermitian systems fully consistent quantum theory is used for such a state discrimination. We further show that non- orthogonal states can evolve through a suitably constructed pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian to orthogonal states. Such an evolution ceases at exceptional points of the pseudo-Hermitian system. (author)

  1. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  2. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  3. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  4. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  5. Multiplicities of dihedral discriminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Daniel C.

    1992-04-01

    Given the discriminant {d_k} of a quadratic field k, the number of cyclic relative extensions N\\vert k of fixed odd prime degree p with dihedral absolute Galois group of order 2p, which share a common conductor f, is called the multiplicity of the dihedral discriminant {d_N} = {f^{2(p - 1)}}d_k^p . In this paper, general formulas for multiplicities of dihedral discriminants are derived by analyzing the p-rank of the ring class group mod f of k. For the special case p = 3,{d_k} = - 3 , an elementary proof is given additionally. The theory is illustrated by a discussion of all known discriminants of multiplicity ≥ 5 of totally real and complex cubic fields.

  6. Angular velocity discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  7. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Larkoski; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2015-01-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, $D_2$, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization t...

  8. Joint probability discrimination between stationary tissue and blood velocity signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    segments before and after echo-canceling, and (b) the amplitude variations between samples in consecutive RF-signals before and after echo-canceling. The statistical discriminator was obtained by computing the probability density functions (PDFs) for each feature through histogram analysis of data. The....... This study presents a new statistical discriminator. Investigation of the RF-signals reveals that features can be derived that distinguish the segments of the signal, which do an do not carry information on the blood flow. In this study 4 features, have been determined: (a) the energy content in the...... discrimination is performed by determining the joint probability of the features for the segment under investigation and choosing the segment type that is most likely. The method was tested on simulated data resembling RF-signals from the carotid artery....

  9. Learning Discriminative Metrics via Generative Models and Kernel Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yuan; Sha, Fei; Lee, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    Metrics specifying distances between data points can be learned in a discriminative manner or from generative models. In this paper, we show how to unify generative and discriminative learning of metrics via a kernel learning framework. Specifically, we learn local metrics optimized from parametric generative models. These are then used as base kernels to construct a global kernel that minimizes a discriminative training criterion. We consider both linear and nonlinear combinations of local metric kernels. Our empirical results show that these combinations significantly improve performance on classification tasks. The proposed learning algorithm is also very efficient, achieving order of magnitude speedup in training time compared to previous discriminative baseline methods.

  10. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350

  11. Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18. Choose veggie toppings like spinach, broccoli, and peppers for your pizza. 19. Try eating foods from ... Stir fry, broil, or bake with non-stick spray or low-salt broth. Cook with less oil ...

  12. Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  13. Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may choose an: Obstetrician Family practice doctor Certified nurse-midwife Each of these health care providers is described below. Each one has different training, skills, and outlooks about pregnancy and childbirth. Your choice ...

  14. Analytic Boosted Boson Discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Neill, Duff

    2015-01-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, $D_2$, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted $Z...

  15. Small visible energy scalar top iterative discriminant analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sopczak; A Finch; A Freitas; C Milsténe; M Schimtt

    2007-12-01

    Light scalar top quarks with a small mass difference with respect to the neutralino mass are of particular cosmological interest. This study uses an iterative discriminant analysis method to optimize the expected selection efficiency at the international linear collider (ILC).

  16. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  17. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  18. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  19. Immunological self, nonself discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet, J G; Lai, M Z; Briner, T J;

    1987-01-01

    The ability of immunodominant peptides derived from several antigen systems to compete with each other for T cell activation was studied. Only peptides restricted by a given transplantation antigen are mutually competitive. There is a correlation between haplotype restriction, ability to bind to ...... that provides a basis for explaining self, nonself discrimination as well as alloreactivity....

  20. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  1. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  2. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  3. Gender wage discrimination in Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The wage discrimination by gender in the Galician region is one of the highest in Spain, although it presents one of the smallest wage gaps between men and women. The aim of this paper is to extend wage discrimination analysis in Galicia through two complementary theories. First, we approximate global discrimination with the Oaxaca decomposition. This method calculates the discrimination using women and men median characteristics, providing a measure based on the wage distribution average. Af...

  4. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.; Smith, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority of...... cases a simple two element non-discriminating dosemeter will suffice. In cases where the use of discriminating dosemeters is justified, thermoluminescence dosemeters can be designed to provided information on radiation type and energy, but if further information is required the photographic film...

  5. Consumer preference not to choose: Methodological and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets

  6. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses. PMID:27443060

  7. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  8. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  9. Diversity, Discrimination, and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Leonard; Levine, David I.

    2006-01-01

    Employee diversity may affect business performance both as a result of customer discrimination and as a result of how members of a group work with each other in teams. We test for both channels with data from more than 800 retail stores employing over 70,000 individuals matched to Census data on the demographics of the community. We find little payoff to matching employee demographics to those of potential customers except when the customers do not speak English. Although age diversity doe...

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-01-01

    ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1 International audience Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, ...

  11. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  12. Deep Linear Discriminant Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfer, Matthias; Kelz, Rainer; WIDMER, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Deep Linear Discriminant Analysis (DeepLDA) which learns linearly separable latent representations in an end-to-end fashion. Classic LDA extracts features which preserve class separability and is used for dimensionality reduction for many classification problems. The central idea of this paper is to put LDA on top of a deep neural network. This can be seen as a non-linear extension of classic LDA. Instead of maximizing the likelihood of target labels for individual samples, we pr...

  13. Gaussian Discriminating Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Rigovacca, Luca; Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantifier of non-classical correlations for bipartite, multi-mode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in A. Farace et al., New. J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014). As the latter the new measure exploits the Quantum Chernoff Bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter ...

  14. Measuring Discrimination in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Rema Hanna; Leigh Linden

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate a methodology to measure discrimination in educational contexts. In India, we ran an exam competition through which children compete for a large financial prize. We recruited teachers to grade the exams. We then randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no systematic relationship between the characteristics observed by the teachers and the quality of the exams. We find that teachers ...

  15. Choosing a Wiki Platform for Student Projects--Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Ross A.

    2010-01-01

    Wikis offer many benefits, such as two-way flows of information, early and consistent feedback, and greater student group collaboration, in an educational setting. Some researchers have already reported on the use of Wikis in their classes. However, instructors must choose an appropriate Wiki platform in order to receive all of the benefits of…

  16. Choosing the Best Digital Camera for Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikat, Richard P.; Anderson, Mandi

    2005-01-01

    Many educators in physical education, recreation, dance, and related fields have begun using digital images to enhance their teaching (e.g., Ryan, Marzilla, & Martindale, 2001). Many other educators would like to begin using this technology, but find the task of choosing an appropriate digital camera to be overwhelming. This article is designed to…

  17. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  18. How and why do consumers choose their payment methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey L. Schreft

    2006-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of the literature on consumer payment behavior. It considers the state of our understanding of how and why consumers choose their payment methods and what is needed to make more headway in understanding consumer payment decisions. It closes by discussing the policy issues that require that we make progress with payments research.

  19. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  20. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    increases the employability of graduates, they do not sufficiently consider that study strategies differ substantially across social milieus and between the sexes. Failing to account for social distance to the educational system in choosing EMI can foster social inequality, and contribute to the...

  1. Multi-task linear programming discriminant analysis for the identification of progressive MCI individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yu

    Full Text Available Accurately identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI individuals who will progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD is very important for making early interventions. Many classification methods focus on integrating multiple imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. However, the main challenge for MCI classification using multiple imaging modalities is the existence of a lot of missing data in many subjects. For example, in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study, almost half of the subjects do not have PET images. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible binary classification method, namely Multi-task Linear Programming Discriminant (MLPD analysis, for the incomplete multi-source feature learning. Specifically, we decompose the classification problem into different classification tasks, i.e., one for each combination of available data sources. To solve all different classification tasks jointly, our proposed MLPD method links them together by constraining them to achieve the similar estimated mean difference between the two classes (under classification for those shared features. Compared with the state-of-the-art incomplete Multi-Source Feature (iMSF learning method, instead of constraining different classification tasks to choose a common feature subset for those shared features, MLPD can flexibly and adaptively choose different feature subsets for different classification tasks. Furthermore, our proposed MLPD method can be efficiently implemented by linear programming. To validate our MLPD method, we perform experiments on the ADNI baseline dataset with the incomplete MRI and PET images from 167 progressive MCI (pMCI subjects and 226 stable MCI (sMCI subjects. We further compared our method with the iMSF method (using incomplete MRI and PET images and also the single-task classification method (using only MRI or only subjects with both MRI and

  2. Discrimination in Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Rema N.; Linden, Leigh L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment that was designed to test for discrimination in grading in India. We recruited teachers to grade exams. We randomly assigned child "characteristics" (age, gender, and caste) to the cover sheets of the exams to ensure that there is no relationship between these observed characteristics and the exam quality. We find that teachers give exams that are assigned to be lower caste scores that are about 0.03 to 0.08 standard deviations lower than those that are ...

  3. Fission Fragments Discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission reaction between Uranium-235 nucleus and thermal neutron caused the high energy fission fragments with uncertainly direction. The particle direction discrimination was determined. The 2.5 x 3.0 mm2 polyethylene gratings with 1-6 mm thickness were used. The grating was placed between uranium screen that fabricated from ammonium-diurinate compound and polycarbonate nuclear track film recorder irradiated by neutron from Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) facility. The nuclear track density was inversely with grating thickness. It's only fission fragments normal to uranium screen pass through film recorder when grating thickness was 4-6 mm

  4. Alpha-beta discrimination in LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha emitting isotopes, mainly 210Po, provide a background for the detection of 7Be neutrinos in LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). This background can be reduced by a pulse shape analysis, as alpha particles and electrons have a different typical pulse shape, caused by the different energy deposition per unit path length ((dE)/(dx)). Thus, the efficiency of this method was analyzed by a detailed Monte Carlo study. Several scintillators as well as the influence of the photomultiplier performance on the discrimination efficiency were investigated.

  5. To Choose or Not to Choose Science: Constructions of Desirable Identities among Young People Considering a STEM Higher Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students' choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper-secondary school. In particular, this study…

  6. Plant Leaf Recognition through Local Discriminative Tangent Space Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning based dimensionality reduction algorithms have been payed much attention in plant leaf recognition as the algorithms can select a subset of effective and efficient discriminative features in the leaf images. In this paper, a dimensionality reduction method based on local discriminative tangent space alignment (LDTSA is introduced for plant leaf recognition based on leaf images. The proposed method can embrace part optimization and whole alignment and encapsulate the geometric and discriminative information into a local patch. The experiments on two plant leaf databases, ICL and Swedish plant leaf datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Fast neural electron/pion discrimination with a fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very fast neural electron/pion discriminator is introduced. It is based on a new training procedure that efficiently saturates each neuron output when applied on a multilayer network initially having hyperbolic tangent neurons. Thus, the network acts as a multilayer perceptron in the production phase. The neural discriminator can be implemented using fast comparators and resistor networks, which makes processing times of a few nanoseconds feasible. (author)

  8. Optimizing relational algebra operations using discrimination-based joins and lazy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    on the notion of (equiv- alence) discriminator. A discriminator partitions a list of values according to a user-specified equivalence relation on keys the val- ues are associated with. Equivalence relations can be specified in an expressive embedded language for denoting equivalence rela- tions. We......We show how to efficiently evaluate generic map-filter-product queries, generalizations of select-project-join (SPJ) queries in re- lational algebra, based on a combination of two novel techniques: generic discrimination-based joins and lazy (formal) products. Discrimination-based joins are based...... show that discriminators can be constructed generically (by structural recursion on equivalence expressions), purely func- tionally, and efficiently (worst-case linear time). The array-based basic multiset discrimination algorithm of Cai and Paige (1995) provides a base discriminator that is both...

  9. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  10. When Is Price Discrimination Profitable?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; James D. Dana

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a model of a quality-constrained monopolist's product line decision that encompasses a variety of important examples of second-degree price discrimination, including intertemporal price discrimination, coupons, advance purchase discounts, versioning of information goods, and damaged goods. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for price discrimination to be profitable that generalize existing results in the literature. Specifically, we show that when a continuum of product ...

  11. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    OpenAIRE

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguou...

  12. Large Number Discrimination by Mosquitofish

    OpenAIRE

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (

  13. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status. PMID:18032807

  14. Choosing the Path of Leadership in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to establish trustworthiness. Results identify that a desire to influence the profession or care delivery, a need for personal or career development, and a need for change motivate those occupational therapists who might choose the path of leadership. Recommendations for supporting new or developing leaders include a focus on linking occupational therapy practice and leadership theory at the curriculum and professional levels. Moreover, application of novel approaches to mentorship for new and developing leaders, such as supportive communities of practice, are also considered.

  15. AN ANALYSIS ON CHOOSING A PROPER ECOMMERCE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lixandroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Choosing an electronic trading platform is a very important decision when opening an online store. A suitable platform must be able to meet many of the requirements as to not confuse the user. It should provide an online business operation providing tools for managing back-office of technically. There are dozens maybe hundreds of electronic ecommerce platforms available to create an online store, so the decision to choose a platform is difficult. In this article, we tried to compare 19 of the most popular open source ecommerce platforms using a mathematical model based on the platform functionalities. Each of these allows parameterization of an online store in a very short time, with some relatively low cost or close to 0.

  16. Choosing a Career: Online Resources for Every Scientist

    OpenAIRE

    DeMare, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a job? Not even sure what kind of job you are looking for? Don’t wait until all your experiments are wrapped up and your manuscript is in press. While slaving away doing research, it is easy to lose sight of what comes next. But graduate students and postdoctoral researchers should start planning the next chapter of their careers before the end is in sight. This article highlights different online resources for choosing a career and finding a job.

  17. How do family doctors choose their own family doctor?

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Peleg; Liubov Magaziner; Freud Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives: The medical care that doctors receive is different than that of individuals who are not in the medical profession. The objective was to assess how family doctors in the Negev region chose their own doctors. Methods: 103 family doctors in the southern region of Israel completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and how doctors choose their own doctors. Results: The study population included 103 family doctors with a mean...

  18. On the problem of choosing alternative in quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper comment on Mensky's article entitled Quantum Mechanics: New Experiments, New Applications and New Wordings of the Old Problems (Achievements in Physical Sciences Journal, No. 170 (6), 631, 2000). Here one discusses the role of observer's consciousness in quantum measurement and studies a quantum description of this choice out of coherent superposition of various possible results of measurement. Description of the alternative consciously choosing is shown to be possible in terms of the unitary model analyzed in this paper

  19. Unveiling teachers’ reasons for choosing practical activities in mathematics teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Haara, Frode Olav

    2011-01-01

    The use of practical activities in mathematics teaching has been advocated for some time, and reports from mathematics classrooms show that teachers include a multitude of activities in the teaching of mathematics. However, research shows that a substantial portion of these practical activities are not well thought through and do not relate to other parts of the mathematics lessons. More knowledge is required about the reasons why teachers choose to use practical activities in ...

  20. MEDICAL TOURISTS' EXPECTATIONS WHEN CHOOSING LITHUANIA FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Miglė Eleonora Černikovaitė; Mantas Jonas Mameniškis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Identify medical expectations of tourists choosing Lithuania as medical tourism country and to make comparative analysis with situation in Thailand. Medical tourism is one of the most promising fields of business in the world. International trade in medical services also has huge economic potential and gradually increasing outcome for the global economy (Bookman & Bookman, 2007). Major medical tourism destinations: Thailand, India, Singapore and Malaysia attracted more than 2.5 mill...

  1. Choosing the Path of Leadership in Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.)

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders....

  2. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini SA; Meimandipour A; Lotfollahian H; Aghashahi AR

    2014-01-01

    With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among t...

  3. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  4. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  5. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  6. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  7. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems

  8. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  9. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  10. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  12. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  13. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  14. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  15. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  16. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  17. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyou Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and somatic cells (SCs. Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  18. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells. PMID:24578634

  19. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  20. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  1. Health-related restrictions of choices and choosing: implications for quality of life and clinical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Gurland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Gurland1, Huai Cheng2, Mathew S Maurer31Columbia University Department of Psychiatry, Stroud Center for Study of Quality of Life, New York, NY, USA; 2Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY, USABackground: The process of “accessing choices and choosing among them” (c-c has been proposed as a model for understanding, evaluating, and assisting a patient’s management of quality of life. If desired choices are freely accessible, and the act of choosing is efficient and unconstrained, then the outcome is optimized quality of life. The c-c model fits many clinical situations where improved quality of life is a goal, and interventions may be aimed at relieving health-related restrictions of the patient’s desired activities. Aims: To determine the impact of health restrictions of choices and choosing on indicators and outcomes reflecting quality of life. Method: Secondary analysis of a community-based health survey of three ethnic groups, 65 years and older (n = 2,130, repeated after 18 months, with mortality over 6 years. Findings: Complaints of health restrictions of desired activities accounted for about half the variance of all determinants of a quality of life proxy indicator, and had a high frequency. Such complaints also predicted declines in mood and function, higher death rates, and increased service use.Conclusions: Clinical trials are warranted of the efficacy for quality of life improvement of interventions that focus on the relief of health-induced restrictions of desired activities.Keywords: choice, quality of life, aging, health restrictions

  2. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  3. Choosing a career: online resources for every scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMare, Laura E

    2011-09-01

    Looking for a job? Not even sure what kind of job you are looking for? Don't wait until all your experiments are wrapped up and your manuscript is in press. While slaving away doing research, it is easy to lose sight of what comes next. But graduate students and postdoctoral researchers should start planning the next chapter of their careers before the end is in sight. This article highlights different online resources for choosing a career and finding a job. PMID:21966042

  4. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  5. Do French Low-Income GPs Choose to Work Less ?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In France, a significant number of General Practitioners (GPs) earn less than 1.5 times the French minimum salary. Using a representative panel of self-employed GPs over the years 1993-2004, this paper tests whether these low-income GPs choose to work less than all other GPs or whether they are constrained to do so. The test is based on measuring reactions to positive and negative demand shocks. As low-income GPs do not increase activity in response to a positive demand shock but decrease act...

  6. Choosing the right M and A deal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of going into a merger and acquisition deal within the petroleum industry were reviewed for the benefit of non-lawyers. The types of acquisitions included are asset purchases and sale, a private share purchase and sale, a takeover bid, an amalgamation or a plan of arrangement. How to make the structure choice that is right in the circumstances was discussed. It was emphasized that choosing the right merger and acquisition deal structure depends on the objectives of the parties, the volume and quality of the information about the particular transaction, and proper analysis of alternative acquisition structures in the context of the objectives and information

  7. Optimally choosing small ensemble members to produce robust climate simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the subset climate model ensemble size required to reproduce certain statistical characteristics from a full ensemble. The ensemble characteristics examined are the root mean square error, the ensemble mean and standard deviation. Subset ensembles are created using measures that consider the simulation performance alone or include a measure of simulation independence relative to other ensemble members. It is found that the independence measure is able to identify smaller subset ensembles that retain the desired full ensemble characteristics than either of the performance based measures. It is suggested that model independence be considered when choosing ensemble subsets or creating new ensembles. (letter)

  8. Price discrimination and tax incidence: Evidence from gasoline and diesel cars

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The existing tax policies towards gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and implied tax incidence. We develop an econometric framework for the demand and pricing of gasoline and diesel cars. Consumers choose a gasoline or a diesel car based on their annual mileage. Manufacturers set gasoline and diesel car prices. Our empirical results show that the relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars is consistent wi...

  9. Nuclear pulse discrimination using statistical detection theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of modern materials, like HgI2, into the field of nuclear detection is not fulfilling previous expectations. Due to technological problems, a significant percentage of HgI2 detectors do not respond to the theoretical behaviour in the detection of radiation. This is mainly the case when high efficiency is desired and thick detectors must be employed. In particular, standard discriminators are sensitive to evolution in time of the pulse parameters, such as amplitude or rise time. This phenomenon has been related to polarization effects. In order to improve the response of these ''bad quality'' detectors, we have studied the possibility of using statistical discrimination methods implemented by means of digital processing techniques, aiming to keep the counting behaviour stable in time when thick HgI2 detectors (1 cm) are employed. Some theoretical aspects of these procedures are presented and a discrimination algorithm is implemented with the help of a real-time fast digital processor. (orig.)

  10. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eAllen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance. In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one out from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex. We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odour conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the ‘no fragrance’ condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the ‘own fragrance’ condition than the ‘assigned fragrance’ condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an

  11. The development of the optical discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New results from the tests of the impact parameter discriminator by the RD30 Collaboration are presented. The device, based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced in a thin crystal, is able to cope with extremely high rates in the GHz range and sign tracks with non-zero impact parameter at a first trigger level. We report experimental results obtained with a sapphire shell surrounded by a liquid cladding compensating chromatic dispersion. An excellent signal to background ratio has been obtained and the sensitivity at low impact parameters reaches the requirements for efficient B-meson selection. The use of such a device for hyperon selection will also be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  13. Choosing a heuristic and root node for edge ordering in BDD-based network reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD)-based network reliability analysis, heuristics have been widely used to obtain a reasonably good ordering of edge variables. Orderings generated using different heuristics can lead to dramatically different sizes of BDDs, and thus dramatically different running times and memory usages for the analysis of the same network. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the ordering problem (i.e., being an NP-complete problem) no formal guidelines or rules are available for choosing a good heuristic or for choosing a high-performance root node to perform edge searching using a particular heuristic. In this work, we make novel contributions by proposing heuristic and root node selection methods based on the concept of boundary sets for the BDD-based network reliability analysis. Empirical studies show that the proposed selection methods can help to generate high-performance edge ordering for most of studied cases, enabling the efficient BDD-based reliability analysis of large-scale networks. The proposed methods are demonstrated on different types of networks, including square lattice networks, torus lattice networks and de Bruijn networks

  14. Comparison of discrimination methods for alpha radiation signals using imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrimination of different radiation signals is important for quantitative measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides by using the technique of imaging plates (IPs). In this study, four discrimination algorithms previously proposed for discriminating and counting the incident alpha signals were experimentally compared from the view points of linearity response, the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals and the detection uncertainty. The results showed that all the methods had a good linearity response and could discriminate alpha signals from beta signals. In general, a larger region of interest (ROI) has a higher detection efficiency, but the discrimination capability of alpha signals from beta signals is worse. By taking into account both the detection efficiency and the uncertainty of detection, the algorithm using an ROI of 5 x 100 μm x 100 μm was considered to be the most appropriate method for quantitative measurements of alpha radiation. (authors)

  15. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination. PMID:19042289

  16. Racial and Ethnic Employment Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fred A. Bellemore

    2001-01-01

    Employment discrimination is studied by examining the performance of baseball players at the highest minor league level in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s. Both Blacks and Hispanics face discrimination in promotion to the major leagues. Blacks faced it in the 1960s and 1970s and still did in the 1990s, but it subsided in years when jobs were created through expansion in the number of teams. Hispanics faced discrimination in the 1960s and 1970s that abated in years of expansion, but there is no si...

  17. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  18. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  19. The role of empathy in choosing rewards from another's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Garret; Christakou, Anastasia; Haffey, Anthony T; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2013-01-01

    As social animals, we regularly act in the interest of others by making decisions on their behalf. These decisions can take the form of choices between smaller short-term rewards and larger long-term rewards, and can be effectively indexed by temporal discounting (TD). In a TD paradigm, a reward loses subjective value with increasing delay presumably because it becomes more difficult to simulate how much the recipient (e.g., future self) will value it. If this is the case, then the value of delayed rewards should be discounted even more steeply when we are choosing for someone whose feelings we do not readily simulate, such as socially distant strangers. Second, the ability to simulate shows individual differences and is indexed by trait empathy. We hypothesized that individuals high in trait empathy will more readily simulate, and hence discount less steeply for distant others, compared to those who are low on trait empathy. To test these predictions, we asked 63 participants from the general population to perform a TD task from the perspectives of close and distant others, as well as their own. People were found to discount less steeply for themselves, and the steepness of TD increased with increasing distance from self. Additionally, individuals who scored high in trait empathy were found to discount less steeply for distant others compared to those who scored low. These findings confirm the role of empathy in determining how we choose rewards for others. PMID:23734112

  20. "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect": Correction to Arend and Henik (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect" by Isabel Arend and Avishai Henik (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015[Nov], Vol 41[6], 1821-1830). In the article the wrong version of Figure 1 was published. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-23893-001.) The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by findings showing that the SiCE may be influenced by attention. The attentional contribution to the SiCE suggests that the effect is produced by an attention capture effect to the larger stimulus. Even though plausible, the attentional account overlooks 2 important factors in the study of magnitudes, namely, task (numerical vs. physical) and polarity of instructions (choose the larger vs. the smaller). We studied the influence of these factors using a size congruity task. Experiment 1 showed that the SiCE was modulated by task and instructions. In Experiment 2, we used a new set of numbers to examine a possible influence of the so-called end effect (i.e., responses to the smallest and to the largest numbers may not require number comparison). Experiment 2 successfully replicated the pattern of Experiment 1. We suggest that both feature saliency and long-term semantic processes modulate the SiCE. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359227

  1. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  2. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Pierre; De Sousa, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of labor mobility constraints on racial discrimination. Our equilibrium search model shows that these effects follow an inverted U-shaped relationship. In particular, when mobility constraints are low, we find that discrimination disappears. We test this prediction with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all cl...

  3. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Weichselbaumer, Doris

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  4. Market Forces and Sex Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; David Neumark; Troske, Kenneth R.

    1998-01-01

    We report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, we use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Our strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more p...

  5. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc).

  6. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used with a...... view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  7. Culture, convenience or efficiency Customer behaviour in choosing local or foreign banks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, Coen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to define and test a supplier selection model for Chinese and foreign banks in China. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 12 reasons affecting customers' choice in selecting Chinese or foreign banks are developed and their respective importance are tested t

  8. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  9. Can Price Discrimination be Bad for Firms and Good for All Consumers? A Theoretical Analysis of Cross-Market Price Constraints with Entry and Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ofer H.

    2003-01-01

    The article examines a differentiated-products duopoly model where the firms make entry decisions to two markets and then choose prices. The effects of product differentiation and entry costs are analyzed in two games: with and without price discrimination between the markets. Allowing price discrimination encourages more entry and tends to reduce prices and profits and to increase consumer welfare in both markets. The model suggests that firms might be better off if they agree not to price d...

  10. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  11. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetised neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  12. The freedom to choose neutron star magnetic field equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Lasky, Paul D.

    2016-08-01

    Our ability to interpret and glean useful information from the large body of observations of strongly magnetised neutron stars rests largely on our theoretical understanding of magnetic field equilibria. We answer the following question: is one free to arbitrarily prescribe magnetic equilibria such that fluid degrees of freedom can balance the equilibrium equations? We examine this question for various models for neutron star matter; from the simplest single-fluid barotrope to more realistic non-barotropic multifluid models with superfluid/superconducting components, muons and entropy. We do this for both axi- and non-axisymmetric equilibria, and in Newtonian gravity and general relativity. We show that, in axisymmetry, the most realistic model allows complete freedom in choosing a magnetic field equilibrium whereas non-axisymmetric equilibria are never completely arbitrary.

  13. Choosing TBM for Tabriz Subway using Multi Criteria Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edalat, Kamaladdin; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    line in the length of about 20 km and much interference due to tunneling in urban area dictates the appli-cation of TBM. Two kinds of TBM such as EPB (earth pressure balance) and SS (slurry shield) are usually used for urban areas. In this paper, the process of choosing TBM for TURL2 using MCA method......The world of underground engineering and construction has acquired a wide-ranging and high-level experience on tunnel construction with Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) and nowadays remarkable progresses are traceable in the number of tunnels that are becoming longer, going deeper, and growing larger...... (Multi Criteria Analysis) is expressed. Generally in this method some technical, economical and environmental parameters affected the TBM type are identified and taken into account by assigned weights related to the case study. Finally the results show that EPB-TBM will be more appropriate choice for...

  14. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  15. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...... of how to select change strategy. The framework contains 10 different change strategies to choose from. But which ones are chosen in practice? To answer that, we have analyzed data from 134 assessments in 129 organizations that have used the framework. We give a ranking of strategies chosen, and we...... analyze how they adapt the change strategy to their specific conditions. We conclude that the most often recommended organizational change strategy is optionality followed by three other strategies: specialist-driven, production-organized, and learning-driven....

  16. MEDICAL TOURISTS' EXPECTATIONS WHEN CHOOSING LITHUANIA FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglė Eleonora Černikovaitė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Identify medical expectations of tourists choosing Lithuania as medical tourism country and to make comparative analysis with situation in Thailand. Medical tourism is one of the most promising fields of business in the world. International trade in medical services also has huge economic potential and gradually increasing outcome for the global economy (Bookman & Bookman, 2007. Major medical tourism destinations: Thailand, India, Singapore and Malaysia attracted more than 2.5 million medical travellers (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2008. Lithuania is among the major emerging markets in medical tourism that is increasing every year. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good quality services with affordable prices and location, while people choosing Thailand – mainly is affected by advertising. The main recommendation for attracting medical tourists to Lithuania is to initiate the advertising campaign to the targeted audiences. Design/methodology/approach – The comparative analysis of scientific literature and empirical comparative quantitative research was executed for acquiring the expectations for medical tourists in Lithuania. Findings – Overview of health and medical tourism situation in Lithuania and other emerging markets. This study showed that main factors of attracting tourist to Lithuania: fast service and exceptional patient care, the high-tech medical equipment, good prices both for medical and travel services and other. Comparative empirical analysis of medical tourist expectations in Lithuania and Thailand. Comparing to Thailand situation, Lithuania is attractive to the most medical tourist, because of the good

  17. Do French low-income GPs choose to work less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Anne-Laure

    2011-09-01

    In France, a significant number of General Practitioners (GPs) earn less than 1.5 times the French minimum salary. Using a representative panel of self-employed GPs over the years 1993-2004, this paper tests whether these low-income GPs choose to work less than all other GPs or whether they are constrained to do so. The test is based on measuring reactions to positive and negative demand shocks. As low-income GPs do not increase activity in response to a positive demand shock but decrease activity in response to a negative demand shock, it appears that their low-income status is attributable to a strong preference for leisure. PMID:21728212

  18. Choosing the right surgical glove: an overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Judith

    Sterile surgical gloves are routinely worn during all invasive procedures to prevent the two-way transmission of pathogens between the surgical team and the patient. This reduces the risk of surgical-site infections and blood-borne diseases. Since their introduction to the operating room over 100 years ago, surgical gloves, and the materials used to make them, have continued to evolve in line with ever-changing healthcare demands. Following recent developments in surgical glove technologies, including de-proteinized natural rubber latex and newer gloving methods such as triple gloving, it is timely that an overview and update of surgical gloves is given. By providing information on latex-associated allergies, glove materials, gloving methods and glove protection, this article will enable practitioners to choose the most appropriate surgical glove. PMID:18825848

  19. Choosing the right system to manage electricity derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternatives available and the considerations entering into the choice of the right system to manage electricity derivatives are reviewed. The choice of system will be influenced by a variety of factors, among them : (1) business issues, (2) business processes, (3) functionality, (4) technology, (5) integration into the enterprise, and (6) internal and external competition. The system chosen will need to be integrated into the enterprise. Beyond that,it will need executive commitment, dedicated internal resources, qualified assistance from the vendor, willingness to revisit the business processes and make changes when needed, and training and more training. Some factors to take into account when choosing a system vendor are also discussed. Among these good fit to business, system performance, flexibility, reliability, and customization capacity are the most important

  20. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  1. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  2. The dynamic model of choosing an external funding instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena HONKOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision about using a specific funding source is one of the most important tasks of financial management. The utilization of external sources features numerous advantages yet staying aware of diverse funding options is not easy for financial managers. Today it is crucial to quickly identify an optimum possibility and to make sure that all relevant criteria have been considered and no variant has been omitted. Over the long term it is also necessary to consider the category of time as changes made today do not affect only the current variables but they also have a significant impact on the future. This article aims to identify the most suitable model of choosing external funding sources that would describe the dynamics involved. The first part of the paper considers the theoretical background of external funding instrument and of decision criteria. The making of financial decisions is a process consisted of weighing the most suitable variants, selecting the best variant, and controlling the implementation of accepted proposals. The second part analyses results of the research - decisive weights of the criteria. Then it is created the model of the principal criteria Weighted Average Cost of Capital (Dynamic model WACC. Finally it is created the Dynamic Model of Choosing an External Funding Instrument. The created decision-making model facilitates the modeling of changes in time because it is crucial to know what future consequences lies in decisions made the contemporary turbulent world. Each variant features possible negative and positive changes of varying extent. The possibility to simulate these changes can illustrate an optimal variant to a decision-maker.

  3. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating. PMID:27235822

  4. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  5. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  6. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market...... firm does not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  7. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  8. Insects Can Count: Sensory Basis of Host Discrimination in Parasitoid Wasps Revealed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ruschioni

    Full Text Available The solitary parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma is one of the best studied organisms concerning the ecology, behaviour and physiology of host discrimination. Behavioural evidence shows that L. heterotoma uses its ovipositor to discriminate not only between parasitized and unparasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae, but also to discriminate between hosts with different numbers of parasitoid eggs. The existing knowledge about how and when the parasitoid marks the host motivated us to unravel the chemosensory basis of host discrimination by L. heterotoma that allows it to choose the "best" host available. In this paper we report on electrophysiological recordings of multi-neural responses from the single taste sensillum on the tip of the unpaired ovipositor valve. We stimulated this sensillum with haemolymph of unparasitized, one-time-parasitized and two-times-parasitized Drosophila larvae. We demonstrate for the first time that quantitative characteristics of the neural responses to these haemolymph samples differed significantly, implying that host discrimination is encoded by taste receptor neurons in the multi-neuron coeloconic ovipositor sensillum. The activity of three of the six neurons present in the sensillum suffices for host discrimination and support the hypothesis that L. heterotoma females employ an ensemble code of parasitization status of the host.

  9. Electron Identification and Efficiency Measurements in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Brendlinger, Kurt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The ATLAS Experiment requires efficient discrimination of electrons as a vital part of its physics program. Electron discrimination is achieved through discriminating variables from the Inner Detector and Electromagnetic Calorimeter. Electron efficiency measurements and uncertainties affect cross section measurements and searches. In order to use electron objects, electron efficiencies in the detector are measured and data-Monte Carlo scale factors are produced. Efficiencies are calculated in 2012 using in-situ methods with electrons from $Z\\rightarrow ee$ and $J/\\Psi\\rightarrow ee$ resonances.

  10. User discrimination in automotive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  11. Ethnic Discrimination in Education: The Swiss Case

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Philipp; Sheldon, George

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that discrimination plays in the educational marginalization of foreign youth commonly observed in European countries with a long guestworker tradition. Economic theory offers two basic explanations for discrimination of this form: taste-based discrimination arising from personal prejudices and statistical discrimination stemming from ability uncertainty. Which theory applies in reality has important policy implications. If taste-based discrimination is the so...

  12. Discriminative Pattern Identification using Rule Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Mahajan; S. S. Nandgaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on ...

  13. Learned pattern recognition using synthetic-discriminant-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, David A.; Ennis, David J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of using synthetic-discriminant-functions to facilitate learning in a pattern recognition system is discussed. Learning is accomplished by continually adding images to the training set used for synthetic discriminant functions (SDF) construction. Object identification is performed by efficiently searching a library of SDF filters for the maximum optical correlation. Two library structures are discussed - binary tree and multilinked graph - along with maximum ascent, back-tracking, perturbation, and simulated annealing searching techniques. By incorporating the distortion invariant properties of SDFs within a library structure, a robust pattern recognition system can be produced.

  14. Visibility Is Not Equivalent to Confidence in a Low Contrast Orientation Discrimination Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Manuel; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In several visual tasks, participants report that they feel confident about discrimination responses at a level of stimulation at which they would report not seeing the stimulus. How general and reliable is this effect? We compared subjective reports of discrimination confidence and subjective reports of visibility in an orientation discrimination task with varying stimulus contrast. Participants applied more liberal criteria for subjective reports of discrimination confidence than for visibility. While reports of discrimination confidence were more efficient in predicting trial accuracy than reports of visibility, only reports of visibility but not confidence were associated with stimulus contrast in incorrect trials. It is argued that the distinction between discrimination confidence and visibility can be reconciled with both the partial awareness hypothesis and higher order thought theory. We suggest that consciousness research would benefit from differentiating between subjective reports of visibility and confidence.

  15. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  16. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies

  17. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Department of Mathematics, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-24

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  18. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  19. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  20. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  1. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  2. Better residential than ethnic discrimination!

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, François; Lalé, Etienne; Safi, Mirna; Wasmer, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Access to housing is difficult for minorities in France. An audit study we run in the Paris area showed that minority applicants do not face a strong disadvantage in the first step of the application; however, the fact that applicants come from a deprived area leads to more frequent unfavorable outcome (we call this residential discrimination as opposed to ethnic discrimination). The puzzle and paradox come from the fact that face-to-face interviews with real-estate agents in the city of Pari...

  3. When I cut, you choose method implies intransitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2014-12-01

    There is a common belief that humans and many animals follow transitive inference (choosing A over C on the basis of knowing that A is better than B and B is better than C). Transitivity seems to be the essence of rational choice. We present a theoretical model of a repeated game in which the players make a choice between three goods (e.g. food). The rules of the game refer to the simple procedure of fair division among two players, known as the “I cut, you choose” mechanism which has been widely discussed in the literature. In this game one of the players has to make intransitive choices in order to achieve the optimal result (for him/her and his/her co-player). The point is that an intransitive choice can be rational. Previously, an increase in the significance of intransitive strategies was achieved by referring to models of quantum games. We show that relevant intransitive strategies also appear in the classic description of decision algorithms.

  4. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  5. Time to choose – DSM-5, ICD-11 or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrer, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 was published in May 2013, and ICD 11 is not due to be published until the end of 2015 at the earliest. Nevertheless, it is possible to make a comparison at this early stage as much of the main decisions have been made with both classifications. DSM-5 aimed to make a paradigm shift by providing objective, independent measures of classification, but in this respect it clearly failed. It did respond to previous criticisms that there were too many diagnoses in the classification and that eliminated some conditions in favour of larger groupings (eg, autism spectrum disorder, but it has still come in for heavy criticism. ICD 11 deviates from DSM-5 in radically different classifications of personality and stress disorders and in general has pursued a different pathway, concentrating on clinical utility as the main guide to the classification. It is up to practitioners to choose which they prefer, but ICD 11 will be in a much stronger position than ICD 10 was when it was published in 1999.

  6. Triplex formation on DNA targets: how to choose the oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekhoff, Pierre; Ceccaldi, Alexandre; Polverari, David; Pylouster, Jean; Pisano, Claudio; Arimondo, Paola B

    2008-11-25

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are sequence-specific DNA binders. TFOs provide a tool for controlling gene expression or, when attached to an appropriate chemical reagent, for directing DNA damage. Here, we report a set of rules for predicting the best out of five different triple-helical binding motifs (TM, UM, GA, GT, and GU, where M is 5-methyldeoxycytidine and U is deoxyuridine) by taking into consideration the sequence composition of the underlying duplex target. We tested 11 different triplex targets present in genes having an oncogenic role. The rules have predictive power and are very useful in the design of TFOs for antigene applications. Briefly, we retained motifs GU and TM, and when they do form a triplex, TFOs containing G and U are preferred over those containing T and M. In the case of the G-rich TFOs, triplex formation is principally dependent on the percentage of G and the length of the TFO. In the case of the pyrimidine motif, replacement of T with U is destabilizing; triplex formation is dependent on the percentage of T and destabilized by the presence of several contiguous M residues. An equation to choose between a GU and TM motif is given. PMID:18954091

  7. Choosing Ecotourism Destinations for Vacations: A Decision-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene E. Ezebilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although ecotourism is fast growing industry information on travels to different ecotourism destinations are often not easily accessible. This paper reports reviews of literature on eco-tourists behaviour regarding choice of destination for ecotourism and factors influencing the choice. The importance of information in marketing of ecotourism and eco-tourists’ satisfaction are discussed. The eco-tourists who are visiting a destination for the first time go through all stages in the decision-making process and extensive information search before choosing the destination to visit. Eco-tourists who have visited the destination in the past go through only some of the stages and limited information search. Eco-tourists’ choice of an ecotourism destination are influenced by factors such as, the family, friends, societal values, preferences, safety and promotions related to the destination. Decision regarding re-visiting an ecotourism destination depends on the level of satisfaction that the eco-tourist experienced during his or her first time visit to the destination. Eco-tourists who are satisfied with the ecotourism destination during their first time visit are likely to re-visit the destination but those who are not satisfied are not likely to re-visit. For ecotourism managers to sustain the inflow of eco-tourists to different ecotourism destinations and revenue in the ecotourism industry it is important for the managers to strive towards meeting expectations of eco-tourists and make information regarding the destinations more accessible.

  8. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  9. DISCRIMINANT INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS AS A SUBSPACE REPRESENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Fei; He Jinsong; Ye Xueyi; Zhuang Zhenquan; Li Bin

    2006-01-01

    Subspace modeling plays an important role in face recognition. Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a multivariable statistical analysis technique, can be seen as an extension of traditional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique, which addresses high order statistics as well as second order statistics. In this paper, a new scheme of subspace-based representation called Discriminant Independent Component Analysis (DICA) is proposed, which combines the strength of unsupervised learning of ICA and supervised learning of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and efficiently enhances the generalization ability of ICA-based representation method. Based on DICA subspace analysis, a set of optimal vectors called "discriminant independent faces" are learned from face samples. The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated by performance comparisons with some popular methods such as ICA, PCA, and PCA+LDA. On the large scale database of ⅡS, significant improvements are observed when there are fewer training samples per person available.

  10. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1 to 4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with a Frank's (1980 hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist.

  11. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  12. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not dis

  13. Discriminant Analysis on a Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a method for discriminant analysis which uses the multiple regression facilities offered by many microcomputer statistical packages. This method is illustrated with an ecological example using the MICROTAB statistical package on a BBC microcomputer. Compares these results with an analysis of the same data using SPSS X. (Author/CW)

  14. An example of multidimensional analysis: Discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the approaches on the data multi-dimensional analysis, lectures on the discriminant analysis including theoretical and practical aspects are presented. The discrimination problem, the analysis steps and the discrimination categories are stressed. Examples on the descriptive historical analysis, the discrimination for decision making, the demonstration and separation of the top quark are given. In the linear discriminant analysis the following subjects are discussed: Huyghens theorem, projection, discriminant variable, geometrical interpretation, case for g=2, classification method, separation of the top events. Criteria allowing the obtention of relevant results are included

  15. Plastic scintillator for pulse shape neutrons and gamma quanta discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes a new plastic scintillator for pulse shape n-γ discrimination. The scintillator contains two activation centers with different life spans. The first activator collects the singlet excitation energy of a polymer base, and the second activator utilizes triplet excitation states. We utilized 1,4-dimethyl-9,10-diphenylanthracene (DMDPA) and tris(dibenzoylmethide) (1,10-phenanthroline)Europium(III) (Eu[DBM]3Phen) as activators. The figure of merit for this scintillator is 1.37, which is sufficient for reliable n-γ discrimination. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator for efficient n/γ discrimination is described. • Pulse shape discrimination is occurred due to direct transformation of triplet excitation energy. • The scintillator contains two activation centers with different lifetimes. • Eu-containing complexes were used as activators. • With 3.0 wt% of Eu[DBM]3Phen, this PS provides reliable discrimination with FOM = 1.37

  16. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  17. Temporal generalization gradients following an interdimensional discrimination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Castro, Ana Catarina; Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of interdimensional discrimination training in the temporal generalization gradient. In a matching-to-sample task, pigeons learned to choose key S after a T-s houselight sample and key NS in the absence of the houselight sample. For one group of pigeons, T = 20 s; for another, T = 10 s. Subsequently, houselight duration was varied to obtain temporal generalization gradients. Results showed that (a) proportion S increased as houselight duration ranged from 0 s to T s and then remained high for houselight durations longer than T; (b) the gradients were well described by negative-exponential functions; (c) these non-flat gradients were present from the beginning of testing, and; (d) the average gradients obtained with T = 20 s and T = 10 s overlapped when plotted in relative time. We conclude that temporal control does not require explicit discrimination training along the temporal dimension, and that temporal generalization gradients obtained with an interdimensional protocol show the scalar property of timing. We discuss how these findings challenge current models of timing. PMID:26605786

  18. On the strategy of prevention and protection against discrimination as the basic document of the state’s anti-discrimination policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2014-01-01

    The article presents legal and political aspects of the Strategy of prevention of and protection against discrimination. This is a binding commitment from the state given to its citizens in relation to reaching certain goals, principally towards eliminating discrimination in social life. The main aim of the presentation is to highlight factors which are necessary to ensure the Strategy is efficient in combating a culture of intolerance; in identifying what ...

  19. Fast and Efficient Discrimination of Traveling Salesperson Problem Stimulus Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Matthew J.; Fontaine, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    The Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) is a computationally difficult combinatorial optimization problem. In spite of its relative difficulty, human solvers are able to generate close-to-optimal solutions in a close-to-linear time frame, and it has been suggested that this is due to the visual system's inherent sensitivity to certain geometric…

  20. Performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors: behavioral evidence for olfactory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Noboru; Okuhara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Akio; Kato, Junichi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2008-03-01

    We examined performance of mice in discrimination of liquor odors by Y-maze behavioral assays. Thirsty mice were initially trained to choose the odor of a red wine in the Y-maze. After successful training (>70% concordance for each trained mouse), the individual mice were able to discriminate the learned red wine from other liquors, including white wine, rosé wine, sake, and plum liqueur. However, when the mice were tested to distinguish fine differences between 2 brands of red wine, their performance significantly varied among the individual trained mice. Among 10 mice tested, 2 mice were able to discriminate between the red wines (>75% concordance) whereas 6 mice failed to distinguish between them (50-67% concordance, where chance could be assumed to be 50%). More importantly, 2 other mice exhibited lower than 30% concordance, indicating that they were more attracted to the nonrewarded red wine compared with the learned one. This result suggested that the individual mice directed attention to different subsets of volatile components emanating from the rewarded red wine, when they were trained to choose the liquor odor in the Y-maze. Selective attention of mice was also observed in Y-maze behavioral assays using the mixtures of 3 or less pure odorants. Additionally, we also observed that the olfactory attention of mice could be modified through their learning experiences. PMID:18178544

  1. Labour market discrimination as an agency cost

    OpenAIRE

    Méon, Pierre-Guillaume; Szafarz, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies labour market discriminations as an agency problem. It sets up a principal-agent model of a firm, where the manager is a taste discriminator and has to make unobservable hiring decisions that determine the shareholder’s profits because workers differ in skills. The paper shows that performance-based contracts may moderate the manager’s propensity to discriminate, but that it is unlikely to fully eliminate discrimination.

  2. Labor market discrimination as an agency cost

    OpenAIRE

    Méon, Pierre-Guillaume; Szafarz, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies labor market discriminations as an agency problem. It sets up a principal-agent model of a firm, where the manager is a taste discriminator and has to make unobservable hiring decisions that determine the shareholder’s profits because workers differ in skills. The paper shows that performance-based contracts may moderate the manager’s propensity to discriminate, but that they are unlikely to fully eliminate discrimination. Moreover, the model predicts that sectors with high...

  3. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  4. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  5. Age-Related Changes in Odor Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet; Sundqvist, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Odor naming and recognition memory are poorer in children than in adults. This study explored whether such differences might result from poorer discriminative ability. Experiment 1 used an oddity test of discrimination with familiar odors on 6-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. Six-year-olds were significantly poorer at discrimination relative…

  6. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  7. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  8. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  9. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  10. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  11. Discrimination between non perfectly known states

    OpenAIRE

    Jezek, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination task is treated in the case of only partial prior information from measurements of unknown states. The construction of the optimal discrimination device and estimation of unknown states is performed simultaneously. A communication through a noisy quantum channel is formulated in terms of the proposed discrimination protocol.

  12. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  13. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  14. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  15. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies....

  16. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  17. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  18. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  19. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  20. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  1. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  2. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  3. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  4. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  5. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly...

  6. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  7. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  8. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  9. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities conducted in response to the requirements of 45 CFR part 1620. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No...

  10. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  11. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  12. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  14. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  15. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  16. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  17. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  18. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  19. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  20. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  1. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  2. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  3. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  5. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., or privilege of employment. The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  6. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  7. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  8. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  10. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  11. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15.3 Section 15.3... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or... discrimination under any program or activity of the applicant or recipient to which these regulations...

  12. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  14. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  15. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  16. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  17. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  18. Neurodegenerative disease. Genetic discrimination in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2009-10-01

    A survey conducted in Canada examined the prevalence of perceived genetic discrimination against patients with Huntington disease. The respondents reported discrimination not only by insurance or mortgage companies, but also in family and social contexts. Discrimination was more frequently attributed to family history than to genetic test results. PMID:19794509

  19. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  20. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  1. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  2. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  3. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  4. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  5. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  6. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  7. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  8. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  9. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  10. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  11. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  12. Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Chiribella G.; D'Ariano G.M.; Perinotti P.

    2008-01-01

    We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.

  13. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as b

  14. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  15. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  16. Territorial analysis of discriminated groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Hrisanta MOSORA

    2013-01-01

    Labour market discrimination may lead to segregation resulting in the separation between the majority and the minority group at the local level, occupational level, educational level in public spaces etc. In this study we analysed the distribution of the Rroma population at local level, because they are regarded as the most vulnerable group in Romania. We also analysed the extent to which spatial localization affects the poverty rate in this community. Data were provided by “A social map of P...

  17. Quantity discrimination tests with macaques

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Vanessa Schmitt & Julia Fischer ### Abstract Here we describe the methods used for a two-choice quantity discrimination task, including different control conditions that test for changes in associative strength of the stimuli as well as potential experimenter bias. The experiments revealed that the choices of the monkeys were mainly driven by the fact whether or not they obtained the choice stimuli as food rewards. They did significantly better when tested with inedible i...

  18. Competition, Takeovers and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik; Svaleryd, Helena; Vlachos, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  19. Weed discrimination using ultrasonic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar, Dionisio; Escolà i Agustí, Alexandre; Dorado, José; Fernández-Quintanilla, César

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is described for automatic discrimination between grasses and broad-leaved weeds, based on their heights. An ultrasonic sensor was mounted on the front of a tractor, pointing vertically down in the inter-row area, with a control system georeferencing and registering the echoes reflected by the ground or by the various leaf layers. Static measurements were taken at locations with different densities of grasses (Sorghum halepense) and broad-leaved weeds (Xanthium strumarium and D...

  20. Table or Circles: A Comparison of Two Methods for Choosing among Career Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Gati, Itamar

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 182 young adults about to choose their college major were randomly assigned to 2 guidance methods aimed at facilitating choosing among promising career alternatives: Table-for-Choice and Circles-for-Choice. Table-for-Choice was perceived as more effective, but individuals' confidence in their choice was higher in the Circles-for-Choice…

  1. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  2. Choosing among waste management alternatives: relevant criteria and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two broad goals of nuclear waste management are cost effectiveness (economic efficiency) and intratemporal/intertemporal fairness or equity (not imposing unreasonable burdens on future generations). These two goals are conflicting, and their trade-off is the subject of this paper

  3. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Talaska, Cara A.; Fiske, Susan T.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as...

  4. Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins

    OpenAIRE

    Badampudi, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.   Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutio...

  5. The Input-output Status and Farmers’Willingness to Choose Ecological Operation of Hickory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; LI Shi-yong; WU Wei-guang

    2012-01-01

    This study takes Lin’an City which early carries out the experiment of ecological operation of hickory as the study site.On the basis of the input-output data on hickory and farmers’ land,we analyze the input-output status of hickory land which practises ecological operation,the operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation and the influencing factors.The results show that in the short term,ecological operation of hickory will have a certain negative impact on the economic benefits;within the experimental area,the degree of operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation of hickory is high,and the operators have a clear understanding of long-term comprehensive benefits which may be brought by ecological operation;the ecological experiment and demonstration of hickory have achieved certain results;family income level,characteristics of householders,education and training,and so on,are the main factors that affect the operators’ willingness to choose ecological operation.Finally,for how to further improve the promotion efficiency of ecological operation of hickory,we put forth some constructive recommendations.

  6. The power to choose. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly volatile electricity prices are becoming a more frequent and unwanted characteristic of modern electricity wholesale markets. But low demand elasticity, mainly the result of a lack of incentives and consumers' inability to control demand, means that consumer behaviour is not reflected in the cost of energy. This study analyses the impact of price-responsive demand and shows how pricing, policy and technology can be used to inform consumer behaviour and choice. Informed choice and market-based valuation of electricity supply will ensure liberalized markets are competitive, efficient, less volatile and able to provide long term security of supply. Significant benefits will occur even if only 5% of customers become responsive to price-incentives and information. And customers will respond to well designed programs, thereby developing a role in ensuring efficient price formulation for electricity. This study analyses the economic, efficiency and security benefits and identifies the changes in electricity tariffs and the network infrastructure needed to achieve greater demand response

  7. METHODS FOR TESTING DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ZAIŢ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents three methods which can be used to assess discriminant validity for multi-item scales. Q-sorting is presented as a method that can be used in early stages of research, being more exploratory, while the chi-square difference test and the average variance extracted analysis are recommended for the confirmatory stages of research. The paper describes briefly the three methods and presents evidence from two surveys that aimed to develop a scale for measuring perceived risk in e-commerce.

  8. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  9. Discriminative Pattern Identification using Rule Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Mahajan*1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on data mining technology for decision making. Decision making systems and data mining techniques such as association rule mining have been designed and are now used for making automated decisions, like loan granting or denial. Discrimination situations found in dataset in direct and indirect ways. Rules are formed from the dataset using Apriori algorithm and certain parameters such as number of rules, minimum support and confidence. Power of discrimination within rules are calculated by an elift and glift on a classification rule using Alpha and strong Alpha protection. In direct discrimination, the rules are directly extracted from dataset and searched for discriminatory pattern. In indirect discrimination, system needs some background knowledge as a further input and it is used to find unfair treatments. Inference model required for integration of classification rules with background rules. Inference model is a mathematic model. Direct and Indirect Discrimination tested over German credit dataset.

  10. Development of pulse-shape analysis for discrimination of low energy scintillation signals from photomultiplier noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse shape analysis technique for discrimination of low-energy scintillation signals from the photomultiplier noises was developed. Samples of low-energy signals, free from photomultiplier noise admixture were measured in special calibration runs. The algorithm of preliminary signal processing to determine beginning and base line of the pulses was developed. Comparison of different pulse shape discrimination methods was done. Among them are the methods of 'average time', optimal digital filter, least squares and artificial neural networks. The 100 % discrimination efficiency for CdWO4 scintillation signals with energies of ≥ 15 keV from photomultiplier noises was achieved

  11. Boron-loaded plastic scintillator with neutron-γ pulse shape discrimination capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the plastic scintillator with neutron sensitivity from thermal to multi-MeV and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) has been demonstrated. Incorporation of 10B-containing compounds into the plastic scintillator with PSD capability leads to detector improvement in regard to neutron detection efficiency while preserving the discrimination between neutrons and γ-rays. Effects of boron loading on scintillation and pulse shape discrimination properties are discussed. A PSD figure-of-merit value of 1.4±0.03 has been achieved for events in a thermal neutron energy domain, 50–100 keVee, for PSD plastic loaded with 5 wt.% of m-carborane

  12. Principles of non-discrimination for grid management of distribution networks; Diskriminierungsfreiheit im Netzmanagement von Verteilnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthe, Sebastian; Worgull, Alexander; Rehtanz, Christian [TU Dortmund (Germany). Inst. ie3

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes different algorithms for non-discriminating control of loads and distributed energy resources. The approach is verified with two simulation scenarios and evaluated for practical applications. First of all the general approach with the use of sensitivity analysis for an efficient congestion relief is presented. Based on this approach four methods for the prioritization of nodes are developed and compared regarding the principles of non-discrimination. The simulation results show that specific, network topologies and recurring congestions lead to a limitation of the principles of non-discrimination with all presented methods. Hence appropriate incentives for the participation of private units need to be created. (orig.)

  13. Merging {DBMs} Efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present different algorithms to reduce the number of DBMs in federations by merging them. Federations are unions of DBMs and are used to represent non-convex zones. Inclusion checking between DBMs is a limited technique to reduce the size of federations and how to choose some DBM...... to merge them into a larger one is a combi-natorial problem. We present a number of simple but efficient techniques to avoid searching the combinations while still being able to merge any number of DBMs...

  14. Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their enthusiasm for efficiency over other values, the advocates for market-based instruments for environmental control have reversed the order in which environmental solutions are found. They have written their prescriptions without first doing a physical examination of the patient; in other words, they have first recommended environmental instruments and secondarily tried to bend institutions to support the already identified cure. The engine for environmental regulation consists of the institutions available country by country to carry out environmental policy. Institutional inadequacies such as low functioning legal systems, historical experience (or inexperience) with markets, distorting and often institutionalised corruption, and public acceptance certainly can be fixed. But changing these fundamentals can be a long and arduous process. Those who advise governments to adopt reforms for which the institutional basis does not yet exist put the cart before the horse, a costly mistake that directs weak countries in the direction of solutions they have little hope of implementing. Instead, the donors and advisors should be seeking alternative approaches, for example to encourage incremental improvements and pragmatic goals, by considering a transitional or tiered approach that will take into account existing capabilities and institutions, at the same time acknowledging that a long learning curve lies ahead with inevitably uneven implementation and slippage from time to time. Another approach would be to find examples of small, albeit imperfect, efforts that seem to be working and building on them. The long-term goal should be efficient solutions, but only the most developed countries should be encouraged to attempt difficult environmental policy instruments like taxation and emissions trading schemes

  15. Discriminant analysis of plasma fusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several discriminant analysis methods has been applied and compared to predict the type of ELM's in H-mode discharges: (a) quadratic discriminant analysis (linear discriminant analysis being a special case), (b) discrimination by non-parametric (kernel-) density estimates, and (c) discrimination by a product multinomial model on a discretised scale. Practical evaluation was performed using SAS in the first two cases, and INDEP, a standard FORTRAN program, initially developed for medical applications, in the last case. We give here a flavour of the approach and its results. In summary, discriminant analysis can be used as a useful descriptive method of specifying regions where particular types of plasma discharges can be produced. Parametric methods have the advantage of a rather compact mathematical formulation . Pertinent graphical representations are useful to make the theory and the results more palatable to the experimental physicists. (J.P.N.)

  16. Efficiency Determinants and Dynamic Efficiency Changes in Latin American Banking Industries

    OpenAIRE

    M Kabir Hassan; Benito Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic and the determinants of banking industry efficiency in Latin America. Allocative, technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies are calculated and analyzed in each country. We find that Latin American bank managers have been using resources efficiently, but they are not choosing an optimal input/output. Additionally, we find that traditional banking performance measures are positively correlated with efficiencies while variables that measure banking and ...

  17. A stimulus-location effect in contingency-governed, but not rule-based, discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christina; Lea, Stephen E G; McLaren, Ian P L

    2016-04-01

    We tested pigeons' acquisition of a conditional discrimination task between colored grating stimuli that included choosing 1 of 2 response keys, which either appeared as white keys to the left and right of the discriminative stimulus, or were replicas of the stimulus. Pigeons failed to acquire the discrimination when the response keys were white disks but succeeded when directly responding to a replica of the stimulus. These results highlight how conditioning processes shape learning in pigeons: The results can be accounted for by supposing that, when pigeons were allowed to respond directly toward the stimulus, learning was guided by classical conditioning, but that responding to white keys demanded instrumental learning, which impaired task acquisition for pigeons. In contrast, humans completing the same paradigm showed no differential learning success depending on whether figure or position indicated the correct key. However, only participants who could state the underlying discrimination rule acquired the task, which implies that human performance in this situation relied on the deduction and application of task rules instead of associative processes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866376

  18. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... taking care of yourself. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  19. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted ... help address your problems. Why do I need a PCP? You need a PCP so that your ...

  20. Choosing a Medigap Policy: A Guide to Health Insurance for People with Medicare

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES 2015 Choosing a Medigap Policy: AGuide to Health Insurance for People with Medicare This official government guide has important information about: • Medicare Supplement Insurance (Medigap) policies • ...

  1. Sex differences in the acceptability of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    KURAN, Timur; McCaffery, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    A large telephone survey conducted after the attacks of September 11, 2001, suggests that the willingness to tolerate discrimination varies significantly across domains, with a very high tolerance of discrimination against poorly educated immigrants and a strikingly low tolerance of discrimination against the genetically disadvantaged. Regardless of domain, tolerance is greater among men than among women. A survey conducted simultaneously over the World Wide Web, using volunteer panels, repli...

  2. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana Ivanus

    2013-01-01

    The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, fo...

  3. Trophic experiments to estimate isotope discrimination factors

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, Stéphane; Angulo, Elena; Courchamp, Franck; Figuerola, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    : 1. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2008a) rats were fed with experimental diets of distinct isotopic values (_13C and _15N) in order to infer the discrimination factors. We showed negative relationships between discrimination factors and diet isotopic values. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2009), our aim was to generalise these relationships to other taxonomic groups with a view to providing ecologists with a general and flexible method to obtain discrimination factors for diet reconstruction st...

  4. Phenotypic spandrel: absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    François, Paul; Johnson, Kyle A.; Saunders, Laura N.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the general problem of absolute discrimination between categories of ligands irrespective of their concentration. An instance of this problem is immune discrimination between self and not-self. We connect this problem to biochemical adaptation, and establish that ligand antagonism - the ability of sub threshold ligands to negatively impact response - is a necessary consequence of absolute discrimination.Thus antagonism constitutes a "phenotypic spandrel": a phenotype existing as a...

  5. Statistical Discrimination in a Competitive Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...

  6. Price discrimination and business-cycle risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Marco; Gerardi, Kristopher S.; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2011-01-01

    A parsimonious theoretical model of second degree price discrimination suggests that the business cycle will affect the degree to which firms are able to price-discriminate between different consumer types. We analyze price dispersion in the airline industry to assess how price discrimination can expose airlines to aggregate-demand fluctuations. Performing a panel analysis on seventeen years of data covering two business cycles, we find that price dispersion is highly procyclical. Estimates s...

  7. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients......). The discriminant functions correctly classified 81 and 80% of the women, respectively (NS) and respectively 75% and 64% of the men (NS) in the first and second recorded populations....

  8. The monolithic double-threshold discriminator

    CERN Document Server

    Baturitsky, M A

    1999-01-01

    A double-threshold discriminator capable of processing input signals of different duration is described. Simplicity of the discriminator circuitry makes it possible to embody the discriminator in multichannel ICs using microwave bipolar-JFET technology. Time walk is calculated to be less than 0.35 ns for the input ramp signals with rise times 25-100 ns and amplitudes 50 mV-1 V.

  9. Using biased discriminant analysis for email filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on email filtering based on content features. We test the validity of a novel statistical feature extraction method, which relies on dimensionality reduction to retain the most informative and discriminative features from messages. The approach, named Biased Discriminant Analysis (BDA), aims at finding a feature space transformation that closely clusters positive examples while pushing away the negative ones. This method is an extension of Linear Discriminant Analysis (L...

  10. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women’s right and believing their ability are essential for women’s empowerment and development. This study deals with gender discrimination in India, its various forms and its causes. Importance of women in development, legislation...

  11. Disentangling discrimination on spanish boards of directors

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos de Cabo, Ruth; Gimeno, Ricardo; Escot, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to find evidence of discrimination behind the scarce presence women on Spanish boards of directors through factors within firms linked with different theories of discrimination. Research findings/Insights: Using data on the boards of directors from the top 1000 Spanish companies in 2005 and 2008, we identify some signals of discrimination. We find that women directors are scarcer in those sectors wh...

  12. Competitive targeted advertising with price discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Rosa Branca; Resende, Joana

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of price discrimination by means of targeted advertising in a duopolistic market where the distribution of consumers' preferences is discrete and where advertising plays two major roles. It is used by firms as a way to transmit relevant information to otherwise uninformed consumers, and it is used as a price discrimination device. We compare the firms' optimal marketing mix (advertising and pricing) when they adopt mass advertising/non-discrimination strate...

  13. Spontaneous discrimination of small quantities: shoaling preferences in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-07-01

    The ability to quantify, i.e. to estimate quantity, may provide evolutionary advantages in some contexts and has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species. In a prior study, we showed that angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) were able to discriminate between groups (shoals) in which a large number of conspecifics swam preferring to join the larger of the two. Our results implied that angelfish can compare relative shoal sizes likely on the basis of some quantitative attributes of the shoal. Here, also using a binary preference test, we examined whether angelfish are able to discriminate between shoals of small numbers of conspecifics, and if so whether their performance reveals a comparable underlying mechanism to that proposed for discrimination of small quantities in human and non-human animals, namely the possible precursor of the ability to count. Our results demonstrate that fish reliably chose 4 versus 1, 3 versus 1, 2 versus 1 and 3 versus 2 individuals, but were at chance performance level when having to choose between 4 versus 3, 5 versus 4 and 6 versus 5. Findings also reveal that the density of the fish in the stimulus shoals did not significantly affect the performance of experimental angelfish. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of the existence of an object-file mechanism to discriminate small quantities in vertebrates and provide evidence for spontaneous discrimination of up to three elements in angelfish, a similar limit to that found in human and non-human animals. The findings add to the growing body of data, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying discrimination between different quantities of items may be shared across different taxa and have an evolutionary ancient origin. PMID:21409443

  14. The Comparison of Iranian and Foreign Students’ Motivations to Choose Dentistry Field of Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-01-01

    Background Because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. The students usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Iranian and Foreign student’s motivations to choose dentistry field of study. Materials and Methods We searched international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as SID...

  15. Study of Model of Grey Decision Making to Choose Leading Industry of Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinglongZhang; GuangyongChen; WeiGuo; GangXie

    2004-01-01

    The Leading industry influences the economic development of one city. This paper establishes a decision factor system of choosing leading industry of cities, applies related decision theory in Grey System and invents the procedure of choosing leading industry, which achieved a good practical effect. Afterwards, the city Tianmen acclaims the dress industry as Leading Industry in its "The Tenth Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of City TianMen".

  16. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    OpenAIRE

    Anya eSkatova; Eamonn eFerguson

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest (Interest) in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing)...

  17. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    OpenAIRE

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We i...

  18. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  19. Discrimination method of forked larch trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-bin; Sun Ren-shan; Liu Xu-hua; Liu Yong

    2006-01-01

    For the demands of automatíc pruning, an effective discrimination rule of the forked and non-forked larch trees is established. First, information of trunk and branch diameters of a larch plantations was collected from the west mountain of Beijing. The growth characteristics of the forked and non-forked trees were studied. Given the statistical characteristics of the trunk and branch diameters, a discriminant function of the forked branch and non-forked larch trees was established statistically. Excellent discrimination results were obtained by the function and the rule. The study presents an effective discrimination rule to separate forked trees from straight trees for automatic pruning.

  20. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  1. A simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are discussed

  2. Choosing the forcing terms in an inexact Newton method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstat, S.C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An inexact Newton method is a generalization of Newton`s method for solving F(x) = 0, F: {Re}{sup n} {r_arrow} {Re}{sup n}, in which each step reduces the norm of the local linear model of F. At the kth iteration, the norm reduction is usefully expressed by the inexact Newton condition where x{sub k} is the current approximate solution and s{sub k} is the step. In many applications, an {eta}{sub k} is first specified, and then an S{sub k} is found for which the inexact Newton condition holds. Thus {eta}{sub k} is often called a {open_quotes}forcing term{close_quotes}. In practice, the choice of the forcing terms is usually critical to the efficiency of the method and can affect robustness as well. Here, the authors outline several promising choices, discuss theoretical support for them, and compare their performance in a Newton iterative (truncated Newton) method applied to several large-scale problems.

  3. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW). PMID:26304815

  4. A Direct Estimation Approach to Sparse Linear Discriminant Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers sparse linear discriminant analysis of high-dimensional data. In contrast to the existing methods which are based on separate estimation of the precision matrix $\\O$ and the difference $\\de$ of the mean vectors, we introduce a simple and effective classifier by estimating the product $\\O\\de$ directly through constrained $\\ell_1$ minimization. The estimator can be implemented efficiently using linear programming and the resulting classifier is called the linear programming discriminant (LPD) rule. The LPD rule is shown to have desirable theoretical and numerical properties. It exploits the approximate sparsity of $\\O\\de$ and as a consequence allows cases where it can still perform well even when $\\O$ and/or $\\de$ cannot be estimated consistently. Asymptotic properties of the LPD rule are investigated and consistency and rate of convergence results are given. The LPD classifier has superior finite sample performance and significant computational advantages over the existing methods that req...

  5. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well. PMID:26883770

  6. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  7. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  8. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  9. Why Do Real Estate Brokers Continue to Discriminate? Evidence from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhao; Jan Ondrich; John Yinger

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies racial and ethnic discrimination in discrete choices by real estate brokers using national audit data from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study. It uses a fixed effects logit model to estimate the probability that discrimination occurs and to study the causes of discrimination. The data set makes it possible to control for auditors' actual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, along with the characteristics assigned for the purposes of the audit. The study finds t...

  10. The dark side of subtle discrimination: how targets respond to different forms of discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Cihangir, Sezgin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of several individual and social factors (i.e., personal self-esteem, social norms and social influence) that directly affect how people deal with uncertainty, in reaction to blatant versus subtle discrimination. While responses to blatant discrimination were not affected by any of these factors, these factors determined to a significant degree responses to subtle discrimination. The main idea throughout the thesis is that blatant discrimination involves a cl...

  11. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  12. Proton - Electron discrimination capabilities with CALET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Aaron J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Calet Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space-borne observatory set to be deployed on the ISS-JEM (aka Kibo) by a Japanese led collaboration with Italy and the United States. The primary objective of the mission is to provide precise measurements of the flux of photons, electrons and nuclei in the cosmic radiation, with energies in excess of several TeV. The instrument consists of the three sub-detectors: The Charge Detector (CHD), Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), and Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC); totaling 30 X0 and 1.3 λ on axis. The imaging capabilities and depth of the apparatus produces precise longitudinal and lateral profiles, as well as the energy loss of the electromagnetic particles, allowing for a discrimination factor of about 105 between electromagnetic and hadronic particles. We demonstrate the separation capabilities of the instrument and present a multivariate technique developed from both Monte Carlo simulations and test beam data to aid in the electron/hadron separation while maintaining a very high detection efficiency.

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  14. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  15. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

  16. The Problem of Education-Based Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    While the research, theory and policy literature on race, class and gender discrimination in education is extensive, the problem of education-based discrimination itself has been widely overlooked. Indeed, the dominant ideologies of meritocracy and human capital (into which we are inculcated throughout our lives by schools, media and the state)…

  17. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  18. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at 24 CFR part 8 apply to discrimination on the basis of disability; and the regulations at 24 CFR... Recipient shall not be prohibited by this section from taking any action eligible under subpart C of 24 CFR... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited....

  19. 47 CFR 76.983 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination. 76.983 Section 76.983 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.983 Discrimination. (a) No Federal agency, state,...

  20. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  1. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to...

  2. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  3. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for...

  4. 30 CFR 270.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 270.4 Section 270.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.4 Discrimination prohibited. No contract or subcontract to...

  5. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to...

  6. Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Washington, DC.

    This brochure presents regulatory guidelines on sex discrimination with sections devoted to: general principles; sex as a bona fide occupational qualification; separate lines of progression and seniority systems; discrimination against married women; advertising job opportunities; employment agencies; pre-employment inquiries as to sex; the…

  7. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or... way that adversely affects their opportunities or status because of handicap. (c) A recipient...

  8. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on Employee Selection Guidelines, 28 CFR 50.14. (c) In matters involving employment discrimination... Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR 50.14. (e) A recipient, in determining the type of... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203...

  9. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  10. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience...

  11. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks. PMID:24240765

  12. Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.

  13. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women's right and believing their ability are essential for women's empowerment and…

  14. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2008-10-01

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  15. Conceptual Approach for Choosing Future Land Use. Appendix II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    warning the public against trespassing or other activities, of fencing in and imposing of planning restrictions, usually at the local, or even national level, to prevent and control alternate land use. The applicability, feasibility and efficiency of the respective measures may vary considerably from Member State to Member State, depending on the socio-cultural circumstances, how much respect administrative authorities are able to draw on and the economic circumstances. There are numerous instances where scarcity of available land, breakdown in governance or lack of communication has led re-occupation of contaminated land. Remediation options relying on institutional control need to be assessed with respect to their realistic sustainability. Land use after environmental remediation can also be a public participation and community issue. The issue often is part of a broader transition in the local economy. The contaminated site may have been part of the operation of a major local employer, which no longer exists or has changed the market sector, with ensuing changes in employment levels and structures. Chosen end-points for remediation and hence the amount and form of residual contamination can put restrictions on certain forms of land use. For instance, for a given set of environmental conditions, the residual contamination may be stable in the soil column; introducing irrigation, however, may lead to increased mobility of radionuclides. Hence, if such scenarios are foreseen, appropriate measures have to be taken

  16. On the strategy of prevention and protection against discrimination as the basic document of the state’s anti-discrimination policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents legal and political aspects of the Strategy of prevention of and protection against discrimination. This is a binding commitment from the state given to its citizens in relation to reaching certain goals, principally towards eliminating discrimination in social life. The main aim of the presentation is to highlight factors which are necessary to ensure the Strategy is efficient in combating a culture of intolerance; in identifying what is necessary in practice to tackle discrimination, particularly discrimination against unpopular groups; so that a culture of intolerance among state agencies and organizations of civil society would be replaced by culture of mutual respect and equal opportunities. The article considers all categories that may be protected against discrimination, such as women, LGBT persons, people with disabilities, Roma people, elderly people, children, refugees, national minorities, internally displaced persons and people whose health condition might be the ground of discrimination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: br. III 47010: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  17. FACILITATION OF BI-DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN PIGEONS USING A TRANSFER TASK AFTER TRAINING IN DISCRIMINATION OF OWN BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS GARCÍA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in which 10 pigeons were trained in a task of conditional discrimination of their ownbehavior. The birds learned that when the sample had consisted on responding to the left (right with two white keys,they should choose the red (green comparison to be reinforced. Once the animals had learned this task, they werepassed to a test phase. In short, 5 pigeons were trained in a positive transfer, where the sample was now the red (greenkey they had to choose the left (right comparison to obtain the reinforcer. On the contrary, the other 5 pigeons receiveda training of negative transfer, where the task consisted in that with a red (green sample they should choose the right(left comparison to be reinforced. The obtained data indicate that the performance of those subjects of the group inwhich there was coherence among the phases went superior to that of those subjects of the group where there was notthis coherence. The results are interpreted in connection with the importance that the discrimination of the ownbehavior has in the derivation of bidirectional relationships.

  18. Chaotic Discrimination and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a particular form of price discrimination, known as chaotic discrimination, which has the following features: sellers quote a common price but, in reality, they engage in secret and apparently unsystematic price discounts. It is widely held that such forms of price discrimination are seriously inconsistent with profit maximization by sellers.. However, there is no theoretical salience to support this kind of price discrimination. By straining the logic of non-linear dynamics this study explains why such secret discounts are chaotic in the sense that sellers fail to adopt profit-maximising price discounts. A model is developed to argue that such forms of discrimination may derive from the regions of instability of a dynamic model of price discounts.

  19. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  20. To Choose or Not to Choose Science:Constructions of desirable identities among young people considering a STEM higher education programme

    OpenAIRE

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tert...

  1. Generalized Discriminant Analysis algorithm for feature reduction in Cyber Attack Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    This Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) has provided an extremely powerful approach to extracting non linear features. The network traffic data provided for the design of intrusion detection system always are large with ineffective information, thus we need to remove the worthless information from the original high dimensional database. To improve the generalization ability, we usually generate a small set of features from the original input variables by feature extraction. The conventional Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature reduction technique has its limitations. It is not suitable for non linear dataset. Thus we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) feature reduction technique which is novel approach used in the area of cyber attack detection. This not only reduces the number of the input features but also increases the classification accuracy and reduces the training and testing time of the classifiers by selecting most discriminating features. We...

  2. Discrimination of liquids by a focal construct X-ray diffraction geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique for the discrimination of liquids based upon X-ray diffraction and focal construct technology (FCT) is presented. FCT is a new, high efficiency coherent scatter harvesting technique. In this work, the competence of FCT to discriminate liquids was explored. A variety of liquids relevant to security inspection was analysed by FCT for application to liquid security inspection. Discrimination of potential threat liquids was successfully and reliably achieved even for limited data sets. - Highlights: • Description of an X-ray diffraction geometry called focal construct technology (FCT). • Advantages of FCT for aviation security screening posts. • Development of FCT with liquid samples. • Discrimination of threat and non-threat liquids by FCT. • Analysis of miscible and immiscible liquid mixtures by FCT

  3. Semisupervised Sparse Multilinear Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锴; 张丽清

    2014-01-01

    Various problems are encountered when adopting ordinary vector space algorithms for high-order tensor data input. Namely, one must overcome the Small Sample Size (SSS) and overfitting problems. In addition, the structural information of the original tensor signal is lost during the vectorization process. Therefore, comparable methods using a direct tensor input are more appropriate. In the case of electrocardiograms (ECGs), another problem must be overcome;the manual diagnosis of ECG data is expensive and time consuming, rendering it difficult to acquire data with diagnosis labels. However, when effective features for classification in the original data are very sparse, we propose a semisupervised sparse multilinear discriminant analysis (SSSMDA) method. This method uses the distribution of both the labeled and the unlabeled data together with labels discovered through a label propagation algorithm. In practice, we use 12-lead ECGs collected from a remote diagnosis system and apply a short-time-fourier transformation (STFT) to obtain third-order tensors. The experimental results highlight the sparsity of the ECG data and the ability of our method to extract sparse and effective features that can be used for classification.

  4. Who Pays for Energy Efficiency Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Policies to promote energy efficiency in household appliances have different impacts, depending on the structure of market supply. If provision is perfectly competitive, markets will offer the variety of energy efficiency levels that consumers demand. However, if producers can price discriminate, using energy intensity to help segment consumer demand, consumers of low-end appliances are offered too little energy efficiency so that high-end consumers can be charged more for efficient appliance...

  5. Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruneisen, Mark T [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E [Boeing Company, PO Box 5670, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Steinhoff, Nicholas [Optical Sciences Company, 1341 S Sunkist St., Anaheim, CA 92806 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.

  6. Multivariable Discriminant Analysis for the Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Urrechaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are the most common causes of microcytic anemia. Powerful statistical computer programming enables sensitive discriminant analyses to aid in the diagnosis. We aimed at investigating the performance of the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA to the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. Methods. The training group was composed of 200 β-thalassemia carriers, 65 α-thalassemia carriers, 170 iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and 45 mixed cases of thalassemia and acute phase response or iron deficiency. A set of potential predictor parameters that could detect differences among groups were selected: Red Blood Cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and RBC distribution width (RDW. The functions obtained with MDA analysis were applied to a set of 628 consecutive patients with microcytic anemia. Results. For classifying patients into two groups (genetic anemia and acquired anemia, only one function was needed; 87.9% β-thalassemia carriers, and 83.3% α-thalassemia carriers, and 72.1% in the mixed group were correctly classified. Conclusion. Linear discriminant functions based on hemogram data can aid in differentiating between IDA and thalassemia, so samples can be efficiently selected for further analysis to confirm the presence of genetic anemia.

  7. Neighborhood Discriminant Hashing for Large-Scale Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Ruizhen

    2015-09-01

    With the proliferation of large-scale community-contributed images, hashing-based approximate nearest neighbor search in huge databases has aroused considerable interest from the fields of computer vision and multimedia in recent years because of its computational and memory efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method named neighborhood discriminant hashing (NDH) (for short) to implement approximate similarity search. Different from the previous work, we propose to learn a discriminant hashing function by exploiting local discriminative information, i.e., the labels of a sample can be inherited from the neighbor samples it selects. The hashing function is expected to be orthogonal to avoid redundancy in the learned hashing bits as much as possible, while an information theoretic regularization is jointly exploited using maximum entropy principle. As a consequence, the learned hashing function is compact and nonredundant among bits, while each bit is highly informative. Extensive experiments are carried out on four publicly available data sets and the comparison results demonstrate the outperforming performance of the proposed NDH method over state-of-the-art hashing techniques. PMID:25872214

  8. Decision theory for discrimination-aware classification

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Social discrimination (e.g., against females) arising from data mining techniques is a growing concern worldwide. In recent years, several methods have been proposed for making classifiers learned over discriminatory data discriminationaware. However, these methods suffer from two major shortcomings: (1) They require either modifying the discriminatory data or tweaking a specific classification algorithm and (2) They are not flexible w.r.t. discrimination control and multiple sensitive attribute handling. In this paper, we present two solutions for discrimination-aware classification that neither require data modification nor classifier tweaking. Our first and second solutions exploit, respectively, the reject option of probabilistic classifier(s) and the disagreement region of general classifier ensembles to reduce discrimination. We relate both solutions with decision theory for better understanding of the process. Our experiments using real-world datasets demonstrate that our solutions outperform existing state-ofthe-art methods, especially at low discrimination which is a significant advantage. The superior performance coupled with flexible control over discrimination and easy applicability to multiple sensitive attributes makes our solutions an important step forward in practical discrimination-aware classification. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  10. A few philosophical ruminations on the human condition and choosing to live well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake E. Hestir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion that life is meaningful through choosing to live well has historically received substantive attention in various philosophical circles, notably the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and more recently several of the existentialists. In some respects, the idea of choosing to live well is a “thematization” of two widely-recognized, independent components of a meaningful life: happiness and authenticity. I develop this notion of choosing to live well by exploring, developing, and relating these conceptions of happiness and authenticity. By appealing to a very basic account of human nature that has found favor among a great number of people, I show how happiness and authenticity complement each other as conditions for the possibility of living meaningfully.

  11. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  12. Equality of Opportunity and Non-Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Dascălu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the normative grounds of both equality of opportunity and non-discrimination, working with the underlying assumption of a connection between the two. In order to test this assumption, various core issues of egalitarianism are discussed, and contrasted with the common understanding of discrimination. As this research attempts to prove, though less questioned than other principles of social justice, and though apparently akin (to some extent even overlapping, equality of opportunity and non-discrimination are bound to remain rather limited in scope unless a comprehensive (substantial view of justice is endorsed.

  13. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable ‘experienc...

  14. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  15. The Offer Framing Effect: Choosing Single versus Bundled Offerings Affects Variety Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mittelman; Eduardo B. Andrade; Amitava Chattopadhyay; C. Miguel Brendl

    2014-01-01

    Choices of multiple items can be framed as a selection of single offerings (e.g., a choice of two individual candy bars) or of bundled offerings (e.g., a choice of a bundle of two candy bars). Four experiments provide strong evidence that consumers seek more variety when choosing from single than from bundled offerings. The offer framing effect shows that the mechanics of choosing--the ways consumers go about making choices of multiple items--affect variety seeking in a systematic manner. The...

  16. Importance of choosing a change of support model for global reserves estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantuejoul, C.

    1988-11-01

    The practical problem considered here is: how can block distribution in an ore body be forecast from sample data. The task is arduous because information yielded by samples is too often insufficient to allow an accurate evaluation of blocks. In practice, necessary additional information is obtained via a model. Choosing that model is crucial; the value of results reflects the model, i.e., its adequacy to represent reality. In this paper, the importance of choosing the change of support model is illustrated with simulations and practical examples (especially deposits with a skewed sample distribution and a large spike at the origin). An attempt to quantify this importance is made also.

  17. Decision processes in temporal discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Fuat; Simen, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The processing dynamics underlying temporal decisions and the response times they generate have received little attention in the study of interval timing. In contrast, models of other simple forms of decision making have been extensively investigated using response times, leading to a substantial disconnect between temporal and non-temporal decision theories. An overarching decision-theoretic framework that encompasses existing, non-temporal decision models may, however, account both for interval timing itself and for time-based decision-making. We sought evidence for this framework in the temporal discrimination performance of humans tested on the temporal bisection task. In this task, participants retrospectively categorized experienced stimulus durations as short or long based on their perceived similarity to two, remembered reference durations and were rewarded only for correct categorization of these references. Our analysis of choice proportions and response times suggests that a two-stage, sequential diffusion process, parameterized to maximize earned rewards, can account for salient patterns of bisection performance. The first diffusion stage times intervals by accumulating an endogenously noisy clock signal; the second stage makes decisions about the first-stage temporal representation by accumulating first-stage evidence corrupted by endogenous noise. Reward-maximization requires that the second-stage accumulation rate and starting point be based on the state of the first-stage timer at the end of the stimulus duration, and that estimates of non-decision-related delays should decrease as a function of stimulus duration. Results are in accord with these predictions and thus support an extension of the drift-diffusion model of static decision making to the domain of interval timing and temporal decisions. PMID:24726447

  18. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard; Roos, Ewa; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in...... traumas; and many described their lack of trust in their knee. Patients believed that surgery would provide joint stability. Despite the ostensible satisfaction with surgery, more detailed exploration showed mixed views. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in a trial of treatments for acute ACL injury express a......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...

  19. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  20. Neural regions discriminating contextual information as conveyed through the learned preferences of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Mei; McCarthy, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The human brain consists of a network of regions that are engaged when one observes the movements of others. Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). This implies that observers use contextual information to form expectations about an agent's goal and subsequent movements. The current study sought to identify regions that support the formation of these context-dependent expectations, with the pSTS being one candidate, given the consistent contextual modulation of its activity. We presented participants with fictitious individuals who had emotion-dependent food preferences, and instructed participants to indicate which food they expected each individual to choose based on the individual's current emotional state. Each individual's preference and emotional state therefore created a context that informed the observer's expectation of the individual's choice. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to assess if these different contexts could be discriminated in the pSTS and elsewhere in the brain. No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS. Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval. All together, these regions possibly support the formation of context-dependent expectations of an agent's goal. PMID:26441592

  1. Improved discriminative training for generative model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ya-hui; GUO Jun; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model combination method to enhance the discriminability of the generative model. Generative and discriminative models have different optimization objectives and have their own advantages and drawbacks. The method proposed in this article intends to strike a balance between the two models mentioned above. It extracts the discriminative parameter from the generative model and generates a new model based on a multi-model combination. The weight for combining is determined by the ratio of the inter-variance to the intra-variance of the classes. The higher the ratio is, the greater the weight is, and the more discriminative the model will be. Experiments on speech recognition demonstrate that the performance of the new model outperforms the model trained with the traditional generative method.

  2. A few problems on monodromy and discriminants

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    A problem list in singularity theory. Most of these problems are related with the algorithmic enumeration of possible topological types of non-discriminant Morsifications of real function singularities, and/or with the Picard--Lefschetz theory.

  3. A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)

  4. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  5. Compact dual channel spectroscopy amplifier cum discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single width NIM module having two channels of spectroscopy amplifier cum discriminator has been developed for Nuclear Physics experiments at IUAC. Each channel contains a shaping amplifier along with logic circuits to generate the energy and timing information respectively

  6. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course. PMID:25770043

  7. Cultural Factors Contributing to the Perceived Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hye-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Romero and Roberts’ model (1998) and Phinney’s causal model (1997) were used as frameworks to test the relationship between ethnic identity, in-group attitudes, out-group attitudes, and the perception of discrimination. Among Asian American, Korean American, and Korean students. These models tested direct effects of ethic identity on perceived discrimination and indirect effects mediated by in-group attitudes and out-group attitudes. School-based surveys in California and Korea...

  8. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their...

  9. Product differentiation, price discrimination and collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Colombo

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature which analyses the relationship between the product differentiation degree and the sustainability of a collusive agreement on price assumes that firms cannot price discriminate, and concludes that there is a negative relationship between the product differentiation degree and the critical discount factor. This paper, in contrast, assumes that firms are able to price discriminate. Within the Hotelling framework, three different collusive schemes are studied: optimal col...

  10. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam Aliya; Brohan Elaine; Thornicroft Graham; Lewis-Holmes Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  11. Racism, Other Discriminations and Effects on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Gil González, Diana; Vives Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Andrés A. Agudelo Suárez; Davó Blanes, María del Carmen; Miralles Bueno, Juan José; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). Variables: perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated ...

  12. DISCRIMINATION OF EMOTIONAL STATES AMONGST THE TAMILS

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, O.

    1992-01-01

    Leff has concluded from his analysis of the JPSS Study that the emotions of anxiety, depression and irritability are poorly discriminated amongst the population using non-Indo-European languages. The present author after analyzing similar data from the ICMR Multicentred Collaborative Study of Factors Associated with the Course and outcome of Schizophrenia that the Tamil population using Tamil, a non-Indo-European language is able to discriminate these emotions as well as the brethren speaking...

  13. Disability discrimination in healthcare services and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher

    2015-09-30

    This article discusses the meaning and philosophical basis of disability discrimination in health care. It focuses on aspects of language that influence discourse about disability and affect the experiences of people with disabilities. Reference is made to the experiences of those who have an autism spectrum condition, with a specific focus on three NHS employees with Asperger syndrome, in relation to disability discrimination. The implications for nurses and nursing are discussed. Recommendations are made for awareness raising and training. PMID:26419169

  14. Employee-referral schemes and discrimination law

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, M

    2015-01-01

    Employee-referral schemes (‘introduce a friend’) are in common usage in recruitment. They carry a potential to discriminate by perpetuating an already unbalanced workforce (say, by gender and ethnicity). With this, or course, comes the risk of litigation and bad publicity as well as any inherent inefficiencies associated with discrimination. This article is threefold. First, it examines the present state of the law. Second, it is based on a survey of employers who use these schemes. Third, it...

  15. Price Discrimination in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years we have seen the emergence of low cost, "no frills" airlines competing directly with traditional carriers. This increase in competition coupled with the growing use of the internet has significantly increased price transparency within the airline industry. The primary aim of this study is to determine if and how price transparency has altered the way airlines price discriminate. The first part of this paper contains a general review of price discrimination with...

  16. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R.; Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way “space” perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcat...

  17. Discrimination learning with variable stimulus 'salience'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background In nature, sensory stimuli are organized in heterogeneous combinations. Salient items from these combinations 'stand-out' from their surroundings and determine what and how we learn. Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. Presentation of the hypothesis A rigorous formulation of the problem of discrimination learning should account for varying salience effects. We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment ...

  18. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  19. Discrimination makes me Sick! Establishing a relationship between discrimination and health

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Lordan; David Johnston

    2011-01-01

    The attitudes of the general British population towards Muslims changed post 2001, and this change led to a significant increase in Anti-Muslim discrimination. We use this exogenous attitude change to estimate the causal impact of increased discrimination on a range of objective and subjective health outcomes. The difference-in-differences estimates indicate that discrimination worsens blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, self-assessed general health, and some dimensions of mental health. Thus, ...

  20. Assignment Choice: Do Students Choose Briefer Assignments or Finishing What They Started?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; O'Neil, Michael; Conley, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Academic skill development requires engagement in effortful academic behaviors. Although students may be more likely to choose to engage in behaviors that require less effort, they also may be motivated to complete assignments that they have already begun. Seventh-grade students (N = 88) began a mathematics computation worksheet, but were stopped…

  1. Fuzzy Reasoning Methods by Choosing Different Fuzzy Counters and Analysis of Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were gave by choosing different fuzzy counters. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller,and compared and analysised the reasoning effect of fuzzy reasoning methods and the effect of computer simulating control basicly on different fuzzy counters.

  2. Two years and ~196 million later: where is Choose and Book?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rashid

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion In general, Choose and Book is still poorly perceived by doctors - particularly with respect to technical problems. There is still some support for the concept of electronic booking; however the patient choice element faces more resistance. Additional research is needed on this topic to further investigate the use of electronic systems in the health service.

  3. A Ray of Light: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Why Parents Choose Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarybnisky, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored why parents choose Montessori schools for their children. Parents from two public (n = 40) and two private (n = 10) Montessori schools responded to a written survey designed to discern what characteristics parents valued in making their decision. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and chi-square tests were used to understand the…

  4. Why and when do Danish medical doctors choose to become a general practitioner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowska, Karolina; Kjær, Niels Kristian; Lillevang, Gunver

    of study is to examine why and when Danish junior doctors choose family medicine as their future specialty. Method: We carried out two focus group interviews with medical doctors from two regions. An academic employee from the Danish College of Family Medicine mediated the interviews assisted by a family...

  5. Choosing a Hospital for Surgery: The Importance of Information on Quality of Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijs-Elsinga, J.; Otten, W.; Versluijs, M.; Smeets, H.J.; Kievit, J.; Vree, R.; Made, W.J. van der; Marang-Van De Mheen, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients use information on quality of care when choosing a hospital for surgery compared with more general hospital information. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in 3 Dutch hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 2122 patients who underwent 1 of 6 elective surgical

  6. Refined Method for Choosing a Security Solution for Mobile Application – Web Service Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Trif; Adrian Visoiu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a refined algorithm for choosing the appropriate security implementation for mobile applications connecting to web services. Common security scenarios are presented. Each scenario has several characteristics associated. The correlations between these security scenarios characteristics are computed and selected only the characteristics that are less correlated. The proposed algorithm inventories the available scenarios, inventories the requirements and selects the se...

  7. First-year dental students’ motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Avramova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine first-year dental students’ current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria. Material and methods. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students’ socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. Results. The majority of the students (73% were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% – for financial security; 59% – because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Conclusion. Independence, financial security and ‘prestige’ were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction.

  8. The application of the analytic hierarchy process when choosing layout schemes for a geokhod pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukhin, R. V.; Dronov, A. A.; Blashchuk, M. Y.

    2015-09-01

    The article describes one possibility of choosing layout schemes for geokhod systems which is the analytic hierarchy process. There is the essence of the method summarized therein. The usage of the method is considered for the analysis and the choice of layout schemes for a geokhod pumping station. Keywords: geokhod, analytic hierarchy process, pumping station, layout scheme.

  9. Developmental Profiles of Adolescents and Young Adults Choosing Abortion: Stage Sequence, Decalage, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Victoria; Sprinthall, Norman A.

    1992-01-01

    Administered Washington University Sentence Completion Test, Rest Defining Issues Test, and moral judgment interview of reasons for choosing abortion to unmarried females (ages 12-14, 17-19, 23-25). Found clear developmental differences between youngest and two older groups on ego development and principled moral reasoning; no major differences…

  10. Motivations to Choose Dentistry among Dental Students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ghanizadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important decisions in an individual’s life is to choose the field of study. Then, lots of money and time are spent in order to gain required skills and competencies of the job. According to previous studies, job changing is rarely possible for dentists which is due to the importance of field choice. The present study aimed at determining motivations to choose dentistry field among dental students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 245 questionnaires were distributed among all dental students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and finally 200 questionnaires (81% were returned. The questionnaire was made by the researcher and its reliability and validity were proved. Data was analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical methods and SPSS. Results: The students referred to appropriate occupational opportunity and social position as the most important reasons to choose the field while possible abroad job opportunities had the least effect in this regard. Income among males, family advice and serving society among females were the most important factors. Conclusion: Students reported social respect, occupational independency and serving society as the most important motivational factors to choose the field. Providing correct information, the opportunity can be used to promote dentists position in society and improve public attitude toward this field.

  11. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some whole-grain ingredients include whole oats, whole-wheat flour, whole-grain corn, whole-grain brown rice, and whole rye. ... in whole grains? People who can’t eat wheat gluten can eat whole grains if they choose carefully. There are many whole- ...

  12. Discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes using discriminant functions: Examples for Eurasia and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discriminant functions are extensively used as a technical tool in educational and psychological research as well as in some branches of geological sciences. The application of this technique to the problem of discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported. Here we apply this technique to a known population of underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes for the determination of various statistical parameters needed for setting up the discriminant function equations for discrimination between unknown population of earthquakes, anomalous events, and underground explosions, then we classify earthquakes, explosions and anomalous events in Eurasia and North America

  13. Toward a fractal spectrum approach for neutron and gamma pulse shape discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Zhe; Liu, Bing-Qi; Zuo, Zhuo; Wang, Lei; Zan, Gui-Bin; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Accurately selecting neutron signals and discriminating γ signals from a mixed radiation field is a key research issue in neutron detection. This paper proposes a fractal spectrum discrimination approach by means of different spectral characteristics of neutrons and γ rays. Figure of merit and average discriminant error ratio are used together to evaluate the discrimination effects. Different neutron and γ signals with various noise and pulse pile-up are simulated according to real data in the literature. The proposed approach is compared with the digital charge integration and pulse gradient methods. It is found that the fractal approach exhibits the best discrimination performance, followed by the digital charge integration method and the pulse gradient method, respectively. The fractal spectrum approach is not sensitive to high frequency noise and pulse pile-up. This means that the proposed approach has superior performance for effective and efficient anti-noise and high discrimination in neutron detection. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274109), Sichuan Youth Science and Technology Innovation Research Team (2015TD0020), Scientific and Technological Support Program of Sichuan Province (2013FZ0022), and the Creative Team Program of Chengdu University of Technology.

  14. Gamma discrimination in pillar structured thermal neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Q.; Radev, R. P.; Conway, A. M.; Voss, L. F.; Wang, T. F.; Nikolić, R. J.; Deo, N.; Cheung, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state thermal neutron detectors are desired to replace 3He tube based technology for the detection of special nuclear materials. 3He tubes have some issues with stability, sensitivity to microphonics and very recently, a shortage of 3He. There are numerous solid-state approaches being investigated that utilize various architectures and material combinations. By using the combination of high-aspect-ratio silicon PIN pillars, which are 2 μm wide with a 2 μm separation, arranged in a square matrix, and surrounded by 10B, the neutron converter material, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible. Besides intrinsic neutron detection efficiency, neutron to gamma discrimination is an important figure of merit for unambiguous signal identification. In this work, theoretical calculations and experimental measurements are conducted to determine the effect of structure design of pillar structured thermal neutron detectors including: intrinsic layer thickness, pillar height, substrate doping and incident gamma energy on neutron to gamma discrimination.

  15. Gamma discrimination in pillar structured thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Q; Radev, R P; Conway, A M; Voss, L F; Wang, T F; Nikolic, R J; Deo, N; Cheung, C L

    2012-03-26

    Solid-state thermal neutron detectors are desired to replace {sup 3}He tube based technology for the detection of special nuclear materials. {sup 3}He tubes have some issues with stability, sensitivity to microphonics and very recently, a shortage of {sup 3}He. There are numerous solid-state approaches being investigated that utilize various architectures and material combinations. By using the combination of high-aspect-ratio silicon PIN pillars, which are 2 {micro}m wide with a 2 {micro}m separation, arranged in a square matrix, and surrounded by {sup 10}B, the neutron converter material, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible. Besides intrinsic neutron detection efficiency, neutron to gamma discrimination is an important figure of merit for unambiguous signal identification. In this work, theoretical calculations and experimental measurements are conducted to determine the effect of structure design of pillar structured thermal neutron detectors including: intrinsic layer thickness, pillar height, substrate doping and incident gamma energy on neutron to gamma discrimination.

  16. Efficient method of choosing potential parents and hybrids: line X tester analysis of spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of wheat genotypes crossed in a line X tester fashion. The mean squares due to F/sub 1/ hybrids, female lines, male testers/pollinators and lines X tester interaction were significant for majority of the characters studied. The significance of GCA and SCA variances thus suggested that both additive and non-additive genes were controlling majority of the characters, yet additive genes were more prominent because variances due to GCA by and large were higher than due to SCA. Among the three female lines evaluated, Khirman displayed maximum positive GCA effects for spike length (0.08) and seeds/spike (0.67), while other female lines which showed maximum positive GCA effects were Mehran for plant height (3.05), number of tillers/plant (1.00), spikelets/spike (1.92) and seed index (3.42) and Kiran for seeds/spike (0.67) and yield/plant (1.86). From the male testers, TD-1 exhibited greater GCA effects for number of tillers/plant (2.96), spikelets/spike (0.25), seed index (0.61) and yield/plant (2.22), whereas, Marvi displayed highest positive GCA effects for plant height (2.88), spike length (0.37) and seeds/spike (6.41). The specific combining ability estimates indicated, if hybrid crop development is feasible then, crosses Mehran X TD-1 for spike length; Kiran X TD-1 for plant height and seeds/spike and Khirman x Marvi for number of tillers/plant, spikelets/spike, seed index and yield/plant may be the hybrids of choice. (author)

  17. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  18. The Comparison of Iranian and Foreign Students’ Motivations to Choose Dentistry Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. The students usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Iranian and Foreign student’s motivations to choose dentistry field of study. Materials and Methods We searched international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, Iranmedex using a searching strategy during 2000 to 2015 years. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Choose dentistry field" AND "Students". At first, in the initial search,152 articles were found, and finally, 51 of them which were related to the subject of this research were used. Results In general, the motivation of students to choose field of study in Iranain and Foreign students include the following:: an independent office or job independence, high economic income, appropriate social status,  job attractiveness of dentistry, appropriate job position, individual longing, help others, top rank of student in the university entrance exam, continue to study at specialized PhD in one of dentistry trends, successful marriage nd interest in the field of dentistry. Conclusion It seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates in Iran, the most important incentives of applicants who want to enter the dentistry discipline are high income and  particular social prestige at this major. Moreover, high income and independent job situations are the most important factors in Foreign students for choosing this filed of study in the overseas studies.

  19. Efficiency of pumping gasoline in service station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies a gasoline pumping system and evaluates the efficiency of pumping gasoline in service station. The primary motivation of the study is to determine how to improve the efficiency of pumping gasoline in service station. An experimental test rig is setup. After evaluating the efficiency of the pump under different conditions, it was found that the performance is quite different when pumping different medium, which is not match with the pump manufacturer's catalog. And it provides us a guidance to choose the operational parameters of pumps. A phenomenon has been observed which result of the appearance of the BEP (best efficiency point) and the proof needs more works.

  20. Discriminative k-means clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Arandjelovic, Ognjen

    2013-01-01

    The k-means algorithm is a partitional clustering method. Over 60 years old, it has been successfully used for a variety of problems. The popularity of k-means is in large part a consequence of its simplicity and efficiency. In this paper we are inspired by these appealing properties of k-means in the development of a clustering algorithm which accepts the notion of "positively" and "negatively" labelled data. The goal is to discover the cluster structure of both positive and negative data in...