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Sample records for chondromesenchymal hamartoma ct

  1. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  2. CT and MR Findings of Multiple Bile Duct Hamartomas%胆管错构瘤的CT、MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯廷越; 陈天忠; 唐建桥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDH) and analysis changes of lesions with concurrent infection before and after treatment on MRI and CT to improve understanding of the imaging findings of the disease.Methods This retrospective study reviewed CT and MR imaging findings of ten patients with multiple bile duct hamartomas in our hospital and compared the difference of imaging findings before and after therapy in those with infection.Results Non-contrasted enhanced CT images of multiple bile duct hamartomas showed scattered or diffuse low density lesions with no enhancement; T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) was sensitivity to detect cystic lesion with significantly higher signal. Diffuse liver disease could be well displayed by Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and all lesions were without intrahepatic biliary communication and have irregular borders when concurrent infection.Conclusion CT examination is limited in the diagnosis of biliary hamartomas, and conventional non-contrasted MRI and MRCP examinations have great value and show some advantages in the diagnosis of multiple bile duct hamartomas compared to CT, while we should pay more attention to the change of imaging findings of those with concurrent infection.%目的:总结胆管错构瘤的CT及MRI表现,对比分析并发感染病例病灶的治疗前后改变,以提高对该病影像检查及诊断的认识。方法回顾性研究我院诊治的10例胆管错构瘤患者的资料,分析胆管错构瘤病变的CT、MRI表现特点,对并发感染病例的治疗前后变化进行对比分析。结果胆管错构瘤的CT平扫表现为散在或弥漫性分布的低密度灶,增强扫描无强化;MRI平扫T2WI序列能敏感的显示呈明显高信号的囊性病变;MRCP立体的显示弥漫性病变,所有病变与肝内胆管树不相通;并发感染后病灶边界变模糊。结论单

  3. [Non-chondromatous hamartoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, T; Shimazaki, T; Shindo, G; Kitashiro, N; Tsukamoto, T

    2008-11-01

    A 69-year-old female visited our hospital because of dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed an abnormal shadow in the right lower lung field. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a round, well-circumscribed, homogenous subpleural nodle of 8 mm in diameter in the right lower lobe, which had no calcification and no pleural indentation. Bronchofiber scope, abdominal CT, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy could not establish definitive diagnosis. Scince the possibility of malignancy could not be excluded throughout, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed to obtain confirmed diagnosis. Pathological examination revealed non-chondromatous hamartoma of the lung. Non-chondromatous hamartoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodles. We report a rare case of non-chondromatous hamartoma.

  4. CT and MRI diagnosis of splenic hamartoma:report of 6 cases%脾脏错构瘤的CT及MRI诊断(附6例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 沈剑敏; 章华元; 盛亮; 李军苗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the CT and MRI characteristics of splenic hamartoma and, therefore to improve the recognition for this rare pathology. Methods We retrospectively investigated the imaging findings of six cases with pathology-proven splenic hamartomas. Four cases were performed CT and MRI simultaneously. Two cases were examined by CT and MRI, respectively. Results Five cases showed single lesion and one case showed multiple lesions within spleen. On pre-contrast CT examination, four cases demonstrated slightly low attenuation lesions while one case demonstrated isodensity lesion. One case showed hypointensity lesion on T1-weighted MRI while four cases showed isointensity lesions. On T2-weighted MRI, three cases demonstrated hypointensities while two case demonstrated isointensity and hy-perintensity, respectively. On dynamic post-contrast MRI, three cases showed slightly heterogeneous enhancement on early hepatic artery phase with gradually progressive enhancement with time delayed. Three cases showed marked heterogeneous contrast enhancement on hepatic artery phase with a persistent enhancement on portal venous phase and hepatic paren-chymal phase. On delayed phase images, all lesions presented isointensity or slightly hyperintensity relative to normal spleen parenchyma. Conclusion Splenic hamartoma showed somewhat characteristics on CT and MRI. T2-weighted MRI demonstrated a high diagnostic value for splenic hamartoma.%目的 探讨脾脏错构瘤(SH)的CT和MRI特征,以提高对这种罕见病变的认识.方法 搜集经手术病理证实的SH 6例,其中4例同时行CT和MRI检查,单独行CT或MRI检查的各1例,回顾性分析其CT和MRI表现及特点.结果 单发5例,多发1例.CT平扫呈稍低密度4例、等密度1例;MRI成像T1 WI呈低信号1例、等信号4例,T2 WI呈低信号3例、等或高信号各1例.动态增强扫描,表现为早期不均匀轻度强化并随着时间推移呈渐进性延迟强化和早期不均匀明显强化、静

  5. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis in Pulmonary hamartoma%肺错构瘤 HRCT 诊断及鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可珍; 林如山; 潘龙军; 李亚军

    2014-01-01

    Objective Type around the HRCT manifestations of pulmonary hamartoma , in order to improve the level of diag-nosis of the disease .Methods Last 14 years retrospective analysis confirmed by surgery and biopsy of peripheral pulmonary hamar -toma 23 cases of CT performance.Results Nine cases of right lung (for 3 cases of the upper lobe of right lung middle in 2 cases, 4 cases were characterized by lower lobe ), 14 cases had left lung (6 cases left upper lobe, left lower lobe 8 cases), 12 cases round, round 8 cases, shallow points Ye Zheng 3 cases, border and clear, no deep lobulated, burr and satellite lesions.1.0~5.4 cm in di-ameter, the average is about 2.6 cm in diameter, less than 3 cm17 cases.5 cases of lesions containing fat , 7 cases there are both fat and calcification;8 cases of lesions with calcification , typical popcorn "calcification in 3 cases;All 11 cases in 15 cases of calcified lesions located in the middle and lower lobe basal segment .3 cases of homogeneous soft tissue density with increase in mild to moderate strengthening , soft tissue density partial reinforcement degree about 5~16 HU.Conclusions HRCT can show pulmonary hamartoma characteristic calcification and fat density with help in the diagnosis of peripheral hamartoma lungs .Fat or there are both fat and calcifi-cation isolated pulmonary nodules or masses , can consider hamartoma;Instead of n/med tuberculosis good hair part containing calcium isolated pulmonary nodules , should think of hamartoma diagnosis .%目的:探讨周围型肺错构瘤的HRCT征象,以提高该病诊断水平。方法回顾性分析手术及病理证实的周围型肺错构瘤23例的CT表现。结果右肺9例(右肺上叶为3例,右肺中叶2例,右肺下叶4例),左肺14例(左肺上叶6例,左肺下叶8例),圆形12例,类圆形8例,浅分叶征3例,边界清楚,无深分叶、毛刺征和卫星病灶。直径1.0~5.4 cm,平均直径约2.6cm,<3cm 17例。5

  6. An Unexpected Cause of Hemoptysis: Endobronchial Lipomatous Hamartoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sarioglu, Nurhan; Susur, Alev; Goksel, Tuncay; Paksoy, Serpil; Erel, Fuat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hamartomas are the most common benign tumors of the lung. Endobnronchial hamartomas are even rarer and infrequently causes hemoptysis. We report a case of endobronchial hamartoma that was originating from a segment bronchus and invisible in chest X-ray. A 63-year-old man was admitted to hospital with hemoptysis. A CT scan revealed endobronchial mass obstructing anterior bronchus of the right lower lob of the right lung. It wasn’t radiographically presented. Flexible bronchoscopy dete...

  7. MRI of hypothalamic hamartomas in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, V.; Brunelle, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.; Lallemand, D.

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the MRI characteristics of hypothalamic hamartomas of which only one case has been reported to our knowledge. Radiological studies were normal X-ray studies of the skull and sella turcica and CT studies.

  8. Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Qin Zheng; Bo Zhang; Masatoshi Kudo; Hirokazu Onda; Tatsuo Inoue

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the imaging findings of biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complexes, VMCs) and discuss the differential diagnosis with other related diseases.METHODS: Imaging findings of biliary hamartomas on ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)and hepatobiliary scintigraphy were retrospectively analyzed in six patients.RESULTS: On ultrasound images, five of the six cases showed multiple small hyper- and hypo-echoic lesions with comet-tail echoes, especially when magnified by US with the usage of zoom function. In all the six cases,multiple tiny hypodense lesions less than 10 mm in diameter were revealed as scattered throughout the liver with no enhancement on CT. These tiny lesions were demonstrated to be hyper- and hypo-intensity on T2- and TI-weighed images, respectively, in three patients who underwent MRI examinations. MRCP was performed in two patients, and clearly showed multiple tiny irregular- and round-shaped hyper-intensity lesions.MRCP and hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed normal appearances of intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts in two and one patients, respectively.CONCLUSION: Imaging modalities are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of VMCs. A correct diagnosis might be obtained when typical imaging findings are present even without a histological confirmation.

  9. Predominant cartilaginous hamartoma: an unusual variant of chondromatous hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Amundson, Dennis; Lin, Mercury Y

    2010-02-01

    Chondromatous hamartomas are the most common benign lung tumors and the third most common pulmonary nodule. Histologically, they are characteristically composed of hyaline cartilage mixed with fibromyxoid stroma and adipose tissue surrounded by epithelial cells. We report the case of a healthy, 60-year-old woman with an incidentally discovered chondromatous hamartoma that was thorascopically excised. Her pulmonary hamartoma was predominantly cartilaginous, which only occurs in 1% of hamartomas.

  10. [Splenic hamartoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Medina, Carlos Alberto; Mier-Escurra, Erik Antonio; Treviño-Garza, Francisco; Ripa-Galván, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los hamartomas son tumores benignos mixtos muy raros, de crecimiento lento, que generalmente no provocan síntomas, por lo que es más frecuente encontrarlos como un incidentaloma en autopsias o laparotomías. La incidencia de los hamartomas del bazo es sólo de 0.001% entre la población general. Caso clínico: hombre de 39 años de edad, sin antecedentes relevantes, inició dos meses previos con pirosis y dolor ocasional en el hemiabdomen superior. En un ultrasonido de abdomen se observó una tumoración pseudoquística dependiente del bazo. La resonancia magnética reveló cuatro lesiones en el bazo, una de ellas de gran tamaño en el polo inferior, bilobulada, de 12 × 10 × 9 cm. Se realizó una esplenectomía. El paciente no sufrió complicaciones y fue dado de alta al tercer día. El reporte de patología indicó un hamartoma esplénico. Conclusiones: los hamartomas del bazo y otras localizaciones son lesiones benignas que se encuentran como incidelantomas. El diagnóstico se confirma por medio de estudio histopatólogico y su tratamiento es la esplenectomía, siendo la técnica preferida la transabdominal completa por vía laparoscópica. A pesar de que su baja incidencia en México, es de vital importancia que el médico lo considere como diagnóstico diferencial al evaluar una tumoración.

  11. Hamartoma Breast, Chondromatous Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an exceedingly rare case of hamartoma of breast with predominantly chondroid stroma. A 45 year old lady presented with a mobile lump in the upper outer quadrant of left breast, clinically diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Mammography and FNAC were not done. She underwent lumpectomy and we received the specimen measuring 7x5x3cm. Cut surface of which revealed grey white nodule with glistening surface. Histopathologically we found a circumscribed lesion with predominantly mature hyaline cartilage separated by fibrocollagenous bands.

  12. Surgical Treatment for Pulmonary Hamartomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ižncekara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we evaluated the patients operated for hamartoma and treated endobronchially and the diagnostic value of this approach has been examined. Material and Method: 59 patients (24 females, 35 males; mean age 53 years, range 28-78 years which were operated and endobronchial treated for hamartoma in our clinic between January 2003 - January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Patient age, sex, symptoms, histopathological, surgical procedures and treatment outcomes were evaluated. Results: The most common complaint was shortness of breath, while 25 patients were asymptomatic. Thoracotomy and mass enucleation in 29 patients (%49,15, thoracotomy and wedge resection in 18 patients (%30.5, VATS and wedge resection in 4 patients (%6.77, thoracotomy and upper lobectomy in 4 patients (%6.77, thoracotomy and lower lobectomy in 2 patients (%3.38 and left upper lobe segmentectomy in 1 patient (%1.69 and right upper bronchial sleeve resection in 1 patient were performed. The postoperative pathology of lesions examined and diagnosis were chondroid hamartoma in 28 , pulmonary hamartoma in 20 , hamartoma chondrolypomatous in 11 and the bronchial hamartoma in 2 . No mortality was observed intraoperatively. Discussion: Although hamartomas are benign , diagnosis should be made because it can be confused with lung cancer. Definitive diagnosis and treatment can be performed successfully through VATS in primarily appropriate cases with minimal morbidity or thoracotomy or endobronchial treatment.

  13. Cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Dosal, F L; Estrada, J A; Piérard, G E

    1991-04-01

    We report an unusual cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells characterized by the presence of intraepidermal cells resembling Toker's cells of the nipple. These cells were EMA positive and could be related to the histogenesis of some Paget's disease.

  14. Hamartoma cístico retrorretal Retrorectal cystic hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Winston de Liz Medeiros

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old woman was referred to our institution for a pelvic mass. She was asymptomatic and was found to have a mass on rectal examination. Magnetic resonance showed a large solid-cystic mass and the patient underwent complete surgical excision with pathologic findings suggesting retrorectal cyst-hamartoma. Tailgut cysts (or retrorectal cystic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions settled in the retrorectal (presacral space. They are made up of cysts lined by multiple types of epithelium, often predominantly mucin-secreting. The lesion requires complete surgical excision to prevent complications of recurrence, infection or carcinomatous degeneration.

  15. Gelastic epilepsy: Beyond hypothalamic hamartomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelastic epilepsy or laughing seizures have been historically related to children with hypothalamic hamartomas. We report three adult patients who had gelastic epilepsy, defined as the presence of seizures with a prominent laugh component, including brain imaging, surface/invasive electroencephalography, positron emission tomography, and medical/surgical outcomes. None of the patients had hamartoma or other hypothalamic lesion. Two patients were classified as having refractory epilepsy (one had biopsy-proven neurocysticercosis and the other one hippocampal sclerosis and temporal cortical dysplasia. The third patient had no lesion on MRI and had complete control with carbamazepine. Both lesional patients underwent resective surgery, one with complete seizure control and the other one with poor outcome. Although hypothalamic hamartomas should always be ruled out in patients with gelastic epilepsy, laughing seizures can also arise from frontal and temporal lobe foci, which can be surgically removed. In addition, we present the first case of gelastic epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.

  16. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PULMONARY HAMARTOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈烽; 佟凤山; 李泽坚

    1998-01-01

    From 1970 to 1997, 67 patients with pulmonary hemartocna were operated on in our hospital. There were 38 men and 29 women with a M/F ratio of 1.3 : 1. The mean age seas 47 years (range 21 to 82 years). The peak incidence was 40 to 60 years. 39% patients had pulmonary symptomst;hemoptysis,cough, phlegm and chest pain. All were solitary. 68. 7% tumors were located in right lung and 64.2% in upper or middle lobe. 80. 6% hemartomas were less than 3 cm in transverse diameter. On chest films, the opacity was homogeneous in 79.1% cases, heterogeneous in 20. 9% and calcifications in 9.0%. The vast majority of shadows were heterogeneous on CT films. Operation is the best treamumt for hamartomas.Postoperative mortality was 1.5% There was none recurrences and canceration during the follow-up (mean 14 years).

  17. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebler, C.; Ponsot, G.

    1983-05-01

    The hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, a midline dysraphic syndrome, corresponds to a mass of normal neuronal tissue implanted in the area of the mamillary bodies. It has no evolutionary potential, but association to other cerebral malformations has been observed. On the basis of 18 personal cases and a review of the literature, the authors evaluate the actual diagnostic criteria and the incidence of different clinical signs such as precocious isosexual puberty, seizures, and mental impairment.

  18. CHEST WALL HAMARTOMA : Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülden DİNİZ; Ortaç, Ragıp; Aktaş, Safiye; TEMİR, Günyüz; HOŞGÖR, Münevver; Karaca, İrfan

    2005-01-01

    A case of four-month – old girl diagnosed as chest wall hamartoma is presented. This entity is an extremely rare but characteristic lesion of the ribs usually presenting in the neonate or infant with a mass or respiratory symptoms. Complete sponraneous regression of the lesion has been reported. Recently conservative management of asymptomatic childiren was recommended. Although rare, this condition ought to be kept in mind while dealing with infantile chest wall masses to avoid an errone...

  19. CHEST WALL HAMARTOMA : Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülden DİNİZ; Ortaç, Ragıp; Aktaş, Safiye; HOŞGÖR, Günyüz TEMİR2Münevver; Karaca, İrfan

    2005-01-01

    A case of four-month – old girl diagnosed as chest wall hamartoma is presented. This entity is an extremely rare but characteristic lesion of the ribs usually presenting in the neonate or infant with a mass or respiratory symptoms. Complete sponraneous regression of the lesion has been reported. Recently conservative management of asymptomatic childiren was recommended. Although rare, this condition ought to be kept in mind while dealing with infantile chest wall masses to avoid...

  20. Schwann cell hamartoma: case report

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    Bulfamante Gaetano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal polyps of mesenchymal origin represent a small percentage of gastrointestinal (GI lesions. Nevertheless, they are encountered with increasing frequency since the widespread adoption of colonoscopy screening. Case presentation We report a case of a small colonic polyp that presented as intramucosal diffuse spindle cell proliferation with a benign cytological appearance, strong and diffuse immunoreactivity for S-100 protein, and pure Schwann cell phenotype. Careful morphological, immunohistochemical and clinical evaluation emphasize the differences from other stromal colonic lesions and distinguish it from schwannoma, a circumscribed benign nerve sheath tumor that rarely arises in the GI tract. Conclusion As recently proposed, this lesion was finally described as mucosal Schwann cell hamartoma.

  1. Fat-Containing Giant Hamartoma of the Stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Soo [Anam Hospital, University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Han [Ansan Hospital, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Gastric hamartoma is considered to be a rare disease entity, usually associated with polyposis syndrome. We report a case of unique and distinguishable fat containing unusually large gastric hamartoma and gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had no history of polyposis syndrome.

  2. Hamartoma: Diagnostic Procedure of Unspecific Clinical Appearance in the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ronal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hamartoma is a benign tumor-like lesion composed of overgrowth of mature cells and tissues. Along with its unspecific appearance, it may occur in the oral cavity and bear resemblance to the other lesions. In this report we describes the clini-cal appearance of hamartoma as well as the diagnosis method in the case of a 37-year-old-man. The patient explained that he already has redness plaque lesion on his skin left cheek region since he was born. The lesion was sensed to grow and discomfort at the age of 22. A surgical therapy had been performed to reduce the size of lesion one year after, but the red-ness plaque still existed. Thirteen years following the operation, white lesion appeared on the inner left cheek 10 x 8.5 x 6 cm of size and extended onto lower lips within half a year. Diagnostic procedure was carried out such as biopsy, CT-scan and radiography with neuroma as an initial conclusion. New histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hamartoma. It is concluded that adequate and appropriate biopsy procedure along with sufficient clinical information are needed to develop a proper diagnosis to distinguish hamartoma from other oral lesions.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.38

  3. Paravertebral vascular hamartoma - radiological findings; Hamartoma vascular paravertebral - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Cristina Soares dos; Dinoa, Vanessa de Albuquerque; Borges, Aurea Valeria Rosa Mohana; Teixeira, Sonia [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Monteiro, Elio [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia

    1997-01-01

    Hamartomas are benign tumours that can occur in different organs and tissues. They consist of an abnormal increase of cells and tissues common to the organ from which they arise. When they occur in lymphatic and blood vessels they are called vascular hamartomas. These tumours are frequent in the central nervous system, giving rise to hemorrhages. The authors report a case of vascular hamartoma in the right paravertebral gutter with an intradural component that caused a spinal cord compression and paraplegia. A malignant lesion was suggested based on the clinical and radiological findings. (author) 14 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Dynamic computed tomography findings of atypical pulmonary hamartoma and it's pathologic correlations: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Baek; Jeong Yeon Joo Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Yeong Dae; Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Ah Rong; Lee, Ji Won [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    We present the dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) findings of atypical pulmonary hamartoma with a rare histologic pattern in a 20-year-old male. CT showed a 3.4 cm lobulated mass with a 'tip of the iceberg' appearance in the medium bronchus of the right lower lobe. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a heterogeneously and persistently enhancing mass. The CT Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements were: 17 HU pre-contrast, 32 HU at 1 minute, 44 HU at 2 minutes, 51 HU at 4 minutes, and 64 HU at 15 minutes. Pathologic examination after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery disclosed a pulmonary hamartoma with a predominant fibroblastic component.

  5. Evolution of Gelastic Epilepsy with Hypothalamic Hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The patterns of clinical presentation, evolution of the epilepsy, and electoclinical diagnostic features of hypothalamic hamartoma (HH in 19 patients (8 children and 11 adults, seen between 1991 and 2001, were evaluated at Kings College Hospital and the Institute of Epileptology, London, UK.

  6. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma: pathognomonic on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marom, E.M.; Helms, C.A. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Purpose. To assess the MR imaging characteristics, presenting symptoms, age and nerve distribution of fibrolipomatous hamartoma. Design. A computer search was performed of the term fibrolipomatous hamartoma through the musculoskeletal section MR imaging results at our institution from June 7, 1996 to January 21, 1998 followed by a search of the terms lipomatous hamartoma, median nerve, surrounding fat, increased fatty signal, coaxial, and neuroma. MR images and medical files were retrospectively reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists for imaging characteristics, nerve and age distribution as well as for history of trauma. In addition three consultation cases from outside institutions were added for determination of image characteristics. Results. Ten fibrolipomatous hamartomas were identified: eight in the median nerve, one in the ulnar nerve and one in the sciatic nerve. Mean age was 32.3 years (range 4-75 years, SD 21 years). Imaging characteristics were serpiginous low-intensity structures representing thickened nerve fascicles, surrounded by evenly distributed fat, high signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences and low signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. The amount of fat varied; however, distribution in eight cases (80%) was predominantly between nerve fibers rather than surrounding them peripherally. All had a coaxial-cable-like appearance on axial planes and a spaghetti-like appearance on coronal planes that was not seen in any other type of median nerve abnormality imaged during the study period. Conclusion. The MR imaging characteristics of fibrolipomatous hamartoma are pathognomonic, obviating the need for biopsy for diagnosis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  7. Cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beom Jin Park; Min Ju Kim; Jeong Hyeon Lee; Sung-Soo Park; Deuk Jae Sung; Sung Bum Cho

    2009-01-01

    Cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum is exceedingly rare, although microscopic examination may sometimes reveal a Brunner's gland hamartoma containing dilated ducts in the duodenum. We present a case of large cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum with a long stalk, which is described in light of multidetector-row computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and a modified small bowel series, together with pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis.

  8. Congenital fibrous hamartoma of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioni, Cesare; Bellini, Carlo; Risso, Francesco Maria; Scopesi, Fabio; Serra, Giovanni [University of Genoa, Neonatal Pathology Service, Department of Paediatrics, Institute G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Oddone, Mauro; Toma, Paolo [Institute G. Gaslini, Radiology Service, Genoa (Italy); Nozza, Paolo [Institute G. Gaslini, U. O. di Anatomia Patologica, Genoa (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    A full-term male infant presented at birth with a hard swelling of the left knee. The lemon-sized lesion was fixed to the underlying knee muscles, while the overlying skin was stretched and shiny; there was no bruit. Radiography, sonography and MRI suggested a soft-tissue tumour. After surgical excision, histology showed the presence of fibrous and mesenchymal tissue, with mature adipose tissue. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy was diagnosed. Among soft-tissue tumours, fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a rare and benign lesion, occurring in the first 2 years of life. The tumour mainly affects the trunk, axilla, and upper extremities. This infant had unique involvement of the knee. The treatment of choice is local excision. (orig.)

  9. [Chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Olga Lucía; Valencia, María de la Luz; Gómez, Carolina; Pérez, María del Pilar; Sanín, Emilio; Vásquez, Luz Marina

    2010-01-01

    Chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma is an extremely rare benign tumor. Approximately 80 cases have been reported in the literature. Most tumors are manifested at birth with a painless palpable mass of the chest wall, usually unilateral. Respiratory symptoms result from extrinsic compression of the pulmonary parenchyma, and the severity of the symptoms will depend on the size and location of the lesion. Imaging features are characteristic, but definitive diagnosis is histological. Herein, a case is described of a four month old infant with diagnosis of chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma, manifested at birth. Different treatment options are described, including expectations from tumor management, the possibility of spontaneous regression, and the morbidity associated with the surgical option.

  10. [Cowden's disease or the multiple hamartoma syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickx, B; Sigal, M; Pastel, A; Vissuzaine, C; Grossin, M; Maurer, F; Morinière, B; Belaich, S

    1984-06-01

    Cowden's disease, also called multiple hamartoma syndrome, is a clinical entity characterized by hamartomatous tumours of endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal origin. Although extremely rare, the disease must be known to all internists. A case of Cowden's disease in a 36-year old male patient is reported. The authors insist on the high incidence of digestive disorders and the risk of malignant degeneration of mammary and thyroid tumours. They also describe the cutaneous and mucosal lesions characteristic of the disease.

  11. Atypical Presentation of Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of Superficial Peroneal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinsa, Baljinder Singh; Lidder, Surjit; Abbasian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare presentation in the foot. An accurate diagnosis is key, with magnetic resonance imaging findings considered definitive. The management is dependent on the symptoms. We present an atypical presentation of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the superficial peroneal nerve and discuss the current published data.

  12. Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: Late onset facial presentation

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    Chinmay Halder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH is a very rare benign neoplastic condition characterized by hamartomatous proliferation of eccrine glands and accompanying blood vessels and lymphatics. These lesions are more often present at birth or appear during early infancy and childhood and present as solitary nodule or plaque with occasional pain and sweating. They are generally present on the extremities, mostly the palms and soles. We report here a case of EAH in a 20-year-old female who presented with a solitary angiomatous plaque close to the lower eyelid of the right eye with occasional pain and sweating for its rarity.

  13. Mesenchymal hamartoma: prenatal diagnosis by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Leysia [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada); Howse, Erica; Ryan, Greg [University of Toronto, Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    The clinical presentation of thoracic mesenchymal hamartomas varies from an asymptomatic chest wall mass to severe respiratory distress resulting from compression of the airways and lungs. We present the findings on fetal US and MRI of a histologically confirmed case. Following surgical resection, pathological examination corresponded to the cross-sectional imaging features with haemorrhagic, cystic and calcified components. An awareness of the characteristic imaging findings will allow accurate diagnosis of this condition, even prenatally, and thus facilitate appropriate perinatal management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  14. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with hepatic and pulmonary hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortoledo, Maria; Galindo, A; Ibarrola, C

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a 31-week stillborn female infant with placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) in association with hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma (HMH) and pulmonary hamartoma. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia was initially misdiagnosed as a partial mole. However, histologically, no trophoblastic proliferation or inclusions were observed. Differential diagnosis of the hepatic mass with similar tumors is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung hamartoma reported in a fetus and the first case related to PMD and HMH. A common anomalous development of the mesoderm, a reparative post-injury process and a genetic mechanism, have been proposed to explain their pathogenesis.

  15. Hamartoma de músculo liso

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    Cassiano Tamura Vieira Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O hamartoma de músculo liso (HML é uma malformação cutânea benigna e pouco frequente, caracterizada pela proliferação de fibras de músculo liso na derme, podendo ser congênito ou adquirido. Quanto a morfologia, descreve-se como placa de consistência firme ou elástica com elevações papulares, de coloração variada. A histopatologia se caracteriza por presença de múltiplas fibras musculares lisas, bem diferenciadas que seguem diferentes direções, dispostas aleatoriamente na derme superficial ou profunda. A intervenção terapêutica não é necessária, sendo indicada para melhora estética. Objetivo: Relatar um caso de hamartoma de músculo liso em paciente atendida no Ambulatório de Dermatologia do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba. Metodologia: Avaliação clínica da paciente em questão, revisão de prontuário e de literatura relacionada ao tema exposto. Relato de caso: L.S.P., 50 anos, sexo feminino, branca, apresenta múltiplas pápulas acastanhadas, pruriginosas, bem delimitadas em região abdominal e dorsal à direita, há aproximadamente 5 anos, que aumentaram em tamanho e número. Realizada biópsia de lesão, cujo exame histopatológico demonstrou presença de feixes de musculatura lisa na derme reticular distribuídas ao acaso e entremeadas por colágeno, sugestivo de hamartoma de músculo liso. Realizado tratamento com crioterapia nas lesões, com melhora na aparência das mesmas, sendo que a paciente permanece em acompanhamento no ambulatório de Dermatologia. Conclusão: O HML apresenta características clínicas e histopatológicas que permitem a diferenciação em relação a outras dermatoses. Como há boa evolução clínica, não se associar com manifestações sistêmicas e não ter potencial de malignização não é necessária intervenção terapêutica.

  16. A Comparative Study of Oral Hamartoma and Choristoma

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    Ilana Kaplan

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Differentiating choristoma from hamartoma depends to a great extent on the recognition of the normal tissues expected at every individual location. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(4.000: 129-134

  17. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  18. Bilateral Multifocal Hamartoma of the Chest Wall in an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Erdem; Erol, Oguz Bulent; Pekcan, Melih; Gundogdu, Gokcen; Bilgic, Bilge; Gun, Feryal; Yekeler, Ensar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hamartoma of the thoracic wall is a rare benign tumor that occurs in infancy and can be mistaken for a malignancy due to its clinical and imaging features. Hamartomas are extrapleural soft tissue lesions that cause rib expansion and destruction and appear on imaging as cystic areas with fluid levels and calcification. They can cause scoliosis, pressure on the neighboring lung parenchyma and mediastinal displacement. While conservative treatment is recommended in asymptomati...

  19. Mucosal Schwann cell "Hamartoma": A new entity?

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    Paola Pasquini; Andrea Baiocchini; Laura Falasca; Dante Annibali; Guido Gimbo; Francesco Pace; Franca Del Nonno

    2009-01-01

    Schwannoma is a well-described, benign nerve sheath tumor of the soft tissue, but is rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal schwannomas are often incidentally discovered as small polypoid intraluminal lesions. In this report, we describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a distinctive neural mucosal polyp composed of a diffuse cellular proliferation of uniform bland spindled cells in the lamina propria that entraps the colonic crypts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong and diffuse positivity for the S-100 protein. To avoid confusion of these solitary colorectal polyps containing pure spindled Schwann cell proliferation in the lamina propria with neural lesions that have significant association with inherited syndromes, it is better to use the designation "mucosal Schwann hamartoma".

  20. Cutaneous changes in fibrous hamartoma of infancy

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    Pilar F-Eire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few published case of fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI have commented on the changes in the overlying skin. There are descriptions of individual cases with cutaneous hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis and hyperhidrosis. It is interesting to describe our case because, to our knowledge, the altered pigmentation of the overlying skin, with hairs on the surface, and eccrine gland hyperplasia combined with abortive hair follicles has not been reported together in association with the FHI. We recommend that all the biopsies must be excisional including overlying skin, thus the epidermal and dermal adnexal changes can be assessed in the microscopic evaluation which could have relevant implications from clinical and embryological point of view.

  1. Hamartoma angiomatoso écrino: um tumor doloroso Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a painful tumor

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    Michelle Larissa Zini Lise

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O hamartoma angiomatoso écrino (HAE é lesão benigna, em geral, congênita. Apresenta-se na maioria dos casos como nódulo ou placa cor da pele ou eritematosa associada ou não à hiperidrose focal e dor. Localiza-se preferencialmente nos membros inferiores, próximo aos joelhos ou nos artelhos, mas lesões na face, região cervical, sacra e tronco foram descritas. O principal diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com o tumor glômico. Em geral, o HAE tem evolução benigna, havendo relatos de remissão espontânea da dor, sem necessidade de remoção. Contudo, foram descritos casos em que a dor levou à exérese da lesão e mesmo à amputação do membro afetado. Os autores relatam um caso de hamartoma angiomatoso écrino de aparecimento tardio, com sintomatologia exuberante e de difícil tratamento.Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH is a benign lesion usually present at birth. In most cases it presents as a flesh-colored or erythematous nodule or patch. It may or may not be associated with focal hyperhydrosis and pain. It is most commonly located in the lower extremities, near the knee or on the toes, but lesions on the face, sacral and cervical region and trunk have been described. The main differential diagnosis should be made with a glomus tumor. In general, EAH shows benign behavior, and spontaneous remission of pain has been described. Cases have been reported in which the pain led to excision and even to amputation of the affected member. The authors present a case of late onset EAH, with exuberant symptoms, which was difficult to treat.

  2. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy.

  3. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  4. Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso de nervo mediano: relato de caso Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: case report

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    Paulo José Lorenzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O hamartoma fibrolipomatoso é neoplasia benigna rara que em alguns casos esta associada com macrodactilia. Descrevemos o caso de homem de 31 anos que apresentava desde o nascimento aumento de volume em região de punho, segundo e terceiro quirodáctilos da mão esquerda. Aos 23 anos iniciou dor contínua, de forte intensidade, predominante no período noturno e de evolução progressiva em mão esquerda. Associada à dor havia hipoestesia e parestesias de predomínio nos segundo e terceiro quirodáctilos esquerdos. A investigação complementar com radiografia, ultrassonografia, estudo eletrofisiológico e ressonância magnética de mão e punho esquerdos confirmaram a suspeita de síndrome do túnel do carpo secundária a macrodactilia com hamartoma fibrolipomatoso do nervo mediano. O paciente foi submetido à descompressão cirúrgica do túnel do carpo esquerdo devido a ausência de resposta ao tratamento clínico e evoluiu com melhora dos sintomas em avaliação após três meses do procedimento.Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare benign neoplasm that in some cases is associated with macrodactylia. We describe a 31-years-old man who had a tissue enlargement in the wrist, second and third fingers of the left hand since infancy. At 23-years-old he began with continuous, progressive and high intensity pain that occurred more frequently at night, localized in the left hand. It was associated with paraesthesias and hypostesias predominantly at the fingers described above. Investigation with X-ray, ultrasonography, electrodiagnosis, magnetic resonance image of the left wrist and hand showed carpal tunnel syndrome with macrodactylia by fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve. The patient did not a have good response to clinical therapy, so he was submitted to a surgical decompression of the left carpal tunnel, and after three months of follow up is asymptomatic.

  5. Giant endobronchial hamartoma resected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy electrosurgical snaring

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    Cavallari Vittorio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Less than 1% of lung neoplasms are represented by benign tumors. Among these, hamartomas are the most common with an incidence between 0.025% and 0.32%. In relation to the localization, hamartomas are divided into intraparenchymal and endobronchial. Clinical manifestation of an endobronchial hamartoma (EH results from tracheobronchial obstruction or bleeding. Usually, EH localizes in large diameter bronchus. Endoscopic removal is usually recommended. Bronchotomy or parenchimal resection through thoracotomy should be reserved only for cases where the hamatoma cannot be approached through endoscopy, or when irreversible lung functional impairment occurred after prolonged airflow obstruction. Generally, when endoscopic approach is used, this is through rigid bronchoscopy, laser photocoagulation or mechanical resection. Here we present a giant EH occasionally diagnosed and treated by fiberoptic bronchoscopy electrosurgical snaring.

  6. Brunner gland hamartoma masquerading as malignancy; a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rajeev; Gupta, Veena; Sharma, Nisha; Chawla, Nitika; Kumar, Sanjay; Malik, Shivani

    2014-10-01

    Brunner's gland hamartoma is a rare benign tumour of the duodenum. It was first described by Cruveilhier in 1835. Presently around 200 cases have been reported in literature. No sex predilection is seen. Patients usually present in the fifth to sixth decades of life. They may be clinically silent or may present with variable symptoms and occasionally obstructive symptoms and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic presentation can be nodular, polypoid or diffuse glandular proliferation with thickening of duodenal wall and hence can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. We describe a case of duodenal tumor reported outside (on biopsy) as well differentiated adenocarcinoma which out as Brunner gland hamartoma upon complete resection. Brunner gland hamartoma may sometimes have a very unusual presentation. Extensive pre-operative evaluation is necessity to avoid radical surgical procedure.

  7. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Mlika, M; Chaabouni, S; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F

    2007-12-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a very rare, benign tumour with distinct clinical, radiological and histopathologic characteristics. The lesion develops during foetal life, and is present at or shortly after birth with an extrapleural mass arising from the rib cage with or without respiratory distress and marked rib deformity. Several imaging techniques have been used for diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis is established only by histopathological examination. Such lesions are composed of a varying admixture of hyaline cartilage that has features resembling growth plate cartilage, along with fascicles of spindle cells, woven bone and hemorrhagic cysts. Accurate diagnosis of mesenchymal hamartoma is important since many chest wall masses in children are malignant. We report a case of mesenchymal hamartoma of the left posterior chest wall surgically resected in an infant who was found to have a palpable mass at birth. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well, with no evidence of recurrence.

  8. [Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an elderly man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunippero, Alejandro; Maya, Antonio M; Gallo, Antonio; Bazzana, María S; Cosentino, Valeria; Aulet, Francisco J

    2009-01-01

    The mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver is a non frequent benign tumor with a ductal plate malformation, consisting of myxoid mesenchymal tissue and abnormal bile ducts in different proportion. Usually it presents as multiple liver cyst formations without communication with the principal bile duct. They are frequent in children, being rare in adults. The first case was reported by Yamamura et al in 1976, and very few cases are reported in the bibliography. We present the case of an elder 87 year old male who presented a 20 cm mesenchymal hamartoma liver cyst.

  9. Large mammary hamartoma with focal invasive ductal carcinoma

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    Pervatikar Suneet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary hamartomas are uncommon benign lesions rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of a 25-year-old female patient presenting with a lump in the left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of invasive ductal carcinoma along with normal benign glands that were mistaken for normal breast tissue. However, the mastectomy specimen revealed the malignant mass within a larger hamartomatous mass. Mammary hamartomas are benign lesions but, on exceedingly rare occasions, they may be involved by incidental, coexisting carcinoma, as illustrated in this case report.

  10. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: prenatal sonographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Jeong ha; Kim, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Ji Young; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare, benign lesion that arises from one or more ribs, almost exclusively found in infants. Some cases that developed in the fetal period have been reported, but accurate diagnosis was usually possible only after birth, except in a few cases in which fetal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were performed. We present a case of a congenital mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed until birth, the prenatal sonographic examination showed strongly suggestive findings. We review the published reports on this condition, and suggest the prenatal sonographic features. Prenatal sonography is valuable in the differential diagnosis of chest mass.

  11. Bilateral hamartoma of tonsils bearing ectopic teeth: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Debasis; Majumdar, Pallab Kumar; Majumdar, Swapan Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic teeth presenting in bath the tonsils with hatnartomatous lesion has not been reported earlier. We present here a case of benign hamartoma of both the tonsils bearing 7 teeth in a 13 year old girl and also discuss about unusual Ectopic sites of tooth eruption as well as benign lesions of tonsil.

  12. Hamartoma mesenquimatoso hepático en un anciano Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an elderly man

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    Alejandro Giunippero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El hamartoma mesenquimatoso hepático es un tumor benigno poco frecuente, formado por alteraciones de la placa hiliar y compuesto por tejidos mixomatoso, mesenquimático y conductos biliares anormales en proporciones variables. Habitualmente son formaciones hepáticas múltiples, quísticas y sin comunicación con la vía biliar. Es más frecuente en niños, es raro en adultos. El primer caso fue publicado por Yamamura et al en 1976, y se encuentran pocos en la bibliografía. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 87 años con un hamartoma hepático quístico de 20 cm.The mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver is a non frequent benign tumor with a ductal plate malformation, consisting of myxoid mesenchymal tissue and abnormal bile ducts in different proportion. Usually it presents as multiple liver cyst formations without communication with the principal bile duct. They are frequent in children, being rare in adults. The first case was reported by Yamamura et al in 1976, and very few cases are reported in the bibliography. We present the case of an elder 87 year old male who presented a 20 cm mesenchymal hamartoma liver cyst.

  13. Hypothalamic dysfunction without hamartomas causing gelastic seizures in optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Cassandra; Borchert, Mark; Simon, Carrie Zaslow; Saper, Clifford

    2015-02-01

    This report describes gelastic seizures in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia and hypothalamic dysfunction without hypothalamic hamartoma. All participants (n = 4) from the optic nerve hypoplasia registry study at Children's Hospital Los Angeles presenting with gelastic seizures were included. The clinical and pathology characteristics include hypothalamic dysgenesis and dysfunction, but no hamartomas. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the only reported condition with gelastic seizures without hypothalamic hamartomas, suggesting that hypothalamic disorganization alone can cause gelastic seizures.

  14. Hamartoma mamario gigante: dos casos de una entidad rara

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    T.A. Gomes-Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El hamartoma gigante de la mama es una entidad clínico-patológica inusual que tiende a confundirse con otros tumores. A pesar del avance en las técnicas diagnósticas, su diagnóstico clínico es difícil y normalmente solo se confirma cuando se analiza toda la pieza de resección. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir entidades como el fibroadenoma, lipoma, tumor phyllodes y diversos tipos de carcinomas. Presentamos 2 casos de hamartoma gigante de mama en mujeres de edad media, de los cuales uno fue tratado mediante mastectomía conservadora de complejo pezónareola y reconstrucción con prótesis y el otro con biopsia escisional y remodelación con patrón de pexia mamaria.

  15. Pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with nontuberculous mycobacterial infection: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Moon, Jin Chang; Gang, Su Jin; Park, Seung Yong; Kim, So Ri

    2015-04-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) can be manifested in a variety of disorders including neoplasms, infection, inflammation, and vascular or congenital abnormalities. In addition, they are often accompanied with other pulmonary pathologic lesions such as consolidations and several pulmonary disorders present as similar pulmonary nodular lesions simultaneously. Diagnostic workup is important for these SPNs; however, many physicians often miss the second diagnosis for multiple pulmonary lesions with SPNs due to lack of clinical suspicion that each pulmonary nodule or pathologic lesion can have each other's diagnosis. Herein, we report 2 cases of coexistence of pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection presenting as pulmonary nodules and multiple consolidative lesions. A 60-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of multifocal pulmonary lesions including SPN with chronic exertional dyspnea. Multiple lung tissues were obtained from each lesion through percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB). At the same time, bacteriologic examination was performed using respiratory samples obtained by bronchoscopy. Based on pathologic and microbiologic results, the patient diagnosed as pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with pulmonary NTM infectious disease. In addition, a 56-year-old woman visited for the evaluation of a small SPN. The SPN was resected surgically for the pathologic examination and turned out to be pulmonary chondroid hamartoma. Interestingly, the diagnostic workup revealed that the patient had Lady Windermere syndrome which is one of features for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease. Both patients were treated with the standard antibiotics against MAC as recommended by the ATS/IDSA guideline. This is the first report of 2 patients, as far as we know, that chondroid hamartoma and NTM disease develop simultaneously in the lung. This report emphasizes that physicians should endeavor to confirm the individual

  16. Small Bowel Hamartoma: A Huge Diverticulum of Small Bowel

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    Hamdi Ebdewi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-20-year old male, with no significant medical history, presented with clinical features mimicking a perforated acute appendicitis. Because of features of peritonitis, a laparotomy was performed which showed a segment of small bowel with multiple large diverticula and mesenteric cysts. A segmental small bowel resection was performed. The patient made an uneventful recovery from surgery. Histology revealed features of a small bowel hamartoma.

  17. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, L Evelyn; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Vera, Ana M; Rubio, Rosa Isela; Mayorquín-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle hamartoma is defined as a disorganized focus or an overgrowth of mature smooth muscle, generally with low capacity of autonomous growth and benign behavior. The implicated tissues are mature and proliferate in a disorganized fashion. A healthy 5-day-old Mexican boy was referred to the authors' hospital in México city for evaluation of a "cystic" lesion of the right eye that had been noted since birth. The pregnancy and delivery were unremarkable. On physical examination, there was a reddish-pink soft lesion with a tender "cystic" appearance, which was probably emerging from the upper eyelid conjunctiva, which measured 2.7 cm in its widest diameter and transilluminated. Ultrasound imaging revealed an anterior "cystic" lesion with normally formed phakic eye. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesion was dissected from the upper tarsal subconjunctival space. Subsequent histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma (CSMH) of the tarsal conjunctiva. The authors' research revealed that only one case of CSMH localized in the conjunctiva (Roper GJ, Smith MS, Lueder GT. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the conjunctival fornix. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:643-4) has been reported to date in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this current case would be the second case reported of CSMH in this anatomic location. Therefore, the authors' recommendation is to include CSMH in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass that presents in the fornix and palpebral conjunctiva.

  18. Parenchimatous lung hamartoma in 42-year-old woman Hamartoma pulmonar parenquimatoso en mujer de 42 años

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    Caridad Socorro Castro

    Full Text Available The pulmonary hamartoma, described in 1904, is presented as a mass of 3 cm of diameter and endobronchial or parenchymatous location. The lesion is registered in men two or three times more than in women, and is diagnosed generally over 60 years of age, always casually or appears in necropsies. A non frequent case of this disease is reported in a 42 year old woman. The macro-microscopic frame of the studied biopsic specimen is described, as well as its clinical conditions.

    El hamartoma pulmonar, descrito en 1904, se presenta como masa de hasta 3 cm de diámetro con ubicación endobronquial o parenquimatosa. La lesión se registra en hombres 2 a 4 veces más que en mujeres y se diagnostica por lo general sobre los 60 años de edad, siempre de forma casual o aparece como hallazgo en las necropsias. Se reporta un caso poco frecuente de hamartoma pulmonar parenquimatoso en una mujer de 42 años de edad. Se describe el cuadro macro-microscópico del espécimen biópsico estudiado, así como sus condicionales clínicas.

  19. Adult Mesenchymal Hamartoma of the Liver: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Klaassen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL is a rare benign lesion occurring primarily in the pediatric population. While the precise pathogenesis of the tumor is not certain, the most common theory relates to aberrant mesenchyme development in the portal tract likely related to the bile ducts. A 53-year-old female was evaluated for an incidental liver mass. Initial CT scan showed a cystic lesion in the right lobe of the liver and follow-up imaging revealed an increase in size and the percent solid component within the mass. In view of these changes, a nondiagnostic biopsy was obtained followed by extirpation of the lesion. Gross pathological review of the lesion identified a 9 × 9 × 7.5 cm, pink-yellow-tan, gelatinous mass, with a >1 cm clear surgical margin. Histologically, the mass consisted of benign dilated bile ducts, as well as myxoid stroma with spindle cells showing smooth muscle differentiation. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day five. A review of the literature for MHL in adults reports 30 previous cases, predominantly published as individual case reports describing the size, lobe(s of the liver affected, and the cystic/solid nature of the tumor. MHL in adults may represent a potentially premalignant lesion, as the emerging literature supports a potential relationship between MHL and malignant undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma in regards to cytogenetic analysis. Aggressive surgical management of MHL in adults is mandated when feasible.

  20. Bifid scrotum, perineal hamartoma and high imperforate anus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, D H; Ortiz, V N; Iturregui, J R; Suarez, G; Duran, N

    1998-01-01

    This is a case report of a newborn patient with imperforate anus, urethro-colonic fistula, perianal hamartoma, and bifid scrotum. Successful staged repair of these anomalies is described together with review of the embriology related to the case.

  1. Bile duct hamartomas (von Mayenburg complexes) mimicking liver metastases from bile duct cancer: MRC findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiko Nagano; Kenichi Matsuo; Katsuya Gorai; Kazuya Sugimori; Chikara Kunisaki; Hideyuki Ike; Katsuaki Tanaka; Toshio Imada; Hiroshi Shimada

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old man with a common bile duct cancer, who was initially believed to have multiple liver metastases based on computed tomography findings, and in whom magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) revealed a diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. At exploration for pancreaticoduodenectomy, liver palpation revealed disseminated nodules at the surface of the liver. These nodules showed gray-white nodular lesions of about 0.5cm in diameter scattered on the surface of both liver lobes, which were looked like multiple liver metastases from bile duct cancer. Frozen section of the liver biopsy disclosed multiple bile ducts with slightly dilated lumens embedded in the collagenous stroma characteristics of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDHs). Only two reports have described the MRC features of bile duct hamartomas. Of all imaging procedures, MRC provides the most relevant features for the imaging diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas.

  2. Bilateral mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall in an infant boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Kelly, David; Siegal, Gene P

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma is an extremely rare tumor striking neonates and infants. Histologically, the tumor is composed of islands of hyaline cartilage intermixed with mesenchymal-like stroma and hemorrhagic cysts. We present a case of a congenital bilateral mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma (MCWH) in an infant boy. This extremely rare benign entity may be misdiagnosed as malignant tumor and shares features with another tumor of childhood-fibrocartilagenous mesenchymoma of bone.

  3. Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome with Characteristic Oral and Cutaneous Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Chippagiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To present a case of Cowden's syndrome and emphasize the importance of continued cancer surveillance in these patients. Cowden syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and a range of expressivity. It is characterized by multiple hamartomas and neoplasms. Mucocutaneous features include trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomatosis, acral keratosis, and palmoplantar keratosis. Here, we report a case of Cowdens syndrome of a 30-year-old female patient who came with a complaint of multiple growths in the oral cavity of a three-month duration. On examination, multiple skin-colored, flat-topped papules over her forehead and right malar bone and multiple papillomatous papules involving all the mucosal surfaces intraorally were observed. This syndrome is associated with the development of several types of malignancies, especially breast carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma, which is why early recognition and regular and vigilant surveillance of individuals with the syndrome are important.

  4. Multiple congenital familial smooth muscle hamartoma in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, Juan; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia; Allegue, Francisco; Pérez-Pedrosa, Alberto; Ortíz-Rey, Jose Antonio; Zulaica, Ander

    2012-05-15

    Smooth muscle hamartoma (SMH) is a cutaneous malformation mainly composed of a disorganized proliferation of normal muscle fibers that arise from arrector pili. It usually presents as a single congenital lesion that frequently involves the back and the lower limbs. Unusual clinical presentations, such as atypical localizations, multiple disseminated lesions, and generalized forms have been rarely described. In 2001, Gualandri et al. reported the presence of multiple SMH in three members of the same family, namely two brothers and their mother. This is, as far as we know, the only familial case reported in the English literature. We herein describe a similar case affecting two siblings who presented with identical congenital lesions in the same location.

  5. Image Features of Retinal Astrocytic Hamartoma in a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Dongjie Sun; Jinting Zhu; Juan Li; Yusheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To describe the image features of retinal astrocytic hamartoma in a 35-year-old male patient with tuberous sclero-sis complex (TSC). Methods:. Fundus photography , . fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. (SD-OCT).were per-formed for this retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Results:Fundus photography showed that the retinal astrocyt-ic hamartoma presented as a well-circumscribed,.mulberry-like lesion consisting of glistening yellowish spherules of calcifica-tion..FAF demonstrated dense hyper-autofluorescence spots corresponding to retinal astrocytic hamartoma..FFA revealed leakage from dilated retinal capillaries over the hamartoma. SD-OCT indicated moth-eaten optically empty spaces and hy-perreflective dots within the lesion..The lesion surface was fluctuate. Conclusion: FAF is a useful imaging modality for obtaining greater contrast between a retinal astrocytic hamartoma and the surrounding retina due to hyper-autofluorescence of calcifica-tion in the lesion. FFA is beneficial for monitoring the abnor-mal blood vessels in these lesions. SD-OCT is capable of visu-alization the structural details, such as the uneven surface and inner hyperreflective dots.

  6. Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

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    José F. Tellez-Zenteno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available José F. Tellez-Zenteno1, Cesar Serrano-Almeida2, Farzad Moien-Afshari11Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.Keywords: epilepsy, gelastic seizures, epilepsy surgery, hypothalamic hamartoma, intractable epilepsy

  7. Mesenchymal hamartoma of liver: Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Ye; Bing Hu; Li-Jun Wang; Hong-Sheng Liu; Yan Zou; Yu-Bin Zhou; Zhuang Kang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to histopathologic results.METHODS: Spin-echo sequence(SE),fast spin-echo sequence(FSE) were detected in 12 children (7 males, 5 females) with mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL), aged 1.2 months to 12 years,( mean age, 6.3 years) by axial, saggital, coronary plain imaging with an Elscint 2.0T MR equipment. Their main symptoms were abdominal mass (5 cases), enlarged liver (8 cases), abdominal pain (1 case) and anemia (2 cases),and negative alpha-fetoprotein. Dynamic enhancement examination was added in 2 cases.RESULTS: Six cases had single mass type of MHL, in which 3 cases had solid masses showing slight low-signal-intensity in T1WI, and irregular high-signal-intensity in T2WI, 1 case had a cystic-solid mixed mass showing several border-clear cysts in a solid mass, 2 cases had cystic masses with multi-septa. Five cases had diffuse and multifocal lesions type of MHL with its signal intensity being similar to that of the solid mass. One case had a combined diffuse and single cystic mass. In the early dynamic enhancement examination, the lesions were slightly circum-enhanced, and the center was enhanced in the later scan images. Inner hepatic vessels were compressed in 5 cases, vena cava and abdominal aortae were compressed in 3 cases. Pathological findings included fiber hyperplasia, hyaline degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, lobule-like array.CONCLUSION: MR imaging is a better way to differentiate and diagnose MHL. MHL may be recognized by its characteristic occurrence in infancy and MR imaging features.

  8. An Undiagnosed Case of Hypothalamic Hamartoma with a Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Saeideh; Tabrizi, Nasim; Moein, Houshang; Zare, Mohammad; Barekatain, Majid; Basiratnia, Reza; Rahimian, Elham; Mehvari Habibabadi, Amirali; Moein, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are rare tumor-like malformations that may present with complex partial seizures refractory to anticonvulsants in adulthood. The condition may be misdiagnosed because of rarity. Case Presentation. We report a 25-year-old man with complaint of seizures presented by falling, tonic spasm of limbs, oral automatism, vocalization, and hypermotor activities. His seizures started at the age of one month and presented as eye deviation and upper limbs myoclonic jerk, followed by frequent seizures with variable frequency. The patient had delayed developmental milestones and was mentally retarded. He was hospitalized and underwent video-EEG monitoring and neuroimaging, and the diagnosis of HH was made. The patient became candidate for surgery after that. Conclusion. In this case, the underlying etiology of seizures was diagnosed after 25 years. HH is a rare condition and neurologists may encounter very small number of these cases during their practice. Therefore, they should consider it in patients who present with suspected signs and symptoms. PMID:28246530

  9. [Clinical and electroencephalogram study of 5 children with hypothalamic hamartoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Eiko; Oguni, Hirokazu; Funatsuka, Makoto; Usugi, Tomoko; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kitami; Nagaki, Shigeru; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2005-09-01

    We retrospectively studied 5 children with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) to elucidate the clinical, neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of this disorder. In all cases, high resolution MRI scans demonstrated an intrahypothalamic mass protruding into the 3rd ventricle. An initial symptom was epileptic attack in 4 cases and precocious puberty in the remaining one. Gelastic seizures developed in 4 of 5 patients at ranging from 2 days to 11 years of age. The ictal EEGs during the gelastic seizures showed diffuse attenuation of background activity, followed by rhythmic slow discharges either diffusely or in the central area. Gamma-knife radiosurgery was performed on 2 cases whose seizures were resistant to available antiepileptic drugs. One of the 2 patients was responded significantly to this treatment, showing the disappearance of combined attacks and a marked reduction of the generalized spike-waves discharges. A more aggressive therapy, including gamma-knife radiosurgery and surgical treatment, should be considered for patients whose seizures are resistant to the medical treatment and causing deterioration of intelligence and behavioral problem.

  10. Biopsy-proven spontaneous regression of a rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Joni M; Linnell, Erica; Votava, Henry J; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartoma (RMH) is a rare, benign, congenital tumor of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue comprised of skeletal muscle and adipose and adnexal elements. Although the majority of cases are an incidental finding in otherwise healthy patients, some have been reported in association with other anomalies. We present a full-term boy evaluated on day 2 of life for two lesions located on the midline of the lower back and right buttock that each appeared clinically as an atrophic, pink plaque. Ultrasound of the midline lesion revealed an underlying lipomyelomeningocele with a tethered cord in the spinal canal. Histopathology of the right buttock cutaneous lesion was consistent with a diagnosis of RMH. Surgical excision was performed on the midline intradural lipoma and the lesion on the buttock was monitored clinically. Repeat biopsy of this site at 1 year of age revealed complete spontaneous regression. This case highlights three interesting features: the association with an occult spinal dysraphism lipomyelomeningocele and tethered cord, the clinical presentation of an atrophic plaque as opposed to the more commonly reported raised lesions, and the phenomenon of spontaneous regression of the lesion. Most importantly, this final feature of regression in our patient suggests that, in the absence of symptoms, clinical observation of RMH lesions is warranted for spontaneous regression for 1 to 2 years provided that no functional deficit is noted and that the cutaneous or deeper lesions are not causing a medical problem.

  11. Reconstruction Approach to a Rare Case of Acquired Scrotal Giant Muscular Hamartoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogetti, Paolo; Rolle, Luigi; Baglioni, Elisabetta Adelaide; Parisi, Andrea; Spaziante, Luca; Rivarossa, Filippo; Ceruti, Carlo; Preto, Mirko; Bocchiotti, Maria Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma is an uncommon benign lesion with fewer than 10 documented cases all over the world. It is characterized by a proliferation of dermal smooth muscle bundles of scrotum dartos fascia. The authors report a rare case of acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma, which occurred in a 70-year-old severely obese and diabetic man presenting with a progressive scrotal enlargement and swelling in the last year, causing marked reduction in quality of life and cosmetic problems. The patient underwent a wide excision of the hamartomatous lesion, and then, a reductive scrotoplasty and autologous skin grafting of penis were performed. Anatomopathological examination showed an acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma arising from muscular fascia of dartos. This surgical technique is a valid, safe, effective, and minimally invasive option to treat this pathology, achieving both excellent functional and aesthetic results, with a marked improvement of the patient’s quality of life.

  12. Resection of endobronchial hamartoma causing recurrent hemoptysis by electrocautery and cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, N; Akpinar, S; Aktas, Z; Sipit, T; Ozaydin, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hamartomas are rare benign tumors of the lung with an incidence of 0.025%-0.32%. Endobronchial benign lesions can cause bronchial obstruction and recurrent respiratory infections or obstructive pneumonia and recurrent hemopthysis. Case report: A 66-year-old male with recurrent hemoptysis and pneumonias for a year, was referred to our department for an endoscopic resection of an endobronchial hamartoma. Initially he refused any intervention but, as he suffered additional episodes of hemoptysis and chest infections during a year on follow up, he finally underwent interventional bronchoscopy and the lesion was cauterized using snare electrocautery probe and removed with cryoextraction. The patient has been followed for two years in our outpatient clinic, with no further problems. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment with flexible bronchoscope, electrocautery and cryotherapy provides an excellent outcome. Surgical therapy, should be reserved for the hamartomas that cannot be approached through endoscopy. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (4): 355-356. PMID:26052204

  13. Giant hypothalamic hamartoma associated with an intracranial cyst in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Khang, Shin Kwang [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report the case of a giant hypothalamic hamartoma with a large intracranial cyst in a neonate. On ultrasonography, the lesion presented as a lobulated, mass-like lesion with similar echogenicity to the adjacent brain parenchyma, located anterior to the underdeveloped and compressed left temporal lobe, and presenting as an intracranial cyst in the left cerebral convexity without definite internal echogenicity or septa. The presence of a hypothalamic hamartoma and intracranial neurenteric cyst were confirmed by surgical biopsy. The association of a giant hypothalamic hamartoma and a neurenteric cyst is rare. Due to the rarity of this association, the large size of the intracranial cyst, and the resulting distortion in the regional anatomy, the diagnosis of the solid mass was not made correctly on prenatal high-resolution ultrasonography.

  14. Hamartoma fibroso infantil: lesão volumosa com envolvimento de plexo braquil Children's fibrous hamartoma: extensive injury involving brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de hamartoma fibroso da infância em lactente ressecado tardiamente e se apresentando como lesão extensa, com envolvimento de elementos vasculares e neurais do plexo braquial. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso clínico e revisão de literatura pertinente. RESULTADOS: Criança do sexo masculino, com massa tumoral axilar direita, irregular surgida aos 2 meses de idade e relacionada à administração da vacina BCG, sendo tratada com agentes anti-tuberculosos, sem resposta. Mediante biópsia a lesão foi diagnosticada como hamartoma fibroso infantil, e, após sofrer período de crescimento rápido, foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica completa. CONCLUSÃO: O hamartoma fibroso juvenil é um tumor benigno raro, tipicamente se apresentando no primeiro ano de vida em meninos, com localização mais comum no oco axilar. O diagnóstico diferencial se faz com tumores de partes moles em geral e, em casos de apresentação na axila direita, com adenopatias axilares causadas por reação à BCG. O tratamento é exerese completa da lesão e o prognóstico é favorável.OBJECTIVE: To present a case of fibrous hamartoma in a late-dried infant presenting as an extensive injury, involving vascular and neural elements of brachial plexus. METHODS: Clinical case study and pertinent literature review. RESULTS: Male child, with right axillary irregular tumoral mass, of which onset occurred at 2 months of age and related to BCG vaccine application, being treated with anti-tuberculosis agents, not responding to therapy. Upon biopsy, the injury was diagnosed as children’s fibrous hamartoma, and, after a fast growing period, was submitted to total surgical exeresis. CONCLUSION: The juvenile fibrous hamartoma is a rare benign tumor, typically occurring within the first year of life in boys, most commonly located at axillary gap. The differential diagnosis is performed with soft parts tumors in general, and, in right axillary location cases, with

  15. A large infiltrating fibrous hamartoma of infancy in the abdominal wall with rare associated tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Gye-Yeon [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); You, Chang-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    Tuberous sclerosis is a complex autosomal-dominant neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by hamartomatous malformations of fibrous and connective tissues in various organs. Although various histologic types of soft-tissue masses can occur with tuberous sclerosis, we present a unique case of fibrous hamartoma of infancy presenting as large infiltrating cutaneous and subcutaneous masses in the abdominal wall in a 4-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. Although the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis and fibrous hamartoma of infancy is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous soft-tissue masses found in children with tuberous sclerosis. (orig.)

  16. A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve with macrodactyly

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    Sathish Arakeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a tumor-like lipomatous process principally involving affecting young persons. The median nerve is most commonly affectedinvolved. The lesion is characterized by a soft slowly growing mass, surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. It may cause symptoms of compression neuropathy and is associated with macrodactyly in one third of cases. Here, we present a case of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve in the wrist of a young man arising from median nerve. Debulking of the tumour was performed.

  17. Peripheral Tumor with Osteodentin and Cementum-like Material in an Infant: Odontogenic Hamartoma or Odontoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianou, Aikaterini; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a peripheral tumor on the mandibular alveolar ridge of a seven-month-old Caucasian boy, consisting of ectomesencymal odontogenic tissues, in particular osteodentin and cementum-like material, in a cellular or loose vascular connective tissue stroma. This case may be considered either a peripheral odontogenic hamartoma or a peripheral odontoma.

  18. Malignant neurocristic hamartoma: a tumor distinct from conventional melanoma and malignant blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linskey, Katy R; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Le, Long P; Lam, Quynh; Bellucci, Kirsten S W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Mihm, Martin C; Hoang, Mai P

    2011-10-01

    Neurocristic hamartomas are rare pigmented lesions comprised of melanocytes, Schwann cells, and pigmented dendritic spindle cells that involve the skin and soft tissue. Malignant transformation can rarely arise within neurocristic hamartomas. Up to date, there has been only 1 series of 7 cases of malignant neurocristic hamartomas (MNHs), with 3 cases that developed metastases. We present the histology and clinical course of 3 additional cases of MNH, 2 of which were metastatic. CD117 was strongly positive in all cases with available archival materials--the tumors and background neurocristic hamartoma of 3 cases, and 1 lymph node metastasis; however, KIT sequencing for exons 11, 13, 17, and 18 was negative. Mutational analyses of recurrent mutations of 17 cancer genes, including BRAF and KIT, were also negative. Although our series is small, KIT overexpression in MNH does not seem to correlate with gene mutation. The lack of BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ, and KIT mutations seems to support the notion that MNH may be distinct from conventional melanoma and from other dermal melanomas, such as malignant blue nevi and melanoma arising in congenital nevi.

  19. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years.

  20. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo; Roll, Claudia; Wunsch, Rainer; Neid, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years.

  1. Late onset eccrine angiomatous hamartoma treated with intralesional sclerosant: A case report and brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old male patient presented to us with multiple swellings on his left leg associated with localized sweating and occasional throbbing pain. Based on the clinical features and histopathology, a diagnosis of Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma was made. The patient showed good response with regression of lesions after four intralesional injections of ethoxysclerol (polidocanol. We present this as a case of late onset eccrine angiomatous hamartoma with multiple lesions, responding to treatment with intralesional ethoxysclerol.

  2. Endobronchial Hamartoma Subtotally Occluding the Right Main Bronchus and Mimicking Bronchial Carcinoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Galeone, Carla; Lasagni, Luciano; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Elena; Piro, Roberto; Zucchi, Luigi; Sgarbi, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    Hamartomas are very rarely identified as an endobronchial lesion. Herein, we describe a peculiar case of a 55-year-old woman with persistent cough and increasing dyspnea and radiological detection of a solid lesion subtotally occluding the main right bronchus. Despite the radiological and radiometabolic (18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography scan) features were highly suspected for bronchial carcinoid, the definitive diagnosis after endoscopic removal was indicative of an endobronchial hamartoma. When considering differential diagnosis of an endobronchial lesion, the physicians should take firmly in mind such rare entity and, accordingly, bronchoscopy and bronchoscopic biopsy should be done as first step in management of all cases presenting with endobronchial lesions.

  3. Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the nasal cavity

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    Fedda, Faysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (COREAH is a benign lesion of the nose and sinuses that is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported in the literature to date. Case report: We present herein the third reported case of COREAH, in a 38-year-old woman who presented with left nasal obstruction and a mass in her left nasal cavity. The mass was completely resected endoscopically. Microscopic examination showed hamartomatous proliferation of respiratory-type glands with mucinous metaplasia admixed with numerous spicules of mature bone, characteristic of COREAH. Conclusion: COREAH is a benign hamartomatous proliferation of respiratory epithelium, submucosal glands, and chondro-osseous mesenchyme. The clinical differential diagnoses for such lesions include glandular hamartoma, inflammatory polyp, inverted papilloma, and low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma. Recognition of this lesion as benign despite its potentially worrisome radiographic appearance is important to avoid an unnecessarily radical surgical procedure.

  4. Successful surgical excision of a massive symptomatic partially obstructing Brunner's gland hamartoma: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Khortnal; Seman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brunner gland function within the duodenal epithelium is secretion of alkaline mucin to counteract acidic chyme. These glands may grow beyond the duodenal wall to become hamartomas. Rarely, they become large enough to cause obstructive symptoms in the upper gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of one of the largest lesions identified in the literature causing obstruction symptoms. A previously asymptomatic 65-year-old gentleman presented to the emergency department with a single-day history of colicky abdominal pain, cramping and vomiting. After initial imaging with computed tomography was inconclusive, a subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy and small bowel series was performed indicating a pedunculated polypoid mass. Our patient underwent an uncomplicated exploratory laparotomy with duodenotomy and Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty for resection of a massive Brunner's gland hamartoma. For similar presentations, we recommend this technique. PMID:27994010

  5. Urgent resection of bleeding congenital mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Bieda, Jan-Christoph; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo; Roll, Claudia; Wunsch, Rainer; Neid, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We report a case with prenatally diagnosed large cystic-solid mesenchymal chest wall hamartoma. An attempt of conservative management was made however repeated intralesional hemorrhage led to enlargement and severe anemia which required urgent resection at the age of 8 weeks. The infant had an unimpaired development over a follow-up of 4 years. Wir berichten über ein Neugeborenes mit einem bereits pränatal diagnostizierten, ausgedehnten Thoraxwand-Hamartom von zystisch-solider Beschaffen...

  6. Folliculosebaceous Cystic Hamartoma With Spindle Cell Lipoma-Like Stromal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupsky, Hadas; Cassarino, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma is a distinctive cutaneous hamartoma composed of follicular, sebaceous, and mesenchymal components. The lesions are most commonly found on the face and scalp of young adults, with approximately 30% occurring in the nasal or paranasal regions of the face. The clinical differential diagnoses are extensive and include epidermoid cyst, dermal nevus, soft fibroma, and adnexal tumors including sebaceous neoplasms. Here, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old man who presented for evaluation of an asymptomatic growth on the nose, which had slowly enlarged over 9 years. On examination, there was a 0.6 cm dome-shaped flesh-colored papule on the nasal bridge. The clinical differential included dermatofibroma versus intradermal nevus. A shave biopsy was performed, and histological examination of the sections showed a proliferation of multiple enlarged and irregular-appearing sebaceous glands attached to a cystic follicular structure. The associated dermal mesenchymal component consisted of numerous mature-appearing adipocytes associated with a fibromyxoid stroma, prominent collections of mucin, and bundles of ropey collagen resembling a spindle cell lipoma. This combination of a folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma with a spindle cell lipoma-like mesenchymal proliferation is unusual and has not been previously reported. PMID:26588344

  7. Folliculosebaceous Cystic Hamartoma With Spindle Cell Lipoma-Like Stromal Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Skupsky, Hadas; Cassarino, David

    2015-12-01

    Folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma is a distinctive cutaneous hamartoma composed of follicular, sebaceous, and mesenchymal components. The lesions are most commonly found on the face and scalp of young adults, with approximately 30% occurring in the nasal or paranasal regions of the face. The clinical differential diagnoses are extensive and include epidermoid cyst, dermal nevus, soft fibroma, and adnexal tumors including sebaceous neoplasms. Here, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old man who presented for evaluation of an asymptomatic growth on the nose, which had slowly enlarged over 9 years. On examination, there was a 0.6 cm dome-shaped flesh-colored papule on the nasal bridge. The clinical differential included dermatofibroma versus intradermal nevus. A shave biopsy was performed, and histological examination of the sections showed a proliferation of multiple enlarged and irregular-appearing sebaceous glands attached to a cystic follicular structure. The associated dermal mesenchymal component consisted of numerous mature-appearing adipocytes associated with a fibromyxoid stroma, prominent collections of mucin, and bundles of ropey collagen resembling a spindle cell lipoma. This combination of a folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma with a spindle cell lipoma-like mesenchymal proliferation is unusual and has not been previously reported.

  8. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma and macrodystrofia lipomatosa: imaging and clinical data analysis of four cases and review of the literature; Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso e macrodistrofia lipomatosa: analise dos achados clinicos e de imagem em quatro casos, com revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Rafael Darahem de Souza; Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Trad, Clovis Simao [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: rdarahem@terra.com.br

    2002-10-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve and macrodystrophia lipomatosa are rare conditions that present characteristic imaging findings. The plain films, magnetic resonance imaging studies and medical records of four patients were reviewed. The lesion was resected in one patient allowing histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Diagnosis was based on imaging and clinical findings in three patients who had unavailable biopsy data. We describe two cases of isolated macrodystrophia lipomatosa, one case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma and one case where both conditions were found. In the macrodystrophia lipomatosa cases plain films demonstrated enlargement of osseous and soft tissue structures in the affected limbs, with fatty streaks interspersed along the muscle fibers. The median nerve was affected in the cases of fibrolipomatous hamartoma. Magnetic resonance imaging findings included nerve fascicle thickening characterized by low signal on both T1 and T2-weighted sequences, and surrounding fat, which appears as high signal on T1 and low signal on T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation. Both nerves had a coaxial cable appearance on axial images. The fibrolipomatous hamartoma extended to the nerve branches, which is a typical finding. The typical imaging findings of macrodystrophia lipomatosa and fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve, particularly at magnetic resonance imaging examination, allowed a reliable diagnosis of these frequently coexistent conditions. (author)

  9. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Patrick; Spaeth, Maya; Prasad, Vinay; McConnell, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning.

  10. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Interventional Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Spaeth, Maya [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States); Prasad, Vinay [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States); McConnell, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  11. Fibrous hamartoma of infancy in the hand: unusual location and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You Seon; Lee, In Sook [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Kim, Hui Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Busan (Korea); Choi, Kyung-Un [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Busan (Korea); Song, Jong Woon [Inje University Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    Fibrous hamartomas of infancy (FHIs) are benign, poorly-circumscribed, soft tissue growths presenting during the first 2 years of life and characteristically affecting the axilla, upper arm, upper trunk, inguinal region, and external genital area. Involvement of the hands and feet is extremely rare. We report a case of FHI unusually occurring in a deep portion of the hand. MRI revealed atypical features similar to that of a vascular malformation, hemangioma, fibromatosis, or neurofibromatosis of the hand. Partial resection of the mass was performed to correct the contracture of the second finger and an additional operation was not performed because of the benign nature of FHIs. (orig.)

  12. Angiomyomatous hamartoma: a rare case report with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ansari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Angiomyomatous hamartoma of the lymph node is a benign vascular disorder of unknown aetiology, first described in 1991. However, to the best of our knowledge, it still remains a rare entity with only 17 cases reported so far. We report a case in an 82 year old male, present a review of literature, and stress the importance of diagnosis of this benign condition which obviates the need for unnecessary and extensive surgical resection.

  13. Thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lungs; CT scan - chest Images CT scan Thyroid cancer - CT scan Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Lung mass, right upper ... Chest Injuries and Disorders CT Scans Emphysema Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders Pneumonia Pulmonary Embolism Tuberculosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  14. Cowden syndrome detected by FDG PET/CT in an endometrial cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Kyung [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Geon [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon Saint Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Cowden syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas in various tissues and cancers (breast, thyroid, and endometrium). We report CS of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract that was incidentally detected by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at postoperative surveillance in an endometrial cancer patient. PET/CT showed mildly increased FDG uptake along the entire esophagus and stomach. Upper GI endoscopy and histologic examination revealed glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus and several hundred gastric polyps. In our case, increased FDG uptake of the esophageal wall contributed to the diagnosis of CS.

  15. Comparison of Color Fundus Photography, Infrared Fundus Photography, and Optical Coherence Tomography in Detecting Retinal Hamartoma in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Bai; Xu Wang; Jun-Yang Zhao; Li Li; Jun Gao; Ning-Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:A sensitive method is required to detect retinal hamartomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).The aim of the present study was to compare the color fundus photography,infrared imaging (IFG),and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the detection rate of retinal hamartoma in patients with TSC.Methods:This study included 11 patients (22 eyes) with TSC,who underwent color fundus photography,IFG,and spectral-domain OCT to detect retinal hamartomas.TSC1 and TSC2 mutations were tested in eight patients.Results:The mean age of the 11 patients was 8.0 ± 2.1 years.The mean spherical equivalent was-0.55 ± 1.42 D by autorefraction with cycloplegia.In 11 patients (22 eyes),OCT,infrared fundus photography,and color fundus photography revealed 26,18,and 9 hamartomas,respectively.The predominant hamartoma was type I (55.6%).All the hamartomas that detected by color fundus photography or IFG can be detected by OCT.Conclusion:Among the methods of color fundus photography,IFG,and OCT,the OCT has higher detection rate for retinal hamartoma in TSC patients;therefore,OCT might be promising for the clinical diagnosis of TSC.

  16. Mutations of the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Underlie Hypothalamic Hamartoma with Gelastic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Griffin, Nicole G; Damiano, John A; Cops, Elisa J; Burgess, Rosemary; Ozturk, Ezgi; Jones, Nigel C; Leventer, Richard J; Freeman, Jeremy L; Harvey, A Simon; Sadleir, Lynette G; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Major, Heather; Darbro, Benjamin W; Allen, Andrew S; Goldstein, David B; Kerrigan, John F; Berkovic, Samuel F; Heinzen, Erin L

    2016-08-01

    Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) with gelastic epilepsy is a well-recognized drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome of early life.(1) Surgical resection allows limited access to the small deep-seated lesions that cause the disease. Here, we report the results of a search for somatic mutations in paired hamartoma- and leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 38 individuals which we conducted by using whole-exome sequencing (WES), chromosomal microarray (CMA), and targeted resequencing (TRS) of candidate genes. Somatic mutations were identified in genes involving regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway in 14/38 individuals (37%). Three individuals had somatic mutations in PRKACA, which encodes a cAMP-dependent protein kinase that acts as a repressor protein in the Shh pathway, and four subjects had somatic mutations in GLI3, an Shh pathway gene associated with HH. In seven other individuals, we identified two recurrent and three single brain-tissue-specific, large copy-number or loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) variants involving multiple Shh genes, as well as other genes without an obvious biological link to the Shh pathway. The Shh pathway genes in these large somatic lesions include the ligand itself (SHH and IHH), the receptor SMO, and several other Shh downstream pathway members, including CREBBP and GLI2. Taken together, our data implicate perturbation of the Shh pathway in at least 37% of individuals with the HH epilepsy syndrome, consistent with the concept of a developmental pathway brain disease.

  17. Mesenchymal cystic hamartoma of the lung: clinical and pathologic analyses%肺间叶性囊性错构瘤临床病理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 黄受方; 周小鸽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肺间叶性囊性错构瘤的病理诊断及临床病理特点.方法 对1例肺间叶性囊性错构瘤的影像学、组织学、免疫组化特征及临床特点进行分析,结合文献讨论其临床病理特征、病理诊断与鉴别诊断.结果 患者女性,43岁.右侧自发性气胸出现呼吸困难.CT示双肺多发实性结节及右肺多发囊肿.开胸探查行右肺囊肿及肺结节楔形切除术.镜下病变组织由细胞核占优势的原始间叶细胞构成,其中囊性病变表面被覆正常的呼吸上皮,实性结节内见正常呼吸上皮构成的腺样结构.免疫组化示vimentin、bcl-2、CD10和CD56均弥漫(+),Ki-67指数约1%.术后随访1年,患者一般情况佳.结论 肺间叶性囊性错构瘤罕见,易误诊为胸膜型肺母细胞瘤或其他少见肺囊性病变,根据其独特的组织学特征并结合临床特点可做出正确的诊断.%Objective To study the pathological diagnosis and clinicopathological characteristics of mesenchymal cystic hamartoma of the lung. Methods The imaging, histology, immunohistochemical results and clinical features in a case of lung mesenchymal cystic hamartoma were analyzed, with review of relevant literatures. Results A 43-year-old woman presented with sudden dyspnea due to a spontaneous right-sided pneumothorax. CT revealed multiple bilateral nodules and multiple cysts of right lung. The patient had an exploratory thoracotomy and removal of part of the nodules and cysts for biopsy. The cysts and nodules were composed of primitive hyperchromatic mesenchymal cells. The wall of the cysts was lined with normal respiratory epithelium and the nodules were permeated by scattered gland also lined with normal respiratory epithelium. Immunohistochemical study showed positive staining for vimentin, bcl-2, CD10 and CD56, with a low Ki-67 labeling index of about 1%. One year after thoracotomy the patient was well without signs of progression. Conclusion Mesenchymal cystic

  18. Spontaneous rupture of splenic hamartoma in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and portal hypertension: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Nobutaka Tanaka; Yoshio Suzuki; Motoki Nagai; Takatoshi Furuya; Yukihiro Nomura; Jimpei Ishii; Masakazu Nobori

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture is a rare complication of splenic hamartoma. A review of the literature revealed only four such cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous rupture of splenic hamartoma associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.A 53-year-old woman, who was followed up for aortic dissection and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, was referred with sudden left chest and shoulder pain. An abdominal ultrasound showed intraabdominalbleeding, and computed tomography indicated rupture of a splenic tumor. Emergent splenectomy was carried out. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 13th postoperative day.Pathology revealed the tumor to be a ruptured splenic hamartoma. The non-tumorous splenic parenchyma revealed congestive changes. We consider that the presence of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are risk factors for spontaneous rupture of the splenic hamartoma.

  19. Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma of the median maxillary gingiva: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal; Qannam, Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma (OLH) is a rare lesion seen in the oral cavity. It mainly presents on the median maxilla and tongue. In the literature in English, there are only 10 reported cases of OLH of the median maxilla. Most of the cases were found in patients of Japanese and Latin American origin. We report a case of OLH in an 18-month-old boy of Middle Eastern ancestry. The lesion presented as a pedunculated, light pink, soft swelling that was located on the labial gingiva of tooth number 21. Microscopically, it showed proliferative smooth-muscle fascicles dispersed in loose fibrous stroma and multiple small vessels. The lesional cells looked mature and elongated and were deeply eosinophilic spindle cells with basophilic, central "cigar-shaped" nuclei. The diagnosis of OLH was supported by positive immunohistochemical reactivity of smooth-muscle actin and desmin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of OLH in a Middle Eastern patient.

  20. Pedunculated Brunner's gland hamartoma of the duodenum causing upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Motoharu Kubo; Atsushi Inoue; Yasuyuki Miyake; Hisako Oshiro

    2009-01-01

    A case of pedunculated Brunner's gland hamartoma (BGH) of the duodenum causing upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is reported. The patient was a 47-year-old man who visited our hospital for further evaluation of tarry stools and shortness of breath.Endoscopic examination of the upper digestive tract revealed a large peduncular polyp with bleeding,about 30 mm in diameter, arising from the wall of the second portion of the duodenum. GI bleeding occurred from the base of the stalk of the polyp. Endoscopic polypectomy was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed that the main body of the polyp contained several lobules of mature Brunner'gland with areas of cystic dilatation. The surface epithelium consisted of normal duodenal mucosa with areas of focal ulceration. This polyp was diagnosed as a BGH. The symptom of tarry stools resolved after endoscopic resection. Our case shows that treatment is necessary for duodenal BGH if GI bleeding occurs.

  1. 肺错构瘤的临床病理学分析%Clinical and pathological analysis of pulmonary hamartoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟华; 陈健; 夏康; 阮荣和; 高源统

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical and pathological features of pulmonary hamartoma,in order to help clinical diagnosis and treatment correctly.Methods:Twenty-one cases of pulmonary hamartoma were analyzed retrospectively based on clinical manifestations,imaging features,histological features,immunohis-tochemical phenotype,and summarized key points of pulmonary hamartoma diagnosis.Results:There were several types of pulmonary hamartoma,including intrapulmonary type,bronchial type and mixed type (intrapulmonary with endobronchial).The intrapulmonary type located in the peripheral lung had no obvious clinical symptoms,and normally had clear boundary; the bronchial type located in bronchus with shape of polypus.microscopically consisted of different proportions of mesenchymal tissue and respiratory epithelium,and someone mixed cartilage with little fat even with no fat.Conclusion:Pulmonary hamartoma is the most common benign lung tumor,there are a variety of clinical types and histological types,no fat or cartilage density image cannot rule out the diagnosis of hamartoma,its clear diagnosis must be combined with clinical manifestations,imaging data and pathological examination.%目的:探讨肺错构瘤的临床病理学特征,以助于临床正确诊断与治疗.方法:回顾性分析21例肺错构瘤的临床表现、影像学特征、组织学特点、免疫组化表型,总结肺错构瘤的诊断要点.结果:肺错构瘤包括肺内型、支气管内型及混合型(肺内合并支气管内型错构瘤).肺内型位于肺外周,大多数没有明显临床症状,肿瘤通常境界清楚;支气管内型位于支气管内,呈息肉状.镜下由不同比例的间叶组织和呼吸型上皮混杂组成,有者软骨和脂肪成分很少甚至缺乏.结论:肺错构瘤是最常见的良性肺肿瘤,有多种临床类型和组织学类型,影像上未见脂肪或软骨密度亦不能排除错构瘤的诊断,需结合临床表现、影像学资料及病理检查以确诊.

  2. Hamartoma cístico retro-retal: relato de 2 casos e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Oliveira Fernandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumores retro-retais são aqueles localizados no espaço retro-retal, de diferentes origens embriológicas e que podem exercer compressão extrínsica no reto e canal anal. São lesões raras, geralmente assintomáticas e mais comuns em mulheres. O hamartoma cístico (tailgut cyst é um tipo de tumor retro-retal congênito, formado a partir de remanescentes embrionários do intestino posterior. Este trabalho traz uma revisão sobre os tumores retro-retais, dando ênfase às lesões císticas e relata 02 casos de pacientes com hamartoma cístico retro-retal, tratados no Hospital Geral de Goiânia,com lesões evidentes ao toque retal e exames de imagem mostrando lesões císticas no espaço pré-sacral. Utilizou-se a incisão de Parks na abordagem das lesões, uma delas associada 'a via abdominal. A histopatologia foi compatível com hamartoma cístico. As lesões císticas do espaço retro-retal possuem bom prognóstico e a abordagem cirúrgica dependerá das características da lesão, principalmente sua altura em relação à margem anal e relação com estruturas adjacentes no espaço pré-sacral.Retrorectal tumors are those located in the retrorectal space, derived from germinal layers and may exert extrinsic compression of rectum and anal canal. They are uncommon lesions, usually asymptomatic and more frequent in females than in males. Cystic hamartoma (tailgut cyst is a congenital retrorectal tumor, derived from embryonic remnants of the posterior gut. The present work makes a review on retrorectal tumors giving emphasis to the cystic lesions and reports two cases of patients suffering from retrorectal cystic hamartoma treated at the Hospital Geral de Goiânia , with evident lesions on rectal examination and imaging showing cystic lesions in the presacral space. The resection of the mass was accomplished by means of a posterior approach (Parks approach associated with abdominal approach in one of the cases. Mycroscopic section showed cystic

  3. Ophthalmic manifestations of tuberous sclerosis: CT and MRI findings%结节性硬化症眼部病变CT及MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晨阳; 王振常; 鲜军舫; 李彬; 李根林

    2009-01-01

    目的 描述结节性硬化症患者眼部病变CT、MRI影像表现,并评价其临床价值.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象CT和MRI影像学检查发现眼部病变的7例结节性硬化症患者.方法 经临床诊断及头部CT检查确诊结节性硬化症7例,通过眼眶CT平扫、MRI平扫及增强检查观察视网膜病变大小、形态、密度以及增强后强化情况;结合临床直接、间接眼底镜检查结果.主要指标眼球CT、MRI表现.结果 头部CT平扫发现室管膜下及皮质多发钙化或/和非钙化结节7例(100%).眼眶CT和/或MRI发现:眼底扁平型视网膜错构瘤4例(57.1%);眼底分叶状或结节状视网膜错构瘤3例(42.9%);错构瘤内可见钙化2例(28.6%);患侧小眼球2例(28.6%);增强后病变未见明显强化7例(100%);随访检查发现视网膜错构瘤呈进行性生长1例(14.3%).结论 CT、MRI可以发现较大的视网膜错构瘤,结合颅脑检查对定性诊断有重要价值.对于进行性生长的视网膜错构瘤病例CT、MRI影像学的系统评价可以为选择适当的治疗方法提供依据.(跟科,2009,18:257-260)%Objective To describe CT and MRI imaging findings of retinal hamartomas with tuberous sclerosis and evaluate their clinical value. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 7 patients of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) who have ocular lesions found with CT and MRI examination. Methods 7 patients with tuberous sclerosis were diagnosed by clinical data and head CT. The size, morphology, density and enhancing situation of the retinal lesions were observed with CT and MR.I, as while as with direct or indi-rect fundoscopy. Main Outcome Measures CT and MRI features of ocular lesions. Results 7 cases displayed intraeranial calcification and/or non-calcified tubercles, situating in subendyrna (7 cases, accounting for 100%) by head CT. Orbital CT and MRI showed 4 cases (57.1%) of flat retinal hamartomas 3 cases (42.9%) 9f retinal lobular and nodular hamartomas

  4. Casos Clínicos Hamartoma hipotalámico, una causa de pubertad precoz: Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado R,José; López M,José Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Hypothalamic hamartomas are non neoplastic lesions that may cause precocious puberty with or without complex seizures, personality disorders and mental retardation. We report a 14 years old male that had a precocious puberty at the age of 11 and a prolonged episode of altered sensorium with automatism, that was diagnosed as a complex seizure. Physical examination showed a sexual development classified as Tanner stage III-IV, a height of 168 cm and a weight of 61 kg. Neurological examination w...

  5. Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE), and neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma (NMVH): two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaffy, Lisa; Osuna, María José Martín; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; del Pino Florez Rial, María; Geboes, Karel; Langner, Cord

    2015-04-01

    Multifocal stenosing enteritis, not related to Crohn's disease or drug intake, has been described under two different terms: "cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis" (CMUSE) and "neuromuscular and vascular hamartoma" (NMVH). We present three new cases of this condition and argue that the two terms reflect the same disease entity. Although etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remain largely unclear, obliterative vascular changes may play an important role.

  6. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... hold your breath for short periods. A complete scan usually take only 30 seconds to a few ...

  7. Mulberry Tumors in Retina and Nasal Hamartoma in a Patient With Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reshadat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberous Sclerosis (TS is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney even bones. The commonest presentation is seizures in infancy or early childhood (in 80% of cases, mental retardation (in 44%of cases. Characteristic skin lesion includes facial angiofibromas, adenoma sebaceum, hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches ungual ungual fibromas, ash leaf spots, cafe'-au-lait spots.Case Report: A nine years old male was admitted in a pediatric hospital because of the status myoclonic seizures. Seizures had been started since infancy. In physical exam he had some hypopigmented macules, cafe'-au-lait spots and ash leaf lesions, frontal fibrosis and also shagreen patches. Patient was a case of mild mentally retardation with no any focal neurological deficit. Computed tomography scan of brain and MRI imaging revealed sub ependymal tubers with multiple calcification in both sides of parietal region. Electroencephal-ogram recording suggested abnormal spike, sharp wave discharges and lennox-Gastaut pattern. The diagnosis based on the history and physical exam and MRI were tuberous sclerosis. His foundoscopic exam revealed two prominent calcified mass around right optic disc in supratemporal arch, left eye was normal. Retinal angiography revealed the mulberry tumors and right phakoma of retina. Conclusion: Computed tomography also revaled the nasal hamartoma. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of angiomyolipoma because the lesion was composed of smooth muscle bundles, mature adipose tissue and blood vessels of different sizes. He remained seizures free after treatment.

  8. Mesenchymal Hamartoma of Chest Wall in an Infant: Mimicking Persistent Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amitabh; Seth, Rachna; Pai, Gautham; Dawman, Lesa; Satapathy, Amit

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal Hamartoma of the chest wall (MHCW) is a very rare benign tumour. They are usually discovered in infancy. Spontaneous regression is known to occur in this benign condition. Management is surgical removal of mass if respiratory compromise is present. Conservative management is preferred modality in asymptomatic children as malignant transformation is not reported. Herein, we present a case of MHCW in a 5 month old infant presenting with acute respiratory distress with history of respiratory problem at 3 months of age. Child was suspected to have persistent pneumonia in view of radiological findings. Child's respiratory distress improved with antibiotics and bronchodilators. Respiratory symptoms in MHCW are due to extrinsic compression of lung parenchyma. Present case had respiratory symptoms with persistent radiological findings leading to suspicion of persistent pneumonia. His respiratory symptoms and exacerbation on follow up was attributed to hyper reactive airway disease and MHCW was managed conservatively. The non-neoplastic nature, characteristic presentation, histopathology, imaging modality and management options of MHCW are discussed.

  9. Lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve: report of a case and review of the literature; Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso del nervio mediano: descripcion de un caso y revision de la bibliografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Ruiz, F.; Rodriguez, C.; Carcia, E. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Lipofibromatous hamartoma is a rare benign lesion that affects peripheral nerves. The predominant site is median nerve, although it has been reported in other locations. It usually presents prior to the third decade of life, and is associated with motor cycled in up to one third of cases. We describe a case involving median nerve in a 24-year-old man who underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance, followed by surgical confirmation of the diagnosis. A brief review of the literature is also provided. The magnetic resonance findings are virtually pathognomonic of this disease and, thus, the diagnosis can be reached without the need to perform biopsy. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Advances in folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma%毛囊皮脂腺囊性错构瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力强; 韩向春

    2011-01-01

    Clinically, folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma (FSCH)is uncommon and lacks distinct features. It often manifests as asymptomatic, skin-colored papules or nodules mostly distributed on the face. Histopathologically, it is a kind of hamartoma of skin appendages mainly characterized by the hyperplasia of folliculosebaceous units and mesenchymal tissues. The differential diagnosis mainly includes sebaceous trichofolliculoma and dermoid cyst. Its immunohistochemical manifestations are unspecific and associated with epithelial and non-epithelial component within the hamartoma. This paper presents an update on the knowledge about clinical and immunohistochemical manifestation of, diagnostic criteria and treatment for FSCH.%临床上,毛囊皮脂腺囊性错构瘤比较少见,缺乏典型特征,是一种不对称,好发于面部的肤色丘疹或结节。病理学上是以毛囊皮脂腺组织和间叶细胞成分增生为主的皮肤附属器错构瘤,主要与皮脂腺毛囊瘤、皮样囊肿相鉴别。免疫组化结果与瘤体内上皮或非上皮成分有关,无特异性。概述毛囊皮脂腺囊性错构瘤的临床表现、诊断标准、免疫组化及治疗方面的研究进展。

  11. Atypical presentation of myoepithelial hamartoma in the antrum of the stomach, mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Junaid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A myoepithelial hamartoma is a very uncommon submucosal tumor of the stomach. In an atypical presentation in our case, it mimicked the clinical presentation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a hamartoma of the stomach reported from Bangladesh and one of few cases described in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 35-year-old Bengali man with recurrent epigastric pain and occasional vomiting with radiographic findings of a gut mass. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a healed duodenal ulcer, deformed ‘D’ bulb and a submucosal swelling in his antrum. Ultrasonography and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a well-defined, oval gut mass in his upper abdomen, compressing his duodenum. The mass had a mixed density and was considered to probably be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive. After resection at laparotomy, a histopathological examination revealed a myoepithelial hamartoma. These tumors are characterized by hypertrophic smooth muscle bands surrounding varied epithelial elements, which may be arranged in diverse patterns such as simple glandular structure, Brunner’s gland, pancreatic ducts and sometimes pancreatic acini. This case report is complemented by a literature review relating to the atypical presentation. Conclusion Gut masses need to be investigated thoroughly and the possibility of rare tumors should not be excluded. Although the recommended treatment for such lesions is limited resection, radical procedures such as a pancreaticoduodenectomy are often performed when the lesion occurs in the periampullary area because of preoperative misdiagnosis as a carcinoma. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to maintain current knowledge of the lesion to avoid inaccurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.

  12. Giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin: a newly reported benign entity to be distinguished from chordoma. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirra, J.M. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Pathology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brien, E.W. [Dept. of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Two cases are reported of a newly described intraosseous entity of vertebral bodies deemed ''giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin''. This entity is commonly mistaken for chordoma and must be distinguished from it as the consequences of misinterpretation may be serious. The clinical, radiological and histologic criteria that can be used to distinguish these two entities are emphasized. Included is a proposed pathogenesis for this lesion, its probable notochordal origin, and a review of other probable cases. (orig.)

  13. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Rice, Stephen G; Tsang, Candy; Beggs, John; Turner, Dharshaun; Li, Guohui; Yang, Bo; Xia, Kunkun; Gao, Fenfei; Qiu, Shenfeng; Liu, Qiang; Kerrigan, John F

    2016-06-01

    Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36) and connexin-43 (Cx43) in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  14. Progression of Epididymal Maldevelopment Into Hamartoma-like Neoplasia in VHL Disease

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    Gautam U. Mehta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF in susceptible cells precedes formation of tumorlets and frank tumor in the epididymis of male VHL patients. We performed detailed histologic and molecular pathologic analysis of tumor-free epididymal tissues from VHL patients to obtain further insight into early epididymal tumorigenesis. Four epididymides from two VHL patients were serially sectioned to allow for three-dimensional visualization of morphologic changes. Areas of interest were genetically analyzed by tissue microdissection, immunohistochemistry for HIF and markers for mesonephric differentiation, and in situ hybridization for HIF downstream target vascular endothelial growth factor. Structural analysis of the epididymides revealed marked deviations from the regular anatomic structure resulting from impaired organogenesis. Selected efferent ductules were represented by disorganized mesonephric cells, and the maldeveloped mesonephric material was VHL-deficient by allelic deletion analysis. Furthermore, we observed maldeveloped mesonephric material near cystic structures, which were also VHL-deficient and were apparent derivatives of maldeveloped material. Finally, a subset of VHL-deficient cells was structurally integrated in regular efferent ductules; proliferation of intraductular VHL-deficient cells manifests itself as papillary growth into the ductular lumen. Furthermore, we clarify that that there is a pathogenetic continuum between microscopic tumorlets and formation of tumor. In multiple locations, three-dimensional reconstruction revealed papillary growth to extend deeply into ductular lumina, indicative of progression into early hamartoma-like neoplasia. We conclude epididymal tumorigenesis in VHL disease to occur in two distinct sequential steps: maldevelopment of VHL-deficient mesonephric cells, followed by neoplastic papillary proliferation.

  15. Firing behavior and network activity of single neurons in human epileptic hypothalamic hamartoma

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    Peter N. Steinmetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human hypothalamic hamartomas (HH are intrinsically epileptogenic and are associated with treatment-resistant gelastic seizures. The basic cellular mechanisms responsible for seizure onset within HH are unknown. We used intra-operative microwire recordings of single neuron activity to measure the spontaneous firing rate of neurons and the degree of functional connection between neurons within the tumor.Technique: Fourteen patients underwent transventricular endoscopic resection of HH for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Prior to surgical resection, single neuron recordings from bundled microwires (total of 9 contacts were obtained from HH tissue. Spontaneous activity was recorded for two or three 5-minute epochs under steady-state general anesthesia. Off-line analysis included cluster analysis of single unit activity and probability analysis of firing relationships between pairs of neurons.Results: Altogether, 222 neurons were identified (mean 6 neurons per recording epoch. Cluster analysis of single neuron firing utilizing a mixture of Gaussians model identified two distinct populations on the basis of firing rate (median firing frequency 0.6 versus 15.0 spikes per second; p<10-5. Cluster analysis identified three populations determined by levels of burst-firing (median burst indices of 0.015, 0.18, and 0.39; p<10-15. Unbiased analysis of spontaneous single unit behavior showed that 51% of all possible neuron pairs within each recording epoch had a significant level of firing synchrony (p<10-15. The subgroup of neurons with higher median firing frequencies was more likely to demonstrate synchronous firing (p<10-7. Conclusions: HH tissue in-vivo contains neurons which fire spontaneously. The activity of single neurons is diverse but distributes into at least two electrophysiological phenoytpes. Functional linkage between single neurons suggests that HH neurons exist within local networks that may contribute to ictogenesis.

  16. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36 and connexin-43 (Cx43 in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  17. Gastric Smooth Muscle Hamartomas Mimicking Polyps in a Dog: A Case Description and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian A. Taulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of two smooth muscle hamartomas of the stomach in a 10-year-old male Boxer. The clinical history of the animal was of chronic vomiting, weight loss, and intermittent gastric distension, and it died because of chronic and congestive heart failure. Gross, histology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC exams were performed. On necropsy, in the pyloric region of the stomach, two closely related polypoid growths between 10 and 15 mm in diameter were identified. On the cut sections, both polyps presented white to gray color, with homogenous architecture and well-defined limits. The thickness of the submucosal layer was seen to be increased to 1 cm. No other gastric alterations were identified by the necropsy exam. Histologically, both masses growth consisted of hyperplastic glands lined by foveolar epithelium, arranged in a papillary or branching pattern, and supported by a core of well-vascularised and marked smooth muscle tissue interspersed between glands. No dysplastic cells and mitotic figures were observed in these lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong cytoplasm labelling for smooth muscle actin of the bundles around the mucosal glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of smooth muscle hamartomas mimicking multiple gastric polyps in dogs.

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  19. Great saphenous vein dilatation with reflux at the saphenofemoral junction: A rare underlying association of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma

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    Sanjiv Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH is an exceedingly rare benign tumor-like lesion prevalent in childhood, which can produce pain and marked sweating. Histological features include proliferation of eccrine sweat glands and angiomatous capillary channels. It may be rarely associated with underlying pathological conditions. A 15-year-old female patient presented with multiple tender reddish papules and nodules coalescing to form plaques of 10 × 8 cm over the anterior aspect of the right lower thigh since birth. It was associated with hypertrichosis, hyperhidrosis, pain, and occasional bleeding on trauma. Histopathological examination of the lesion showed increased proliferation of both eccrine and angiomatous channels. Ultrasonography and Color Doppler of the right thigh showed dilatation of the great saphenous vein (GSV above the right knee, with evidence of grade 3 reflux at saphenofemoral junction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed large dilated GSV with slow flow and venous malformation in the anterior part of the right knee

  20. Hemorragia digestiva alta secundária a hamartoma de glândulas de Brunner: relato de caso e revisão da literatura = Upper gastrintestinal bleeding due to Brunner’s gland hamartoma: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul, Rodrigo Mayer

    2013-01-01

    Conclusões: Apesar do hamartoma de glândulas de Brunner ser uma lesão benigna e rara, de crescimento indolente e comumente assintomática, pode provocar quadros graves como o descrito neste relato, devendo ser sempre lembrado como diagnóstico diferencial em casos de hemorragia digestiva alta

  1. Extra-hepatic bile duct hamartoma in a 10-month-old with a morgagni hernia and multiple anatomical anomalies: a rare and incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Karass, Michael; Page, Andrew J; Shehata, Bahig M; Durham, Megan M

    2013-07-01

    Von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs), also known as bile duct hamartomas, are a part of a group of ductal plate malformations. They are typically present intrahepatically. In this case, we present to our knowledge the first report of an extra-hepatic VMC in the pediatric population. The patient presented as a 10-month-old infant with a weeklong history of progressive breathing difficulty. A chest radiograph was obtained, showing intestinal loops in the thoracic cavity consistent with a Morgagni's hernia, unrelated to his breathing difficulty. The patient then underwent an elective repair of his congenital diaphragmatic defect. During the operation, the bile duct hamartoma was found adherent to the accessory lobe of the liver, present to the left of the ligamentum teres.

  2. CT urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobkin, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    With the advent of multidetector row CT scanners, evaluation of the urothelium of the entire urinary tract with high-resolution thin sections during a single breath-hold has become a reality. Multidetector CT urography (MDCTU) is a single examination that allows evaluation of potential urinary tract calculi, renal parenchymal masses, and both benign and malignant urothelial lesions. Initial results with this new technique are encouraging. Current investigations of MDCTU focus on methods to improve opacification and distension of the upper urinary tract - the collecting systems, pelvis, and ureters. The role of abdominal compression, infusion of saline and/or furosemide, and optimal time delay of excretory phase imaging is being explored. Upper tract urothelial malignancies, including small lesions less the 5 mmin diameter, can be detected with high sensitivity. Methods to reduce radiation exposure are being explored, including split-bolus contrast injection techniques that combine nephrographic and excretory phases into a single phase. It is likely that in the near future, radiological evaluation of significant unexplained hematuria or of known or prior urothelial malignancy will consist of a single examination - MDCTU. (orig.)

  3. A pilot study imaging integrin αvβ3 with RGD PET/CT in suspected lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Song [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China); University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wu, Honghu [Wuyi County People' s Hospital of Hengshui City, Hengshui, Hebei Province (China); Li, Wenwu; Zhao, Shuqiang; Teng, Xuepeng; Lu, Hong [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Hu, Xudong; Wang, Suzhen; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2015-12-15

    Angiogenesis is an essential step in tumour development and metastasis. Integrin αvβ3 plays a major role in angiogenesis, tumour growth and progression. A new tracer, {sup 18}F-AL-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as {sup 18}F-alfatide, has been developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin αvβ3. This is a pilot study to test the safety and diagnostic value of {sup 18}F- arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) PET/computed tomography (CT) in suspected lung cancer patients. Twenty-six patients with suspected lung cancer on enhanced CT underwent {sup 18}F-alfatide RGD PET/CT examination before surgery and puncture biopsy. Standard uptake values (SUVs) and the tumour-to-blood ratios were measured, and diagnoses were pathologically confirmed. RGD PET/CT with {sup 18}F-alfatide was performed successfully in all patients and no clinically significant adverse events were observed. The {sup 18}F-alfatide RGD PET/CT analysis correctly recognized 17 patients with lung cancer, 4 patients (hamartoma) as true negative, and 5 patients (4 chronic inflammation and 1 inflammatory pseudotumour) as false positive. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of {sup 18}F-alfatide RGD PET/CT for the diagnosis of suspected lung cancer patients was 100, 44.44, 80.77, 77.27, and 100 %, respectively. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.75 (P = 0.038), and ROC analysis suggested an SUVmax cut-off value of 2.65 to differentiate between malignant lesions and benign lesions. The SUV for malignant lesions was 5.37 ± 2.17, significantly higher than that for hamartomas (1.60 ± 0.11; P < 0.001). The difference between the tumour-to-blood ratio for malignant lesions (4.13 ± 0.91) and tissue of interest-to-blood ratio for hamartomas (1.56 ± 0.24) was also statistically significant (P < 0.001). Neither the SUVmax nor the tumour-to-blood ratio was significantly different between malignant

  4. Nevi and cutaneous hamartomas in dogs: retrospective clinical and epidemiologic study of 81 cases Nevus e hamartomas cutâneos em cães: estudo retrospectivo clínico e epidemiológico de 81 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Hallack Loures

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In a period of eight years, nevic lesions were diagnosed in 81 cases. Fibroadnexal hamartoma (FH occurred in 53 animals (65.4%, and it was clinically characterized by firm nodules located mainly on the limbs and digits. No sexual predisposition was present. Mongrels, Boxers and Cocker Spaniels were the breeds most affected by FH. The average age at which lesions appeared was 6.3 years. The collagenous nevi was the second most prevalent lesion, occurring in 18 dogs (22.2%. The lesions were usually single, alopecic and hyperpigmented. The main affected places were the dorso and limbs. The average age at which lesions appeared was 4.7 years. Mongrels, Rottweilers and Labradors were the breeds most affected by the collagenous nevi. Nodular dermatofibrosis was diagnosed in one dog. In this dog, multiple collagenous nevi were present alongside unilateral papillary renal cystadenoma. Sebaceous, follicule-apocrine and fibrolipomatous nevi were less frequently found (10 cases - 12.3%.As lesões névicas foram diagnosticadas em 81 casos, em um período de oito anos. O Hamartoma fibroanexial (HF ocorreu em 53 animais (65,43% e caracterizou-se clinicamente por lesões nodulares, geralmente firmes, localizadas predominantemente nos membros e dígitos. Não houve predileção sexual. Os animais mestiços e os das raças Boxer e Cocker Spaniel foram os mais acometidos pelo HF. A idade média de aparecimento das lesões foi de 6,3 anos. O nevo colágeno foi a segunda lesão mais prevalente, ocorrendo em 18 cães (22,2%. As lesões foram, em geral, únicas, alopécicas e hiperpigmentadas, localizadas em sua maioria no tronco, no dorso e nos membros. A idade média de aparecimento das lesões foi de 4,7 anos. Os animais mestiços e os das raças Rottweiler e Labrador Retriever foram os mais acometidos. Em um dos cães, diagnosticou-se dermatofibrose nodular, onde foram observados múltiplos nevos colágenos em associação com cistadenoma renal papilar unilateral

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ... after the procedure? CT exams are generally painless, fast and easy. With multidetector CT, the amount of ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen ... and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  9. Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso e macrodistrofia lipomatosa: análise dos achados clínicos e de imagem em quatro casos, com revisão da literatura Fibrolipomatous hamartoma and macrodystrophia lipomatosa: imaging and clinical data analysis of four cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Darahem de Souza Coelho

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O hamartoma fibrolipomatoso neural e a macrodistrofia lipomatosa são doenças raras, com achados de imagem característicos. Radiografias simples, estudos de ressonância magnética e prontuários médicos de quatro pacientes foram revisados. Em um paciente, foi realizada cirurgia com confirmação histopatológica. Em três pacientes, os achados clínicos e de imagem foram considerados suficientes para o diagnóstico. Descrevemos dois casos de macrodistrofia lipomatosa isolada, um caso de hamartoma fibrolipomatoso do nervo mediano e um caso de coexistência das duas condições. As radiografias simples, nos casos de macrodistrofia lipomatosa, mostraram aumento difuso de partes moles e estruturas ósseas, com estrias radiotransparentes entremeadas às fibras musculares. Os dois casos de hamartoma fibrolipomatoso ocorreram no nervo mediano, com achados, à ressonância magnética, de fascículos nervosos espessados com baixo sinal nas imagens ponderadas em T1 e T2, com infiltração homogênea de gordura entre estes, aparecendo com alto sinal em T1 e baixo sinal em T2 com saturação de gordura. O aspecto do nervo aos cortes axiais é de "cabo coaxial". Nota-se extensão para a ramificação dos nervos, aspecto típico desta lesão. As características de imagem da macrodistrofia lipomatosa e do hamartoma fibrolipomatoso neural, principalmente pela ressonância magnética, permitiram o diagnóstico preciso destas condições freqüentemente coexistentes.Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve and macrodystrophia lipomatosa are rare conditions that present characteristic imaging findings. The plain films, magnetic resonance imaging studies and medical records of four patients were reviewed. The lesion was resected in one patient allowing histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Diagnosis was based on imaging and clinical findings in three patients who had unavailable biopsy data. We describe two cases of isolated macrodystrophia lipomatosa, one

  10. Epiretinal membrane surgery for combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium: role of multimodal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruè C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Bruè, Andrea Saitta, Michele Nicolai, Cesare Mariotti, Alfonso GiovanniniOphthalmology, Department of Neuroscience, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, MP-1 microperimetry, and fundus autofluorescence imaging for planning surgical procedures in combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHR-RPE and following epiretinal membrane removal.Methods: In an interventional retrospective case series, six consecutive subjects with CHR-RPE underwent vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peeling, with 4 years of follow-up. Each underwent complete ophthalmic examination, including best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, SD-OCT, MP-1, and fundus autofluorescence at one, 6, 12, and 48 months.Results: Six eyes from six subjects with CHR-RPE were studied (mean age 31 ± 14 years. All patients were phakic and five were male (83.3%. Lesions were unilateral, ie, three macular, two juxtapapillary and macular, and one pericentral. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.3 ± 0.08 Snellen, with significant improvement to 0.9 ± 0.17 Snellen (P = 0.001 at 4 years of follow-up. Mean retinal sensitivity within the central 20° field improved from 16.6 ± 1.84 dB to 18.8 ± 0.96 dB (P = 0.07. There was also a statistically significant reduction in the visual defect (P = 0.04. SD-OCT demonstrated that the epiretinal membranes were completely removed in all but one patient, with significantly decreased macular edema on follow-up at one, 6, 12, and 48 months (P = 0.001. A positive correlation was shown between preoperative macular sensitivity and postoperative best corrected visual acuity. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated a block in background autofluorescence at the site of the lesion, and hyperautofluorescsence at the edematous retina overlain by the epiretinal

  11. Clinicopatholgical features of Brunner's gland hamartoma%Brunner腺错构瘤7例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 刘爱军; 张继平; 王巍峰; 祝庆孚

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinicopatholgical features and pathogenesis of Brunner' s gland hamartoma( BGH ). Methods The clinico-pathological features were analyzed in 7 cases of BGH. and the literature was reviewed. Reasults The mean age of the patients of BGH was 53. 6 years ( ranger from 25 to 80 years ). The common clinical manifestations were abdominal pain, ahdominal distention , gastrointestinal hemorrhage, duodenal obstruction, constipation and so on. The more common location is the posterior wall of the duodenum of the hulbar zone and descending part with the appearance of polypoid, solid, cystic. Microscopically, the hyperplastic Brunner' s gland were separated by bundles of smooth muscle cells. with the duct dilated, cyst, adipose cell in it. Focal lymphocytes infiltration were found frequently in the tumor. Conclusions BGH is a rare kind of benign lesion of duodenal. Pathological morphological features are the key point of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease.%目的 探讨Brunner腺错构瘤(Burnner's gland hamartoma, BGH)的临床病理特征及发病机制.方法 收集7例BGH临床及病理资料,进行病理形态学观察,并复习相关文献.结果 BGH发病年龄平均53.6岁(25~80岁),临床表现腹痛、腹胀、黑便、肠梗阻、便秘等症状;常发生在十二指肠球部、降部,外观呈息肉状,实性或囊性;光镜下表现为Brunner腺结节状增生,被平滑肌束分隔呈小叶状,伴有导管扩张、囊肿、脂肪细胞,常见灶性淋巴细胞浸润等.结论 BGH是十二指肠罕见的良性疾病,诊断和鉴别诊断主要依据病理形态学特征.

  12. Brunner’s Gland Hamartoma: A Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding – Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Stolpman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is described in a previously healthy 45-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with weakness and fatigue, and had experienced an episode of melena two days before admission. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable. Upon admission to hospital, he showed evidence of iron-deficiency anemia, with a hemoglobin concentration of 61 g/L (normal range 135 to 175 g/L, a mean corpuscular volume of 73 fL (normal range 85.0 to 95.0 fL and a ferritin concentration of 1.0 µg/L (normal range in males 15 to 400 µg/L. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 3.5 cm ulcerated submucosal mass in the third portion of the duodenum, for which mucosal biopsies were nondiagnostic. A subsequent endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 2.7×4.0 cm hyperechoic, cystic, submucosal tumour in the third portion of the duodenum. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration revealed no malignant cells. The patient eventually underwent a resection of the third portion of his duodenum. Surgical pathology revealed that this tumour was a Brunner’s gland hamartoma, 4.5 cm in its greatest dimension.

  13. 小汗腺血管瘤样错构瘤1例%A Case of Eccrine Angionmatous Hamartoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏叡; 翁立强; 黄卫东

    2013-01-01

    患儿男,3岁2个月.左大腿出现皮疹伴疼痛1年.皮肤科情况:左股伸侧多个丘疹、结节,融合成境界清楚斑块,可见散在毛发分布,按压疼痛明显,无明显多汗.皮损组织病理示:表皮角化过度伴灶性角化不全,棘层呈轻度乳头瘤样增生,真皮浅中层血管成簇、密集增生,深层大量小汗腺腺体和腺管增生.诊断:小汗腺血管瘤样错构瘤.%A three-year and two-month-old boy developed eruptions on the left thigh with pain for 1 year. Several papules and nodules melt into a demarcated plaque in the extensor side of the left thigh, with scattered hairs on, with pain, without hyperhidrosis. Histopathological examination showed hyperkeratosis with focal parakerato-sis and some papillomatous hyperplasia acanthosis in the epidermis; proliferation of clustering capillaries in the middle dermis; increased numbers of large eccrine sweat coils and vessels in the deep dermis. The diagnosis of this patient was eccrine angionmatous hamartoma.

  14. Hydrometrocolpos, postaxial polydactyly, and hypothalamic hamartoma in a patient with confirmed Pallister-Hall syndrome: a clinical overlap with McKusick-Kaufman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Sebastian [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Roth, Katharina [Kantonsspital Aarau, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Aarau (Switzerland); Korinth, Dirk [University Zuerich, Institute of Medical Genetics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zeilinger, Georg [Kantonsspital Aarau, Department of Pediatrics, Aarau (Switzerland); Eich, Georg [Kantonsspital Aarau, Department of Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    We present a preterm-born girl with polydactyly of both hands and massive hydrometrocolpos, the latter due to vaginal atresia. This association led initially to the diagnosis of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome (MKKS). However, additional features, including characteristic radiographic findings of the hands and a large hypothalamic tumour, presumably a hamartoma, favoured the diagnosis of Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), which was then genetically confirmed by detection of a GLI3 mutation (Q717X). This is the second genetically confirmed case revealing the previously described association of PHS with hydrometrocolpos due to vaginal atresia as a clinical overlap with MKKS. (orig.)

  15. Precocious puberty with hypothalamic hamartoma and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Cambiaso, P; Cappa, M

    2009-10-01

    Two girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH), are reported. Case 1. The first patient, who showed at age around 4 years the onset of CPP, was submitted in view of some organic lesion to magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain which documented the presence of HH. The remarkable acceleration of bone age (BA) advanced of 3 SD and some clinical signs of hyperandrogenism suggested the coexistence of NCAH, proved by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test and molecular analysis. She resulted carrier of partial 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Case 2. In the second girl with CPP, aged 6.5 years, the remarkable advancement (4 SD) of bone age (BA) alerted to adrenal involvement. ACTH stimulation test and molecular analysis showed NACH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Brain MRI, performed mainly for severe headache, showed the presence of HH. Yearly brain MRI to monitor HH dimensions and neurological examination with EEG, in order to exclude anomalies referable to gelastic epilepsy are advisable, in both cases. The authors' observation emphasizes the need to be careful in young patients with CPP, with fast progression of pubertal development and remarkable BA advancement. The association of CPP with HH and NCAH should be considered, performing not only MRI of the brain, but also ACTH test, beside LHRH test for the diagnosis of CPP. At the authors' knowledge this association has not been reported so far. Further observations are needed to understand if this rare combination is occasional or genetically determined.

  16. Cardiac CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combine these pictures to create a three-dimensional (3D) model of the whole heart. This imaging test ... findings from earlier chest x rays. Different CT scanners are used for different purposes. A multidetector CT ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous contrast material is used, you ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  8. Rhabdomyomatous (Mesenchymal Hamartoma Presenting as Haemangioma on the Upper Lip: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Analysis and Treatment with High-Power Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluana Dal Vechio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyomatous hamartoma is a rare disease that occurs predominantly in the skin. This paper describes a congenital lesion in a 17-year-old male, who came to our clinic presenting a circumscribed swelling involving the oral mucosa and vermillion border of the upper lip, purplish in color, and blanching under pressure. The patient reported that he had had lesion since his birth. A clinical diagnosis was of congenital haemangioma, and the patient was treated by photocoagulation using diode laser. When the lesion became smaller, by having its blood content reduced, the upper portion of the lesion was sliced off with CO2 laser and the tissue was sent for microscopic analysis. Histopathological examination showed an oral mucosa fragment with proliferation of striated muscle bundles admixed with small blood vessels, collagen, and nerve fibres. A supplementary analysis with immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for desmin, HHF35, smooth muscle actin, S-100, and CD34. Based on these findings, the lesion was diagnosed as rhabdomyomatous hamartoma. The aesthetic result has been very satisfactory after a 14-month followup.

  9. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  10. CT angiography and CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeters, T. van

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography and CT perfusion are used in patients with acute ischemic stroke for diagnostic purposes and to select patients for treatment. In this thesis, the reproducibility of CT angiography and CT perfusion is examined, the additional value of CT angiography and CT perfusion for stroke outcome

  11. 结节性硬化症的CT诊断价值%Value of CT diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷文兵; 汪大武; 张子林

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨CT在结节性硬化诊断中的价值.方法 回顾性分析9例结节性硬化症患者的CT 资料.结果 9例患者均可见侧脑室周围的钙化结节,2例皮层及皮层下多发结节,2例合并肾脏错构瘤.结论 室管膜下多发钙化结节为结节性硬化症在脑内的典型CT表现,对诊断该病具有重要价值.%Objective To explore the value of CT in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis ( TSC ). Methods The CT performance of 9 patients with tuberous sclerosis was analysed retrospectively. Results Of 9 cases, periventricular calcified nodules were seen in all patients, multiple nodules in 2 cases of cortical and subcortical, renal hamartoma in 2 patients. Conclusion Multiple subependymal calcified nodules is a typical CT findings of tuberous sclerosis in brain, and it is of great value to the diagnosis of the disease.

  12. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  13. PET/CT Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett, Todd M.; Mehta, Ajeet S.; Mehta, Amar S.; Laymon, Charles M; Carney, Jonathan; Townsend, David W.

    2011-01-01

    There are several artifacts encountered in PET/CT imaging, including attenuation correction (AC) artifacts associated with using CT for attenuation correction. Several artifacts can mimic a 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) avid malignant lesions and therefore recognition of these artifacts is clinically relevant. Our goal was to identify and characterize these artifacts and also discuss some protocol variables that may affect image quality in PET/CT.

  14. Lingual leiomyomatous hamartoma with bifid tip and ankyloglossia in a patient without oral-facial-digital syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Liang; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Tai, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Wang, Ling-Feng

    2013-09-16

    Here is a rare case of lingual leiomyomatous hamartoma (LLH) with bifid tongue tip and tongue-tie in a patient with non-oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS). A 29-year-old male consulted for a painless tumor over the midline of the tongue dorsum measuring 2 × 1.5 cm. The tumor was excised and the tongue-tie was corrected. Diagnosis of LLH was based on histo-pathologic and immuno-histochemical studies. The epidemiologic data and differential diagnosis of LLH, as well as related literature, are discussed. To date, only 14 cases of LLH have been reported in English literature. This may be the first reported case of LLH with bifid tip and ankyloglossia in a non-OFDS patient.

  15. Hypocellular Plaque-Like CD34-Positive Dermal Fibroma (Medallion-Like Dermal Dendrocyte Hamartoma) Presenting as a Skin-Colored Dermal Nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutgi, Krishna A J; Chitgopeker, Pooja; Ciliberto, Heather; Stone, Mary S

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibromas, also known as medallion-like dermal dendrocyte hamartomas (MDDHs), are a recently recognized group of congenital and acquired spindle cell neoplasms that may appear histologically similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Recognizing the clinical heterogeneity of this neoplasm and the subtle pathologic differences are crucial to making the correct diagnosis and avoiding the aggressive surgical intervention required to treat a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. We present the case of a 9-year-old girl with an acquired variant of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma without clinical epidermal change. Our case expands the clinical spectrum to include an acquired variant of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma without clinical epidermal change. Examination of more cases is needed to determine whether all clinical variants are truly subtypes of the same neoplasm or represent distinct CD34-positive spindle cell proliferations.

  16. Multiple papillomavirus-associated epidermal hamartomas and squamous cell carcinomas in situ in a dog following chronic treatment with prednisone and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mary Beth; Preziosi, Diane; Mauldin, Elizabeth

    2005-10-01

    A 4-year-old, spayed female toy fox terrier developed multiple epidermal hamartomas and squamous cell carcinomas in situ following chronic immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and cyclosporine for management of an immune-mediated nonregenerative anaemia. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for papillomavirus antigen within both benign (n = 19) and malignant (n = 8) cutaneous lesions that developed during a 3-year period of observation, with positive staining most often seen in keratinocytes in the granular cell layer. Treatment of the papillomavirus infection with interferon-alpha was discontinued after 2 weeks because of diarrhoea and a further increase in liver enzymes. The cutaneous lesions of this dog persisted and new lesions developed during the year following discontinuation of both cyclosporine and prednisone. This is the first reported case of papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma in situ developing in a dog following chronic administration of cyclosporine and prednisone.

  17. Hamartomas, teratomas and teratocarcinosarcomas of the head and neck: Report of 3 new cases with clinico-pathologic correlation, cytogenetic analysis, and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiatt William M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-cell tumors (GCT are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body. The head and neck region including the upper respiratory tract is a very rare location for such tumors in both children and adults, which can cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Methods We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm. We correlate their presenting clinico-pathological features and compare histologic and cytogenetic features in an attempt to elucidate their pathogenesis and biologic potentials. Results and discussion Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities only in the case of SNTCS that showed trisomy 12 and 1p deletion. Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm. The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential. Conclusion The comparison of these three cases should serve to emphasize the diversity of multilineage tumors (hamartomas and GCT of the upper respiratory tract in regards to their biology, age of presentation and clinical outcomes. Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.

  18. Hepatic tumors in children: Spiral CT findings and their significance for differential diagnosis; Lebertumoren bei Kindern: Spiral-CT-Befunde und ihre differentialdiagnostische Einordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzberg, C.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E. [Universitaetsklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    1998-05-01

    Liver tumors in childhood are rare. They can be subdivided in benign or primary and secundary malignent liver tumors. The prognosis of malignant liver disease has improved due to extended therapy in the past few years. Thus, diagnosis of liver tumors in childhood gains in significance. After a suspect ultrasound diagnosis, usually computed tomography (CT) is used as a radiologic sectioning method. Guided by a retrospective analysis of 15 cases, the importance of the Helical-CT is presented. Helical-CT is a good diagnostic method for pediatric cases due to reduced scan times. By the basis of clinical data, distribution, and density, various differential diagnoses can be made. Benign liver tumors, especially cysts and frequently haemangioma, can easily be diagnosed and controlled because of their typical echogenicity and contrast visualisation. In cases of hamartoma, focal nodal hyperplasia, and adenoma computed tomography diagnosis is often necessary. Primary malignant liver tumors can prove to be unilocular hepatoblastomas or hepatocellular carcinomas, while disseminated liver invasions usually are considered as metastatic liver tumors of kidney or adrenal cancer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Lebertumoren bei Kindern sind sehr selten. Man unterscheidet gutartige, primaer und sekundaer maligne Lebertumoren. Die Prognose maligner Lebererkrankungen hat sich aufgrund erweiterter Therapiemoeglichkeiten in den letzten Jahren zunehmend gebessert. Dadurch gewinnt die Diagnostik kindlicher Leberturmoren wieder an Bedeutung. In der Regel wird nach einem Verdachtsbefund im Ultraschall die Computertomographie (CT) als radiologisches Schnittbildverfahren eingesetzt. Anhand von 15 retrospektiv analysierten Faellen soll die Bedeutung der Spiral-CT dargestellt werden. Die Spiral-CT ist aufgrund ihrer kurzen Scanzeit besonders gut fuer paediatrische Fragestellungen geeignet. Anhand von klinischen Daten, Verteilungsmustern und Dichteverhalten lassen sich verschiedene Differentialdiagnosen

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. CT is the most reliable imaging ...

  1. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  2. CT of tracheal agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J.; Hernandez, Ramiro J. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Newman, Beverley [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Department of Pediatric Radiology; Afshani, Ehsan [Children' s Hospital of Buffalo, NY (United States). Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics; Bommaraju, Mahesh [Women' s and Children' s Hospital of Buffalo, Division of Neonatology, University Pediatrics Associates, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Tracheal agenesis is a rare and usually lethal anomaly. In the past, opaque contrast medium was injected via the esophagus to demonstrate the anatomy. To demonstrate the utility of helical and multidetector CT in delineating the aberrant anatomy in newborns with tracheal agenesis. Four newborns with tracheal agenesis were identified from three institutions. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Each child was imaged with chest radiography. One child was imaged on a single-detector helical CT scanner and the other three on multidetector scanners. Helical and multidetector CT with 2D and 3D reconstructions clearly delineated the aberrant tracheobronchial and esophageal anatomy in each infant. Minimum intensity projection reformatted CT images were particularly helpful. One infant each had type I and type II tracheal agenesis. Two infants had type III tracheal agenesis. All four infants died. CT is a useful tool for delineating the aberrant anatomy of newborns with tracheal agenesis and thus helps in making rational clinical decisions. (orig.)

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. CT imaging provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT is used to help diagnose a ... the CT examination. top of page What does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically ...

  5. Compound heterozygosity for a frame shift mutation and a likely pathogenic sequence variant in the planar cell polarity—ciliogenesis gene WDPCP in a girl with polysyndactyly, coarctation of the aorta, and tongue hamartomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark A; Yu, Hung-Chun; Bellus, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    We report on a young girl with polysyndactyly, coarctation of the aorta, and tongue hamartomas. These features are similar to those reported in individuals with variant forms of orofaciodigital syndrome known as congenital heart defects, hamartomas of the tongue and polysyndactly (CHDHTP: OMIM 217085) [Örstavik et al., 1992] and orocardiodigital syndrome [Digilio et al., 1996]. Whole exome sequencing revealed that she is a compound heterozygote for a frame shift mutation and a likely pathogenic sequence variant in WDPCP, a gene that regulates planar cell polarity and ciliogenesis. Results of genotyping in her parents and unaffected siblings were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance of the mutation and the WDPCP variant. These results suggest that disruption of planar cell polarity and ciliogenesis may result in this unusual form of orofaciodigital syndrome.

  6. CT scan of choristoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriki, A.; Morimoto, M.; Sada, Y.; Kurisaka, M.; Mori, K.

    1987-02-01

    Choristoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the pituitary gland. The case presented here is a 44-year-old male. A plain CT scan demonstrated a slight high-density mass near the posterior clinoid of the sella turcica, while a moderate and homogeneous enhancing effect and a clear borderline were shown by an enhanced CT scan. A cornal CT scan study showed that the tumor extended from the intrasellar to the suprasellar region. The diagnosis of choristoma was made by means of histology.

  7. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  9. Chest CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can combine these pictures to create three-dimensional (3D) models to help show the size, shape, and ... a medical imaging facility or hospital. The CT scanner is a large, tunnel-like machine that has ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... have diabetes —particularly if you are taking Glucophage . Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  13. CT head in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma, E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bekhit, Elhamy, E-mail: elhamy.bekhit@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Ramanauskas, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.ramanauskas@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kumbla, Surekha, E-mail: surekha.kumbla@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    The advances in computerized technology (CT) technique over the last few decades have greatly modified imaging protocols in children. The range of pathologies that can now be demonstrated has broadened with the advent of newer techniques such as CT perfusion and the ability to perform complex reconstructions. Increasing speed of scanning and reduction in scan time have influenced the need for sedation and general anaesthetic as well as impacting on motion artefact. Additionally, concerns about radiation safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation have further impacted on the inclusion of CT in the imaging armamentarium. Justification and image optimisation are essential. It is important to familiarize oneself with the appearances of normal variants or age related developmental changes. CT does however remain an appropriate investigation in a number of conditions.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ... remain still during the exam. Many scanners are fast enough that children can be scanned without sedation. ...

  15. CT- and MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Bülow, Steffen; Rosenberg, J

    2002-01-01

    . Lately, CT- and MR colonography have emerged as non-invasive methods for colon imaging. METHODS: At present, CTC and MRC require bowel preparation. However, preliminary studies have been carried out without colon preparation. After the colon has been filled with air or contrast, the patient is scanned....... CONCLUSIONS: With the exponential development in computer processing power, CT- and MR colonography holds the promise for future colon examination with the advantages of non-invasiveness, no need for sedation, and probably no bowel preparation. A major disadvantage, however, is the radiation dose during CT...... colonography. Future developments with the use of "intelligent" computers, better resolution and faster examinations will make CT and/or MR colonography realistic options to replace conventional diagnostic colonoscopy....

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  2. Lumbosacral spine CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Broken bone CT scan Cyst Herniated disk Osteoarthritis Osteomalacia Tumor Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ... hours beforehand, as contrast material will be used in your exam. You should inform your physician of ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... is painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining if the sinuses ... CT scan of the sinuses, the patient is most commonly positioned lying flat on the back. The ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used to help ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... cavity. CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining ... parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows ...

  11. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... your breath for short periods of time. The scan should take only 10 to 15 minutes.

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  13. CT- and MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Bülow, Steffen; Rosenberg, J

    2002-01-01

    . Lately, CT- and MR colonography have emerged as non-invasive methods for colon imaging. METHODS: At present, CTC and MRC require bowel preparation. However, preliminary studies have been carried out without colon preparation. After the colon has been filled with air or contrast, the patient is scanned...... colonography. Future developments with the use of "intelligent" computers, better resolution and faster examinations will make CT and/or MR colonography realistic options to replace conventional diagnostic colonoscopy....

  14. CT of pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  15. Aspectos ultra-sonográficos dos hamartomas dos ductos biliares (complexo de von Meyenburg: resultado de uma busca ativa de oito anos Ultrasonography findings in patients with bile duct hamartomas (von Meyenburg complex: result of an active search of eight years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martins Machado

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A correta identificação de tumores hepáticos benignos é importante, pois a maioria não necessita de conduta intervencionista. Os autores relatam os aspectos ultra-sonográficos dos hamartomas de ductos biliares (complexo de von Meyenburg em 16 pacientes estudados prospectivamente, resultados de uma busca ativa de oito anos. Em 14 pacientes foram identificadas múltiplas lesões menores ou iguais a 0,8 cm, e em dois, apenas duas lesões em cada (medindo de 0,4 cm a 1,3 cm. O aspecto ultra-sonográfico que predominou foi o de múltiplas pequenas imagens hiperecogênicas com ou sem reverberação sonora posterior e margens irregulares (14 pacientes. Menos comumente, foi encontrado o aspecto "em alvo", com centro com maior ecogenicidade que a periferia (dois pacientes com duas lesões cada e margens bem definidas.The recognition and identification of benign liver tumors is important since most of these tumors do not require any intervention. The authors report the ultrasonography findings in 16 patients with bile duct hamartomas (von Meyenburg complex that were evaluated prospectively by an active search of eight years. Multiple lesions with size equal or less than 0.8 cm were identified in 14 patients. Two other patients had only two lesions measuring 0.4 cm to 1.3 cm. The most common ultrasonographic pattern was that of multiple small hyperechogenic lesions (with or without posterior acoustic reverberation with irregular margins (14 patients. A less common finding (two patients with two lesions each was the "target" pattern with echogenic center and well defined limits.

  16. CT of thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S.; Higashihara, T.; Morimoto, S.; Ikezoe, J.; Arisawa, J. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    Based on 17 patients with thymoma (8 with myasthenia gravis and 9 free from it); 1. The effectiveness of CT, conventional radiography and pneumomediastinography in the detection of thymomas was determined and the results compared. 2. The CT findings of thymomas were discussed and the CT features which seemed to suggest malignant thymomas were evaluated. The results were as follows: 1. Of the 17 cass with thymomas, 13 were diagnosed from p-a films, 13 from lateral films, and 16 from CT. Of the 16 thymomas, 14 were diagnosed from lateral tomography. Mass densities were shown in all 15 cases in which pneumomediastinography were performed. 2. Benign thymomas showed round or oval smoothly marginated mass. The fatty plane between the mass and the mediastinal structures was nicely preserved. 3. Malignant thymoma frequently showed a plaque-like mass with more or less irregular or lobulated contours with obliteration of the fatty planes of the cardiovascular structures. Tumor calcification was shown in 4 of 10 malignant thymomas. 4. Slight tumor invasion to the mediastinal pleura and lung was difficult to predict from the CT images.

  17. Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome: Spontaneous Partial Resolution of Traction Caused by Epiretinal Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vicente, José L.; Rueda, Trinidad; Rodríguez de la Rúa-Franch, Enrique; Molina-Socola, Fredy E.; Vital-Berral, Cristina; Alfaro-Juárez, Asunción; López-Herrero, Fernando; Muñoz-Morales, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the case of spontaneous resolution of epiretinal membrane in a patient with Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium (CHR-RPE), in the clinical context of Gorlin Syndrome (GS). Methods. Observational case report of a 12-year-old female patient is presented. The diagnosis of CHRRPE was made by OCT and fundus examination, which showed a mound of disorganized tissue originating from retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Epiretinal membrane (EM) was also detected. Genetic study was performed to confirm the diagnosis of GS. Results. The patient was observed for 39 months, showing spontaneous resolution of the traction caused by the EM and improvement in visual acuity (VA), which was 20/80 at initial presentation, rising to 20/40 after follow-up period. Conclusions. The presence of EM in CHR-REP is a cause of reduction of visual acuity. Management of this condition is controversial; however, we would like to highlight that spontaneous resolution of the traction caused by EM is possible, resulting in recovery of VA. PMID:27595027

  18. CT findings of fibromatoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Nam; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Shin, Hyun Jun [Lee Rha Hospital, Chung Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Fibromatoses constitute a group of benign fibroblastic soft tissue tumors with a tendency for local invasion and recurrence. CT provides excellent anatomic detail of soft tissue tumors and precise location, size, and extent of the tumors. The authors evaluated 7 CT scans of 6 pathologically proven aggressive fibromatoses during the last 4 years. Five lesions arose in the lower extremities: 4 in the buttocks and 1 in the thigh. One lesion arose in the upper back. The tumors were lobulated in contour and varied in size from 3.7 cm to 10.7 cm. Fibromatosis tumors were usually hypodense with muscle when no contrast medium was used and hyperdense with better delineation during infusion of the contrast medium. Three patients had recurrent disease after surgical removal. Fibromatosis may infiltrate the surrounding tissue beyond the margins, indicated on CT scans and by palpation at operation. Therefore the surgeon should plan a wide resection around the apparent limits of the fibromatosis.

  19. CT urography and hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    (15%) other disease (i.e. infection or anomaly) was found. No abnormalities were found at CT urography in 455 (58%) of the patients with hematuria. Lesions were found more frequently in patients with visible hematuria than in patients with non-visible hematuria (48% vs. 29%). No malignant tumor...

  20. Hepatic angiosarcoma: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 章士正; 华建明

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is very difficult if the patient does not have any history of exposure to specific carcinogens including thorotrast, arsenicals and vinyl chloride monomer. We describe CT findings in two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in combination with a review of the literature.

  1. CT image of thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Nobuo; Shudo, Yuji; Jahana, Masanobu; Matsuki, Tsutomu; Kotani, Kazuhiko (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-10-01

    Computor tomographic images of 11 patients who had had thymectomy for myasthenia gravis or thymoma were studied retrospectively. Of those 11 patients, malignant thymoma and benign condition including normal thymus were 6 and 5 respectively. On CT, calcification and lobulation with irregular margin seem to be reliable findings of malignancy. Defect or abscence of fatty plane and non-homogenous density are ancillary.

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  5. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... sensitive to radiation, they should have a CT study only if it is essential for making a ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special x-ray equipment ... period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... Sometimes ultrasound is substituted for CT as a method of imaging in these procedures in children. A ...

  11. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Anal Cancer Facet Joint Block Video: CT of the Heart ... Therapy Video: CT of the Sinuses Video: Colorectal Cancer Screening Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video ...

  12. Seventh-generation CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, G. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new dual-drum CT system architecture has been recently introduced with the potential to achieve significantly higher temporal resolution than is currently possible in medical imaging CT. The concept relies only on known technologies; in particular rotation speeds several times higher than what is possible today could be achieved leveraging typical x-ray tube designs and capabilities. However, the architecture lends itself to the development of a new arrangement of x-ray sources in a toroidal vacuum envelope containing a rotating cathode ring and a (optionally rotating) shared anode ring to potentially obtain increased individual beam power as well as increase total exposure per rotation. The new x-ray source sub-system design builds on previously described concepts and could make the provision of multiple conventional high-power cathodes in a CT system practical by distributing the anode target between the cathodes. In particular, relying on known magnetic-levitation technologies, it is in principle possible to more than double the relative speed of the electron-beam with respect to the target, thus potentially leading to significant individual beam power increases as compared to today's state-of-the-art. In one embodiment, the proposed design can be naturally leveraged by the dual-drum CT concept previously described to alleviate the problem of arranging a number of conventional rotating anode-stem x-ray tubes and power conditioners on the limited space of a CT gantry. In another embodiment, a system with three cathodes is suggested leveraging the architecture previously proposed by Franke.

  13. Technical aspects of CT scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, K R; Pastel, M S

    1978-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) has initiated a technological revolution which continues to the present time. A brief review of basic principles of CT scanning is presented, and the evolution of modern CT scanner systems is traced. Some early indications of future trends are also presented.

  14. Venous thromboembolic disease. CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, L. R. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Pulmonary Medicine and Intensive Care, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Helical and multidetector CT has proven to be a valuable imaging modality for both pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. This paper will review the sensitivity and specificity of CT and discuss diagnostic algorithms utilizing CT and more established imaging technologies.

  15. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions.

  16. 肾脏巨大错构瘤的超声诊断探讨%Discussion on the diagnosisudy of giant renal hamartoma with color Doppler ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清连; 张灌生; 钟跃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of color Doppler ultrasound on the diagnosis of giant (larger than 10cm) renal hamartoma (GRH). Methods Ultrasonic images of 9 cases with GRH confirmed by pathology after operation were retrospectively studied. Results 7 cases were diagnosed correctly by ultrasound (7/9), 1 case were mistaken as renal carcinoma (1/9) and 1 case was mistaken as adrenal gland fat tumor (1/9) in ultrasound diagnosis. The GRH shape was ellipse with clear margins. The GRH were showed high echo in 6 cases, middle echo in 2 cases and low echo in 1 case. That high alternate with low echoes were composed "stripe sign" were observed in all high echo and middle echo GRH, and there were a few bloodstream signal in these masses. The low echo GRH were not observed "stripe sign", and there were more bloodstream signal. That the protruding parts of GRH pressed the kidneys to form "press sign" were observed in all cases. The GRH with spontaneous rupture were observed cystic area in 2 cases. Both kidneys had many high echo small hamartoma sign in 6 cases. Conclusion The GRH has some features in ultrasonic images, color Doppler ultrasound has important diagnostic value for GRH, it could be considered as the first diagnostic method before operation.%目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声诊断肾脏巨大错构瘤(最大径线大于10cm)的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析经手术病理证实的9例肾脏巨大错构瘤的超声检查资料,并对其超声表现特征进行分析.结果 9例肾脏巨大错构瘤超声诊断正确7例(77.78%),1例误诊为肾癌(11.11%),1例误诊为肾上腺脂肪瘤(11.11%).肾脏巨大错构瘤的声像大致呈椭圆形,轮廓清晰,6例呈高回声,2例呈中等回声,1例呈低回声.高回声及中等回声肿块内皆观察到了高低回声相间的“条纹征”,且肿块内血流稀少.低回声肿块内未见“条纹征”,血流较多.9例肾脏巨大错构瘤皆观察到了肿瘤的外突部分对

  17. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie; Spandorfer, Adam; Laghi, Andrea; De Cecco, Carlo N

    2016-10-01

    Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  18. CT classification of acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B.; Porcellini, B.; Robotti, G.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of computed tomography (CT) in classifying acetabular fractures was analysed retrospectively in 33 cases. CT and plain radiography classification agreed in 27 cases (82%). CT revealed more extensive fractures in 6 patients (thereof 5 patients with associated fractures). In 10 patients (thereof 9 patients with associated fractures) CT showed intraarticular fragments; radiographically intraarticular fragments were seen only in 2 patients and suspected in 4. CT is of considerable aid in defining the fracture pattern. It should be used mainly in patients with radiographically difficult interpretable associated fractures in order to assess preoperatively the weight-bearing part of the acetabulum, the degree of displacement and the presence of intraarticular fragments.

  19. Helical CT for lumbosacral spinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kunihiko [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of helical CT for lumbosacral pathology. We performed helical CT with multiplanar reconstruction, including the formation of oblique transaxial and coronal images, in 62 patients with various lumboscral disorders, including 32 non-enhanced CT and 36 CT after myelography. We correlated the appearance of the stenotic spinal canal and neoplastic disease with the findings on MRI obtained at nearly the same time. We obtained helical CT images in all cases in about 30 seconds. The diagnostic ability of helical CT was roughly equal to that of MRI in patients with spondylosis deformans, spondylolisthesis and herniated nucleus pulposus. There was no significant difference in diagnostic value for degenerative lumbosacral disease with canal and foraminal stenosis between non-enhanced and post-myelography helical CT. However, non-enhanced helical CT could not clearly demonstrate neoplastic disease because of the poor contrast resolution. Helical CT was useful in evaluating degenerative disorder and its diagnostic value was nearly equal to that of MRI. We considered that helical CT may be suitable for the assessment of patients with severe lumbago owing to the markedly shortened examination time. However, if helical CT is used as a screening method for lumbosacral disease, one must be careful of its limitations, for example, poor detectability of neoplastic disease, vascular anomalies and so on. (author)

  20. CT colonography: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, Andrik J.; Ernst, Andrea S.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus S. [University Hospitals of Ulm, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Computed tomographic (CT) colonography (CTC) - also known as ''virtual colonoscopy'' - was first described more than a decade ago. As advancements in scanner technology and three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing helped develop this method to mature into a potential option in screening for colorectal cancer, the fundamentals of the examination remained the same. It is a minimally invasive, CT-based procedure that simulates conventional colonoscopy using 2D and 3D computerized reconstructions. The primary aim of CTC is the detection of colorectal polyps and carcinomas. However, studies reveal a wide performance variety in regard to polyp detection, especially for smaller polyps. This article reviews the available literature, discusses established indications as well as open issues and highlights potential future developments of CTC. (orig.)

  1. CT of pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshio (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and two cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were studied by computed tomography. Fluid collection was detected by CT in 45 cases, and the common extrapancreatic sites of involvement included the lesser sac (13 cases), anterior pararenal space (9 cases), transverse mesocolon (7 cases) and posterior pararenal space (5 cases). Ten cases of spontaneous resolution of pancreatic pseudocysts were encountered. Cystojejunostomy was done on 6 patients. A 4-to-6-weeks time interval has been currently accepted as necessary for pseudocyst wall maturation. However, the surgery was not possible in two patients in this series since the cyst wall was too thin. It is considered that the time over 3 months is required for surgical anastomosis of the cyst to the gastrointestinal tract. Pancreatic abscess has become the most common cause of death from pancreatitis. In this series pancreatic abscess occurred in 8 patients. Gas collection in the pancreas was observed in only one patient. In the other patients, pseudocysts had become infected and converted to abscesses. The CT number of 4 infected pseudocysts was less than 15 HU. Thus, it was not possible to distinguish infected from noninfected pseudocysts by CT. The author studied 9 patients with focal inflammatory mass of the pancreas with histologically proved severe fibrosis. All masses were small. Angiography showed occlusion or marked stenosis of the splenic vein in 3 cases. The postcontract CT (after intravenous bolus injection) in 7 cases of focal inflammatory mass demonstrated almost equal enhanced effect of the mass as compared with the adjacent normal pancreatic parenchyma. This finding is considered to be useful in distinguishing inflammatory mass from pancreatic carcinoma. (author).

  2. The Appendix on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, S. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: siobhanwhitley@yahoo.co.uk; Sookur, P.; McLean, A.; Power, N. [Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Appendicitis can be a difficult clinical diagnosis to make. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20% has traditionally been accepted as the consequences of appendiceal perforation can be grave. Cross-sectional imaging is increasingly being employed in the investigation of adults with suspected appendicitis. This review will demonstrate the appearance of the normal appendix on computed tomography (CT) and its appearance in a range of inflammatory and neoplastic processes including appendicitis, Crohn's disease, infections, and benign and malignant tumour000.

  3. CT protocol review and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, James M; Cody, Dianna D; Morin, Richard L

    2014-03-01

    To reduce the radiation dose associated with CT scans, much attention is focused on CT protocol review and improvement. In fact, annual protocol reviews will soon be required for ACR CT accreditation. A major challenge in the protocol review process is determining whether a current protocol is optimal and deciding what steps to take to improve it. In this paper, the authors describe methods for pinpointing deficiencies in CT protocols and provide a systematic approach for optimizing them. Emphasis is placed on a team approach, with a team consisting of at least one radiologist, one physicist, and one technologist. This core team completes a critical review of all aspects of a CT protocol and carefully evaluates proposed improvements. Changes to protocols are implemented only with consensus of the core team, with consideration of all aspects of the CT examination, including image quality, radiation dose, patient care and safety, and workflow.

  4. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  5. Modern CT and PET/CT imaging of the liver; Moderne CT- und PET/CT-Bildgebung der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, J.; Heusner, T.A.; Riegger, C.; Reichelt, D.; Kuhlemann, J.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D. [Medizinische Fakultaet, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is now widely available and represents an important and rapid method for the diagnostics of acute liver disease, characterization of focal liver lesions, planning of interventional therapy measures and postintervention control. In recent years CT has not become less important despite the increasing value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By the use of different contrast medium phases good characterization of space-occupying lesions can be achieved. For the diagnostics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) a triphasic examination protocol should always be implemented. The introduction of dual energy CT increased the sensitivity of imaging of hypervascularized and hypovascularized liver lesions and by the use of virtual native imaging it has become possible to avoid additional native imaging which reduces the x-ray exposition of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) has an advantage for imaging in oncology because nearly the complete body of the patient can be screened and this is the main indication for PET/CT (whole-body staging). For purely hepatic problems 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT using diagnostic CT data has a higher precision than CT alone but is inferior to MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Computertomographie (CT) ist heute breit verfuegbar und stellt eine wichtige und schnelle Methode zur Diagnostik akuter Lebererkrankungen, der Artdiagnostik fokaler Leberlaesionen und der Planung interventioneller Therapiemassnahmen sowie der postinterventionellen Kontrolle dar. In den letzten Jahren hat die CT trotz des zunehmenden Stellenwerts der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) nicht an Bedeutung verloren. Durch den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Kontrastmittelphasen kann meist eine gute Charakterisierung von Raumforderungen erfolgen. Bei der Diagnostik des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms (HCC) sollte beispielsweise immer ein triphasisches Untersuchungsprotokoll angewendet werden. Mit Einfuehrung der Dual-energy-CT hat die Sensitivitaet in der

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not fit into the opening of a conventional CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other imaging methods such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging ... obtained by CT scanning. Working together, your primary care physician or ...

  7. Innovations in PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Klausen, T; Høgild Keller, S; Vinter Olesen, O

    2012-01-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with computed tomography (CT). Mostly because of the lack of structural information in PET which makes it difficult to assess the precise location of tissue with metabolic uptake, whereas CT can provide...

  8. The stylohyoid chain: CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal Ramadan, Selma, E-mail: uysalselma@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Goekharman, Dilek, E-mail: gokharman@ttnet.net.t [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Pinar, E-mail: pkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kacar, Mahmut, E-mail: mkacar1961@gamil.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur, E-mail: ugurkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We aimed in this report to discuss the embryology, anatomy, theories of ossification and symptoms, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the stylohyoid chain (SHC) variations, together with the role of radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D)-CT in showing these variations. Because CT/3D-CT additionally facilitates visualization of the entire SHC with different axes, it is the most valuable method for establishing the relationship between the SHC and the surrounding tissue. SHC variation can be discovered during CT performed for indications other than ossified SHC. It is important to diagnose whether or not the SHC is ossified, since one of the treatment procedures in ossified SHC is total excision. If the clinician and radiologist are aware of these variations observed in the SHC, patients with vague symptoms may be spared unnecessary investigations and may be properly diagnosed earlier.

  9. CT colonography. A guide for clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Schima, Wolfgang [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien (Austria). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Wien (Austria); Sankt-Josef-Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The book on CT colonography - a guide for clinical practice - covers the following issues: indications and contraindications, examination; Image interpretation; findings at CT colonography, how to generate a useful report, screening, how to train for CT colonography.

  10. Holoprosencephaly and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, M.; Tamaki, N.; Ebara, K.; Shirakuni, T.; Yamashita, H. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    Holoprosencephaly, so termed by DeMyer, is a cerebral malformation in which the prosencephalon fails to divide into cerebral hemispheres early in fetal life. According to the degree of division in the prosencephalon and the presence of the associated facial anomalies, he classified holoprosencephaly into three types; alobar, semilobar, and lobar. We have had experience with six cases with holoprosencephaly: one alobar, one semilobar, and four lobar. No significant facial abnormalities were found in any case, but one had hyperterolism. All cases had hydrocephalus and had undergone an operation for a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The outcome of the shunt operation in two cases with alobar and semilobar holoprosencephaly was miserable. On the other hand, the cases with lobar type showed a fairly good prognosis. They were only mildly mentally retarded on a follow-up examination. It seemed, therefore, that the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is indicated for this lobar type of holoprosencephaly. For this reason, it is important to make a precise diagnosis before any shunt operation. CT is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure for evaluating the intracranial structures of holoprosencephaly: the degree of division in the prosencephalon, the ventricular configuration, the dorsal sac, and the absence of falx. When the hydrocephalus associated with this disease is severe, the interhemispheric fissure is not clearly delineated, and it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate the semilobar from the lobar type of holoprosencephaly. The course of the azygos anterior cerebral artery on angiograms is useful in distinguishing one from the other. It is hoped that a multi-directional approach on CT will reveal a more precise structure of holoprosencephaly and that a definitive diagnosis can be made without angiography or other invasive procedures.

  11. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  12. SPECT-CT and PET-CT progress in the research of computer analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of multimodal imaging equipment is milestone in the development of imaging, after the PET-CT, American GE company launched a Discovery 670 NM/CT, CT and SPECT, the organic integration of the formation of SPECT-CT new molecular medical imaging equipment, with SPECT, CT and PET-CT is getting more and more widely attention and application, many of SPECT-CT and PET-CT image analysis computer method arises at the historic moment, getting increasing attention of the clinical and imaging science. The paper carried on the detailed description of the SPECT-CT and PET-CT computer analysis method.

  13. CT of thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posniak, H V; Olson, M C; Demos, T C; Benjoya, R A; Marsan, R E

    1990-09-01

    Aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are most often the result of arteriosclerotic disease. Other causes include degeneration of the medial layer of the aortic wall, either idiopathically or due to genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome; aortic dissection; trauma; syphilis and other bacterial infection; noninfective aortitis; and congenital anomaly. We review normal anatomy of the aorta and discuss our technique and interpretation of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of the thoracic aorta. We illustrate the CT appearance of different types of aortic aneurysms as well as discuss the use of CT for assessing complications of aneurysms, for postoperative follow-up, and in the differentiation of aortic aneurysm from a paraaortic mass.

  14. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School; Mizutani, Masaru [and others

    1998-11-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  15. Optimization of Protocol CT, PET-CT, whole body; Optimizacion de protocolo CT, en PET-CT, de cuerpo entero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Fredys Santos, E-mail: fsantos@ccss.sa.cr [Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (ACCPR/CCSS), San Jose (Costa Rica). Area Control de Calidade Y Proteccion Radiologica; Namias, Mauro, E-mail: mnamias@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (FCDN/CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Fundacion Centro Diagnostico Nuclear

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the acquisition protocols and processing existing of the CT PET/CT scanner for clinical use of Nuclear Diagnostic Center Foundation, a way to minimize the radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality properly. Dosimetric data of PET / CT service were surveyed and obtained the baseline against which we compare and define strategies and modifications to develop online. We selected transaxial up to the pulmonary hilum and liver slices as the anatomical regions of interest that led to the standardization of the study.

  16. Errors in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilisky, Igor; Ward, Emily; Dachman, Abraham H

    2015-10-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a colorectal cancer screening modality which is becoming more widely implemented and has shown polyp detection rates comparable to those of optical colonoscopy. CTC has the potential to improve population screening rates due to its minimal invasiveness, no sedation requirement, potential for reduced cathartic examination, faster patient throughput, and cost-effectiveness. Proper implementation of a CTC screening program requires careful attention to numerous factors, including patient preparation prior to the examination, the technical aspects of image acquisition, and post-processing of the acquired data. A CTC workstation with dedicated software is required with integrated CTC-specific display features. Many workstations include computer-aided detection software which is designed to decrease errors of detection by detecting and displaying polyp-candidates to the reader for evaluation. There are several pitfalls which may result in false-negative and false-positive reader interpretation. We present an overview of the potential errors in CTC and a systematic approach to avoid them.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ... the need for sedation and general anesthesia. New technologies that will make even faster scanning possible are ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner is typically a large machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. A moveable ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ...

  20. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics.

  1. CT Perfusion of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT scanning combines special x-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... of imaging in these procedures in children. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... materials and a metallic taste in his/her mouth that lasts for a few minutes. Occasionally, a ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the chest x-ray, CT is the most commonly used imaging procedure for evaluating the chest. ... scanning, especially if the chest is being scanned. Most children older than six years are able to ...

  8. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain ... evaluate blood vessels throughout the body. With CT, it is possible to obtain very detailed pictures of ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you today about computed tomography colonography or, as it is more commonly known, virtual colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy ... might have some concerns about CT scanning. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit from ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ... or pediatrician and the radiologist will decide which type of examination is best for your child. top ...

  12. Tumor raro em mediastino: hamartoma

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Saad Júnior; José Donato de Próspero; Roberto Gonçalves; Jorge Henrique Rivaben; Fabiano Alves Squeff

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we report a case of mediastinal tumor which we believe has never been reported. Since surgical treatment, the patient presented good evolution. We discuss the presentation, differential diagnosis and therapy. Finally, we stress the importance of the pathologic findings.

  13. CT manifestations of ileal dysgenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhelman, Amy P.; Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Keating, James P. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Rollins, Michael D.; Dillon, Patrick A. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Ileal dysgenesis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in the distal ileum in the region of the vitelline duct. The CT appearance of this lesion, although not previously described to our knowledge, is characteristic. We report a patient with ileal dysgenesis who had an abdominal CT scan to evaluate chronic iron deficiency anemia and protein-losing enteropathy. Recognition of this lesion by pediatric radiologists is important; so that surgical treatment, which is simple and effective, can be initiated quickly. (orig.)

  14. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  15. Radiology for PET/CT reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Fanti, Stefano; Zanoni, Lucia [Univ. Hospital Sant Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-01

    Offers rapid access to slice by slice CT descriptions of anatomical structures from PET/CT studies. Presents images and descriptions of CT findings that may be detected while reviewing PET/CT scans. Includes principal MRI findings in diseases susceptible to PET/CT evaluation. Reading PET/CT scans is sometimes challenging. Not infrequently, abnormal findings on CT images are functionally silent and therefore difficult for nuclear medicine practitioners to interpret. Furthermore, in general only a low-dose CT scan is produced as part of the combined PET/CT study, and the resulting CT images may prove suboptimal for image interpretation. This atlas is designed to enable nuclear medicine practitioners who routinely read PET/CT scans to recognize the most common CT abnormalities. Slice-by-slice descriptions are provided of anatomical structures as visualized on CT scans obtained in PET/CT studies. The CT findings that may be detected while reviewing PET/CT scans of various body regions and conditions are then illustrated and fully described. The concluding section of the book is devoted to the principal MRI findings in diseases which cannot be evaluated using PETs/CTs.

  16. Synthetic Hounsfield units from spectral CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefalk, Hans

    2012-04-01

    Beam-hardening-free synthetic images with absolute CT numbers that radiologists are used to can be constructed from spectral CT data by forming ‘dichromatic’ images after basis decomposition. The CT numbers are accurate for all tissues and the method does not require additional reconstruction. This method prevents radiologists from having to relearn new rules-of-thumb regarding absolute CT numbers for various organs and conditions as conventional CT is replaced by spectral CT. Displaying the synthetic Hounsfield unit images side-by-side with images reconstructed for optimal detectability for a certain task can ease the transition from conventional to spectral CT.

  17. CT of pelvic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchi, Marco E-mail: marcofalchi@yahoo.it; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2004-04-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has become the dominant modality for cross-sectional musculo-skeletal imaging, the widespread availability, speed, and versatility of computed tomography (CT) continue to make it a mainstay of emergency room (ER) diagnostic imaging. Pelvic ring and acetabular fractures occur as the result of significant trauma secondary to either a motor vehicle accident or a high-velocity fall. These injuries are correlated with significant morbidity and mortality, both from the complications of pelvic ring fractures and from commonly associated injuries. The most commonly used classification of pelvic and acetabular fractures has been based on conventional radiographs that are, in the majority of cases, sufficient to determine the type of injury. However, because of the complexity of pelvic and acetabular fractures, precise pathological anatomy is not easily demonstrated by routine radiographs and in many cases details of fractures are not visible. Moreover, the insufficient co-operation of the patient or the difficulty of maintaining special positions can be overcome by using computed tomography. Spiral computed tomography provides information regarding the extent of the fractures and is complementary to radiography for ascertaining the spatial arrangement of fracture fragments. Spiral computed tomography is an effective tool for understanding complex fracture patterns, particularly when combined with multi-planar reconstruction two-dimensional (MPR 2D) reformatted images or three-dimensional images (3D) images. Including these techniques of reconstruction in routine pelvic imaging protocols can change management in a significant number of cases. Subtle fractures, particularly those oriented in the axial plane, are better seen on MPR images or 3D volume-rendered images. Complex injuries can be better demonstrated with 3D volume-rendered images, and complicated spatial information about the relative positions of fracture fragments can be easily

  18. Functional CT of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Yoshito. E-mail: yoshito@xa2.so-net.ne.jp

    1999-06-01

    The iodinated contrast agents used for computed tomography (CT) are filtered at the glomerulus and not reabsorbed by the tubules and have pharmacokinetics comparable to inulin. They can thus measure physiological indices such as contrast clearance per unit volume, which is closely related to glomerular filtration rate per unit renal volume of kidney, after due allowance for the difference between blood and plasma clearance. In this review, we show how dynamic CT can be used to measure both regional and global blood clearance of contrast material. A single slice of kidney is scanned sequentially after bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of contrast material. Next, time-attenuation curves are constructed and contrast clearance per unit volume is calculated using a Patlak graphical analysis. CT determination of renal volume is made and global contrast clearance can be then also calculated. In normal kidneys, clearance/volume averaged 0.49{+-}0.11 ml min{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (mean {+-}S.D.), and these values agreed with literature data obtained using other techniques. A negative correlation between patient's age and clearance/volume was seen. A strong correlation was observed between creatinine whole blood clearance and the global contrast clearance (the product of renal volume determined by CT and contrast clearance/volume). Dynamic CT can provide quantitative renal physiological information on a regional basis non-invasively.

  19. CT finding of cryptococcal meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, H.; Ueda, M.; Ito, K.; Matsuoka, T. (Ohkawara Neurosurgical Hospital, Muroran (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    We have experienced 14 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in the last 6 years. Their neurological signs, CT findings, and prognoses were studied. They fall into three types: the brain-stem-encephalitis type, the cortical-encephalitis type, and the meningitis type, according to the clinical course. The first type (6 cases) revealed mainly cerebellar signs, eye-movement damage, and so forth. The second type (5 cases) demonstrated ''Personality'' changes, chiefly aphasia. The third type (5 cases) did not show any focal signs. Prognosis of the brain-stem-encephalitis type was very poor, with a 50% mortality rate. In the survivors, also, clinical signs did not disappear for a long time. Repeated CT was performed in 13 among the 14 cases; abnormal CT findings were revealed in 5 cases because of cryptococcal infection. Granuloma shadow and ventriculitis shadow were observed in 3 cases each. These abnormal findings disappeared upon treatment except in one case. The clinical signs are not completely related with the CT finding, but it is useful that the site which has been infiltrated by the cryptococcus can be observed. Abnormal CT findings were observed in the 4 cases of the brain-stem-encephalitis type among the 5 abnormal cases. It is very useful to know the severity of the condition.

  20. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  1. CT diagnosis of empty sella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, T.; Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    The CT diagnosis of an empty sella was discussed, using coronal and reconstructed sagittal planes after the intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Results: 1) The diagnosis of an empty sella should be made by noninvasive radiological examination, if possible. Computed Tomography is the most appropriate procedure for the diagnosis of an empty sella. 2) Coronal and reconstructed sagittal CT are of more diagnostic use than axial CT in the diagnosis of an empty sella. 3) At present, we should use metrizamide to eliminate a low-density mass in sella turcica. 4) In the near future, we will be able to make a diagnosis of an empty sella by plain CT alone, using a thinner slice and a higher resolution for low attenuation values. 5) We cannot detect pituitary microadenoma itself by CT in most cases of pituitary adenomas with a coexisting partially empty sella. We should, therefore, use other, detailed neuroradiological investigations if the endocrinologic evaluation of a patient supports the possibility of pituitary adenoma.

  2. CT Imaging: Basics and New Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, Françoise; Engelke, Klaus

    This chapter presents the principle of X-ray CT and its evolution during the last 40 years. The first section describes the physical basis of X-ray CT, tomographic image reconstruction algorithms, and the source of artifacts in X-ray CT images. The second section is devoted to the evolution of CT technology from the first translation-rotation systems to multi-slice spiral CTs currently used today. The next section addresses specific developments of CT technology and applications, like perfusion CT, quantitative CT, and spectral CT. The fourth section introduces the problem of radiation exposure delivered to the patient and its evaluation. Finally the last section addresses the development in micro- and even nano-CT which is a rapidly evolving area in preclinical imaging and biology.

  3. Radiation Doses of Dual-Energy CT for Abdominopelvic CT: Comparison with Single-Energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Seo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Yong Soo; Heo, Jeong Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guro Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To compare radiation doses of dual-energy CT (DECT) to single-energy CT (SECT) by a phantom experiment, with the application of mean tube currents for abdomino-pelvic CT. This study includes patients who were examined by contrast-enhanced CT for kidney evaluation. We divided the patients into six groups according to sex and body mass index. Each group consisted of five patients and a total of 30 patients were evaluated. We split the body parts (abdomen and pelvis), and calculated the mean tube current of each group as well as investigated the image noise. Applying the mean mAs from a CT scan, we measured the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) of DECT and SECT. We compared the measured CTDIw to an estimated CTDI value displayed on the CT console. We also compared the radiation dose ratio of DECT to SECT (D/S ratio) for each subgroup. The radiation doses were compared by the student's t-test and analysis of variance. The difference of image noise between DECT and SECT was not statistically significant. Radiation dose of DECT was higher than SECT by about 21.6% (10.69 mGy, 8.79 mGy; p < 0.0001), and the measured CTDI of the DECT was significantly higher than the estimated CTDI by about 6% (p < 0.001). The D/S ratio was not significant between the six groups. The measured CTDIw of abdominopelvic DECT studies were significantly higher than those of SECT.

  4. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  5. Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Han, Moon Hee E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Keon Ha; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) findings of primary thyroid lymphoma. Methods and material: The clinicopathological data and CT images of nine patients with primary thyroid lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The CT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, a solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, a homogeneously enlarged both thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: All patients had a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One patient showed type 1 pattern, three type 2, and five type 3. Six patients had homogeneous tumor isoattenuating to surrounding muscles. The tumors had a strong tendency to compress normal remnant thyroid and the surrounding structure without invasion. Conclusion: Primary thyroid lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when old female had a homogeneous thyroidal mass isoattenuating to muscles, which does not invade surrounding structures.

  6. CT and HR-CT of exogenous allergic alveolitis. Exogen allergische Alveolitis in CT und HR-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederer, A.; Kullnig, P. (Graz Univ., Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie (Austria)); Pongratz, M. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Lungenkranke)

    1992-09-01

    The CT changes on conventional and high resolution CT in 14 patients with exogeneous allergic alveolitis (EAA) were analysed retrospectively. There were 8 patients with clinically subacute disease, 5 patients in a chronic stage and 1 patient with acute EAA. The appearances and their distribution were examined. Seven of the 8 patients in the subacute stage showed a ground glass pattern and multiple nodules of less than 2 mm. All patients in the chronic stage showed a combination of fine infiltrates, small nodules and irregular linear densities; distortion of the pulmonary pattern was present in 3 cases. The patient with acute EAA showed diffuse dense areas of consolidation in both lungs as well as multiple nodules and a ground glass pattern. The CT appearances of EAA correspond with the basic micropathology and, within the clinical context, permit diagnostic classification. (orig.).

  7. A New Proton CT Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Coutrakon, G; Boi, S; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Rykalin, V; Uzunyan, S A; Zutshi, V; Fordt, R; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P; Naimuddin, M

    2014-01-01

    The design, construction, and preliminary testing of a second generation proton CT scanner is presented. All current treatment planning systems at proton therapy centers use X-ray CT as the primary imaging modality for treatment planning to calculate doses to tumor and healthy tissues. One of the limitations of X-ray CT is in the conversion of X-ray attenuation coefficients to relative (proton) stopping powers, or RSP. This results in more proton range uncertainty, larger target volumes and therefore, more dose to healthy tissues. To help improve this, we present a novel scanner capable of high dose rates, up to 2~MHz, and large area coverage, 20~x~24~cm$^2$, for imaging an adult head phantom and reconstructing more accurate RSP values.

  8. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  9. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Cha, Seong Sook; Han, Sang Suk; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje College, Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a neoplasm of young individuals that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. Authors experienced three cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. On the brain CT scans, all three cases reveal the large, irregular, hyperdense mass lesions with calcifications and cystic or necrotic areas, and show dense heterogeneous contrast enhancement.

  11. CT of retrorenal fluid collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, L.; Demos, T.C.; Posniak, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fluid collections dorsal to one or both kidneys are often observed on CT. Most of these collections are located in the posterior pararenal space, but occasionally fluid collections that do not originate in this space also occur. The authors review retrorenal fluid collections with explanations for their occurrence.

  12. CT findings of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Otsuru, Katsuyasu; Lee, Soichi; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1987-08-01

    Two cases of osteogenesis imperfecta found in one family (father and daughter) are reported, and the CT findings are described. Case 1 is a 58-year-old man who fell and struck his head at home on November 10, 1984. He was transferred to Omuta City Hospital when he became semicomatose and decerebrate posturing was noted. His family history revealed 8 persons with osteogenesis imperfecta. A skull X-ray film showed a large skull vault, many wormian bones at the lambdoid suture, platybasia, and a basilar impression. A CT scan demonstrated a right acute subdural hematoma, while the bone image showed well-developed mastoid air cells and a skull deformity characteristic of osteogenesis imperfecta. He had an emergency operation, and a 170-gr clot was successfully evacuated. A postoperative CT scan demonstrated brain atrophy, possibly present before head trauma. Case 2 is the daughter of Case 1 (a 27-year-old woman). She also showed characteristic neuroradiological manifestations on a plain skull film and on a CT scan. A basilar impression and platybasia were also demonstrated. In this report, the possible mechanism of the production of a traumatic acute subdural hematoma is also discussed.

  13. Evaluation strategies in CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    uncertainty. This investigation includes measurements of two industrial items, an aluminum pipe connector and a plastic toggle, a hearing aid component. These are measured using a commercial CT scanner. Traceability is transferred using tactile and optical coordinate measuring machines, which are used...

  14. CT findings of thymic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ho Son; Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Cho, Kil Ho; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    A CT scan can make accurate diagnoses of most thymic masses by assessing their size, shape, and internal architecture and is especially effective in detecting pleural implants, mediastinal involvement, and pulmonary parenchymal invasion in malignant thymoma. The authors analyzed the CT findings of 10 histologically-proven thymic masses from 1983 to 1990 in Yeungnam University Hospital. There were 10 cases of thymic masses in the anterior mediastinum consisting of 6 benign, 3 invasive thymomas, and one thymolipoma, while myasthenia gravis was associated with 2 cases of benign thymomas and with one case of invasive thymomas. The CT findings of the benign thymomas (6 cases) were well-defined, bordered, round-or oval-shaped masses with a well-preserved fat plane between the thymic mass and mediastinal great vessels, with no evidence of pleural implants and lung parenchymal invasion. The CT findings of the invasive thymomas (3 cases) were irregular, marginated lobular masses with obliteration of the fat plane between the thymic mass and surrounding great vessels, with evidence of local invasion such as extension to A-P window and mass effect to bronchus. Irregular pleural thickening due to pleural metastasis, multiple metastatic lung parenchymal nodules, and multiple mediastinal lymph node enlargement were also seen in the invasive thymomas. One case of thymolipoma showed an approximately 20cm-size, well-defined fat density mass containing internal septations.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × Image Gallery A child being prepared for a CT ... address): From (your name): Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after trauma. Tell your doctor about your child’s medications and ... diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used ...

  18. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, M.C. (Univ. of Miami, FL); Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-08-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months.

  19. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19, ... The ECG is also needed to help the computer that is connected to the CT scanner create ...

  20. CT diagnosis of gall stone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leen, G.L.S.; Finlay, M. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). Dept. of Radiology Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-09-01

    We report a case of gall stone ileus in which only small bowel obstruction was seen on the conventional abdominal film and the diagnosis was made by computed tomography (CT). With the availability of CT and its increasing use in the investigation of the acute abdomen, CT examination will occasionally be performed on gall stone ileus patients. Awareness of the CT findings in gall stone ileus will result in early diagnosis leading to a reduction in the mortality rate. (orig.).

  1. CT "halo sign" in pulmonary tuberculoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M; Volta, S; Stroscio, S; Romeo, P; Pandolfo, I

    1992-01-01

    The CT halo sign has been described as the CT finding of a low-attenuation zone surrounding a pulmonary nodule. It is an early clue to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We describe a case of CT halo sign associated with a pulmonary tuberculoma. Therefore, we think that a diagnosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the presence of the CT halo sign in immunocompetent patients.

  2. CT findings of acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Do Choul; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed Tomography (CT) is very accurate in evaluating the location, size, shape and extension of acoustic neuroma. We analysed CT findings of 23 acoustic neuromas seen at Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the period of from January 1981 to June 1987. 1. Five (22%) were men and 18 (78%) were women with the high incidence occurring in the 4th and 5th decades. 2. Twenty two cases were diagnosed satisfactorily by CT examinations which included axial, coronal and reconstruction images. One with the smallest dimension of 8 mm in diameter could not be detected by the conventional CT scan. But is could be seen after metrizamide cisternography. mean size of the tumor masses was estimated 3.6 cm in diameter. 3. The shape of the tumor was oval in 50%, round in 27% and lobulated in 23%. The masses were presented as hypodense in 50%, isodense in 32% and hyperdense in 18%. All tumors were extended from the internal acoustic and toward the cerebellopontine angle. The internal acoustic canal was widened in 77%. Hydrocephalus was associated in 45%. Widening of cerebellopontine angle cistern was noted in 50%. 4. After contrast infusion the tumors were enhanced markedly in 45%, moderately in 32% and mildly in 23%. The enhanced pattern was homogeneous in 41%, mixed in 41% and rim in 18%. The margin of the tumors was sharply defined in 82%. The tumors were attached to the petrous bone with acute angle in 73%. Cystic change within the tumor was found in 27%. The peritumoral edema was noted in 45%. In conclusion, CT is of most effective modalities to evaluate size, shape, extent and internal architecture of acoustic neuroma as well as relationship with adjacent anatomic structures including the internal acoustic canal.

  3. CT for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Takeo (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-10-01

    In 12 cases of laryngeal cancer and 3 of hypopharyngeal cancer, CT findings were compared with endoscopic and laryngographic findings. CT revealed tumor invasion into the piriform sinus, vallecula, cricoarytenoid articulate and laryngeal cartilage, while the other two methods did not. Cases were presented and CT findings of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers were summarized.

  4. 多层螺旋CT灌注成像在肾脏良恶性肿瘤鉴别诊断中的临床应用%Clinical Application of Multi - slice Spiral CT Perfusion Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Renal Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红; 夏文平; 李培

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical practice value of multi - slice spiral CT perfusion imaging in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant renal tumors. Methods Using multi - slice spiral CT machine, we detected the CT perfusion parameters of 20 cases of normal healthy volunteers(the control group) ,22 cases of renal clear cell carcinoma proved by operation (the renal carcinoma group) and 18 cases of renal hamarloma( the renal hamartoma group). Perfusion (perfusion) , relative blood volume (rBV) , time to peak (TTP) and peak enhancementimage (PEI) were obtained and calaculated. Results ①The perfusion,PEI of the renal carcinoma group Were significantly lower than thnse of the coutrol group, while the rBV.TTP were significantly higher than those of the control group; ② The perfusion, PEI of the renal hamarlunia group were significantly lower than those of the control group, while the rBV ,TTP of the renal hamanoma group were significantly higher than those of the control group; ③The perfusion .PEI of ihe renal carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of the renal hamartoma group, while the rBV,TTP of the renal carcinoma group were significantly lower lhan those of renal hamartoma group. The differences were significant statistically significant. Conclusion Multi - slice spiral CT perfusinn imaging can quantitatively assess hemortynamics variation of the normal kidney,benign and malignant renal tumors. It can provide a reliable hasis for differential diagnosis,which has important clinical application value.%目的 探讨多层螺旋CT(MSCTPI)灌注成像在肾脏良恶性肿瘤鉴别诊断中的应用价值.方法 采用多层螺旋CT机对正常健康志愿者20例(对照组)及经手术病理证实的肾透明细胞癌患者22例(肾癌组)、肾错构瘤患者18例(肾错构瘤组)的肾皮质CT灌注参数进行检测,分别计算:灌注(perfusion);相对组织血容量(rBV);峰值时间(TTP);峰值增强影像(PEI).结果 ①肾

  5. CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT. Advantages in splanchnic arterial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Seiji [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT as a replacement for conventional angiography in the evaluation of splanchnic arterial anomalies. Sixty-three patients underwent CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT. In the 56 patients with conventional angiographic correlation, there was only one minor disagreement with CT paging arteriography. In the 7 patients who underwent IVDSA (intra venous digital subtraction angiography), CT paging arteriography defined four hepatic arterial anomalies which could not be depicted by IVDSA. In conclusion, CT paging arteriography provides noninvasive means to identify splanchnic arterial anomalies. (author)

  6. Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Jai Shiva Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography perfusion (CTP has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

  7. Overview of multisource CT systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Tiange; Wang, Ge

    2010-09-01

    Multiple-source cone-beam scanning is a promising mode for dynamic volumetric CT/micro-CT. The first dynamic CT system is the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR) built in 1979. The pursuance for higher temporal resolution has largely driven the development of CT technology, and recently led to the emergence of Siemens dual-source CT scanner. Given the impact and limitation of dual-source cardiac CT, triple-source cone-beam CT seems a natural extension for future cardiac CT. Our work shows that trinity (triple-source architecture) is superior to duality (dual-source architecture) for helical cone-beam CT in terms of exact reconstruction. In particular, a triple-source helical scan allows a perfect mosaic of longitudinally truncated cone-beam data to satisfy the Orlov condition and yields better noise performance than the dual-source counterpart. In the (2N+1)-source helical CT case, the more sources, the higher temporal resolution. In the N-source saddle CT case, a triple-source scan offers the best temporal resolution for continuous dynamic exact reconstruction of a central volume. The recently developed multi-source cone-beam algorithms include an exact backprojection-filtration (BPF) approach and a "slow" exact filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm for (2N+1)-source helical CT, two fast quasi-exact FBP algorithms for triple-source helical CT, as well as a fast exact FBP algorithm for triple-source saddle CT. Some latest ideas will be also discussed, such as multi-source interior tomography and multi-beam field-emission x-ray CT.

  8. 儿童脾错构瘤并多系统免疫性疾病1例%Splenic Hamartoma with Immune Disorders in Multiple Systems in One Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 王淑红; 张静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To suggest the new ideas on the possibility that splenic hamartoma (SH) in children could be complicated with immune disorders in multiple systems on account of a novel case with typical clinical and histopathology presentation, as well his satisfied outcome after splenectomy. Methods Clinic data of 1 child with SH were collected. The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)was made according to routine tests of blood, bone - marrow, Coombs,and red blood cell (RBC ) fragility tests. The diagnosis of SH was made after splenectomy with histopathology and the specific immunohistochemistry stains for splenic tumors. The cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) routine test, cranial magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) and video electroencephalogram( VEEG) studies were performed during the activity stage of convulsion and the diagnosis of demyelination encephalitis was supported. The remote outcome for the all related complications was confirmed in 2.5 years follow-up after the surgical remove of spleen and SH. Results The patient suffered from recurrent episodes of jaundice, anemia complicated with chronic and progress splenomegaly at 3 months after birth. The inferior margin of the magnified liver was found at the 4 cm under the right ribs region and severe splenomegaly was presented at the age of 12 years when he was admitted to Children's Hospital of Urum-gi. Routine blood analysis showed severe anemia with elevated reticular RBCs(0. 147). Direct Coombs test was negative,but indirect test was positive. Bone marrow test showed active proliferation in bone marrow but abnormal RBC genesis obviously,and elevated RBC osmotic fragility,confirming the diagnosis of AIHA. A single,circular like tumor (7. 5 cm ×8. 0 cm) was detected with contrast CT. Histologic findings consist of unorganized vascular channels with intervening red pulp - like disorganized stroma. Immunohistochemistry on the lining cells of the splenoma vascular had a low proliferation index due to the antibody

  9. Screenings of lung cancer with low dose spiral CT: results of a three year pilot study and design of the randomised controlled trial Italung-CT; Screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC spirale a bassa dose: risultati di uno studio pilota triennale e disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato Italung-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozzi, Giulia [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Radiodiagnostica I-Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Paci, Enrico [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Careggi, Firenze (Italy). Unita' di Epidemiologia Clinica e Descrittiva Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica; Lopes Pegna, Andrea [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Careggi, Firenze (Italy). U.O. Pneumologia] [and others

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a three-year observational pilot study of lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) and to present the study design of a randomised clinical trial named as Italung CT. Materials and methods: Sixty (47 males and 13 females, mean age 64{+-}4.5 years) heavy smokers (at least 20 packs-year) underwent three low-dose spiral CT screening tests one year apart on a single slice or multislice CT scanner. Indeterminate nodules were managed according to the recommendations of the Early Lung Cancer Action Project. Results: Indeterminate nodules were observed in 33 (55%) of the subjects (60% at the baseline screening test, 24% at the first annual test and 16% at the second annual test). The size of the largest indeterminate nodule was <5mm in diameter in 20 subjects. 10 of whom showed the nodule at the baseline test. Forty-five subjects (75%) completed the first annual test and 42 (70%) the second annual test. One (1.6%) prevalent lung cancer (adenosquamous carcinoma) and one (2.2%) incident lung cancer (small cell cancer at the first annual examination) were observed, as well as pulmonary localisation of Hodgkin's lymphoma (at the second annual test). In addition, one subject underwent lung surgery for a chondromatous hamartoma. Conclusions: The results of the pilot study are substantially in line with those of other observational studies of greater sample size. This justifies optimism about the reliability of the results in the screened arm of the Italung Ct trial which hast just began. [Italian] Scopo: Riportare i risultati di uno studio pilota osservazionale di screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC a bassa dose della durata di tre anni e presentare il disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato Italung-CT. Materiale e metodi: Sessanta (47 uomini e 13 donne, eta' media 64{+-}4,5 anni) forti fumatori (almeno 20 pacchetti/anno) sono stati sottoposti ad un esame basale e a due controlli annuali con TC single o

  10. CT findings at lupus mesenteric vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S.F. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Lee, T.Y. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Cheng, T.T. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Ng, S.H. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Lai, H.M. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Rheumatology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Cheng, Y.F. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan); Tsai, C.C. [Chang Gung Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Hsien (Taiwan)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of early CT findings of lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV) and to assess the utility of CT in the management of this uncommon entity. Methods: Abdominal CT was performed within 1-4 days (average 2.2 days) of the onset of severe abdominal pain and tenderness in 15 women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Prompt high-dose i.v. corticosteroid in 11 patients after the CT diagnosis of LMV was made. CT was performed after abdominal symptoms subsided. Results: Eleven cases revealed CT features suggestive of LMV including conspicuous prominence of mesentric vessels with palisade pattern or comb-like appearance (CT comb sign) supplying focal or diffuse dilated bowel loops (n=11), ascites with slightly increased peritoneal enhancement (n=11), small bowel wall thickening (n=10) with double halo or target sign (n=8). Follow-up CT before high-dose steroid therapy revealed complete or marked resolution of the abnormal CT findings. Conclusion: CT is helpful for confirming the diagnosis of LMV, especially the comb sign which may be an early sign. Bowel ischemia due to LMV is less ominous than previously expected, and the abnormal CT findings were reversible when early diagnosis and prompt i.v. steroid therapy could be achieved. (orig.).

  11. Utility of CT in branemark implant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yosue, Takashi; Takamori, Hitoshi; Nomura, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kaichi; Kamezawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Kazuo; Hiraga, Yasushi; Nakaya, Hiroshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Since the implant prognosis depends on the diagnosis, we use CT or tomography in addition to ordinary radiographic procedures to diagnose the propriety. Here we would like to present the diagnostic value of CT. We have performed CT examinations for 55 patients (66 jaws) up to the end of May 1992. In addition to the one-dimensional observation of CT images, we routinely used reconstructed CT images for the valuation of bone quality and quantity. The reconstructed CT images provided precise information regarding the width and height of the alveolar creat. The axial CT view provides more precise information on jawbone structure than panoramic radiographs. The CT number gives a quick estimate of jawbone quality. Because the image reconstruction requires only axial CT radiographs, metal restorations on the opposite jaw do not affect radiographic images. We have to take into account the partial volume effect, though. The disadvantages of CT use in diagnosis are an increase of time and of patient irradiation. The clarity of lower jaw CTs are especially sensitive to the patient movement. In conclusion, the CT radiographs are valuable in implant diagnosis. (author).

  12. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  13. Postmortem pulmonary CT in hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael; Giugni, Giannina; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Fatal hypothermia has been associated with pulmonary edema. With postmortem full body computed tomography scanning (PMCT), the lungs can also be examined for CT attenuation. In fatal hypothermia cases low CT attenuation appeared to prevail in the lungs. We compared 14 cases of fatal hypothermia with an age-sex matched control group. Additionally, 4 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were examined. Furthermore, 10 test cases were examined to test predictability based on PMCT. Two readers measured CT attenuation on four different axial slices across the lungs (blinded to case group and other reader's results). Hypothermia was associated with statistically significantly lower lung PMCT attenuation and lower lung weights than controls, and there was a dose-effect relationship at an environmental temperature cutoff of 2 °C. CO poisoning yielded low pulmonary attenuation but higher lung weights. General model based prediction yielded a 94% probability for fatal hypothermia deaths and a 21% probability for non-hypothermia deaths in the test group. Increased breathing rate is known to accompany both CO poisoning and hypothermia, so this could partly explain the low PMCT lung attenuation due to an oxygen dissociation curve left shift. A more marked distension in fatal hypothermia, compared to CO poisoning, indicates that further, possibly different mechanisms, are involved in these cases. Increased dead space and increased stiffness to deflation (but not inflation) appear to be effects of inhaling cold air (but not CO) that may explain the difference in low PMCT attenuation seen in hypothermia cases.

  14. Multidetector CT of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Graziani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This book is a practical overview of pancreatic computer tomography (CT based on the large experience of the contributors. It is dedicated to Carlo Procacci a well known radiologist of Verona who died in 2004. Content. The book is divided into 10 chapters covering the different aspects of diagnostic CT of the pancreas. The various radiological aspects of acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cancer (adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, cystic cancer, rare neoplasms, traumatic abnormalities, imaging aspects of the gland after surgery and finally imaging findings after pancreas transplantation are reported in detail. Comment. We would emphasize that the characteristics of imaging of the common pancreatic diseases are described in addition to unusual or rare aspects of pancreatic pathology. The iconography is very rich and it is of excellent quality and it will help the radiologist to deal with individual cases particularly complex. Another important aspect of the book is that the initial approach of the various pancreatic diseases is based on clinical, surgical and pathological aspects and their relationship with imaging findings. Limitation. It is a great pity that the book for its importance is written in Italian language and for this reason it can not have an international appreciation. Final note. The radiologists will find in the book all the information useful for their daily practice. The internists, gastroenterologists and surgeons also will found useful information to better understand the information given by the modern CT radiology.

  15. Modern CT applications in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Melissa R; Lawler, Leo P; Whitaker, Brent R; Walker, Ian D F; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulomas in the lungs, and a ball in the stomach. CT of a sea dragon with balance and movement problems showed absence of the swim bladder. In a sloth with failure to thrive, CT allowed diagnosis of a coin in the intestine. CT of a puffin with failure to thrive showed a mass in the chest, which was found to be a hematoma. In a smooth-sided toad whose head was tilted to one side and who was circling in that direction, CT showed partial destruction of the temporal bone. CT of a domestic cat with listlessness showed a mass with focal calcification, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma. CT of a sea otter showed pectus excavatum, which is caused by the animal smashing oysters against its chest. In a Japanese koi with abdominal swelling, CT allowed diagnosis of a hepatoma.

  16. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  17. Monte Carlo dosimetry in CT; Dosimetria Monte Carlo en CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro Herrero, R.

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography explorations ITC) contribute a high percentage of the total radiation dose absorbed by the population exposed to medical examination. Since the number of CT scans performed has grown exponentially in recent years, concerns about their long-term effects on the patient's health has also increased. However, in order to establish a relationship between the absorbed dose and its side effects, it is necessary to perform a calculation accurate dosimetry radiation protection international institutions have confirmed that the best indicator of risk is dose to organs. (Author)

  18. CT findings of pancreatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Park, In Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jong Jin [College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iri (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    CT was found to be a reliable, often specific, and noninvasive method for detecting pancreatic diseases. In a study of pancreatic lesions, 37 cases having satisfactory operative and histological proofs were analyzed by CT at PMC from Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1987. The results were as following: 1. Male:female is 26:11. 2. The incidence of pancreatic disease were as follows: 1) Pancreatic cancer:21 cases (56%) a.Head:12 cases b.Body:4 cases c.Tail:1 case d.Body and tail:1 case e.Uncinate process:2 cases f.Entire pancreas: 1 case 2) Acute pancreatitis: 6 cases (16%) 3) Chronic pancreatitis:5 cases (14%) 3. The characteristic CT findings: 1) 100% of pancreatic head cancer showed focal mass or alteration of pancreatic head contour and biliary tree dilatation, and 33% (7/12) fat line obliteration. 2) All of other pancreatic cancer except head appeared as focal mass or contour alteration and fat line obliteration. 3) Total 6 cases of acute pancreatitis showed that 5 cases diffuse enlargement of pancreas, 3 fluid collection (2 cases:left anterior pararenal and posterior pararenal space and lesser sac, 1 case:only pancreas body) and 1 case abscess formation. 4) Total 5 cases of chronic pancreatitis revealed diffuse enlargement 2 cases and atrophy 1 case, pancreatic ductal dilatation 3 cases, calcification 2 cases, and biliary tree dilatation with CBD tapering appearance 1 case. 5) All cases of pseudocysts were well marginated cystic lesions that located at head in 3 cases and tail 3 cases, and 4 cases were well defined pure cystic masses but 1 case was well capsulated cyst with multiple internal septation.

  19. [Phantom holder of CT couch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixia; Zhan, Hongyu; Wang, Di

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a phantom holder in CT couch which adjusted easily and accurately, installed easily. The holder mainly include removing and locking equipment between phantom holder and table top, move horizontally equipment between left and right, rotating equipment between left and right. After holder and table top fixed one part, holder with phantom can move horizontally, front and back, rotate between left and right in a small angle, in order to make operator test phantoms accurately and easily. At the same time, this phantom holder realized free adjustment after first adjustments, which shortened operator work time.

  20. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author).

  1. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  2. CT triage for lung malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Martin Weber; Karstoft, Jens; Mussmann, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Generation of multiplanar reformation (MPR) images has become automatic on most modern computed tomography (CT) scanners, potentially increasing the workload of the reporting radiologists. It is not always clear if this increases diagnostic performance in all clinical tasks. Purpose...... the performance of the four readers, using the area under the curve (AUC) as figure of merit. Results: No statistically significant difference of sensitivity and specificity was found for any of the readers when compared to the original reports. ROC analysis yielded AUCs in the range of 0.92–0.93 for all readers...

  3. CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

  4. Multimodal CT in stroke imaging: new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Carlos J; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. This article discusses the individual components of multimodal CT and addresses the potential role of a combined multimodal CT stroke protocol in acute stroke therapy.

  5. Image reconstruction for brain CT slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities in biomedical images, like CT, MRI and PET scanners, provide detailed cross-sectional views of human anatomy. This paper introduces three-dimensional brain reconstruction based on CT slices. It contains filtering, fuzzy segmentation, matching method of contours, cell array structure and image animation. Experimental results have shown its validity. The innovation is matching method of contours and fuzzy segmentation algorithm of CT slices.

  6. Chest CT in children: anesthesia and atelectasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley; Gawande, Rakhee [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Krane, Elliot J. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Holmes, Tyson H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States); Robinson, Terry E. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Cystic Fibrosis Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    There has been an increasing tendency for anesthesiologists to be responsible for providing sedation or anesthesia during chest CT imaging in young children. Anesthesia-related atelectasis noted on chest CT imaging has proven to be a common and troublesome problem, affecting image quality and diagnostic sensitivity. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a standardized anesthesia, lung recruitment, controlled-ventilation technique developed at our institution to prevent atelectasis for chest CT imaging in young children. Fifty-six chest CT scans were obtained in 42 children using a research-based intubation, lung recruitment and controlled-ventilation CT scanning protocol. These studies were compared with 70 non-protocolized chest CT scans under anesthesia taken from 18 of the same children, who were tested at different times, without the specific lung recruitment and controlled-ventilation technique. Two radiology readers scored all inspiratory chest CT scans for overall CT quality and atelectasis. Detailed cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated at baseline, and during recruitment and inspiratory imaging on 21 controlled-ventilation cases and 8 control cases. Significant differences were noted between groups for both quality and atelectasis scores with optimal scoring demonstrated in the controlled-ventilation cases where 70% were rated very good to excellent quality scans compared with only 24% of non-protocol cases. There was no or minimal atelectasis in 48% of the controlled ventilation cases compared to 51% of non-protocol cases with segmental, multisegmental or lobar atelectasis present. No significant difference in cardiorespiratory parameters was found between controlled ventilation and other chest CT cases and no procedure-related adverse events occurred. Controlled-ventilation infant CT scanning under general anesthesia, utilizing intubation and recruitment maneuvers followed by chest CT scans, appears to be a safe and effective method to obtain

  7. CT enterography: technical and interpretive pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John M; Goss, Brian C; Hansel, Stephanie L; Kolbe, Amy B; Rackham, Joshua L; Bruining, David H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2015-06-01

    CT enterography is a first-line test at many institutions to investigate potential small bowel disorders. While numerous articles have focused on the ability of CT enterography to diagnose and stage Crohn's disease, small bowel neoplasia, and malabsorptive or vascular disorders, this article reviews CT enterography limitations, technical and interpretive pitfalls, image review tactics, and complementary radiologic and endoscopic examinations to improve diagnostic accuracy. CT enterography limitations include its inability to demonstrate isolated mucosal abnormalities such as aphthous ulcers and its use of ionizing radiation. The most common technical pitfall of CT enterography is inadequate small bowel distention resulting from inadequate ingestion, gastric retention, or rapid small bowel transit of a large volume of neutral enteric contrast material. Additionally, segments of jejunum are frequently collapsed. Interpretive pitfalls commonly result from peristaltic contractions, transient intussusception and opaque intraluminal debris. Opaque debris is especially problematic during multiphasic CT enterography performed to identify potential small bowel sources of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. False-negative examinations may result from inadequate radiation dose. Examinations complementary to CT enterography include small bowel follow through, enteroclysis, CT enteroclysis, MR enterography, MR enteroclysis, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted endoscopy. Properly performed and accurately interpreted CT enterography contributes to the diagnosis and management of small bowel disease by itself and as a complement to other radiologic and optical small bowel imaging examinations.

  8. Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B.; Chan, Frandics P.; Newman, Beverley; Fleischmann, Dominik [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Molvin, Lior Z. [Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA (United States); Wang, Jia [Stanford University, Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve. (orig.)

  9. Segmentation of Lung Structures in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    (COPD) using CT scans from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) study. We propose a fully automated lung segmentation algorithm that is based on region growing and the assumption that the lungs are of lower intensities than surrounding structures in CT. Furthermore, we also propose a post...... processing step that detects and removes esophagus regions, wrongly added by the region growing process, to improve the reliability of the lung segmentation algorithm. The proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to more than 6000 low dose CT scans from the DLCST study. Among the CT scans applied...

  10. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  11. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Guk Hee [Insung Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness.

  12. CT detection and aspiration of abdominal abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, J R; Alfidi, R J; Havrilla, T R; Cooperman, A M; Seidelmann, F E; Reich, N E; Weinstein, A J; Meaney, T F

    1977-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is effective in detecting intraabdominal abscesses. Loculations of fluid and extraluminal gas are clearly localized in relation to other organs. Of 22 abscess in this series, CT successfully detected 20; comparative information with gallium, techneticum, and ultrasound scans is presented. In addition to localizing these collections, CT can be used to guide needle aspiration and drainage procedures. Three sizes of needles were used to aspirate specimens and/or provide drainage. This was accomplished successfully in 12 of 14 CT-guided procedures.

  13. CT-based interstitial HDR brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotas, C.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N. [Staedtische Kliniken Offenbach (Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT-based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT-based treatment planning has been developed and clinical evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT scans has been developed. An interface for the Nucletron PLATO BPS treatment planning system for optimization and calculation of dose distribution has been devised. The planning target volume(s) are defined as sets of points using contouring tools and are used for optimization of the 3D dose distribution. Dose-volume histogram based analysis of the dose distribution (COIN analysis) enables a clinically realistic evaluation of the brachytherapy application to be made. The CT-guided implantation of catheters and the CT-based treatment planning procedure has been performed for interstitial brachytherapy and for different tumor sites in 197 patients between 1996 and 1997. Results: The accuracy of the CT reconstruction was tested using first a quality assurance phantom and second, a simulated interstitial implant of 12 needles. These were compared with the results of reconstruction using radiographs. Both methods gave comparable results with regard to accuracy, but the CT based reconstruction was faster. Clinical feasibility was proved in pre-irradiated recurrences of brain tumors, in pretreated recurrences or metastatic disease, and in breast carcinomas. The tumor volumes treated were in the range 5.1 to 2,741 cm{sup 3}. Analysis of implant quality showed a slightly significant lower COIN value for the bone implants, but no differences with respect to the planning target volume. Conclusions: The Offenbach system, incorporating the PROMETHEUS software for interstitial HDR brachytherapy has proved to be extremely valuable

  14. CT features of renal infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzer, Okan; Shirkhoda, Ali; Jafri, S. Zafar; Madrazo, Beatrice L.; Bis, Kostaki G.; Mastromatteo, James F

    2002-10-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the different patterns of renal infarction to avoid pitfalls. To present 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern in renal infarction. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of a total of 41 renal infarction in 37 patients were done. These patients underwent initial CT and the diagnosis of renal infarction was confirmed with either follow up CT or at surgery. Results: Twenty-three patients had wedge-shaped focal infarcts, nine patients had global and five patients had multifocal infarcts of the kidneys. Cortical rim sign was seen predominantly with global infarcts. In five patients, a 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern was observed. In two patients, planned renal biopsies due to tumefactive renal lesions were cancelled because of 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern on follow up CTs. Conclusion: Although most of our cases were straightforward for the diagnosis of renal infarction, cases with tumefactive lesions and global infarctions without the well-known cortical rim sign were particularly challenging. We describe a new sign, flip-flop enhancement pattern, which we believe solidified the diagnosis of renal infarction in five of our cases. The authors recommend further investigations for association of flip-flop enhancement and renal infarction.

  15. Three-section expiratory CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    . Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...... of three-section and linear mixed models.Results: For the Brody II system, the intraclass correlation coefficient for set 1 versus those for sets 2 through 7 was 0.75 versus 0.87; however, mean scores from sets 6 and 7 were significantly lower than the mean score from set 1 (P = .01 and P ..., respectively). For the quantitative system, the number of sections did not affect TA assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.82-0.88; P > .13 for all). CT and PFT estimates were not correlated (rs = 20.19 to 0.09, P = .43-.93). No change in TA over time was found for CT or PFT (P > .16 for all...

  16. Variation in quantitative CT air trapping in heavy smokers on repeat CT examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.; Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P.; Gietema, H.A.; Zanen, P.; Prokop, M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the variation in quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of air trapping in low-dose chest CTs of heavy smokers. METHODS: We analysed 45 subjects from a lung cancer screening trial, examined by CT twice within 3‘months. Inspiratory and expiratory low-dose CT was obtai

  17. CT portography by multidetector helical CT. Comparison of three rendering models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Imuta, Masanori; Funama, Yoshinori; Kadota, Masataka; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of multidetector CT portography in visualizing varices and portosystemic collaterals in comparison with conventional portography, and to compare the visualizations obtained by three rendering models (volume rendering, VR; minimum intensity projection, MIP; and shaded surface display, SSD). A total of 46 patients with portal hypertension were examined by CT and conventional portography for evaluation of portosystemic collaterals. CT portography was performed by multidetector CT (MD-CT) scanner with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and table feed of 7.5 mm. Three types of CT portographic models were generated and compared with transarterial portography. Among 46 patients, 48 collaterals were identified on CT transverse images, while 38 collaterals were detected on transarterial portography. Forty-four of 48 collaterals identified on CT transverse images were visualized with the MIP model, while 34 and 29 collaterals were visualized by the VR and SSD methods, respectively. The average CT value for the portal vein and varices was 198 HU with data acquisition of 50 sec after contrast material injection. CT portography by multidetector CT provides excellent images in the visualization of portosystemic collaterals. The images of collaterals produced by MD-CT are superior to those of transarterial portography. Among the three rendering techniques, MIP provides the best visualization of portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  18. SPECT/CT - Technical aspects and optimization possibilities; SPECT/CT - Technische Aspekte und Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W. [Klinikum Passau, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Passau (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In contrast to positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), the currently available single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems are very heterogeneous. On the side of the gamma cameras, dual-head systems are established, which are not very different from one manufacturer to the other. For the CT component, there are low dose tubes on the one side and flat detector-based cone beam CT and multislice-CT on the other. The CT image data can be used for anatomic correlation of suspicious findings as well as for attenuation correction of SPECT data. Attenuation correction enables on the one hand enhancement of SPECT image quality and on the other hand quantification of the radioactivity concentration becomes possible. Modern iterative reconstruction algorithms allow scatter correction and attenuation correction of SPECT data using the density values from CT. It still has to be shown to what extent attenuation-corrected whole body SPECT/CT studies will be able to improve the sensitivity of scintigraphy studies. As SPECT/CT primarily aims at morphologic correlation and not detection of additional lesions, an attempt should be made to balance the necessary anatomic information and the additional radiation exposure. Besides SPECT-guided CT all technical possibilities for dose reduction should be exhausted. (orig.) [German] Im Gegensatz zur Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (PET/CT) sind die auf dem Markt angebotenen Single-photon-emission-computed-tomography/CT(SPECT/CT)-Systeme sehr heterogen. Auf der Seite der Gammakameras sind Zweikopfsysteme etabliert, die sich bei den verschiedenen Wettbewerbern nur unwesentlich unterscheiden. Hingegen reicht bei der CT-Komponente die Palette von der einfachen Niedrigdosisroentgenroehre ueber die flachdetektorbasierte Cone-beam-CT-Technologie bis hin zum Mehrzeilenspiral-CT. Die CT-Bilddaten werden dabei zum einen zur anatomischen Korrelation funktionell auffaelliger

  19. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  20. Selective CT for PET/CT: dose reduction in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Palumbo, Joseph S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-08-23

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), FDG PET demonstrates active disease in bone. Other imaging modalities show the effects of bone destruction by LCH. To evaluate a selective CT method for reducing effective dose from FDG PET/CT in LCH, using whole-body modified attenuation correction CT at extremely low exposure settings, with repeat selective limited-volume CT at typical localization settings. Fifty-one PET/CT scans were performed in 23 LCH patients, median patient age 8.5 years (range: 1-25 years). Thirty-four were performed with modified attenuation correction CT settings, with bed positions (excluding head and neck) repeated at localization CT settings in regions with abnormal or difficult to interpret PET findings. Of 34 modified attenuation correction PET/CT scans, 10 required repeat localization CT of 1 to 3 bed positions (total: 17 bed positions). Lytic bone lesions were easily recognized at modified attenuation correction settings. Calculated average effective dose for the 34 whole-body CT scans at modified attenuation correction settings was 1.65 mSv. Average effective dose per patient for repeat imaging of 17 bed positions at localization settings was 1.19 mSv. Average total effective dose from CT for all 34 scans performed at the modified attenuation correction CT settings, including the 10 repeat localization CT scans, was 2.0 mSv. High-quality PET scans were consistently obtained with reduced FDG-administered activities of 3.7 MBq/kg (0.10 mCi/kg). In active LCH, abnormal FDG uptake was seen in all lytic bone lesions ≥9 mm, including cranial vault lesions. Substantial reduction in effective dose is possible using selective CT techniques for FDG PET/CT. (orig.)

  1. Radiation dose and cancer risk from pediatric CT examinations on 64-slice CT: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shiting [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Law, Martin Wai-Ming [Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Huang Bingsheng [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ng, Sherry [Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Khong, Pek-Lan, E-mail: plkhong@hkucc.hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To measure the radiation dose from CT scans in an anthropomorphic phantom using a 64-slice MDCT, and to estimate the associated cancer risk. Materials and methods: Organ doses were measured with a 5-year-old phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Four protocols; head CT, thorax CT, abdomen CT and pelvis CT were studied. Cancer risks, in the form of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence, were estimated by linear extrapolation using the organ radiation doses and the LAR data. Results: The effective doses for head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis CT, were 0.7 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 3.0 mSv, 1.3 mSv respectively. The organs with the highest dose were; for head CT, salivary gland (22.33 mGy); for thorax CT, breast (7.89 mGy); for abdomen CT, colon (6.62 mGy); for pelvis CT, bladder (4.28 mGy). The corresponding LARs for boys and girls were 0.015-0.053% and 0.034-0.155% respectively. The organs with highest LARs were; for head CT, thyroid gland (0.003% for boys, 0.015% for girls); for thorax CT, lung for boys (0.014%) and breast for girls (0.069%); for abdomen CT, colon for boys (0.017%) and lung for girls (0.016%); for pelvis CT, bladder for both boys and girls (0.008%). Conclusion: The effective doses from these common pediatric CT examinations ranged from 0.7 mSv to 3.5 mSv and the associated lifetime cancer risks were found to be up to 0.16%, with some organs of higher radiosensitivity including breast, thyroid gland, colon and lungs.

  2. Perfusion CT in acute stroke; Stellenwert der CT-Perfusion fuer die Therapie des Schlaganfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Bernd [Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany). Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Roether, Joachim [Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany). Neurologische Abt.; Fiehler, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention; Thomalla, Goetz [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum

    2015-06-15

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  3. Quantitative Techniques in PET-CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, Sandip; Zaidi, Habib; Holm, Soren; Alavi, Abass

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of hybrid PET/CT scanners has made quantitative whole body scanning of radioactive tracers feasible. This paper deals with the novel concepts for assessing global organ function and disease activity based on combined functional (PET) and structural (CT or MR) imaging techniques, their

  4. Reconstructing misaligned x-ray CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divin, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Misalignment errors for x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems can manifest as artifacts and a loss of spatial and contrast resolution. To mitigate artifacts, significant effort is taken to determine the system geometry and minimizing any residual error in the system alignment. This project improved our ability to post-correct data which was acquired on a misaligned CT system.

  5. Intrahepatic arterioportal shunt: helical CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga, S.; Sebastia, M.C.; Moreiras, M.; Pallisa, E.; Rius, J.M.; Alvarez-Castells, A. [I. D. I. Hospital General i Universitari Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain). Servei de Radiodiagnostic

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the appearance of intrahepatic arterioportal shunts (APS) on two-phase helical CT, with emphasis on the importance of the hepatic arterial-dominant phase (HAP) to demonstrate perfusion disorders. We review eight cases of APS diagnosed by helical CT in our institution from January 1996 to March 1997 and describe the CT findings that established diagnosis. Five of them were confirmed by angiography. In seven (87.5 %) cases of APS we found early enhancement of the peripheral portal branches during the HAP of helical CT, whereas the superior mesenteric and splenic veins remained unenhanced. In five (62.5 %) cases of APS, transient, peripheral, triangular parenchymal enhancement was depicted during the HAP of helical CT; in four of these cases there was associated early enhancement of the portal branches. Helical CT can show perfusion alterations that might remain undiagnosed with conventional CT. An understanding of the hemodynamic changes that occur in APS can help in the interpretation of focal transient hepatic parenchymal enhancement and to differentiate APS from hypervascular tumors. We believe that the helical CT findings described herein are characteristic enough to suggest the diagnosis of APS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  6. Cervical diplomyelia revealed by computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, G.B.; Davidovits, P.; Cerisoli, M.; Giulioni, M.

    1982-05-01

    An unusual case of cervical diplomyelia diagnosed by Computed Tomography (CT) is reported. The usefulness of CT examination in the evaluation of spinal dysraphic defects is emphasized, though performed without CSF enhancement. Visualisation of spinal cord splitting in the absence of bony spicula allows the authors to differentiate between diplomyelia and diastematomyelia which have been often described by using both terms interchangeably.

  7. CT-skanninger af fossile hvaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Ramassamy, Benjamin Fernand Guy; Munk, Ole Lajord;

    2017-01-01

    CT-skannere er brugbare redskaber til undersøgelser af uddøde hvalarter. Dels kan skanningerne give indsigt i fossilernes indre anatomi, og dels kan de være nyttige, når konservatorerne efterfølgende skal præparere knoglerne frem. CT-skanningerne kan endvidere dokumentere knoglernes placering i...

  8. CT metrizamide myelography in intrathoracic meningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Man; Woo, Seong Ku; Kim, Ok Bae; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University Medical College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Intrathoracic meningocele is a protrusion of the spinal meninges through an intervertebral foramen into the thoracic cavity. The majority occur in association with neurofibromatosis. The authors experienced a case of intrathoracic meningocele in 26 years old male patient associated with neurofibromatosis, and present conventional CT and CT metrizamide myelographic findings.

  9. CT evaluation of acetabular dysplasta in adults.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methods of measurement by CT and their clinical significance for acetabular dysplasia(AD) in adults. Methods: CT imaging was examined and measured in 33 adult patients with AD, compared with the normal control group of 210 adults. Results: This study showed the results of AD patients

  10. CT of schistosomal calcification of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.

  11. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  12. Acute gynecologic disorders in adolescents: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gynecologic disorders that cause pelvic pain in adolescents include hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, rupture or torsion of ovarian cyst or tumors, hematocolpos caused by vaginal obstruction, endometriosis, cystic uterine adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and pelvic inclusion cyst. The use of CT for the evaluation of pelvic pain is increasing, and CT is useful if ultrasound findings are not decisive and the lesion is extensive.

  13. Reducing radiation dose in CT enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew J; Fletcher, Joel G; Yu, Lifeng; Paden, Robert G; Spencer, Garrett Clay; Leng, Shuai; Silva, Annelise M; Fidler, Jeff L; Silva, Alvin C; Hara, Amy K

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a diagnostic examination that is increasingly being used to evaluate disorders of the small bowel. An undesirable consequence of CT, however, is patient exposure to ionizing radiation. This is of particular concern with CT enterography because patients tend to be young and require numerous follow-up examinations. There are multiple strategies to reduce radiation dose at CT enterography, including adjusting acquisition parameters, reducing scan length, and reducing tube voltage or tube current. The drawback to dose reduction strategies is degradation of image quality due to increased image noise. However, image noise can be reduced with commercial iterative reconstruction and denoising techniques. With a combination of low-dose techniques and noise-control strategies, one can markedly reduce radiation dose at CT enterography while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  14. The fibromatoses: CT-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, I R; Dorovini-Zis, K; Glazer, G M; Lloyd, R V; Amendola, M A; Martel, W

    1986-11-01

    Although CT has been used in the evaluation of benign fibroblastic tumors (fibromatoses), data are lacking on radiologic-histopathologic correlation. In an attempt to explain the variable CT appearance of these lesions, a retrospective analysis was carried out of CT findings and histopathologic features in nine patients with fibromatoses. In three of four patients who had precontrast CT scans, the tumors were hyperdense relative to muscle, whereas in one patient the lesion was hypodense. The postenhancement appearance was variable. The pathologic specimens were analyzed and graded for collagen content, cellular content, tumor necrosis, and tumor vascularity. No consistent relationship could be established between the CT appearance of these lesions and their histologic appearance.

  15. Choroidal osteoma: US and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Sang Woo [Armed Forces Kwangju Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate US and CT features of choroidal osteoma. US and CT scans of seven cases of choroidal osteoma occurring in six patients were retrospectively analyzed. We analysed US and CT findings with particular attention to the location, size, and shape of calcification associated with choroidal osteoma, and sought the possible cause of the tumor, if any. None of six patients had any possible cause related to choroidal osteoma. All of seven cases of choroidal osteoma were manifested as calcified mass which were located in the posterior wall of the eyeball near the juxtapapillary region. Calcification ranged in size from 1 to 2 cm and had curvilinear shape. Both US and CT were equally useful to evaluate choroidal osteoma. By depicting the characteristic calcification, US and CT are useful imaging modalities in evaluating choroidal osteoma.

  16. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases.

  17. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...... technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had...... the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume...

  18. Segmentation of Lung Structures in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    This thesis proposes and evaluates new algorithms for segmenting various lung structures in computed tomography (CT) images, namely the lungs, airway trees and vessel trees. The main objective of these algorithms is to facilitate a better platform for studying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease...... (COPD) using CT scans from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) study. We propose a fully automated lung segmentation algorithm that is based on region growing and the assumption that the lungs are of lower intensities than surrounding structures in CT. Furthermore, we also propose a post...... processing step that detects and removes esophagus regions, wrongly added by the region growing process, to improve the reliability of the lung segmentation algorithm. The proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to more than 6000 low dose CT scans from the DLCST study. Among the CT scans applied...

  19. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;

    2012-01-01

    on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...... inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  20. Dynamic CT features of hepatic abscesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Li-guang; CHEN Ken; LI Yan-yu; YI Xi-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of hepatic abscess by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. Methods: CT films of 62 cases of hepatic abscesses were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients underwent both plain and enhanced CT scanning, and 23 of them received dynamic CT examination. Results: The dynamic phase (60~90 s), the enhancement patterns of the abscesses varied from the ring enhancement of the abscess diminished in which the hypodense ring enhanced and became isodense, or the abscess enhanced diffusely and became smaller, the colliquative necrosis area more obvious. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced CT should be used routinely in the evaluation of hepatic abscesses. The dynamic and delayed scan is necessary to diagnose atypical hepatic abscesses.

  1. Cystic thymic diseases: CT manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Soon Young; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Eui Yong; Jeon, Seok Chol; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To describe CT findings and differential points of cystic thymic lesions. We evaluated retrospectively total 19 masses with well marginated cystic lesions at thymic area on CT scans. They were 10 teratomas, 3 congenital thymic cysts, 2 multilocular thymic cysts(associated with thymoma and myasthenia gravis in each), 2 cysts Assciated with thymic Hodgkin's lymphomas an ectopic parathyroid cyst, and an infected thymic cyst. The radiological abnormalities evaluated were thickness of the wall, presence or abscene of septa, mural nodule, solid component, calcification and fat component. All three cases of congenital thymic cysts and an ectopic parathyroid cyst appeared as thin-walled unilocular cyst with homogeneous internal density and without identifiable solid component. In multilocular thymic cyst, there were thick wall and solid components(n =2), thick internal septa and calcifications(n = 1). The cysts of teratomas manifested thick walls(n = 9), internal septa(n = 4), calcifications(n = 6), fat components(n = 4), and solid components(n = 4). Cysts in Hodgkin's diseases appeared as multilocular or unilocular and had thick wall and septa without calcification. Infected thymic cyst presented with multilocular cystic mass with identifiable wall and septa, calcification, and solid components. The thymic diseases with cystic lesion include teratomas, congenital thymic cysts, multilocular thymic cysts, parathyroid cyst, and Hodgkin's disease. Congenital thymic cyst and ectopic parathyroid cyst are thin-walled unilocular cystic lesions. Cystic lesions associated with teratoma, Hodgkin's disease, and multilocular thymic cyst are thick-walled cystic lesions with or without solid component.

  2. Limits of Ultra-Low Dose CT Attenuation Correction for PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2010-01-29

    We present an analysis of the effects of ultra-low dose X-ray computerized tomography (CT) based attenuation correction for positron emission tomography (PET). By ultra low dose we mean less than approximately 5 mAs or 0.5 mSv total effective whole body dose. The motivation is the increased interest in using respiratory motion information acquired during the CT scan for both phase-matched CT-based attenuation correction and for motion estimation. Since longer duration CT scans are desired, radiation dose to the patient can be a limiting factor. In this study we evaluate the impact of reducing photon flux rates in the CT data on the reconstructed PET image by using the CATSIM simulation tool for the CT component and the ASIM simulation tool for the PET component. The CT simulation includes effects of the x-ray tube spectra, beam conditioning, bowtie filter, detector noise, and bean hardening correction. The PET simulation includes the effect of attenuation and photon counting. Noise and bias in the PET image were evaluated from multiple realizations of test objects. We show that techniques can be used to significantly reduce the mAs needed for CT based attenuation correction if the CT is not used for diagnostic purposes. The limiting factor, however, is not the noise in the CT image but rather the bias introduced by CT sinogram elements with no detected flux. These results constrain the methods that can be used to lower CT dose in a manner suitable for attenuation correction of PET data. We conclude that ultra-low-dose CT for attenuation correction of PET data is feasible with current PET/CT scanners.

  3. Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT; CT-Staging kutaner maligner Melanome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffend, J. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT results. In individual cases CT can assist in the detection of transient metastases. In the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases CT has a median sensitivity and specificity in meta-analyses of at best 61 % and 97 %, respectively, which is inferior to the performance of ultrasound (96 % and 99 %, respectively). According to meta-analyses, in the assessment of systemic tumor spread CT can detect the majority of metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 51-63 % and 69-78 %, respectively, which is inferior to MRI and PET/CT. Therefore, if an exact staging is required for critical management decisions, MRI or PET/CT should be employed whenever possible. (orig.) [German] Maligne Melanome koennen in praktisch jedes Organ und Gewebe metastasieren und stellen daher eine Herausforderung fuer die radiologische Diagnostik dar. Schnittbildverfahren, bevorzugt PET/CT und MRT, werden heute als Standard in der Ausbreitungsdiagnostik von Melanomen angesehen. Wegen ihrer ubiquitaeren Verfuegbarkeit bleibt jedoch die CT ein vielfach genutztes Staginginstrument. Die Kenntnis der vielfaeltigen CT-Morphologie von Melanommetastasen, wie sie in diesem Beitrag beschrieben wird, ist ueber die dedizierte CT hinaus uebertragbar auf die von der aktuellen Leitlinie bevorzugte Bildgebung mit der PET/CT. Im Einzelfall kann die CT hilfreich bei der Detektion von In

  4. CT in three cases of syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Sakuta, Manabu (Japan Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Yagishita, Akira; Inoue, Kiyoharu

    1983-08-01

    We presented the results of our experience with metrizamide computed tomographic myelography (MCTM) and myelography in three cases of syringomyelia. In case 1, MCTM revealed Chiari malformation, even though this malformation was not clear in the myelography. In case 3, Chiari malformation was apparent in MCTM and in the myelography. In case 1, CT of the spinal cord without enhancement (plain CT) showed a syrinx in the cervical spinal cord, and MCTM made the syrinx clearer with enhancement. MCTM also demonstrated a cavity at the levels of Th/sub 6/ and L/sub 1/ of the vertebra. In case 2, a syrinx was disclosed in MCTM, in spite of normal myelography. In case 3, myelography demonstrated a spinal cord swelling. MCTM made a syrinx less clear than plain CT. Not only MCTM but also plain CT is an excellent method for the recognition of syringomyelia. The non-invasive plain CT is the first choice of the examinations in cases with syrinogomyelia, because MCTM may make a syrinx obscure. CT and MCTM have to be performed at many levels of the spinal cord in case with syringomyelia. CT or MCTM may demonstrate a syrinx or a cavity at the levels of the spinal cord, where no syrinx is suspected to exist by clinical features, as well as at the levels appearing normal in the myelography.

  5. Clival chordoma; CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Kyung; Han, Chun Hwan; Lee, Moon Ok; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk [Kang Nam General Hospital Pubic Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    A retrospectively analysis of CT and MR findings was performed in five patients with histologically proved chordoma including one with chondroid chordoma. All tumors were mostly isodense to gray matter on unenhanced CT, and the single intensities were iso or low and high on T1 and T2-weighted MR images, respectively. The tumors had an increase in their density on enhanced CT and MR in four patients, but a chondroid chordoma was poorly enhanced after injection of contrast medicum on CT. Four tumors contained calcifications in CT images and two lesionsshowed hemorrhage in MR images. Cavenous sinus was involved in all patients, and brain stem and basilar artery were compressed by the tumors in three cases. Pituitary gland was only displaced upward in three patients. Clivus was destroyed in all cases, and sella turcica and sphenoid bone were involved in three patients. CT is better than MR in demonstrating calcifications and bone destruction. In defining the extension of tumor, MR appears to be superior to CT in evaluation of the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding structures.

  6. Enhanced CT and CT virtual endoscopy in diagnosis of heterotopic pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Xiao-Er Wei; Lei Yan; Yu-Zhen Zhang; Wen-Bin Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To improve the diagnosis of heterotopic pancreas by the use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging and CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE).METHODS: A total of six patients with heterotopic pancreas, as confirmed by clinical pathology and immunohistochemistry in the Sixth Affiliated People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, were included. Non-enhanced CT and enhanced CT scanning were performed, and the resulting images were reviewed and analyzed using.three-dimensional post-processing software, including CTVE. RESULTS: Four males and two females were enrolled. Several heterotopic pancreas sites were involved; three occurred in the stomach, including the gastric antrum (n = 2) and lesser curvature (n = 1), and two were in the duodenal bulb. Only one case of heterotopic pancreas lesion occurred in the mesentery. Four cases had a solid yet soft tissue density that had a homogeneous pattern when viewed by enhanced CT. Additionally, their CT values were similar to that of the pancreas. The ducts of the heterotopic pancreas tissue, one of the characteristic CT features of heterotopic pancreas tissue, were detected in the CT images of two patients. CTVE images showed normal mucosa around the tissue, which is also an important indicator of a heterotopic pancreas. However, none of the CTVE images showed the typical signs of central dimpling or umbilication.CONCLUSION: CT, enhanced CT and CTVE techniques provide useful information about the location, growth pattern, vascularity, and condition of the gastrointestinal wall around heterotopic pancreatic tissue.

  7. Small-animal CT: Its difference from, and impact on, clinical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2007-10-01

    For whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of small rodents, a voxel resolution of at least 10 -3 mm 3 is needed for scale-equivalence to that currently achieved in clinical CT scanners (˜1 mm 3) in adult humans. These "mini-CT" images generally require minutes rather than seconds to complete a scan. The radiation exposure resulting from these mini-CT scans, while higher than clinical CT scans, is below the level resulting in acute tissue damage. Hence, these scans are useful for performing clinical-type diagnostic and monitoring scans for animal models of disease and their response to treatment. "Micro-CT", with voxel size pathological accumulations of metals such as Fe and Ca, which occur in the arterial wall following hemorrhage or tissue damage. Micro-CT can also be used as a test bed for exploring the utility of several modes of X-ray image formation, such as the use of dual-energy X-ray subtraction, X-ray scatter, phase delay and refraction-based imaging for increasing the contrast amongst soft tissue components. With the recent commercial availability of high speed, multi-slice CT scanners which can be operated in dual-energy mode, some of these micro-CT scanner capabilities and insights are becoming implementable in those CT scanners. As a result, the potential diagnostic spectrum that can be addressed with those scanners is broadened considerably.

  8. Hepatic CT image query using Gabor features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenguang Zhao(赵晨光); Hongyan Cheng(程红岩); Tiange Zhuang(庄天戈)

    2004-01-01

    A retrieval scheme for liver computerize tomography (CT) images based on Gabor texture is presented.For each hepatic CT image, we manually delineate abnormal regions within liver area. Then, a continuous Gabor transform is utilized to analyze the texture of the pathology bearing region and extract the corresponding feature vectors. For a given sample image, we compare its feature vector with those of other images. Similar images with the highest rank are retrieved. In experiments, 45 liver CT images are collected, and the effectiveness of Gabor texture for content based retrieval is verified.

  9. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N. (Delhi Univ. (India). Vallabhabhai Patel Chest Inst.); Pant, C.S. (Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India). Imaging Div.)

    1992-06-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.).

  10. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of the 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role.

  11. Doses metrics and patient age in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; Tipnis, Sameer V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how effective dose and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) change with patient age (size) for routine head and abdominal/pelvic CT examinations. Heads and abdomens of patients were modelled as a mass-equivalent cylinder of water corresponding to the patient 'effective diameter'. Head CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(S) of 40 mGy, and abdominal CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(L) of 10 mGy. Values of SSDE were obtained using conversion factors in AAPM Task Group Report 204. Age-specific scan lengths for head and abdominal CT scans obtained from the authors' clinical practice were used to estimate the dose-length product for each CT examination. Effective doses were calculated from previously published age- and sex-specific E/DLP conversion factors, based on ICRP 103 organ-weighting factors. For head CT examinations, the scan length increased from 15 cm in a newborn to 20 cm in adults, and for an abdominal/pelvic CT, the scan length increased from 20 cm in a newborn to 45 cm in adults. For head CT scans, SSDE ranged from 37.2 mGy in adults to 48.8 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 31 %. The corresponding head CT effective doses range from 1.4 mSv in adults to 5.2 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 270 %. For abdomen CT scans, SSDE ranged from 13.7 mGy in adults to 23.0 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 68 %. The corresponding abdominal CT effective doses ranged from 6.3 mSv in adults to 15.4 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 140 %. SSDE increases much less than effective dose in paediatric patients compared with adults because it does not account for scan length or scattered radiation. Size- and age-specific effective doses better quantify the total radiation received by patients in CT by explicitly accounting for all organ doses, as well as their relative radio sensitivity.

  12. Basics principles of flat detector computed tomography (FD-CT); Grundlagen der Flachdetektor-CT (FD-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakou, Y.; Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.; Kalender, W.A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers (II). In comparison to X-ray film and II, FD technology offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. FDCT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. Additionally, the introduction of FD technology was a milestone for soft-tissue CT imaging in the interventional suite which was not possible with II systems in the past. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its wide range of applications for CT imaging. FDCT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations, but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging during an intervention. (orig.) [German] Flachdetektoren (FD) sind fuer die Anwendung in der Radiographie und Fluoroskopie entwickelt worden, um die damaligen Standards - Film-Folien-Kombinationen (FFK) und Bildverstaerker (BV) - zu ersetzen. Im Vergleich zu FFK und BV bietet die FD-Technologie eine hoehere Dynamik, Verzerrungsfreiheit und eine gesteigerte Dosiseffizienz. Weitere Vorteile sind die Anfertigung Serienaufnahmen, eine sofortige Digitalausgabe und eine kompakte Bauweise. Dies legt auch eine Anwendung von Flachdetektoren in der Computertomographie (CT) nahe. Inzwischen ist die FD-CT weitgehend in der interventionellen und intraoperativen Bildgebung etabliert - meist als C-Bogen-System. Die FD-Technologie hat erstmals die Weichteilbildgebung in der interventionellen Suite ermoeglicht, was mit BV-Systemen nicht moeglich war. Diese

  13. Diverticular disease in CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Baekelandt, M.; Holsbeeck, B. van [Dept. of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Dewyspelaere, J. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Roeselare (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate findings on CT colonography (CTC) in patients with diverticular disease. In a retrospective analysis of 160 consecutive patients, who underwent CTC and conventional colonoscopy (CC), patients with diverticular disease were retrieved. The CTC images were compared with CC and, if possible, with pathology. Findings on both 2D and 3D images are illustrated with emphasis on diagnostic problems and the possible solutions to overcome these problems. Several aspects of diverticulosis were detected: prediverticulosis (3%); global (55.6%); and focal wall thickening (4%) caused by thickened haustral folds, fibrosis, inflammation and adenocarcinoma; diverticula (52%); pseudopolypoid lesions caused by diverticular fecaliths (39%); inverted diverticula (1.2%); and mucosal prolapse (0.6%). Solutions to overcome pitfalls are described as abdominal windowing, content of the pseudopolypoid lesion, comparison of 2D and 3D images, prone-supine imaging and the aspect of the pericolic fat. In this series there were equivocal findings in case of mucosal prolapse (0.6%) and focal wall thickening (4%). Diverticulosis is a challenge for CTC to avoid false-positive diagnosis of polypoid and tumoral disease. Knowledge of possible false causes of polypoid disease and comparison of 2D and 3D images are necessary to avoid false-positive diagnosis. In case of equivocal findings additional conventional colonoscopy should be advised whenever a clinically significant lesion ({>=}1 cm) is suspected. (orig.)

  14. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  15. CT thermometry for cone-beam CT guided ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Zachary; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Li, Ming; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring temperature during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation procedure is important for prevention of over-treatment and under-treatment. In order to accomplish ideal temperature monitoring, a thermometry map must be generated. Previously, this was attempted using CBCT scans of a pig shoulder undergoing ablation.1 We are extending this work by using CBCT scans of real patients and incorporating more processing steps. We register the scans before comparing them due to the movement and deformation of organs. We then automatically locate the needle tip and the ablation zone. We employ a robust change metric due to image noise and artifacts. This change metric takes windows around each pixel and uses an equation inspired by Time Delay Analysis to calculate the error between windows with the assumption that there is an ideal spatial offset. Once the change map is generated, we correlate change data with measured temperature data at the key points in the region. This allows us to transform our change map into a thermal map. This thermal map is then able to provide an estimate as to the size and temperature of the ablation zone. We evaluated our procedure on a data set of 12 patients who had a total of 24 ablation procedures performed. We were able to generate reasonable thermal maps with varying degrees of accuracy. The average error ranged from 2.7 to 16.2 degrees Celsius. In addition to providing estimates of the size of the ablation zone for surgical guidance, 3D visualizations of the ablation zone and needle are also produced.

  16. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  17. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Helen R. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Pediatric Radiologist and Nuclear Medicine Physician, Division of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  18. CT of uterine cervical myeloma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, C G; Posniak, H V; Pyle, J M

    1992-01-01

    Myelomatous involvement of the uterine cervix is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously in the radiologic literature. This report describes the computed tomographic (CT) findings and reviews differential diagnostic considerations.

  19. Benign mediastinal cysts: pointed appearance on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, T C; Budorick, N E; Posniak, H V

    1989-01-01

    A case of bronchogenic cyst and two cases of pericardial cysts are presented. Our report illustrates the diagnostic utility of a pointed contour and the dependence of contour on position on CT in establishing the cystic nature of mediastinal mass.

  20. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    on the market today based on different perfusion algorithms. However, there is no consensus on which protocol and algorithm to use for specific organs. In this article, the authors give an introduction to CT perfusion in abdominal imaging introducing technical aspects for calculation of perfusion parameters......Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...... table position. Advances in reconstruction algorithms make it possible to reduce the radiation dose for each examination to acceptable levels. Regarding abdominal imaging, CT perfusion is still considered a research tool, but several studies have proven it as a reliable non-invasive technique...

  2. CT diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Tomoda, K.; Amano, H. (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1980-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was supplementary and effectively employed for diagnosis of parotid gland tumors in 33 patients. The usefulness of this technique for determining of location of tumor and for differential diagnosis was investigated. The results were as follows: 1. The depth of tumor expansion into the parapharyngeal space was clearly evaluated by CT, 2. It may be assumed that a tumor locates in the superficial lobe, if it appears outside a line drawn between the mastoid process and the mandibule. 3. If the margin of tumor appears irregular, and its content is heterogenous, diagnosis of a high-grade maligancy will be made. CT is of limited usefulness in diagnosing low-grade malignancy. 4. Clear and low density of a tumor shown in CT can be suggestive of a cyst.

  3. MRI and CT patterns of neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Rupp, N.; Einsiedel, H. von

    1987-05-01

    MRI and CT manifestations were studied in five cases of neurocysticercosis. As demonstrated by long-term follow-ups the disease usually causes multiple lesions the morphology of which depends on the life cycle of the parasite. Tissue lesions consist of three main types: 1) vital cysticerci, 2) inflammatory parenchymatous reactions following degenerating cysts and 3) calcified granulomas. MRI provides all information that is given by CT except for small calcifications which are usually missed. Morphological details of vital cysticerci like cysts wall and scolex are better outlined by MRI. When i.v. contrast medium is applied, it leads to nodular or annular enhancement of inflamed tissue. The sensitivity of MRI towards edema caused by parasite exceeds that of CT by several weeks. CT and MRI are complementary methods providing at the present time the highest degree of specificity in diagnosing neurocysticercosis.

  4. FDG PET/CT in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    use of PET/CT in the RSD with these recommendations. This article summarizes the results. METHODS: A Work Group appointed a professional Subgroup which made Clinician Groups conduct literature reviews on six selected cancers responsible for 5,768 (62.6 %) of 9,213 PET/CT scans in the RSD in 2012......-recommendable" indications, respectively. RESULTS: Of 11,729 citations, 1,729 were considered for review, and 204 were included. The evidence suggested usefulness of PET/CT in lung, lymphoma, melanoma, head and neck, and colorectal cancers, whereas evidence was sparse in gynaecological cancers. The agreement between actual...... use of PET/CT and literature-based recommendations was high in the first five mentioned cancers in that 96.2 % of scans were made for grade A or B indications versus only 22.2 % in gynaecological cancers. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based usefulness was reported in five of six selected cancers; evidence...

  5. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  6. Clinical and CT findings in appendiceal diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Abhijit Y; Levine, Marc S; Grujic, Edina; Goren, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Appendiceal diverticulitis is a rare pathologic entity that is difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds because of an indolent course and atypical presenting symptoms. However, the characteristic computed tomographic (CT) features should suggest the correct diagnosis, and an appendectomy should be performed. Despite its rarity, radiologists should be aware of this condition and the findings on CT because of the higher risk of perforation than in appendicitis and the potential association with appendiceal neoplasms.

  7. Spiral CT colonography in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjan, Zsolt E-mail: tarjan@radi.sote.hu; Zagoni, Tamas; Gyoerke, Tamas; Mester, Adam; Karlinger, Kinga; Mako, Erno K

    2000-09-01

    Objective: Most of the studies on virtual colonoscopy are dealing with the role of detecting colorectal polyps or neoplasms. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the value of CT colonography in patients with colonic Crohn's disease. Methods and material: Five patients (three males, two females, 23-51 years, mean age 42 years) with known (4) or suspected (1) Crohn's disease of the colon underwent fiberoptic colonoscopy and CT colonography in the same day or during a 1-week period. The images were evaluated with the so called zoomed axial slice movie technique and in some regions intra- and extraluminal surface shaded and volume rendered images were generated on a separate workstation. The results were compared to those of a colonoscopy. Results: The final diagnosis was Crohn's disease in four patients and colitis ulcerosa in one. Total examination was possible by colonoscopy in two cases, and with CT colonography in all five cases. The wall of those segments severely affected by the disease were depicted by the axial CT scans to be thickened. The thick walled, segments with narrow lumen seen on CT colonography corresponded to the regions where colonoscopy was failed to pass. Air filled sinus tracts, thickening of the wall of the terminal ileum, loss of haustration pseudopolyps and deep ulcers were seen in CT colonography. Three dimensional (3D) endoluminal views demonstrated pseudopolyps similar to endoscopic images None of the colonoscopically reported shallow ulcerations or aphtoid ulcerations or granular mucosal surface were observed on 2- or 3D CT colonographic images. Conclusion: CT colonography by depicting colonic wall thickening seems to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of Crohn's colitis, which could be a single examination depicting the intraluminal, and transmural extent of the disease.

  8. CT scan findings in cerebral paragonimiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaka, Fukashi; Okuda, Bungo; Okada, Masako; Okae, Shunji; Kameyama, Masakuni (Chikamori Hospital, Kochi (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    Computed tomography was performed on 5 patients with chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. CT showed solitary or multiple, amorphous, round, or oval calcifications, and ventricular enlargement in all 5 cases. A large low-density area is also found in 4 of the 5 cases. These CT findings are compatible with previously reported findings of simple X-ray films of the skull, pneumoencephalography, and pathological studies.

  9. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Nabil J.; Naffaa, Lena N.; Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S. [Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the CT findings in four patients and the MR imaging in one patient with juvenile ossifying fibroma. Three lesions involved the maxillary sinus and extended to the surrounding structures; one lesion was confined to the maxillary bone. CT scan revealed well-defined, expansile lesions with variable amount of calcifications. On MRI one lesion had intermediate signal intensity with significant contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  10. Omental fibroma: CT and US findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Y.; Acikgoezoglu, S.; Oedev, K. [Department of Radiology, Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey); Sahin, M. [Department of General Surgery, Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey); Oemeroglu, E. [Department of Pathology, Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

    1998-10-01

    The US, CT, and X-ray findings in a patient with omental fibroma of the lesser omentum are described. Ultrasound showed a solid mass with cystic areas in the central region. At CT the lesion showed peripheral enhancement and central hypodensity. On X-ray studies with barium, there was border distortion in the lesser curvature of the stomach. The mass was resected surgically. A pathologic diagnosis of fibroma was confirmed. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 8 refs.

  11. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei-ling; YAN Fu-hua; XU Peng-ju; ZHANG Li-jun; LI Qing-hai; JI Yuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma (AMC) is an uncommon disease. The clinical symptoms are non-specific, thus the preoperative diagnosis is very difficult. The importance of recognizing this condition lies in preventing spillage during surgery. At present,the widespread use of computed tomography (CT)for evaluating abdominal disease has increased the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy for AMC.Here, we report the CT appearance of 4histologically proven AMCs.

  12. CT enterography of pediatric Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Adler, Jeremy [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zimmermann, Ellen M. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-01-15

    CT enterography is an important tool in the noninvasive diagnosis and follow-up of pediatric Crohn disease. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing extent of disease (including both intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations), response to medical therapy, and disease-related complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of CT enterography technique as well as the spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal findings in pediatric Crohn disease. (orig.)

  13. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Julka, Pramod Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, New Delhi (India); Thulkar, Sanjay [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 {+-} 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score {<=}2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images ({kappa} = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT ({kappa} = 0.834) and SPECT-CT ({kappa} = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  14. Performance evaluation of the General Electric eXplore CT 120 micro-CT using the vmCT phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahri, M.A., E-mail: M.Bahri@ulg.ac.be [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Warnock, G.; Plenevaux, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Choquet, P.; Constantinesco, A. [Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Salmon, E.; Luxen, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); Seret, A. [ULg-Liege University, Cyclotron Research Centre, Liege, Bat. 30, Allee du 6 aout, 8 (Belgium); ULg-Liege University, Experimental Medical Imaging, Liege (Belgium)

    2011-08-21

    The eXplore CT 120 is the latest generation micro-CT from General Electric. It is equipped with a high-power tube and a flat-panel detector. It allows high resolution and high contrast fast CT scanning of small animals. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the eXplore CT 120 with that of the eXplore Ultra, its predecessor for which the methodology using the vmCT phantom has already been described . The phantom was imaged using typical a rat (fast scan or F) or mouse (in vivo bone scan or H) scanning protocols. With the slanted edge method, a 10% modulation transfer function (MTF) was observed at 4.4 (F) and 3.9-4.4 (H) mm{sup -1} corresponding to 114 {mu}m resolution. A fairly larger MTF was obtained by the coil method with the MTF for the thinnest coil (3.3 mm{sup -1}) equal to 0.32 (F) and 0.34 (H). The geometric accuracy was better than 0.3%. There was a highly linear (R{sup 2}>0.999) relationship between measured and expected CT numbers for both the CT number accuracy and linearity sections of the phantom. A cupping effect was clearly seen on the uniform slices and the uniformity-to-noise ratio ranged from 0.52 (F) to 0.89 (H). The air CT number depended on the amount of polycarbonate surrounding the area where it was measured; a difference as high as approximately 200 HU was observed. This hindered the calibration of this scanner in HU. This is likely due to the absence of corrections for beam hardening and scatter in the reconstruction software. However in view of the high linearity of the system, the implementation of these corrections would allow a good quality calibration of the scanner in HU. In conclusion, the eXplore CT 120 achieved a better spatial resolution than the eXplore Ultra (based on previously reported specifications) and future software developments will include beam hardening and scatter corrections that will make the new generation CT scanner even more promising.

  15. CT analysis of missile head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Jadro-Santel, D. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Jelavic-Koic, F. [Dept. of Radiology, General Hospital Sveti Duh, Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, D. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Mikulic, D. [Zagreb School of Medicine (Croatia); Glavina, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Osijek (Croatia); Maskovic, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Split (Croatia)

    1995-04-01

    Between August 1991 and December 1992, CT was performed in 154 patients who had suffered missile head injury during the war in the Republic of Croatia. In 54% CT was performed 1-24 h after injury, and in 27% follow-up CT was also obtained. The wounds were penetrating, tangential or perforating (45%, 34% and 21%, respectively). Haemorrhage was the most frequent lesion in the brain (84%). Follow-up CT evolution of haemorrhage, oedema, cerebritis, abscess, secondary vascular lesions, necrosis, encephalomalacia and hydrocephalus. The most dynamic changes occurred 7-14 days after injury. In 14% of cases, deep cerebral lesions were found in the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum periventricular region and pons, although bone and shell fragments were in a different part of the brain parenchyma. Such lesions were found in penetrating injuries only. CT proved very useful for assessing the extent and type of lesions. Although different mechanisms of brain damage in missile head injury are known, here they are, to the best of our knowledge, shown for the first time by CT. (orig.)

  16. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a good'' surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  17. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a ``good`` surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  18. Helical CT in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Olivier; Leroy, Christophe; Sergent, Geraldine [Department of Radiology, Hopital Huriez, 1 rue Polonovski, 59037 Lille (France); Bulois, Philippe; Saint-Drenant, Sophie; Paris, Jean-Claude [Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Huriez, 1 rue Polonovski, 59037 Lille (France)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of helical CT in depicting the location of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A three-phase helical CT of the abdomen was performed in 24 patients referred for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis of the bleeding site was established by CT when there was at least one of the following criteria: spontaneous hyperdensity of the peribowel fat; contrast enhancement of the bowel wall; vascular extravasation of the contrast medium; thickening of the bowel wall; polyp or tumor; or vascular dilation. Diverticula alone were not enough to locate the bleeding site. The results of CT were compared with the diagnosis obtained by colonoscopy, enteroscopy, or surgery. A definite diagnosis was made in 19 patients. The bleeding site was located in the small bowel in 5 patients and the colon in 14 patients. The CT correctly located 4 small bowel hemorrhages and 11 colonic hemorrhages. Diagnosis of the primary lesion responsible for the bleeding was made in 10 patients. Our results suggest that helical CT could be a good diagnostic tool in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding to help the physician to diagnose the bleeding site. (orig.)

  19. Usefulness and limit of CT diagnosis on appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchiki, Megumi; Takanashi, Toshiyasu [Sakata Municipal Hospital, Yamagata (Japan); Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1997-08-01

    CT was performed in 104 patients with abdominal pain suspected appendicitis. CT showed positive finding (abnormal appendix, appendicolith, pericecal inflammatory change, fluid collection, LN swelling, abscess) and complication of appendicitis clearly. CT diagnosis showed high accuracy than clinical diagnosis. CT proved its usefulness especially only CT imaging showed the correct diagnosis. On the other hand, diverticulitis and terminal ileitis common diagnostic disease of appendicitis showed similar clinical appearance and CT image, caused to be difficult to diagnose correctly. In the cases showing similar image to appendicitis or atypical image, CT also proved its limit of the diagnosis on appendicitis. (author)

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis bone erosion volumes on CT and MRI: reliability and correlations with erosion scores on CT, MRI and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Døhn, Uffe; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Hasselquist, Maria;

    2007-01-01

    controls underwent unilateral CT, MRI and radiography of second to fifth MCP joints in one hand. Erosion volumes (using OSIRIS software) and scores were determined from CT, MRI and radiography (scores only). RESULTS: CT, MRI and radiography detected 77, 62 and 12 erosions, respectively. On CT, the mean...

  1. How to choose PET-CT or CT in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Practical experience in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, T.; Tao, X.; Liu, H.; Liu, S. [Dept. of Radiology, ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical Univ., SH (China); Zheng, X. [Dept. of Nutrition, ChangHai Hospital, Second Military Medical Univ., SH (China)

    2010-07-01

    How to use CT and PET-CT rationally to raise diagnosis, staging and prognostic assessment of lung cancer to a higher level at the best cost-effect ratio is a subject that Chinese clinicians and radiologists should face conscientiously. We review the rational application of CT and PET-CT in four aspects of lung cancer, including screening and detection, morphologic evaluation, haemodynamic or metabolic feature evaluation, and follow-up, staging and prognostic evaluation. As PET-CT is only available in class III-A hospitals today, CT is the most popular equipment in China. PET-CT is more valuable only in cases where CT presentation of lung cancer is atypical or difficult to determine, or in cases where the diagnosis of lung cancer has been initially confirmed, for which clinical staging and decision concerning on therapeutic regimens are needed. We also recommend the current strategies of CT and PET-CT managing of SPN in China. (orig.)

  2. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail: mostafa.atri@sw.ca; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  3. Experience with volumetric (320 rows) pediatric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E., E-mail: erich.sorantin@medunigraz.at [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria); Stücklschweiger, G.; Guss, H. [Competence Centre for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Univ.-Hospital Graz (Austria); Fotter, R. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The introduction of helical computer tomography (CT) and further progress to multi-slice CT enabled new applications. Most recent developments like the 320-row detector facilitate volume CT, which avoids the over-beaming effect of helical scanning. The 320-row multi-slice detector CT (MDCT) is based on a 16 cm detector; a special acquisition mode allows reconstructing 640 slices from these 16 cm. The shortest tube rotation time is in cardiac mode 0.35 s, otherwise 0.4 s and 0.5 s used. At 0.5 s the machine already reaches the maximum numbers of sub-second projections. Scan modes can be volume, helical and single slice mode. For image acquisition all dose savings technologies like variable tube position for scano-view, active collimation, automated exposure control, bolus and ECG tracking are available. Additionally special acquisition and post-processing techniques like head and body perfusion CT are ready for use on the console. For image reconstruction properties like filtered back projection as well as the latest development of iterative algorithms, an appropriate number of kernels and multi-planar reconstruction in all directions from the volume data at every increment are available. Volume CT allows sub second scanning of 16 cm z-coverage which, however, makes administration of intravenous contrast medium to “hit or miss” event. The aim of this paper is to present the application of volume CT to body scanning in children. Representative examples of neck, cardiac and skeletal investigations are given.

  4. CT of Coronary Heart Disease : Part 1, CT of Myocardial Infarction, Ischemia, and Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Henzler, Thomas; Moscariello, Antonio; Ruzsics, Balazs; Bastarrika, Gorka; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article reviews the CT-based approaches aimed at the assessment of myocardial infarction, ischemia, and viability described in the recent literature. CONCLUSION. Rapid advances in CT technology not only have improved visualization of coronary arteries but also increasingly enable non

  5. AAPM/RSNA Physics Tutorial for Residents: Topics in CT. Radiation dose in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNitt-Gray, Michael F

    2002-01-01

    This article describes basic radiation dose concepts as well as those specifically developed to describe the radiation dose from computed tomography (CT). Basic concepts of radiation dose are reviewed, including exposure, absorbed dose, and effective dose. Radiation dose from CT demonstrates variations within the scan plane and along the z axis because of its unique geometry and usage. Several CT-specific dose descriptors have been developed: the Multiple Scan Average Dose descriptor, the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and its variations (CTDI(100), CTDI(w), CTDI(vol)), and the dose-length product. Factors that affect radiation dose from CT include the beam energy, tube current-time product, pitch, collimation, patient size, and dose reduction options. Methods of reducing the radiation dose to a patient from CT include reducing the milliampere-seconds value, increasing the pitch, varying the milliampere-seconds value according to patient size, and reducing the beam energy. The effective dose from CT can be estimated by using Monte Carlo methods to simulate CT of a mathematical patient model, by estimating the energy imparted to the body region being scanned, or by using conversion factors for general anatomic regions. Issues related to radiation dose from CT are being addressed by the Society for Pediatric Radiology, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the American College of Radiology, and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the Food and Drug Administration.

  6. Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in absence of CT abnormality on PET-CT: What is it?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyan; Liu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial review of the findings and interpretative pitfalls about focal fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)uptake in the absence of corresponding computer tomography(CT)lesion or abnormality on an integrated positron emission tomography(PET)-CT.The integrated CT images in the PET-CT scanner allow correct co-registration and fused imaging of anatomical and functional data.On FDG PET-CT imaging,a real pathologic process often demonstrates abnormal uptake associated with a visible corresponding CT lesion or abnormality.When focal uptake is seen on PET imaging but no corresponding anatomic abnormality is visualized on the integrated CT,one should always be aware of possible mis-registration or mismatch of the PET and CT images due to the patient’s respiratory or body motion.While most of the hot spots in the absence of corresponding anatomic abnormalities are artefactual or secondary to benign etiologies,some may represent small sized or early staged neoplasm or metastases,especially in the gastrointestinal tract and skeletons.Caution should be exercised to simply diagnose a pathology based on the presence of the uptake only,or exclude the disease based on the absence of anatomic abnormality.

  7. CT-guided resection of pulmonary metastases; CT-gesteuerte Resektion pulmonaler Metastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffke, G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Felix, R. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Rau, B.; Liebeskind, U.; Huenerbein, M.; Bayraktar, S.; Schlag, P.M. [Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie, Charite, Helios-Klinikum Campus Buch, Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility and potential use of intraoperative computed tomography (IOP CT) as guidance for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Material and methods: fifteen consecutive patients with peripheral intrapulmonary nodules underwent a thoracoscopy with IOP CT. Solitary lesions were known in 6/15 patients (40%, group II) whereas 9/15 (60%, group I) patients had multiple lesions (n {>=} 2). IOP CT was performed with the mobile CT scanner Philips Tomoscan M. Radiologists intraoperatively placed percutaneous marks of lung lesions after unsuccessful VATS by use of a lung marker set (Somatex, Teltow, Germany). VATS was performed under general anaesthesia and with double lumen endotracheal intubation for single lung ventilation. Imaging quality and imaging of pulmonary nodules were rated. Results: IOP CT was evaluated as feasible combined with VATS. Thoracotomy was avoided in 5/15 patients where lesions could not be detected by VATS. A CT-guided biopsy was performed in two patients after an unsuccessful attempt of thoracoscopy. There were no documented side effects. Conclusion: first clinical results suggest that a combination of VATS and IOP CT is feasible. Thus, the number of open thoracoscopies might be decreased. Intrapulmonary lesions not detectable with VATS could be marked under CT - guidance intraoperatively and then resected by thoracoscopy. (orig.)

  8. SPECT/CT in neuroendocrine cancers; SPECT/CT bei neuroendokrinen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miederer, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Castrop, C.; Scheidhauer, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Buck, A.K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    The accuracy of functional SPECT imaging has been significantly improved by addition of CT. This is especially relevant for functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors using highly specific radiopharmaceuticals. Parathyroid adenomas can be detected by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT with very high sensitivity and specificity, playing an important role especially when minimally invasive techniques are used for surgical resection. With SPECT/CT, extra-adrenal manifestations of pheochromocytomas and tumors of the adrenal cortex can be detected with high accuracy. Because of the availability of PET radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC, the clinical relevance of {sup 111}In-Octreotide SPECT for detection of neuroendocrine cancers has been recently reduced. Because of the better availability, SPECT and SPECT/CT still represent standard tools for imaging neuroendocrine cancers. SPECT/CT represents the superior imaging modality for monitoring radiopeptide based therapies, which are now increasingly used for treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. (orig.)

  9. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was

  10. Fast CT-CT fluoroscopy registration with respiratory motion compensation for image-guided lung intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Po; Xue, Zhong; Lu, Kongkuo; Yang, Jianhua; Wong, Stephen T.

    2012-02-01

    CT-fluoroscopy (CTF) is an efficient imaging method for guiding percutaneous lung interventions such as biopsy. During CTF-guided biopsy procedure, four to ten axial sectional images are captured in a very short time period to provide nearly real-time feedback to physicians, so that they can adjust the needle as it is advanced toward the target lesion. Although popularly used in clinics, this traditional CTF-guided intervention procedure may require frequent scans and cause unnecessary radiation exposure to clinicians and patients. In addition, CTF only generates limited slices of images and provides limited anatomical information. It also has limited response to respiratory movements and has narrow local anatomical dynamics. To better utilize CTF guidance, we propose a fast CT-CTF registration algorithm with respiratory motion estimation for image-guided lung intervention using electromagnetic (EM) guidance. With the pre-procedural exhale and inhale CT scans, it would be possible to estimate a series of CT images of the same patient at different respiratory phases. Then, once a CTF image is captured during the intervention, our algorithm can pick the best respiratory phase-matched 3D CT image and performs a fast deformable registration to warp the 3D CT toward the CTF. The new 3D CT image can be used to guide the intervention by superimposing the EM-guided needle location on it. Compared to the traditional repetitive CTF guidance, the registered CT integrates both 3D volumetric patient data and nearly real-time local anatomy for more effective and efficient guidance. In this new system, CTF is used as a nearly real-time sensor to overcome the discrepancies between static pre-procedural CT and the patient's anatomy, so as to provide global guidance that may be supplemented with electromagnetic (EM) tracking and to reduce the number of CTF scans needed. In the experiments, the comparative results showed that our fast CT-CTF algorithm can achieve better registration

  11. CT findings of orbital langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Gina; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the CT findings in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the orbit. Orbital CT scans of six children with pathologically proven LCH were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-up CT (n=3D5) and MR (n=3D1) imaging findings were also reviewed. Initial CT scans revealed varying degree of bone destruction with soft-tissue masses, and on nonenhanced images the mean attenuation value was 44 Hounsfield units (HU). All masses showed mild to moderate enhancement with a mean attenuation value of 74 HU. The bony margins abutting onto soft tissue masses were irregular but clearly demarcated. No evidence of calcification or periosteal reaction was noted. Suprasellar mass and rib involvement was noted in one patient and hepatosplenomegaly in two. Follow-up CT and MR images showed that the soft tissue masses were almost completely resolved, with bone remodeling and reossification. A soft tissue mass with irregular but clearly demarcated bone destruction is thought to be a characteristic finding of LCH involving the orbit. Follow-up images after treatment showed bone remodeling and reossification. (author)

  12. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  13. Osteoid osteoma - the CT vessel sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal; Shabshin, Noga; Sharon, Michal; Garniack, Alex [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Liberman, Boaz [Sheba Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rimon, Uri [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Eshed, Iris [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv University Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate whether the presence of a feeding vessel in proximity to osteoid osteomas of long bones on multidetector CT (MDCT) can be an adjuvant clue for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Forty-nine CT scans of patients with radiological and clinical diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of long bones and a control group of 20 CT scans of patients with cortical-based lesions other then osteoid osteoma were analyzed. Two radiologists evaluated the CT images in consensus for the presence of a blood vessel in the same axial slices in which the nidus of osteoid osteoma was seen and to determine the incidence. In 39 cases (79.6%) of osteoid osteoma, a blood vessel either entered the nidus (23 patients) or was seen in proximity to it (16 patients). This was significantly different (P<0.05) from the cortical-based lesions, in which only two CT scans (10%) showed a blood vessel in the lesion's proximity. In the majority of osteoid osteoma lesions in long bones, a blood vessel can be seen on MDCT either entering the nidus itself or in its proximity. The role of this vessel in the lesion pathogenesis and whether it improves diagnostic accuracy need further evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment.

  15. Pulmonary CT findings in relapsing polychondritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi Qian Lin; Jian Rong Xu; Jie Jun Chen; Xiao Lan Hua; Ke Bei Zhang; Yong Jing Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)), e-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com

    2010-06-15

    Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is a rare rheumatic disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of cartilaginous structures, with airway involvement a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate airway and lung abnormalities in RPC with computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: From January 2004 to May 2009, 21 patients with RPC (12 men, 9 women; 13-65 years old) underwent chest CT examinations. Two chest radiologists evaluated the CT images retrospectively. Abnormal findings, including airway stenosis, airway malacia, air trapping, and airway wall thickening with or without calcifications, were observed and noted. Results: Major abnormal CT findings were observed in eight patients (38.1%), which included airway wall thickening (n=7), airway stenosis (n=6), airway malacia (n=6), airway wall calcification (n=8), and air trapping (n=3). Mediastinal lymph nodes were found in 12 patients. Lung infection was identified in four patients and interstitial lung disease in six patients. Conclusion: The CT findings in patients with RPC consisted mainly of airway wall thickening, airway stenosis, airway malacia, airway wall calcification, and air trapping

  16. Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, M.; Romero, F.; Torrent, O.; Ibarra, B.

    1980-04-01

    Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution.

  17. MRI and CT findings of intracranial neurosyphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hong Kil; Shim, Ya Seong; Kim, Seon Bok; Kim, Uk Jung; Lee, Shin Ho; Jung, Hae Kyuong; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyeun Cha [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the CT and MRI findings of neurosyphilis. We retrospectively reviewed the CT and MR imaging findings in five patients with intracranial neurosyphilis confirmed by CSF, VDRL, TPHA, and clinical follow-up. MR imaging was performed in all five cases, and CT in two. The MRI and CT findings of intracranial neurosyphilis included infarction (n=3), focal inflammation (n=1) and encephalopathy (n=1). There was a total of ten infaretions : three of the basal ganglia, two each of the frontal lobe, watershed zone, and cerebellum, and one of the occipital lobe. Intaretion was most common in MCA territory (n=9; 50%), followed by the watershed zone (16.6%), posterior cerebral artery territory (16.6%), and posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory (11.1%). The size of the lesion varied from 1cm to larger than one lobe. One patient showed diffuse high signal intensity in the left temporal lobe, but on follow-up MRI, this had resolved. The most common finding of neurosyphilis, as seen on MRI and CT, was infarction in middle cerebral arterial territory.

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  19. CT10: a new cancer-testis (CT) antigen homologous to CT7 and the MAGE family, identified by representational-difference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güre, A O; Stockert, E; Arden, K C; Boyer, A D; Viars, C S; Scanlan, M J; Old, L J; Chen, Y T

    2000-03-01

    Assays relying on humoral or T-cell-based recognition of tumor antigens to identify potential targets for immunotherapy have led to the discovery of a significant number of immunogenic gene products, including cancer-testis (CT) antigens predominantly expressed in cancer cells and male germ cells. The search for cancer-specific antigens has been extended via the technique of representational-difference analysis and SK-MEL-37, a melanoma cell line expressing a broad range of CT antigens. Using this approach, we have isolated CT antigen genes, genes over-expressed in cancer, e. g., PRAME and KOC, and genes encoding neuro-ectodermal markers. The identified CT antigen genes include the previously defined MAGE-A6, MAGE-A4a, MAGE-A10, CT7/MAGE-C1, as well as a novel gene designated CT10, which shows strong homology to CT7/MAGE-C1 both at cDNA and at genomic levels. Chromosome mapping localized CT10 to Xq27, in close proximity to CT7/MAGE-C1 and MAGE-A genes. CT10 mRNA is expressed in testis and in 20 to 30% of various human cancers. A serological survey identified 2 melanoma patients with anti-CT10 antibody, demonstrating the immunogenicity of CT10 in humans.

  20. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG-INACTIVATION WITH OZONE USING EFFLUENT CT 10, GEOMETRIC MEAN CT 10 EXTENDED INTEGRATED CT 10 AND EXTENDED-CSTR CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR") contains Cryptosporidium log-inactivation CT tables. Depending on the water temperature, the Cryptosporidium CT values that are listed are 15 to 25 times greater than CT values fo...

  1. CT diagnosis of retinoblastoma with histopathologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivecrona, H. [Dept. of Radiology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Agerberg, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Huaman, A. [Dept. of Pathology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-08-01

    The authors correlated the radiologic and histopathologic characteristics of 108 retinoblastomas in 98 patients. Calcifications were demonstrable by CT scans in 92.6% of the cases, whereas only 82% were evident upon routine histologic study. Cases of severe invasion of the optic nerve beyond the lamina cribrosa and up to the surgical margin of the nerve were detected by CT scans. Lesser degrees of invasion could not be determined by the same method. Orbital extension was also demonstrable, whereas invasion limited to the sclera was rarely accessible to CT diagnosis. Choroidal invasion was not detectable. Computerized tomography detected enlargement of the ipsilateral lacrimal gland in 17.5% of patients. This phenomenon correlates with invasion of the choroid and the optic nerve. (orig.)

  2. Cranial CT of the unconscious adult patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, S.P. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dey, C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Gawne-Cain, M.L. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mary.gawne@suht.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-05-15

    Unconscious patients are frequently referred to radiology departments for computed tomography (CT) of the brain. The objectives of these examinations are to define the underlying cause of impaired consciousness and in some cases to determine the severity of associated brain injury. There is often little history available to guide the clinician or radiologist, particularly in patients referred from the casualty department. In this review, we present the typical CT appearances of adult patients presenting with loss of consciousness for CT examination. We focus on the most common abnormalities that are identified in everyday radiological practice, emphasize important diagnostic signs that may enable a confident diagnosis to be made and discuss when further imaging may be warranted.

  3. Diagnosis of chondromalacia patellae using CT arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.; Karpf, P.M.; Bernett, P.

    1982-08-01

    Using anatomical specimens for experimental investigations, the physical-technical prerequisites for proper demonstration of the femoro-patellar articulation were determined and the following results obtained: hyaline cartilage possesses an attenuation value of 25-35 HU; artificial lesions from 1 mm. deep and 2 mm. wide minimum can be visualized; the use of positive contrast medium is best suited for demonstration of chondral lesions. In clinical practice we found that the various stages of cartilaginous degeneration peculiar to chondromalacia (Fruend I to III) are clearly demonstrated by CT arthrography. In CT the predisposing changes in the morphology of the patella and the femoro-patellar articulation are more precisely defined than in conventional tangential roentgenograms. In 69 cases the CT arthrographic findings could be verified at operation. However, the extent and severity of the lesions was, at times, underestimated.

  4. SPECT/CT and tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abikhzer, Gad [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-05-15

    Scintigraphic techniques are sensitive imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients providing the functional and metabolic activity characteristics of the tumour. Hybrid SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of these well-established imaging techniques by precise anatomical localization and characterization of morphological findings, differentiation between foci of physiological and pathological tracer uptake, resulting in a significant impact on patient management and more definitive interpretations. The use of SPECT/CT has been studied in a variety of applications in tumour imaging which are reviewed in this article. By combining functional and anatomical information in a single imaging session, SPECT/CT has become a one-stop cancer imaging modality. (orig.)

  5. CT features of primary epiploic appendagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Keng Sin [Department of Oncologic Imaging, National Cancer Centre, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ngkeng@gmail.com; Tan, Andrew Gee Seng [Department of Radiology, Changi General Hospital, 2 Simei Street 3, Singapore 529889, Singapore. (Singapore); Chen, Kevin K' o Wen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Wong, Siew Kune [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tan, How Ming [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA). Methods: We reviewed the clinical records and CT images of 14 consecutive patients in Singapore who presented with acute abdominal pain from July 2000 to April 2004 and had radiological signs of PEA. Results: Hyperattenuated ring with adjacent fat stranding was present in all the patients. The central high attenuation dot was seen in 42.9% (6/14) of the patients. We observed a lobulated fatty mass in 21.4% (3/14) of our patients. All patients recovered during clinical follow-up. Conclusions: We believe the lobulated appearance of PEA is due to two or more, contiguous infarcted epiploic appendages lying in close proximity. This appearance further aids in the diagnosis of PEA and helps differentiates the condition from omental infarction. Recognizing the CT signs of PEA should allow a confident diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgery.

  6. Reliability of visual assessment of non-contrast CT, CT angiography source images and CT perfusion in patients with suspected ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Seeters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Good reliability of methods to assess the extent of ischemia in acute stroke is important for implementation in clinical practice, especially between observers with varying experience. Our aim was to determine inter- and intra-observer reliability of the 1/3 middle cerebral artery (MCA rule and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS for different CT modalities in patients suspected of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 105 patients with acute neurological deficit due to suspected acute ischemic stroke within 9 hours after symptom onset. All patients underwent non-contrast CT, CT perfusion and CT angiography on admission. All images were evaluated twice for presence of ischemia, ischemia with >1/3 MCA involvement, and ASPECTS. Four observers evaluated twenty scans twice for intra-observer agreement. We used kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient to calculate agreement. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement for the 1/3 MCA rule and ASPECTS was fair to good for non-contrast CT, poor to good for CT angiography source images, but excellent for all CT perfusion maps (cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and predicted penumbra and infarct maps. Intra-observer agreement for the 1/3 MCA rule and ASPECTS was poor to good for non-contrast CT, fair to moderate for CT angiography source images, and good to excellent for all CT perfusion maps. CONCLUSION: Between observers with a different level of experience, agreement on the radiological diagnosis of cerebral ischemia is much better for CT perfusion than for non-contrast CT and CT angiography source images, and therefore CT perfusion is a very reliable addition to standard stroke imaging.

  7. CT findings in isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Khurana, Bharti; Ros, Pablo R. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Glickman, Jonathan N. [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the CT features of ischemic proctosigmoiditis in correlation with clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histopathologic findings. Our study included seven patients with isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis. Patients were identified by a retrospective review of all histopathologic records of colonoscopic biopsies performed during a time period of 4 years. All patients presented with left lower abdominal quadrant pain, bloody stools, and leukocytosis, and four patients had fever at the time of presentation. Four of seven patients suffered from diarrhea, one of seven was constipated and two of seven had normal stool consistency. The CT examinations were reviewed by two authors by consensus and compared with clinical and histopathologic results as well as with the initial CT diagnosis. The CT showed a wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon in seven of seven patients, stranding of the pararectal fat in four of seven, and stranding of the perisigmoidal fat in one of seven patients. There were no enlarged lymph nodes, but five of seven patients showed coexistent diverticulosis and in three of these patients CT findings were initially misinterpreted as sigmoid diverticulitis. Endoscopies and histopathologic analyses of endoscopic biopsies confirmed non-transmural ischemic proctosigmoiditis in all patients. Isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis often presents with unspecific CT features and potentially misleading clinical and laboratory findings. In an elderly patient or a patient with known cardiovascular risk factors the diagnosis of ischemic proctosigmoiditis should be considered when wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon is seen that is associated with perirectal fat stranding. (orig.)

  8. DendroCT - Dendrochronology without damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Daly, Aoife; Johnsen, Øistein

    2012-01-01

    for dendrochronological analyses. In the scans it was possible to separate tree-rings down to 0.2. mm width, and it was possible to identify the sapwood-heartwood border when sufficient sapwood rings were present. It was found, however, that a visual inspection of the object was required to distinguish between sapwood...... and decayed wood. Comparisons between direct measurements of tree-rings and measurements based on CT-imagery revealed no significant differences. The scanning and subsequent dating of more than 90 objects showed that dendrochronological dating based on CT-scanning has a success rate equal to conventional...

  9. Intraabdominal panniculitis: clinical, radiographic, and CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, M.E.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Lee, J.K.T.

    1985-08-01

    Intraabdominal panniculitis, also known as lipodystrophy, is an inflammatory condition of adipose tissue that may result in development of large masses containing necrotic fat (nodular intraabdominal panniculitis). Symptoms are secondary to inflammation or mass effect on adjacent organs. Barium studies may show nonspecific inflammatory changes and displacement of bowel loops. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrates inhomogeneous masses containing fat and soft tissue density. The diagnosis of intraabdominal panniculitis has seldom been made prospectively. However, the CT findings are characteristic and can aid in the evaluation and management of patients with this disease.

  10. CT pseudomembranous colitis. Computertomographie bei pseudomembranoeser Kolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. (Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim, Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany)); Lee, M.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Gastrointestinal Radiology); Georgi, M. (Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim, Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is an infectious colitis usually occurring as a complication of antibiotic therapy. The computed tomography (CT) findings of 10 patients with PMC are reviewed. All patients demonstrated an abnormal large bowel wall with an average thickness of 13 mm (range 7-31 mm). Additional, but less frequent findings included mesenteric inflammation, ascites, pleural effusions, and dilatation of the large or small bowel. Pancolonic involvement was seen in 7 cases, while three patients had focal colitis. Although the CT appearance of PMC is not specific, the diagnosis may be suggested in the proper clinical setting. (orig.)

  11. Usefulness of CT in diffuse pleural disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizawa, Kazuto; Uetani, Masataka; Mori, Masaichi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Kawahara, Katsunobu; Ayabe, Kimiji; Tsuda, Nobuo (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-01-01

    Alterations of the pleura and extrapleural fat were assessed by CT in 114 patients with diffuse pleural disease. The diseases included malignant pleural mesothelioma, pleuritis carcinomatosa, acute and chronic empyema, asbestosis and transudatory effusion. The pleural changes were classified into five types according to the degree, extent and contour of pleural thickening. Each type was relatively specific for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural diseases. Increased thickness of the extrapleural fat was seen in malignant pleural disease and empyema, and homogenous increased attenuation of extrapleural was a relatively characteristic finding in acute empyema. CT was useful in evaluating diffuse pleural disease. (author).

  12. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Horak, J.; Antos, Z.; Vodak, M. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature.

  13. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, P.; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173...... Area (IA) and Wall Area percentage (WA%) was measured by the proposed method on a total of 723 CT scans from a lung cancer screening study. These measures were significantly different for participants with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) compared to asymptomatic participants. Furthermore...

  14. Mass Preserving Registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Loeve, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung...... and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger...

  15. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  16. Trigeminal neuromas: Assessment of MRI and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beges, C.; Revel, M.P.; Gaston, A.; Brugieres, P. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France)); Meder, J.F. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Sainte Anne, Paris (France)); Martin, N. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    We report four cases of trigeminal neuroma. One of the patients had von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis with plexiform neurofibromas of the branches of the trigeminal nerve. MRI provided more information than CT as regards the spread of tumor: extension to the mandibular and maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve was well demonstrated on sagittal and coronal sections. This examination yielded an accurate census of the intraocular plexiform neurofibromas and allowed a correct preoperative diagnosis to be obtained. With Gd-DOTA, better definition of the outline of the tumours and of cystic components was obtained. However, CT was better for demonstration of bone erosions. (orig.).

  17. Liver CT with portal-venous contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mildenberger, P.; Schweden, F.; Eckmann, A.; Nagel, K.; Knuth, A.; Boerner, N.; Thelen, M.; Junginger, T.

    1987-12-01

    Contrast administration through the superior mesenteric or splenic arteries provided additional information in 22 out of 31 patients, when compared with intravenous contrast bolus for CT of the liver. In 11 patients, the demonstration of a tumour lead to a change in treatment. False positive findings occurred in four of the 31 patients. In 2 patients intrahepatic lesions were overlooked, but were found during angiography carried out at the same examination. The diagnosis of intrahepatic space-occupying lesions is discussed as well as the CT appearances of portal-venous liver perfusion.

  18. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  19. CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal sarcoma: Differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Yoon, Dae Young; Baek, Sora; Park, Min Woo; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Rho, Young Soo [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) findings for the differentiation of sinonasal sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We retrospectively reviewed CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT results in 20 patients with pathologically proven sinonasal sarcoma (n = 7) and SCC (n = 13). Imaging characteristics of tumors, such as the shape, size, margin, MRI signal intensity, pattern of enhancement, local tumor invasion, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were analyzed and compared between sarcoma and SCC. The SUVmax of sarcomas (7.4 ± 2.1) was significantly lower than the SUVmax of the SCCs (14.3 ± 4.5) (p = 0.0013). However, no significant difference in the shape, size, margin, MRI signal intensity, pattern of enhancement, and local tumor invasion was observed between sarcoma and SCC. Although CT and MR imaging features are nonspecific, FDG PET/CT is useful in distinguishing between sinonasal sarcoma and SCC based on the SUVmax value.

  20. Spiral CT for evaluation of chest trauma; Spiral-CT beim Thoraxtrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehnert, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Weise, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1997-07-01

    After implementation of spiral CT in our department, we carried out an analysis for determining anew the value of CT as a modality of chest trauma diagnosis in the emergency department. The retrospective study covers a period of 10 months and all emergency patients with chest trauma exmined by spiral CT. The major lesions of varying seriousness covered by this study are: pneumothorax, hematothorax, pulmonary contusion or laceration, mediastinal hematoma, rupture of a vessel, injury of the heart and pericardium. The various fractures are not included in this study. In many cases, spiral CT within relatively short time yields significant diagnostic findings, frequently saving additional angiography. A rigid diagnostic procedure cannot be formulated. Plain-film chest radiography still remains a diagnostic modality of high value. (Orig.) [Deutsch] Nach Einfuehrung der Spiral-CT in unserer Einrichtung versuchten wir, den Stellenwert der Computertomographie in der Notfalldiagnostik des Thoraxtraumas neu zu bestimmen. Dazu wurden retrospektiv ueber einen Zeitraum von 10 Monaten alle mittels Spiral-CT untersuchten Notfallpatienten mit Thoraxverletzungen ausgewertet. Im Vordergrund standen folgende Befunde unterschiedlichen Schweregrades: Pneumothorax, Haematothorax, Lungenkontusion/-lazeration, Mediastinalhaematom, Gefaessruptur, Herz- und Herzbeutelverletzung. Auf die unterschiedlichen Frakturen wird bewusst nicht naeher eingegangen. In vielen Faellen liefert die Spiral-CT mit relativ geringem Zeitaufwand wesentliche diagnostische Aussagen. Haeufig kann auf eine Angiographie verzichtet werden. Ein starres diagnostisches Stufenschema laesst sich nicht definieren. Die Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme besitzt einen unveraendert hohen Stellenwert. (orig.)

  1. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  2. [CT-expo--a novel program for dose evaluation in CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, G; Nagel, H D

    2002-12-01

    CT-Expo is a novel MS Excel application for assessing the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing CT examinations, based on computational methods that were used to analyze the data collected in the German survey on CT practice in 1999. The program enables the calculation of all dose quantities of practical value, such as axial dose free-in-air, weighted CTDI, dose-length product, effective dose and uterine dose. In contrast to existing programs for CT dose assessment, CT-Expo offers a number of unique features, such as gender-specific dose calculation for all age groups (adults, children, newborns), applicability to all existing scanner models including correction of scanner-specific influences, and the possibility of comparison with the results from the German CT survey on CT practice. Three different application modules offer free and standardized dose calculations as well as a comprehensive benchmarking section including guidance on dose optimization. The program is available as shareware in both German and English version. Additional information and a demo version free of charge can be requested via e-mail from the author's address stamm.georg@mh-hannover. de) or from the web page http://www.mh-hannover.de/kliniken/radiologie/str_04.html.

  3. Empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) for CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Meyer, Esther; Prell, Daniel; Kachelriess, Marc [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Due to x-ray beam polychromaticity and scattered radiation, attenuation measurements tend to be underestimated. Cupping and beam hardening artifacts become apparent in the reconstructed CT images. If only one material such as water, for example, is present, these artifacts can be reduced by precorrecting the rawdata. Higher order beam hardening artifacts, as they result when a mixture of materials such as water and bone, or water and bone and iodine is present, require an iterative beam hardening correction where the image is segmented into different materials and those are forward projected to obtain new rawdata. Typically, the forward projection must correctly model the beam polychromaticity and account for all physical effects, including the energy dependence of the assumed materials in the patient, the detector response, and others. We propose a new algorithm that does not require any knowledge about spectra or attenuation coefficients and that does not need to be calibrated. The proposed method corrects beam hardening in single energy CT data. Methods: The only a priori knowledge entering EBHC is the segmentation of the object into different materials. Materials other than water are segmented from the original image, e.g., by using simple thresholding. Then, a (monochromatic) forward projection of these other materials is performed. The measured rawdata and the forward projected material-specific rawdata are monomially combined (e.g., multiplied or squared) and reconstructed to yield a set of correction volumes. These are then linearly combined and added to the original volume. The combination weights are determined to maximize the flatness of the new and corrected volume. EBHC is evaluated using data acquired with a modern cone-beam dual-source spiral CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), with a modern dual-source micro-CT scanner (TomoScope Synergy Twin, CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and with a modern

  4. CT of acute sigma diverticulitis; Computertomographie der akuten Sigmadivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Wypior, H.J. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Stark, V. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung; Rath, M. [Klinikum Landshut (Germany). Strahlenabteilung

    1996-02-01

    To study the ranking of CT in the diagnosis of sigma diverticulitis. Comparison of results of the colon monocontrast enema with those obtained via CT and histopathology as gold standard. 32 patients were included who were operated on for sigma diverticulitis. In 30 patients both CT and monocontrast enema were performed and in two patients CT only. Acute inflammatory wall alterations are identified by CT with a sensitivity of 89.7% vs 96.3% via contrast enema. Pericolic reactions of the environment were seen via CT with 89.7% sensitivity. In case of covered perforations CT yielded a sensitivity of 76.5% vs 46.7% via contrast enema. Sensitivity for abscesses and fistulas was in each case 100% with CT. CT may help to identify extraluminal inflammatory changes and complications in diverticulitis. The degree of the inflammation can be classified and the surgical approach suitably influenced, respectively modified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Retrospektiv sollte die Wertigkeit der Computertomographie bei der Diagnostik der Sigmadivertikulitis untersucht werden. Ergebnisse des Kolon-Monokontrasteinlaufes werden mit denen in der CT und der Histopathologie als Goldstandard verglichen. 32 Patienten, die operativ an einer Sigmadivertikulitis versorgt wurden, gehen in die Studie ein. 30 Patienten erhielten sowohl ein CT als auch einen Kolon-Monokontrasteinlauf und zwei Patienten nur ein CT. Akut entzuendliche Wandalterationen liessen sich in der CT mit einer Sensitivitaet von 89,7% gegenueber 96,3% im Kontrasteinlauf erfassen. Perikolische Umgebungsreaktionen waren in der CT mit einer Sensitivitaet von 89,7% nachzuweisen. Bei gedeckten Perforationen errechnete sich fuer die CT eine Sensitivitaet von 76,5% gegenueber 46,7% im Kontrasteinlauf. Die Sensitivitaet fuer Abszesse und Fisteln betrug in der CT je 100%. Mittels der CT koennen extraluminale Entzuendungsveraenderungen und Komplikationen der Divertikulitis aufgezeigt werden. Das Entzuendungsausmass kann klassifiziert und die

  5. Multislice spiral CT of the paranasal sinuses; Mehrschicht-Spiral-CT der Nasennebenhoehlen: Erste Erfahrungen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, F.; Bode, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Kopp, A.; Georg, C.; Pereira, P.L.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Universitaetsklinik

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of multislice CT in the diagnosis of the paranasal sinuses. Methods: Dose measurements were performed exposing an Alderson Rando phantom in a four-slice spiral CT (MS-CT) while applying a variety of scan parameters. Additionally, 30 consecutive patients underwent a transversal examination by the MS-CT using 1/1/3.5/0.5 mm spiral parameters and an additional transversal or coronal scan on a conventional single slice spiral CT (SS-CT) with 2/3/1 mm. Coronal reformations of the MS-CT were compared with the primary coronal SS-CT, or coronal reformations of the transversal SS-CT, respectively, with regard to image quality and depiction of relevant anatomical details of the region. Results: Superficial exposure values at the level of the eye lenses as well as for the thyroid gland were superior for MS-CT (3.62 mGy, and 0.12 mGy, resp.) as compared to SS-CT (2.96 mGy, and 0.07 mGy). Image quality was equal or superior for MS-CT as compared to SS-CT in all but one case. Drawbacks of SS-CT, such as dental amalgam artifacts, stair step artifacts or partial volume artifacts did not notably affect the coronal reformations of MS-CT. Conclusions: MS-CT seems to have the potential to replace primary coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses without any loss of image quality, but may even improve the overall diagnostic value. Radiation doses may still have to be reduced. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erprobung eines Multislice-CT (MS-CT) zur Diagnostik der Nasennebenhoehlen (NNH). Methode: An einem Alderson Rando Phantom wurden Dosismessungen bei der Spiral-CT der NNH mit einem Mehrschicht-CT (MS-CT) unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Scanparameter durchgefuehrt. Anschliessend wurden 30 konsekutive Patienten an dem MS-CT mit den Spiralparametern 1/1/3,5/0,5 mm und einem konventionellen Einzeilen Spiral-CT (SS-CT; 2/3/1 mm) untersucht. Die koronaren Rekonstruktionen der transversalen MS-CT wurden mit den koronaren Rekonstruktionen bzw. den primaeren koronaren

  6. CT Guided Laser Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Kachare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To present our experience of Computed Tomography (CT guided laser ablation of radiologically proven osteoid osteoma in the inter trochantric region of the femur. A19 year old female presented with severe pain in left upper thigh region since 6-7 months, which was exaggerated during nights and was relived on taking oral Non Steroid Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. On CT scan hypodense lesion with surrounding dense sclerosis noted in intertrochanteric region in left femur. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI revealed small focal predominantly cortical, oval lytic lesion in the intertrochanteric region which appeared hypointense on T1 Weighted Image (T1WI and hyperintense on T2 Weighted Image (T2WI and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR image. Diffuse extensive sclerosis and hyperostosis of bone was noted surrounding the lesion appearing hypointense on T1W and T2W images. Under local anesthesia the laser fibre was inserted in the nidus under CT guidance through bone biopsy needle and 1800 joules energy delivered in the lesion continuous mode. Complete relief of pain noted after 24 hours after the treatment. CT guided LASER ablation is a safe, simple and effective method of treatment for osteoid osteoma.

  7. STUDY ANALYSIS OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS BY CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulabai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Study analysis of pancreatitis by computed tomography in terms of morphology of pancreas in acute pancreatitis, complications of pancreatitis and duration of hospital stay by grading the severity of disease using Modified CT severity index. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This prospective study of 100 patients suspected of pancreatitis was evaluated with multidetector spiral CT scanner, somatom, (Spirit Siemens at Tertiary care center, for period of one year. The series consists of patients of pancreatitis which were clinically diagnosed and sent directly for CT examination and in the patients in whom abdominal ultrasound examination was suggestive of pancreatitis. Water with iodinated contrast is used as oral contrast so as to distend the stomach and small bowel followed by IV contrast study. All images were viewed at window width-300, window level-40 with a wide and narrow window setting as necessary. RESULT ANALYSIS: Acute Pancreatitis was more common in males than females with alcohol consumption was the commonest etiological factor in 79.5%. In contrary biliary pathology was the commonest factor in females of 41.6%. Among the 100 cases 41 patients (41% developed complications. CONCLUSION: We had documented a statistically significant correlation between the numeric score obtained with the Modified CT Severity index and the presence of infection, the need for surgery and percutaneous interventions, and the length of the hospital stay. Finally the modified CTSI closely indicates with patient outcome in all study parameters, especially with the length of the hospital stay and the development of organ failure.

  8. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind

    2007-01-01

    post-mortem coronary angiography and computerized tomography.  We describe how to prepare and inject the contrast medium, and how to establish a CT-protocol that optimizes spatial resolution, low contrast resolution and noise level. Testing of the method on 6 hearts, showed that the lumen...

  9. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging with multidetector CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rossi (Alexia); D. Merkus (Daphne); E. Klotz (Ernst); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractComputed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography is a well-established, noninvasive imaging modality for detection of coronary stenosis, but it has limited accuracy in demonstrating whether a coronary stenosis is hemodynamically significant. An additional functional test is often required

  10. Multiple glioblastomas: CT and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafitte, F.; Morel-Precetti, S.; Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Guermazi, A.; Brunet, E.; Chiras, J. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France). Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot; Heran, F. [Service de Radiologie, Fondation Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the CT and MR features of multiple glioblastomas, and to determine the best imaging modality for the initial diagnosis. The CT (four exams) and MR imaging (eight exams) of eight patients with proven multiple glioblastomas were reviewed by two neuroradiologists. The lesions were always hypo- or isodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (100%). They were usually hypo- or isointense on T1-weighted images (90%). Edema and mass effect were very variable. After contrast media administration, the enhancement was mostly strong (71% on CT and 70% on MR), often either heterogeneous or ring-like. The different lesions of a patient often had a different pattern on MR (75% of cases). Meningeal or ventricular enhancement, suggestive of a possible way of dissemination, was rare. In case of multiple cerebral masses, multiple glioblastomas should be considered as a possible diagnosis in addition to the better known diagnosis of brain metastases, abscesses, or multifocal lymphomas. Moderate edema and mass effect on MR associated with strong and heterogeneous enhancement are suggestive of feature of multiple glioblastomas. Magnetic resonance allows rarely the visualization of a dissemination route. (orig.)

  11. Diaphragmatic endometriosis: CT and MR findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posniak, H V; Keshavarzian, A; Jabamoni, R

    1990-01-01

    A case of endometrioma presenting as a diaphragmatic mass in a 36-year-old woman is described. The computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the lesion at this rare site of involvement are illustrated, and the pertinent literature is briefly reviewed.

  12. CT evaluation of a mycotic aneurysma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehr, E.; Serdarevic, M.; Beck, A.; Wendt, F.C.

    1986-03-01

    Examination and localisation of mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery in the course of typhoid fever. The diagnosis was exclusively carried out by CT and not by angiography to lower the risk of examination because the patient was suffering from chronic lymphatic leukaemia.

  13. Diagnosis of chondropathia patellae using CT arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.; Zacher, H.; Paar, O.; Aigner, R.

    1985-11-01

    In suspected chondropathia patellae, CT after intraarticular contrast injection considerably facilitates the preoperative diagnosis. This technique is less costly and laborious than arthroscopy and has a high level of reliability. Before taking surgical measures, the clinical symptoms and the extent of cartilage degeneration must be known.

  14. Bladder diverticulitis on PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Wosnitzer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Diverticula are commonly seen in hollow viscous organs. One common complication of diverticula is infection, known as diverticulitis. Although diverticulitis has been extensively described with respect to the colon, not many cases describe diverticulitis of the urinary bladder. We report a case of diverticulitis of the bladder to emphasize the imaging findings on PET/CT and to discuss management and possible complications.

  15. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  16. CT findings in severe thoracic sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebicque, Anne-Sophie; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Moulahi, Hassen; Brauner, Michel W. [UFR Bobigny, Department of Radiology, Federation MARTHA and EA 2363, Bobigny Cedex (France); Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique [UFR Bobigny, Department of Pneumology, Federation MARTHA and EA 2363, Bobigny Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    Severe thoracic sarcoidosis includes manifestations with significant clinical and functional impairment and a risk of mortality. Severe thoracic sarcoidosis can take on various clinical presentations and is associated with increased morbidity. The purpose of this article was to describe the CT findings in severe thoracic sarcoidosis and to explain some of their mechanisms. Subacute respiratory insufficiency is a rare and early complication due to a high profusion of pulmonary lesions. Chronic respiratory insufficiency due to pulmonary fibrosis is a frequent and late complication. Three main CT patterns are identified: bronchial distortion, honeycombing and linear opacities. CT can be helpful in diagnosing some mechanisms of central airway obstruction such as bronchial distortion due to pulmonary fibrosis or an extrinsic bronchial compression by enlarged lymph nodes. An intrinsic narrowing of the bronchial wall by endobronchial granulomatous lesions may be suggested by CT when it shows evidence of bronchial mural thickening. Pulmonary hypertension usually occurs in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease and is related to fibrotic destruction of the distal capillary bed and to the resultant chronic hypoxemia. Several other mechanisms may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension including extrinsic compression of major pulmonary arteries by enlarged lymph nodes and secondary pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Aspergilloma colonization of a cavity is the main cause of hemoptysis in sarcoidosis. Other rare causes are bronchiesctasis, necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis, semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, erosion of a pulmonary artery due to a necrotic sarcoidosis lesion, necrosis of parenchymal sarcoidosis lesions and specific endobronchial macroscopic lesions. (orig.)

  17. CT quantification of central airway in tracheobronchomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To know which factors help to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) using CT quantification of central airway. From April 2013 to July 2014, 19 patients (68.0 ± 15.0 years; 6 male, 13 female) were diagnosed as TBM on CT. As case-matching, 38 normal subjects (65.5 ± 21.5 years; 6 male, 13 female) were selected. All 57 subjects underwent CT with end-inspiration and end-expiration. Airway parameters of trachea and both main bronchus were assessed using software (VIDA diagnostic). Airway parameters of TBM patients and normal subjects were compared using the Student t-test. In expiration, both wall perimeter and wall thickness in TBM patients were significantly smaller than normal subjects (wall perimeter: trachea, 43.97 mm vs. 49.04 mm, p = 0.020; right main bronchus, 33.52 mm vs. 42.69 mm, p < 0.001; left main bronchus, 26.76 mm vs. 31.88 mm, p = 0.012; wall thickness: trachea, 1.89 mm vs. 2.22 mm, p = 0.017; right main bronchus, 1.64 mm vs. 1.83 mm, p = 0.021; left main bronchus, 1.61 mm vs. 1.75 mm, p = 0.016). Wall thinning and decreased perimeter of central airway of expiration by CT quantification would be a new diagnostic indicators in TBM.

  18. Cone beam CT, wat moet ik ermee?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoogeveen

    2013-01-01

    De cone beam-ct-scan (cbct-scan) maakt een opmars in de tandheelkunde vanwege de toegevoegde waarde van de derde dimensie in de diagnostiek. Deze extra informatie wordt verkregen ten koste van een hogere stralenbelasting en een daarmee gepaard gaand hoger risico voor de patiënt. Om de clinicus te he

  19. Practical textbook of cardiac CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae-Hwan (ed.) [ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Guide to the interpretation of cardiac CT and MRI for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Emphasis on applications in a wide range of real clinical situations. Numerous informative illustrations. Summarizing sections permitting rapid retrieval of information. QR codes allowing access to references, additional figures, and motion pictures from the internet. This up-to-date textbook comprehensively reviews all aspects of cardiac CT and MRI and demonstrates the value of these techniques in clinical practice. A wide range of applications are considered, including imaging of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, coronary revascularization, ischemic heart disease, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, cardiac tumors, and pericardial disease. The numerous high-quality images illustrate how to interpret cardiac CT and MRI correctly for the purposes of diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. Helpful summarizing sections in every chapter will facilitate rapid retrieval of information. This book will be of great value to radiologists and cardiologists seeking a reliable guide to the optimal use of cardiac CT and MRI in real clinical situations.

  20. Inter laboratory comparison of industrial CT scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; Cantatore, Angela; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    In this report results from an intercomparison of industrial CT scanners are presented. Three audit items, similar to common industrial parts, were selected for circulation: a single polymer part with complex geometry (Item 1), a simple geometry part made of two polymers (Item 2) and a miniature...

  1. CT of a peripatetic intracranial foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearcroft, P.W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Addentbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Freer, C.E.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Addentbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    We report the CT appearances of a low-velocity missile that lodged within the brain and which subsequently migrated spontaneously back along the entry path. We review the literature of similar instances of migration and draw conclusions about the presurgical radiological management. (orig.)

  2. Standardized CT examination of the multitraumatized patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidner, B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden)]|[Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden); Adiels, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden); Gullstrand, P.; Wallen, S. [Department of Surgery, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a standardized non-helical-CT protocol including head, body and proximal extremities in order to achieve a good time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy in the initial radiological evaluation of the multitraumatized patient. A total of 111 circulatory stable blunt trauma patients, brought in to a trauma level II-III hospital, were examined according to a standardized CT protocol. After examining the head with contiguous 10-mm slices without IV contrast medium injection, the trunk was examined with 10-mm slices every 30 mm through thorax-abdomen-pelvis with IV contrast medium enhancement (occasionally modified). All data in the medical reports were collected and used as ``end-point``, and the outcome of the CT examination was compared with this final diagnosis. Mean examination time was 20 min (range 12-32 min). In total, 55 head injuries, 89 thoracic injuries, 27 abdominal/pelvic injuries and 62 fractures were found. Computed tomography correctly identified the injuries, except one brain stem injury, one contusion/rupture of the heart, one hepatic injury, two intestinal injuries, eight vertebral injuries and one joint dislocation. A standardized non-helical-CT examination of the head and body may be achieved in 20 min. Its diagnostic accuracy was high, except for vertebral column injuries, which is why we recommend it as the method of choice for initial radiological examination of multitraumatized patients. When available, helical scanning would improve both examination speed and accuracy. (orig.) With 6 figs., 40 refs.

  3. ctDNA DLBCL Detection Lancet Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of circulating tumor DNA in blood can be used to detect disease recurrence in patients with a curable form of cancer known as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In most patients, measurement of ctDNA enabled detection of microscopic diseas

  4. [CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Z; Xie, F W; Sun, S C

    1992-01-01

    There are few reports on CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis. We have experienced four cases of "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis examined by CT scan. Three patients were children aged 7, 9, and 14 years, and one was an adult aged 25 years. Three patients were examined by CT scan 2 to 6 months after the onset of high grade fever, convulsion and focal deficit signs, and a patient was examined one month after his progressive visual disturbance. The unique CT findings are multilocular cystic lesions in temporo-occipital or in temporo-parietal lobes with extensive brain edema. Two cases were also associated with "soap-bubble" calcifications. The cysts were more dense than CSF and enhanced by contrast media. The histopathological specimen showed that the eggs of paragonimus were in the abscess cavity, of which the wall was composed with highly vascular gliomesenchymal capsule and numerous cell infiltration. Three patients underwent craniotomy for removal of abscess and decompression. Bitionol were administered and all patients recovered well. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of cerebral parasitic granulomas.

  5. A communicating Thread -CT- case study: JIWY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, Dusko; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Broenink, Jan F.; Pascoe, P.W.J.; Loader, R.; Sunderman, V.

    2002-01-01

    This JIWY demonstrator is constructed in the context of the development of a design framework and software tools to efficiently support mechatronic engineers in developing sophisticated control computer code out of a set control laws. We use the CSP-based Communicating Threads -CT- library as the so

  6. Electronic cleansing for visualization in CT colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, I.W.O.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis visualization and image processing methods are proposed that solve problems that are critical to the success of CT colonography; a non-invasive method to find the precursors of colon cancer. (1) A new optimal display mode was created and (2) the segmentation of the colon is enhanced.

  7. 78 FR 11724 - Connecticut Disaster #CT-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Connecticut Disaster CT-00030 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Connecticut dated 02/08/2013. Incident: Gateway Estates Condominium Complex Fire. Incident Period: 01/15/2013. Effective...

  8. Spiral CT pneumocolon: applications, status and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C J; Renfrew, I; Taylor, S; Gillams, A R; Lees, W R

    2001-01-01

    CT pneumocolon is a promising new technique in the diagnosis and management of colon pathology. CT pneumocolon can detect (sensitivity >95%) and stage (accuracy 79%) colorectal cancer and is very accurate in the differentiation of malignant from benign colonic pathologies. It has excellent detection rates for polyps >10 mm in diameter. Several studies using 3D virtual colonoscopy have already proven its high sensitivity and specificity in polyp detection making this technique robust as a screening tool. The combined results for virtual colonoscopy, from all centres, show a sensitivity of >85% in the detection of polyps 10 mm or greater in size, 70-80% for 5-9 mm polyps and an overall specificity of 90%. CT pneumocolon is a safe, non-invasive and cost-effective method for detecting colonic carcinomas and adenomas and correctly identifying which patients need further colonoscopy. The technique is quick, well tolerated and non-operator dependent. It can also image the proximal colon when distal stenoses prevent endoscopic and barium examination. CT pneumocolon is able to identify the features and complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Further research is warranted to fully assess its impact in terms of a screening tool, acceptability, availability and cost benefit.

  9. Spiral CT pneumocolon: applications, status and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.J. [Department of Academic Imaging, University College London (United Kingdom); Department of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Renfrew, I.; Taylor, S.; Gillams, A.R.; Lees, W.R. [Department of Academic Imaging, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    CT pneumocolon is a promising new technique in the diagnosis and management of colon pathology. CT pneumocolon can detect (sensitivity >95%) and stage (accuracy 79%) colorectal cancer and is very accurate in the differentiation of malignant from benign colonic pathologies. It has excellent detection rates for polyps >10 mm in diameter. Several studies using 3D virtual colonoscopy have already proven its high sensitivity and specificity in polyp detection making this technique robust as a screening tool. The combined results for virtual colonoscopy, from all centres, show a sensitivity of >85% in the detection of polyps 10 mm or greater in size, 70-80% for 5-9 mm polyps and an overall specificity of 90%. CT pneumocolon is a safe, non-invasive and cost-effective method for detecting colonic carcinomas and adenomas and correctly identifying which patients need further colonoscopy. The technique is quick, well tolerated and non-operator dependent. It can also image the proximal colon when distal stenoses prevent endoscopic and barium examination. CT pneumocolon is able to identify the features and complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Further research is warranted to fully assess its impact in terms of a screening tool, acceptability, availability and cost benefit. (orig.)

  10. A precise CT phantom alignment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1980-01-01

    Two of the AAPM CT performance phantom inserts require precise alignment. We present a method for aligning an insert which makes use of the partial volume effect. We demonstrate that the procedure is sensitive to tilts of less than one degree and, using the slice thickness insert, allows reproducible positioning.

  11. CT perfusion: principles, applications, and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Yim

    2004-10-01

    The fast scanning speed of current slip-ring CT scanners has enabled the development of perfusion imaging techniques with intravenous injection of contrast medium. In a typical CT perfusion study, contrast medium is injected and rapid scanning at a frequency of 1-2 Hz is used to monitor the first circulation of the injected contrast medium through a 1-2 cm thick slab of tissue. From the acquired time-series of CT images, arteries can be identified within the tissue slab to derive the arterial contrast concentration curve, Ca(t) while each individual voxel produces a tissue residue curve, Q(t) for the corresponding tissue region. Deconvolution between the measured Ca(t) and Q(t) leads to the determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in brain studies. In this presentation, an important application of CT perfusion in acute stroke studies - the identification of the ischemic penumbra via the CBF/CBV mismatch and factors affecting the quantitative accuracy of deconvolution, including partial volume averaging, arterial delay and dispersion are discussed.

  12. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173 ...

  13. Evaluation of Registration Methods on Thoracic CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, K.; van Ginneken, B.; Reinhardt, J.;

    2011-01-01

    EMPIRE10 (Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image REgistration 2010) is a public platform for fair and meaningful comparison of registration algorithms which are applied to a database of intra-patient thoracic CT image pairs. Evaluation of non-rigid registration techniques is a non trivial task...

  14. Thoracic CT findings at hypovolemic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Catalano, O. [S. Maria delle Grazie Hospital, Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Grassi, R. [Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Scialpi, M. [S.S. Annunziata Hospital, Taranto (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: To describe and discuss the thoracic CT features of hypovolemic shock. Material and Methods: From a group of 18 patients with signs of hypovolemia on contrast-enhanced abdominal CT, 11 were selected for our study as having also undergone a complete chest examination. Pulse rate, blood pressure, trauma score value, Glasgow coma scale value, surgical result, and final outcome were retrospectively evaluated. The CT features analyzed were: decreased cardiac volume, reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta, aortic branches and caval venous system, increased enhancement of the aorta, and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions. Results: All 11 subjects presented severe injuries and hemodynamic instability; 7 were stable enough to undergo surgery; only 1 of the 11 survived. Two patients showed none of the features of thoracic hypovolemia. All the other patients presented at least two signs: reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta in 7 cases; decreased volume of the cardiac chambers and increased aortic enhancement in 6; decreased caliber of the aortic vessels in 4; decreased caliber of the caval veins in 3; and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions in 3. Conclusions: In patients with hypovolemia, CT may show several thoracic findings in addition to abdominal ones. Knowledge of these features is important for distinguishing them from traumatic injuries. (orig.)

  15. [Indications for low-dose CT in the emergency setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Rutschmann, Olivier; de Perrot, Thomas; Caviezel, Alessandro; Platon, Alexandra

    2009-08-19

    CT delivers a large dose of radiation, especially in abdominal imaging. Recently, a low-dose abdominal CT protocol (low-dose CT) has been set-up in our institution. "Low-dose CT" is almost equivalent to a single standard abdominal radiograph in term of dose of radiation (about one sixth of those delivered by a standard CT). "Low-dose CT" is now used routinely in our emergency service in two main indications: patients with a suspicion of renal colic and those with right lower quadrant pain. It is obtained without intravenous contrast media. Oral contrast is given to patients with suspicion of appendicitis. "Low-dose CT" is used in the frame of well defined clinical algorithms, and does only replace standard CT when it can reach a comparable diagnostic quality.

  16. Cardiac CT Imaging of Plaque Vulnerability : Hype or Hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Leiner, Tim; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-01-01

    Advances in cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) have resulted in an excellent ability to exclude coronary heart disease (CHD). Anatomical information, functional information, and spectral information can already be obtained with current CT technologies. Moreover, novel developments such as targe

  17. Abdominal manifestations of polyarteritis nodosa demonstrated with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Ozpeynirci, Yigit; Kurugoglu, Sebuh [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Sever, Lale; Arisoy, Nil [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    We report a rare case of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) presenting in childhood. The child had multiple visceral aneurysms and later developed ascending colitis and jejunitis. The diagnosis was established with multidetector CT and CT angiography. (orig.)

  18. Inhibitory Effect of CT120B, an Alternative Splice Variant of CT120A,on Lung Cancer Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Ning PAN; Jin-Jun LI; Lin WEI; Ming YAO; Da-Fang WAN; Jian-Ren GU

    2005-01-01

    The expression product of ct120a, a novel gene isolated from human chromosome 17p13.3in our laboratory, was predicted to have seven transmembrane domains and could cause malignant transformation of mouse NIH3T3 cells. There existed an mRNA splicing variant of ct120a, namely ct120b,which had a 96-nucleotide deletion and produced an in-frame loss of 32 amino acids from codon 136 to codon 167 of CT120A. The CT120B protein was predicted to have six transmembrane domains. In this study, we observed that the green fluorescent protein-tagged CT120B was localized on plasma membrane and in cytoplasm in SPC-A-1 cells. The expression of CT120B/A in normal lung tissue and in lung cancer cells was also examined. Results showed that the stable CT120B overexpression in SPC-A-1 cells resulted in a reduction of cell growth rate, and inhibited tumorigenecity and anchorage-independent growth in nude mice. The functions of CT120A and CT120B for cell growth appeared antagonistic. We suggested that the delayed G1/S phase transition might contribute to the inhibitory activities of CT120B on cell growth and that the deleted 32 amino acids missing in CT120B might be essential for the oncogenetic activities of CT120A.

  19. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: topics in CT. Image processing in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Dianna D

    2002-01-01

    Several image-processing methods for computed tomographic (CT) examinations are currently being used in clinical radiology departments. Image processing involves operations such as reformatting of original CT images, volume-rendered displays, surface-rendered displays, and physiologic imaging analysis. The reformatting process does not alter the CT voxels in any way; instead it uses them in off-axis views and displays the images produced from the original reconstruction process in an orientation other than how they were originally generated. Sagittal, coronal, oblique, and curved reformatting are standard reformatting methods. Other reformatting techniques include maximum-intensity projection, minimum-intensity projection, and variable thickness viewing. Volume and surface rendering are two different methods for reformatting axial images into three-dimensional views. CT perfusion allows the measurement of physiologic parameters over time. Additional postprocessing efforts can potentially add value to the patients and their outcomes, as can be seen in the cases that illustrate this article.

  20. CT enterography: review of technique and practical tips

    OpenAIRE

    Ilangovan, R.; Burling, D; George, A; Gupta, A.; Marshall, M; Taylor, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    CT enterography is a new non-invasive imaging technique that offers superior small bowel visualisation compared with standard abdomino-pelvic CT, and provides complementary diagnostic information to capsule endoscopy and MRI enterography. CT enterography is well tolerated by patients and enables accurate, efficient assessment of pathology arising from the small bowel wall or surrounding organs. This article reviews the clinical role of CT enterography, and offers practical tips for optimising...

  1. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  2. Spectrum of esophageal abnormality seen on thoracic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu; Jeon, Yong Sun; Jeong, Seok [Inha university Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    A variety of diseases involve the esophagus including esophagitis, benign or malignant tumors, varices, and esophageal perforation. We reviewed the thoracic CT of these various esophageal diseases, and classified them by similar CT findings. The CT findings were circumferential wall thickening, nodular wall thickening, abnormal luminal dilatation, fistula formation, and mass or mass like lesion. Although CT alone has limited diagnostic ability in esophageal disease, it may have an important role in diagnosing submucosal dissection, fistula, perforation, and intramural abscess.

  3. Diagnosis of bacterial hepatic abscess by CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Lin Wang; Xue-Jun Guo; Shui-Bo Qiu; Yi Lei; Zhi-Dong Yuan; Han-Bin Dong; Hui-An Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial hepatic abscess usually is acute and progressive, often resulting in sepsis, impairment of liver function and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The mortality rate was as high as 80%in the past. For the purpose of early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease, we probed the imaging manifestations and their characteristics in bacterial hepatic abscesses by CT scan. METHODS:Twenty-four lesions from 21 patients with bacterial hepatic abscesses that were conifrmed by clinical features, puncture and culture were reviewed for CT manifestations. Fourteen patients were male and 7 were female, with an average age of 56.2 years. All lesions underwent CT plain scan and three-phase enhanced scan and 15 patients underwent delayed-phase imaging. Three senior radiologists read the iflms in accordance with a standard. RESULTS: Among 24 lesions, 18 (75%) were situated in the right liver with diameters of 1.4-9.3 cm (average 4.5 cm). Nineteen (79.2%) lesions were round or sub-round in shape, and 22 (91.7%) had smooth, uninterrupted and sharp edges. All lesions showed low attenuation of less than 20 Hu. Twenty-two enhanced lesions (91.7%) had rim-shaped enhancement in the abscess wall, and 13 (54.2%) showed single or double-ring signs. Eighteen (75%) displayed honeycomb-like, grid-like or strip-like enhancement. Eighteen (75%) were regionally enhanced in the surroundings or upper or lower layers. Only 2 (8.3%) displayed a gas-liquid surface sign. CONCLUSIONS:  The CT ifndings of bacterial hepatic abscess are usually typical, and the diagnosis of the abscess is not dififcult. To precisely diagnose atypical cases, it is necessary to combine CT with clinical observations and follow-up.

  4. Clinical micro-CT for dental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hanbean; Cho, Min Kook; Shon, Cheol-Soon; Cho, Bong Hae; Kim, Chang Hyuk; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2009-02-01

    We exploit the development of a clinical computed microtomography (micro-CT) system for dental imaging. While the conventional dental CT simply serves implant treatment, the clinical dental micro-CT may provide clinicians with a histologic evaluation. To investigate the feasibility of the realization of a dental micro-CT, we have constructed an experimental test system which mainly consists of a microfocus x-ray source, a rotational subject holder, and a flat-panel detector. The flat-panel detector is based on a matrix-addressed photodiode array coupled to a CsI:Tl scintillator. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector was measured as a function of magnification based on the measured modulation-transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS). The best MTF and DQE performances were achieved at the magnification factor of 3. Similar tendency of the spatial resolving power in tomography was also observed with a wire phantom having a 25 μm diameter. From the investigation of tomographs reconstructed from a humanoid skull phantom, the application of magnification in the system largely reduced both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for a fixed dose at the entrance surface of the detector, 1.2 mGy, while this setup increased the dose at the object plane from 4.7 mGy to 19.1 mGy for the magnification factor from 2 to 4, respectively. Although the quantum mottles at the high magnification factor tackled the practical use in the clinic, the information contained in the magnified CT images was quite promising.

  5. Variation in quantitative CT air trapping in heavy smokers on repeat CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Onno M.; Gietema, Hester A.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbus 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zanen, Pieter [University Medical Center Utrecht, Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbus 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the variation in quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of air trapping in low-dose chest CTs of heavy smokers. We analysed 45 subjects from a lung cancer screening trial, examined by CT twice within 3 months. Inspiratory and expiratory low-dose CT was obtained using breath hold instructions. CT air trapping was defined as the percentage of voxels in expiratory CT with an attenuation below -856 HU (EXP{sub -856}) and the expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio{sub MLD}). Variation was determined using limits of agreement, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the mean difference. The effect of both lung volume correction and breath hold reproducibility was determined. The limits of agreement for uncorrected CT air trapping measurements were -15.0 to 11.7 % (EXP{sub -856}) and -9.8 to 8.0 % (E/I-ratio{sub MLD}). Good breath hold reproducibility significantly narrowed the limits for EXP{sub -856} (-10.7 to 7.5 %, P = 0.002), but not for E/I-ratio{sub MLD} (-9.2 to 7.9 %, P = 0.75). Statistical lung volume correction did not improve the limits for EXP{sub -856} (-12.5 to 8.8 %, P = 0.12) and E/I-ratio{sub MLD} (-7.5 to 5.8 %, P = 0.17). Quantitative air trapping measures on low-dose CT of heavy smokers show considerable variation on repeat CT examinations, regardless of lung volume correction or reproducible breath holds. (orig.)

  6. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  7. Usefulness and problems of three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) in the neurosurgical patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Kousaku; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Ichitsubo, Hidenori [Kaseda Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Moriya, Nobuhide; Kadota, Koki; Asakura, Tetsuhiko

    1997-11-01

    Helical CT scanning is a new technique that can uninterruptedly generate a volume of data. The data thus acquired with or without contrast medium is reconstructed for three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) or three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA). The authors have studied 36 aneurysms, 11 aterosclerotic lesions, 16 tumors and 14 traumatic lesions in more than 60 patients with 3D-CT or 3D-CTA. Aneurysm is visualized clearly on 3D-CTA. The ability to rotate images in all planes aids in showing the aneurysm neck and dome, parent artery and surrounding bony structures. 3D-CTA can assist the surgeon in the approach to the aneurysm. Imaging of the infraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery may be inadequate with 3D-CTA because of contrast enhancement of the cavernous sinus and the anterior portion of the lesser sphenoid wing. Stenosis or occlusion of the circle of Willis and the common carotid artery bifurcation is well identified on 3D-CTA. It is noted that 3D-CTA delineates inaccurately stenosis severity because of partial volume effects, the threshold level and the timing of scanning. Well-enhanced brain tumors such as meningioma are demonstrated clearly. The relationship of the tumor to surrounding major arteries and bony structures is well defined on enhanced 3D-CT. Marked transposition of skull fracture by head trauma is shown distinctly on 3D-CT. In conclusion, although this technique requires further development and clinical evaluation, the authors` experience with 3D-CT and 3D-CTA suggests that this may become a valuable tool in the diagnosis of neurosurgical patients. (author)

  8. Multidetector CT Findings of Bowel Transection in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, H.S.; Woo, J.Y.; Hong, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Ha, H.I.; Yang, I.; Lee, Y.; Jung, A.Y.; Hwang, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blu

  9. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  10. Verification of a CT scanner using a miniature step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.; Carmignato, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with performance verification of a CT scanner using a 42mm miniature replica step gauge developed for optical scanner verification. Errors quantification and optimization of CT system set-up in terms of resolution and measurement accuracy are fundamental for use of CT scanning...

  11. CT Reconstruction from Simultaneous Projections: A Step towards Capturing CT in One Go

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sajib; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on minimizing the time requirement for CT capture through innovative simultaneous x-ray capture method. The state-of-the-art CT imaging methodology captures a sequence of projections during which the internal organ movements may lead to poor reconstruction due to motion artefacts. Traditional CT scanners' minimize such effect by taking more projections than necessary. In this work we focus on an innovative CT capture method that captures projections simultaneously, promising super fast scans along with possible radiation dose reductions. While the simultaneous CT capture model has already been proposed in our earlier work 'Multi-axial CT Reconstruction from Few View Projections' (in SPIE Optical Engineering and Applications, pp. 85000A-85000A. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012) and 'A New Imaging Method for Real-time 3D X-ray Reconstruction' (in SPIE Medical Imaging, pp. 86685G-86685G. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), in this work we enhance the mode...

  12. Colorectal carcinoma evaluated by incremental dynamic CT; Comparison of CT density, histology, and tumor size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Tetsushi (Shimizu Kosei Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    Evaluation of incremental dynamic CT scan and histologic findings were compared in order to clarify the cause of the differences in colorectal carcinoma as observed on CT after administration of contrast medium. In 48 cases demonstrated on postcontrast dynamic CT scan, the CT density of the tumor was homogeneous (Type 1) in 26 (54.2%) cases and heterogeneous (Type 2) in 22 (45.8%) cases. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma was seen as Type 1 in 11 of 13 (84.6%) cases while moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was of Type 1 in 15 of 29 (51.7%) cases. Poorly differentiated and mucinous adenocarcinoma were detected as Type 2 in all cases. A comparison of CT types and tumor size showed that as tumor size increased, the number of Type 1 cases decreased while Type 2 cases increased. Histologically, high density areas consisted mainly of well-developed tubular, branching glands of adenocarcinoma, while low density areas were composed of fibrous or mucinous stroma or necrosis. Dynamic CT scans for colorectal cancer are useful not only for preoperative staging but also for tissue characterization. (author).

  13. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections; SPECT/CT-Infektdiagnostik am Skelett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Spanjol, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern, Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.) [German] Knoecherne Infekte stellen nicht selten eine diagnostische und klinische Herausforderung dar. Nuklearmedizinische Standardverfahren fuer die Diagnostik akuter und chronischer Knocheninfekte sind die Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und die Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. Die Einfuehrung von Hybridtechnologien wie der SPECT/CT hat die nuklearmedizinische Infektbildgebung tiefgreifend veraendert. Die SPECT/CT erlaubt bei der Frage nach Knocheninfekten insgesamt eine wesentlich genauere Beurteilung als planare Aufnahmen und SPECT. Die integrierte Akquisition von metabolischer, funktioneller und topographisch-morphologischer Information mit SPECT/CT steigerte insbesondere die Spezifitaet der Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und der Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. (orig.)

  14. Improving the Diagnostic Specificity of CT for Early Detection of Lung Cancer: 4D CT-Based Pulmonary Nodule Elastometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    3D CT imaging that results in a static image of the scanned anatomy, 4D CT incorporates also the temporal changes of the anatomy caused by...Publish animal study results (Dr. Maxim, month 24) 6 Status (Tasks 2, 3, 4): Status (Tasks 2, 3, 4): Prolonged repairs on the GE-MicroCT scanner ...Figure 1 shows a mouse placed in the CT scanner with the pressure sensing belt around its chest that provided the respiratory signal to the

  15. CT simulation in nodal positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, E.; Schuck, A.; Moustakis, C.; Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Kronholz, H.L.; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2001-10-01

    Background: A variety of solutions are used to match tangential fields and opposed lymph node fields in irradiation of nodal positive breast cancer. The choice is depending on the technical equipment which is available and the clinical situation. The CT simulation of a non-monoisocentric technique was evaluated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility. Patients, Material and Methods: The field match parameters were adjusted virtually at CT simulation and were compared with parameters derived mathematically. The coordinate transfer from the CT simulator to the conventional simulator was analyzed in 25 consecutive patients. Results: The angles adjusted virtually for a geometrically exact coplanar field match corresponded with the angles calculated for each set-up. The mean isocenter displacement was 5.7 mm and the total uncertainty of the coordinate transfer was 6.7 mm (1 SD). Limitations in the patient set-up became obvious because of the steep arm abduction necessary to fit the 70 cm CT gantry aperture. Required modifications of the arm position and coordinate transfer errors led to a significant shift of the marked matchline of >1.0 cm in eight of 25 patients (32%). Conclusion: The virtual CT simulation allows a precise and graphic definition of the field match parameters. However, modifications of the virtual set-up basically due to technical limitations were required in a total of 32% of cases, so that a hybrid technique was adapted at present that combines virtual adjustment of the ideal field alignment parameters with conventional simulation. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Fuer den Feldanschluss zwischen Brusttangenten und ventrodorsal opponierenden Lymphknotenfeldern bei der Bestrahlung des nodal positiven Mammakarzinoms sind verschiedene Methoden in Gebrauch, wobei fuer die Auswahl technische und klinische Gegebenheiten massgeblich sind. Die CT-Simulation einer nicht monoisozentrischen Technik wird in dieser Untersuchung hinsichtlich Genauigkeit und

  16. Low-dose non-enhanced CT versus full-dose contrast-enhanced CT in integrated PET/CT studies for the diagnosis of uterine cancer recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of PET Diagnosis, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Suzuki, Kayo [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of PET Diagnosis, Kobe (Japan); Nakamoto, Yuji [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko; Sakamoto, Setsu; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Kita, Masato [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate low-dose non-enhanced CT (ldCT) and full-dose contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) in integrated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT studies for restaging of uterine cancer. A group of 100 women who had undergone treatment for uterine cervical (n=55) or endometrial cancer (n=45) underwent a conventional PET/CT scans with ldCT, and then a ceCT scan. Two observers retrospectively reviewed and interpreted the PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT images in consensus using a three-point grading scale (negative, equivocal, or positive) per patient and per lesion. Final diagnoses were obtained by histopathological examination, or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. Patient-based analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/ceCT were 90% (27/30), 97% (68/70) and 95% (95/100), respectively, whereas those of PET/ldCT were 83% (25/30), 94% (66/70) and 91% (91/100), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy did not significantly differ between two methods (McNemar test, p=0.48, p=0.48, and p=0.13, respectively). There were 52 sites of lesion recurrence: 12 pelvic lymph node (LN), 11 local recurrence, 8 peritoneum, 7 abdominal LN, 5 lung, 3 supraclavicular LN, 3 liver, 2 mediastinal LN, and 1 muscle and bone. The grading results for the 52 sites of recurrence were: negative 5, equivocal 0 and positive 47 for PET/ceCT, and negative 5, equivocal 4 and positive 43 for PET/ldCT, respectively. Four equivocal regions by PET/ldCT (local recurrence, pelvic LN metastasis, liver metastasis and muscle metastasis) were correctly interpreted as positive by PET/ceCT. PET/ceCT is an accurate imaging modality for the assessment of uterine cancer recurrence. Its use reduces the frequency of equivocal interpretations. (orig.)

  17. Timing-invariant reconstruction for deriving high-quality CT angiographic data from cerebral CT perfusion data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.J.; Vonken, E.J.; Schaaf, I.C. van der; Mendrik, A.M.; Dankbaar, J.W.; Horsch, A.D.; Seeters, T. van; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To suggest a simple and robust technique used to reconstruct high-quality computed tomographic (CT) angiographic images from CT perfusion data and to compare it with currently used CT angiography techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was waived for this retr

  18. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  19. Coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography is widely recognised as a reliable imaging modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography not only provides excellent visualisation of anatomical changes in the coronary artery with high diagnostic value in the detection of lumen stenosis or occlusion, but also offers quantitative characterisation of coronary plaque components. Furthermore, coronary CT angiography allows myocardial perfusion imaging with diagnostic value comparable to the reference standard method. Coronary CT angiography-derived haemodynamic analysis has the potential to evaluate functional significance of coronary lesions. This review article aims to provide an overview of clinical applications of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease.

  20. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart has advanced rapidly, and it is now possible to perform a comprehensive assessment at a low radiation dose. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can provide additive information to CT coronary angiography, and is particularly useful in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or coronary artery stents. A number of protocols are now available for CT myocardial perfusion including static, dynamic, and dual-energy techniques. This review will discuss the current status of CT myocardial perfusion imaging, its clinical application, and future directions for this technology.

  1. CT appearance of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Araki, Toru; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Hata, Kazuhiro

    1988-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was performed in three patients who were suspicious of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematoma in all three cases, and intrarenal hemorrhage in two cases, one of which had fluid collection in the pararenal space and hemorrhage in the posterior pararenal space on CT. Thickening of gerota fascia and bridging septa in the perirenal space was visualized on CT in all of them. CT demonstrated clearly the anatomic distribution and extent of renal hemorrhage, and it is important to comprehend the imaging anatomy of the perirenal area for CT evaluation.

  2. Computed tomography (CT) of traumatic injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robotti, G.C.; Geissmann, A.; Steinsiepe, K.

    1986-02-01

    32 patients with traumatic injuries of the cervical spine were investigated by CT. All patients were initially examined by plain films. CT was definitely superior to conventional radiology in compressive fractures of vertebral bodies. In flexion-extension injuries CT was useful showing fractures of the posterior elements in great detail. Conventional tomography was superior to CT in patients with complex dislocations of vertebral bodies. In the absence of fracture CT failed to detect disruptions of ligaments, which were readily shown by functional examination.

  3. Prior CT imaging history for patients who undergo PAN CT for acute traumatic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Kenter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A single PAN scan may provide more radiation to a patient than is felt to be safe within a one-year period. Our objective was to determine how many patients admitted to the trauma service following a PAN scan had prior CT imaging within our six-hospital system.Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected trauma registry. The study was based at a level-two trauma center and five affiliated hospitals, which comprise 70.6% of all Emergency Department visits within a twelve county region of southern Texas. Electronic medical records were reviewed dating from the point of trauma evaluation back to December 5, 2005 to determine evidence of prior CT imaging.Results. There were 867 patients were admitted to the trauma service between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. 460 (53% received a PAN scan and were included in the study group. The mean age of the study group was 37.7 ± 1.54 years old, 24.8% were female, and the mean ISS score was 13.4 ± 1.07. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (47%. 65 (14%; 95% CI [11–18]% of the patients had at least one prior CT. The most common prior studies performed were: CT head (29%; 19–42%, CT Face (29%; 19–42% and CT Abdomen and Pelvis (18%; 11–30%.Conclusion. Within our trauma registry, 14% of patients had prior CT imaging within our hospital system before their traumatic event and PAN scan.

  4. CT attenuation of colorectal polypoid lesions: evaluation of contrast enhancement in CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, 77555-0709, Galveston, TX (United States); Gelebek, Veli; Oguz, Berna Sayan; Deger, Ahmet; Akhan, Okan; Besim, Aytekin [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Sivri, Buelent [Department of Gastroenterology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate pre- and postcontrast CT attenuation values of benign colorectal polyp and carcinoma lesions detected by virtual colonoscopy, and to investigate whether contrast enhancement of these lesions can be potentially used for differentiation from residual fluid in the colon. Fifteen benign polyps and 21 colorectal carcinoma lesions detected by virtual colonoscopy in 18 patients were included in our study. All of the polyps and carcinoma lesions were confirmed by colonoscopic biopsy. Measurement of CT attenuation values was performed in precontrast (supine) and postcontrast (prone) scans for each polyp and carcinoma. The CT attenuation values of residual fluid in the colon was also measured from the same location before and after intravenous contrast administration. On unenhanced CT scan mean attenuation values of benign polyps and colorectal carcinomas were 32.4 and 42.6 HU, respectively. Following contrast enhancement, mean attenuation value increased to 78.9 HU for polyps and 90.7 HU for carcinomas. Increase in the CT attenuation values of these lesions was significant (p <0.0001). Mean CT attenuation value of residual fluid before and after administration of IV contrast were 14.6 and 13.8 HU, respectively. The difference between CT attenuation value of residual fluid in the colon before and after contrast material was not significant (p =0.29). Colorectal benign polyps and carcinomas demonstrate significant enhancement following contrast administration and use of intravenous contrast material during virtual colonoscopy may help in some cases in differentiating these solid lesions from residual colonic fluid that does not enhance. (orig.)

  5. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  6. Regulation of hippocampal synaptic strength by glial xCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leena E; Featherstone, David E

    2014-11-26

    Most extracellular glutamate in the brain is released by xCT, a glial antiporter that exports glutamate and imports cystine. The function of xCT, and extracellular glutamate in general, remains unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate from xCT could act in a paracrine fashion to suppress glutamatergic synapse strength by triggering removal of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. To test this idea, we used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry to quantify receptor number and synapse function in xCT knock-out mouse hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. Consistent with the hypothesis that xCT suppresses glutamate receptor number and synapse strength, xCT knock-out synapses showed increased AMPA receptor abundance with concomitant large enhancements of spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission. We saw no evidence for changes in GABA receptor abundance or the overall number of glutamatergic synapses. The xCT knock-out phenotype was replicated by incubating slices in the xCT inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, and consistent with the idea that xCT works by regulating extracellular glutamate, the xCT knock-out phenotype could be reproduced in controls by incubating the slices in glutamate-free aCSF. We conclude that glutamate secreted via xCT suppresses glutamatergic synapse strength by triggering removal of postsynaptic AMPA receptors.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasia with 3D CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Sago, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Satoshi [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Perinatal Medicine and Maternal Care, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kosaki, Rika [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Strategic Medicine, Division of Clinical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Seatagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Clinical use of 3D CT for fetal skeletal malformations is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fetal 3D CT using three protocols with different radiation doses and through comparing findings between fetal CT and conventional postnatal radiographic skeletal survey. Seventeen fetuses underwent CT for suspected skeletal dysplasia. A relay of three CT protocols with stepwise dose-reduction were used over the study period. The concordance between the CT diagnosis and the final diagnosis was assessed. Ninety-three radiological findings identifiable on radiographs were compared with CT. Fetal CT provided the correct diagnosis in all 17 fetuses, the detectability rate of cardinal findings was 93.5 %. In 59 % of the fetuses an US-based diagnosis was changed prenatally due to CT findings. The estimated fetal radiation dose in the final protocol was 3.4 mSv (50 %) of the initial protocol, and this dose reduction did not result in degraded image quality. The capability of fetal CT to delineate the skeleton was almost the same as that of postnatal skeletal survey. The perinatal management was altered due to these more specific CT findings, which aided in counseling and in the management of the pregnancy. (orig.)

  8. Performance of orthopantomography, planar scintigraphy, CT alone and SPECT/CT in patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the jaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolouri, Carmen; Huellner, Martin W.; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Perez-Lago, Marisol; Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Lucerne (Switzerland); Merwald, Michael; Kuttenberger, Johannes [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lucerne (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Division of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel flat-panel single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT in patients with suspicion of osteomyelitis (OM) of the jaw in comparison with conventional orthopantomography (OPT), planar bone scintigraphy (PS) and CT alone. Forty-two patients (21 female, 21 male, mean age 52, range 10-84 years) with suspected OM (n = 38) or exacerbation of a known OM (n = 4) were investigated with OPT, CT alone, PS and combined SPECT/CT. Images were separately reviewed by a nuclear physician/radiologist and jaw surgeon regarding presence of OM. Additionally, the different methods were rated regarding their usefulness for diagnosis (5-point scale: from 1 = diagnostic to 5 = useless). Biopsy served as the standard of reference in 30 patients and clinical/imaging follow-up of at least 6 months in 12 patients. In 35 of 42 patients the final diagnosis of OM was established according to the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for OPT was 59, 100 and 66 %, for CT alone 77, 86 and 79 %, for PS 100, 71 and 95 % and for SPECT/CT 100, 86 and 98 %. SPECT/CT was significantly more accurate compared with CT alone (p = 0.0078) and OPT (p = 0.001). SPECT/CT was rated as the most useful imaging modality (mean value 1.2) compared with PS (2.2), CT (2.5) and OPT (3.2). SPECT/CT is an accurate method to assess the presence of OM of the jaw and superior to CT alone and OPT. SPECT/CT slightly improved the specificity of PS. However, SPECT/CT in this study was not significantly more accurate compared with PS and whether the advantages to the patient of a one-stop study as opposed to doing separate CT and PS justifies its routine use in terms of cost requires further study. (orig.)

  9. CT findings in rhinocerebral mucormycosis and aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Kyu Chang [Yeonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    Invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses involving the cranial cavity is termed rhinocerebral mycosis, which is often difficult to differentiate from malignancy. Prognosis of rhinocerebral mycosis is disastrous and usually fatal. The authors herein report 6 cases of rhinocerebral mycosis; two of them were mucormycosis and four were aspergillosis histopathologically. Main CT features are nodular mucosal thickening in the multiple sites of the paranasal sinuses that extend to orbital apex or cavernous sinus through focal destruction of bony wall. In spite of their invasiveness beyond bony boundary, destruction is not so remarkable and it is always accompanied by bony sclerosis. Awareness of these disease and CT patterns discussed in this report should be helpful in leading to early biopsy and treatment.

  10. Uncommon locations of hydatid disease: CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossios, K.J.; Kontoyiannis, D.S. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Ioannina, GR-450 01 Ioannina (Greece); Dascalogiannaki, M.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C. [Department of Radiology, University of Crete Medical School, GR-711 10 Iraklion (Greece)

    1997-10-01

    Hydatid disease (HD), already known by Hippocrates, is prevalent and widespread in most sheep-raising countries in Asia, Australia, South America, Near East, and southern Europe. The disease is most commonly due to Echinococcus granulosus and may occur in any organ or tissue. The location is mostly hepatic (75%) and pulmonary (15%), and only 10% occur in the rest of the body. Imaging modalities such as US, CT, and MR imaging are helpful in diagnosing the disease. The reliability of each method depends on the cyst`s location in the body. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the use of CT in depicting some unusual locations of HD besides the liver and lung. (orig.). With 18 figs.

  11. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  12. Techniques in Iterative Proton CT Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Penfold, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This is a review paper on some of the physics, modeling, and iterative algorithms in proton computed tomography (pCT) image reconstruction. The primary challenge in pCT image reconstruction lies in the degraded spatial resolution resulting from multiple Coulomb scattering within the imaged object. Analytical models such as the most likely path (MLP) have been proposed to predict the scattered trajectory from measurements of individual proton location and direction before and after the object. Iterative algorithms provide a flexible tool with which to incorporate these models into image reconstruction. The modeling leads to a large and sparse linear system of equations that can efficiently be solved by projection methods-based iterative algorithms. Such algorithms perform projections of the iterates onto the hyperlanes that are represented by the linear equations of the system. They perform these projections in possibly various algorithmic structures, such as block-iterative projections (BIP), string-averaging...

  13. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange;

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  14. Formal representation of complex SNOMED CT expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markó Kornél

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definitory expressions about clinical procedures, findings and diseases constitute a major benefit of a formally founded clinical reference terminology which is ontologically sound and suited for formal reasoning. SNOMED CT claims to support formal reasoning by description-logic based concept definitions. Methods On the basis of formal ontology criteria we analyze complex SNOMED CT concepts, such as "Concussion of Brain with(out Loss of Consciousness", using alternatively full first order logics and the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@. Results Typical complex SNOMED CT concepts, including negations or not, can be expressed in full first-order logics. Negations cannot be properly expressed in the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@ underlying SNOMED CT. All concepts concepts the meaning of which implies a temporal scope may be subject to diverging interpretations, which are often unclear in SNOMED CT as their contextual determinants are not made explicit. Conclusion The description of complex medical occurrents is ambiguous, as the same situations can be described as (i a complex occurrent C that has A and B as temporal parts, (ii a simple occurrent A' defined as a kind of A followed by some B, or (iii a simple occurrent B' defined as a kind of B preceded by some A. As negative statements in SNOMED CT cannot be exactly represented without

  15. CT evaluation of primary epiphyseal bone abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, E.M. (Dept. of Radiology, McGill Univ., Montreal Children' s Hospital, PQ (Canada)); Greenspan, A. (Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Marton, D. (Dept. of Radiology, Montreal Univ., Hopital Ste Justine, PQ (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical, radiographic, and computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight children with a histologically proven diagnosis of epiphyseal or apophyseal osteomyelitis. In all cases the femur was involved: in five the osteomyelitis was localized in the femoral condyle, in two it was in the greater trochanter, and in one it was in the femoral head epiphysis. In four of the six cases of epiphyseal involvement there was associated joint effusion or septic arthritis. CT examination may demonstrate a serpentine tract, a sequestrum, cortical destruction or adjacent soft tissue swelling and can differentiate osteomyelitis from other epiphyseal lucent lesions, particularly chondroblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Early diagnosis helps avoid delays in initiating antibiotic or surgical treatment caused by the unusual (epiphyseal or apophyseal) location of the bone abscess. (orig./GD)

  16. Multislice CT angiography of interrupted aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Goo, Hyun Woo [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Dong-Man; Yun, Tae-Jin; Park, Jeong-Jun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-01-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is not always sufficient for planning surgical correction of IAA, principally due to a limited acoustic window and the inexperience of imagers. In this context, multislice CT angiography is regarded as an appropriate imaging technique complementary to echocardiography because it is fast, accurate, and objective for the diagnosis of IAA. In this article we describe what cardiac radiologists should know about IAA in their clinical practice, including clinicopathological features, CT features with contemporary surgical methods and postoperative complications, and differentiation from coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch atresia. (orig.)

  17. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function...

  18. CT perfusion: ready for prime time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Marietta S; Valdiviezo, Carolina; Mehra, Vishal; Lardo, Albert C; Lima, Joao A C; George, Richard T

    2011-02-01

    Advancements in computed tomography (CT) technology have revolutionized clinical practice, particularly regarding the noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). The versatility of cardiac CT has rendered multiple applications including assessment of cardiac structure and function, myocardial viability, and coronary anatomy. The merits of cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) have been proven for the detection, and particularly the exclusion, of CAD. However, CTA becomes limited in the presence of significant CAD. Its inability to consistently identify lesion-associated ischemia may necessitate additional radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging. Myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) has emerged as a useful and convenient method to immediately assess myocardial ischemia. In this review, we discuss the current state of CTP including available technology, its performance to date from current literature, and future challenges to this field.

  19. Use of computed tomography (CT) for urolithiasis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Angela; Castellan, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of annual CT examinations have been increasing incrementally each year during the last 10-20 years. Use of unenhanced CT has been increasingly used for evaluation of urolithiasis, and concerned had been raised about the risks of increased radiation exposure in pediatric patients. Sensitivities and specificity for ureteral stones on conventional CT have been reported up to 98-100%, respectively. Low dose protocols have been developed with the goal of reducing radiation dose with adequate image quality. Although the sensitivity and the specificity of CT is the highest, many can be diagnosed with combination of KUB and ultrasound. CT can be utilized in equivocal cases. Low-dose radiation CT protocols have been reported with high sensitivity and specificity and should be used in pediatric patients when a CT scan is needed.

  20. Clinical evaluation of CT and radionuclide examination in renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutani, W.; Ishida, H.; Shirakawa, S.; Shintaku, T.; Funaki, R. (Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan))

    1980-08-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of renal diseases were studied by computed tomography (CT) using EMI 5005/12. Of them, 60 were examined by both CT and renal scintigraphy, and comparatively evaluated. The CT units were checked before and after the contrast enhancement. Renal scintigrams were obtained by gamma cameras (PHO/GAMMA HP 6406, PHO/GAMMA LFOV) using 99 M Tc-DMSA. CT was especially useful in diagnosing the renal cysts and the hydronephrosis. Cysts in other organs (liver, spleen and pancreas) were simultaneously ascertained in polycystic diseases. CT was not helpful in diagnosing nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. Floating kidney and horse-shoe kidney were difficult to diagnose with CT. The renal scintigram was the reflection of the renal function, and was relatively more useful than CT in diagnosing horse-shoe kidney, floating kidney and nephritis, while it was not useful for non-functioning kidneys.